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Psychological tests are written, visual, or verbal evaluations administered to assess the cognitive and emotional functioning of children and adults. A psychological test is one of the sources of data used within the process of assessment. Psychological tests are formalized measures of mental functioning. Most are objective and quantifiable; however, certain projective tests may involve some level of subjective interpretation. Also known as inventories, measurements, questionnaires, and scales, psychological tests are administered in a variety of settings, including preschools, primary and secondary schools, colleges and universities, hospitals, outpatient healthcare settings, social agencies, prisons, and employment or human resource offices. They come in a variety of formats, including written, verbal, and computer administered. What is psychological testing? Psychological testing is a field characterized by the use of samples of behavior in order to infer generalizations about a given individual. The technical term for the science behind psychological testing is psychometrics. By samples of behavior, one means observations over time of an individual performing tasks that have usually been prescribed beforehand, which often means scores on a test. These responses are often compiled into statistical tables that allow the evaluator to compare the behavior of the individual being tested to the responses of a norm group. Psychological assessment is similar to psychological testing but usually involves a more comprehensive assessment of the individual. Psychological assessment is a process that involves the integration of information from multiple sources, such as tests of normal and abnormal personality, tests of ability or intelligence, tests of interests or attitudes, as well as information from personal interviews. Collateral information is also collected about
personal, occupational, or medical history, such as from records or from interviews with parents, spouses, teachers, or previous therapists or physicians. History of psychological testing A primitive form of proficiency testing existed in China as early as 2200 B.C., where some form of examination of public officials by the Chinese emperor was conducted every third year. Civil service examinations began in China during the Chan dynasty in 1115 B.C. and ended in 1905 when a reform measure abolished the system. For 3000 years, the open and competitive exam in China provided for evaluation of proficiency in areas such as archery, music, writing etc. In 1859, Charles Darwin published a book on evolution of species. In this book he argued that chance variation in species would be selected or rejected by nature according to adaptivity and survival value. His writing, on individual differences kindled interest in research on heredity in his half cousin, Francis Galton, who went on to become an extremely influential contributor to the field of measurement. Galton aspired to classify people according to their ‘natural gifts’ and to ascertain their deviation from the average. He is also credited with the development of many contemporary tools of psychological assessment including questionnaires, rating scales and self- report inventories. Although Karl Pearson developed the product moment correlation technique, the roots can be traced directly to the work of Galton. Assessment was also an important activity at the first experimental psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany, the founder of which was Wilhelm Wundt, a medical doctor. In contrast to Galton, Wundt focused on questions relating to how people were similar, not different. Individual differences were viewed as a frustrating source of error in experimentation by Wundt. The early 1900s witnessed the birth of the first formal tests of intelligence. Much of the nineteenth century testing that could be described as psychological in nature involved the
training programs in clinical psychology were systematically supported by U. psychological testing flourished. to ensure availability of mental-health services to returning war veterans. Since the late 1960s increased awareness has led to excessive use of the psychological tests. The need to classify soldiers during World War I resulted in the development of two group intelligence tests—Army Alpha and Army Beta. The Wechsler tests now extend from the preschool through the adult age range and are at least as prominent as the Stanford-Binet. In 1916 the American psychologist Lewis Terman produced the first Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon scale to provide comparison standards for Americans from age three to adulthood. Hence there have been greater efforts in the . The primary impetus for the development of the major tests used today was the need for practical guidelines for solving social problems. reaction time etc. As part of these services. the American psychologist Robert Woodworth designed the Personal Data Sheet. The person who had the vision of broadening testing to include the measurement of cognitive abilities was Alfred Binet. The first useful intelligence test was prepared in 1905 by the French psychologists Alfred Binet and Théodore Simon.measurement of sensory abilities. Following the war. reaching an estimated several million Americans each year. and today the Stanford-Binet remains one of the most widely used intelligence tests. The two developed a 30-item scale to ensure that no child could be denied instruction in the Paris school system without formal examination.S. government funding. a forerunner of the modern personality inventory. The test was introduced to develop a measure of adjustment and emotional stability that could be administered quickly and efficiently to groups of recruits. The test was further revised in 1937 and 1960. But there has also been some amount of misuse of these tests. To help detect soldiers who might break down in combat. During World War II the need for improved methods of personnel selection led to the expansion of large-scale programs involving multiple methods of personality assessment.
Elementary schools use kindergarten and first-grade screening procedures to determine readiness for reading and writing programs. Clinical testing usually involves a battery of tests. Decisions about treatment do not depend exclusively on psychological test results but are based on the judgment of relevant staff members with whom the psychologist collaborates. In clinics or hospitals. Screening tests also identify developmental. aim to specify the types of positions for which an individual seems best suited. intelligence and achievement tests are administered routinely to assess individual accomplishment and to improve instruction and curriculum planning. which are more complex. testing may clarify whether the difficulty is neurologically or emotionally based. such as the presence or absence of organically based brain disorder. If the child's progress in school is unusually slow. Many high schools administer interest inventories and aptitude tests to assist in the students' educational or vocational planning. interpreted as a whole. Intelligence testing is . Tests are also used in industrial and organizational settings. testing also may focus on some specific question. Uses of psychological testing In educational settings. or if he or she shows signs of a learning disability or behavior disorder. psychological tests may be administered for purposes of diagnosis and treatment planning. visual.recent years to establish legal controls and more explicit safeguards against misuse of testing materials. Clinical tests can provide information about overall personality functioning and the need for psychotherapy. and auditory problems for which the child may need special assistance. to describe intellectual and emotional states. Classification procedures. Selection procedures provide guidelines for accepting or rejecting candidates for jobs. primarily for selection and classification.
These are usually administered without a time limit and the questions have no ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ answers. These are called tests of ability. or sometimes start off easy and get progressively more difficult as you go through the test. For example. the courts rely on psychological test data and related expert testimony as one source of information to help answer important questions.usually supplemented by methods devised expressly to meet the needs of the organization. or what they think about things. Other types of maximum performance test have more relaxed time limits. what they believe. In general. to ensure that people cannot complete all the questions in the test in the time available. and the questions in them do have right and wrong answers. For these the questions may be quite difficult. aptitude or attainment and are known as measures of maximum performance. psychological tests fall into two broad categories. These are known as measures of typical performance. beliefs. but you have to work fast to do well. In these tests the emphasis is on how many questions you can get right. and interests. In most cases. a wide range of testing procedures is used. These tests are usually administered with a fixed time limit. Tests are also used in a wide variety of settings. and to measure motivation or ‘drive’. there are those designed to measure performance. These tests are designed to see how fast you can work. tests fall somewhere in between . The answers reflect how the person taking the test would usually or typically feel. or may have no time limit at all. Each type of procedure is designed to carry out specific functions. There are those designed to assess personal qualities. values. such as personality. Some of these tests have very strict time limits. Types of psychological tests Currently.large scale or small scale. Tests can also be used in the health psychology stream and also in program evaluations. Usually their questions are not very difficult. rather than on how quickly you work. Second.
usually comprised of people at the same age or grade level as the person being evaluated. a series of tasks is presented to the person being evaluated. There will be a time limit. Typically. Intelligence can be said to include the abilities to: acquire and apply knowledge.these two extremes. and social studies. infer. After the test is completed. it will be the same for everybody. IQ tests and achievement tests are common norm-referenced tests. but this will be set to allow most people sufficient time to get to the end of the test. Achievement tests are designed to assess current performance in an academic area. plan. An achievement test administered in a public school setting would typically include separate measures of vocabulary. or non-verbal (relying on eye-hand types of tasks. reason logically. pay attention etc. IQ tests which contain a series of tasks typically divide the tasks into verbal (relying on the use of language) and performance. the results can be compiled and compared to the responses of a norm group. 1. Tests under the measures of maximum performance: Intelligence Quotient tests/Achievement tests IQ tests or Intelligence quotient tests purport to be measures of intelligence. Because achievement is viewed as an indicator of previous learning. it is often used to predict future academic success. or use of symbols or objects). make judgments. The important thing to remember is that when there is a time limit. solve problems. . if you had done your homework. people in the group they are intended for would get about 50 per cent right. arithmetic computation and problem solving. science. It is also important to remember that psychological tests of ability often seem to be a lot ‘harder’ than the tests of knowledge people are used to from school. and the person's responses are graded according to carefully prescribed guidelines. In these types of tests. you would expect to get 80 or 90 per cent of the questions right in a school knowledge test. language skills and reading comprehension. Psychological tests are designed so that on average. while achievement tests are measures of the use and level of development of use of the ability.
The General Aptitude Test Battery. although the various tests are constructed quite differently. If a person's score is similar to scores of others already working in a given occupation. Schools. each with its own IQ etc. need for a trained administrator (psychologist. individually-administered tests are more expensive to administer because of the time. However. The individuallyadministered tests tend to be more comprehensive. for example. or IQs. more valid and generally to have better psychometric characteristics than group-administered tests. There are also specialized infant intelligence tests. the Wechsler scales consist of two separate verbal and performance subscales. clerical perception. Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities-III.Examples of IQ tests would include WAIS-III. Some aptitude tests cover a broad range of skills pertinent to many different occupations. and finger and manual dexterity. WRAT. and government agencies often use aptitude tests when assigning individuals to specific positions. Vocational guidance counseling may involve aptitude testing to help clarify individual career goals. Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement-III. The Stanford-Binet is heavily weighted with items involving verbal abilities. WISC-IV. more reliable. These tests are designed to be administered to either an individual (by a trained evaluator) or to a group of people (paper and pencil tests). Other tests may focus on a single area. tests that do not require the use of language. Aptitude Tests These tests predict future performance in an area in which the individual is not currently trained. businesses. likelihood of success in that field is predicted. motor coordination. or psychometrician) and because of the limitation of working with just one client at a . Test scores are generally known as intelligence quotients. Cattell Culture Fair III. not only measures general reasoning ability but also includes form perception. and tests that are designed for group administration. school psychologist. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales V and academic achievement tests would include WIAT.
or modern languages. Tests under the measures of typical performance: Interest Inventories Self-report questionnaires on which the subject indicates personal preferences among activities are called interest inventories. attitude and/or related individual characteristics. Because interests may predict satisfaction with some area of employment or education. mechanical. and clerical. Interest inventories are designed to assess in a systematic manner people’s likes and dislikes for different types of work or leisure activity. The DAT or Differential Aptitude test is another example of aptitude tests. the Kudor Preference Record. Personality inventories or questionnaires are good examples of tests that assess preferred or typical ways of acting or thinking. engineering. For each item.such as art. scientific. They are not intended to predict success. but only to offer a framework for narrowing career possibilities. Test items (or questions) of these traits do not have right and wrong answers. The total score indicates the occupational clusters that include preferred activities. literary. the subject indicates which of three activities is best or least liked. Rather. 2. values. For example. social service. Satisfaction at work requires not only possessing the necessary skills to do the job competently but also having sufficient interest in it. artistic. computational. interests. states. persuasive. Personality Tests Personality assessment may be defined as the measurement and evaluation of psychological traits. these are not tests in the sense of having right and wrong answers. includes ten clusters of occupational interests: outdoors. musical. these inventories are used primarily in guidance counseling. they attempt to measure how much or . Like tests of personality. and hence they are very different from measures of maximum performance to be discussed later. one frequently used interest inventory.
constructed to aid in diagnosing psychiatric patients. etc.how little the test taker possess of a specified trait or set of traits (e. in which a person states what each of ten ink blots might be. Research has shown that the MMPI may also be used to describe differences among normal personality types. all of which are based on the Big Five taxonomy. Prominent examples of objective personality tests include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Objective personality tests can be designed for use in business for potential employees. Child Behavior Checklist etc. Psychological measures of personality are often described as either objective tests or projective tests. The Big Five. Most instruments designed to measure or identify and assess dispositions are administered without a time limit and stress the need for people to answer honestly and openly. such as allowing for true or false answers or rating using an ordinal scale. flexibility. has gained acceptance since the early 1990s when some influential meta-analyses (e. A) Objective tests (Rating scale) Objective tests have a restricted response format. or Five Factor Model of normal personality.g. Barrick & Mount 1991) found consistent relationships between the Big Five personality factors and important criterion variables. decisiveness) or abnormal phenomena such as anxiety and depression. An example of this would be the Rorschach test. such as the NEO-PI. Some projective tests are used less often today because they are more time consuming to administer.. the 16PF. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. and the OPQ (Occupational Personality Questionnaire). B) Projective tests (Free response measures) Projective tests allow for a freer type of response. outgoingness.g. The terms "objective test" and "projective test" have recently come under criticism in the Journal of Personality Assessment. One of the most popular psychological tests is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The more descriptive "rating scale or self-report .
rather than the terms "objective tests" and "projective tests. which is often scored with Westen's Social Cognition and Object Relations Scales and Phebe Cramer's Defense Mechanisms Manual. true/false questionnaires. However. Another common projective test is the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). score and interpret it. much controversy regarding the utility and validity of projective testing has occurred. Anastasi) suggest that these measures can be useful in developing therapeutic rapport. Both "rating scale" and "free response" measures are used in contemporary clinical practice. with a trend toward the former. Cohen. a good test would be one that measures what it purports to measure.. Most of all. Possibly they have lingered in usage because they have a mystical and fascinating reputation. The use of clinical judgment rather than norms and statistics to evaluate people's characteristics has convinced many that projectives are deficient and unreliable (results are too dissimilar each time a test is given to the same person). and some testing experts (e.g.measures" and "free response measures" are suggested. many practitioners continue to rely on projective testing. It would also be important if a test offered economy in the time it takes to administer. and are more attractive to uninformed people than answering objective tests. Reliability . it would include clear instructions for administration. Along with all these. scoring and interpretation. e.g." respectively. As improved sampling and statistical methods developed. They are: 1. They may also be useful in creating inferences to follow-up with other methods.. Characteristics of a good test What is a ‘good’ test? Logically. test users also mention a few more characteristics important to have a ‘good’ test.
Types of reliability There are a number of ways to ensure that a test is reliable. all measurement procedures physical as well as psychological are subject to some degree of error. trustworthiness and consistency. However. and you are not concerned too much about making a few errors in this process. On the other hand if you are using a test to sort people into one of two groups. reliability will depend a lot on how well the test has been designed and developed. In general. then you need a high degree of accuracy in your measurement. However. Then the first set of scores is correlated with the second set of scores. In order to know how much weight to place on the observed score. then the reliability of the test can be less. Being able to quantify measurement error has important consequences for how we use tests. Correlations range between 0 (low reliability) and 1 (high . A test maybe reliable in one context and unreliable in another. Some of them are: • Test-retest reliability The test-retest method of estimating a test's reliability involves administering the test to the same group of people at least twice. if you are carrying out an in-depth individual assessment of a person. for a given test length. we can quantify the degree of accuracy of the scores we obtain. Reliability is the extent to which a test is repeatable and yields consistent scores. Measures of test reliability allow us to estimate that accuracy. For example. it means consistency with reference to measurement. In testing. the outcome is an observed score on the quality measured by the test. on the basis of which you will be making some important decision. reliability can be increased by making tests longer. Reliability is one of the most important topics in training in test use. Reliability is concerned with how accurate or precise a test score is. you need to know how accurate the test is as a measuring device. For a psychometric test.In everyday conversation. and is decreased by shortening them. reliability is a synonym for dependability. When a test is administered. This is a key characteristic of psychometric testing and what makes it so much more valuable than other forms of measurement.
reliability). Once the tests are designed. if you use a tape measure to measure a room on two different days. It is appropriate to use when evaluating the reliability of a test that purports to measure something that is relatively stable over time. such as a personality trait. In physical sciences. alternate forms of a test are typically designed to be equivalent with respect to variables such as content and level of difficulty.retest method to quite an extent. • Alternate Forms Alternate forms are simply different versions of a test that have been constructed so as to be parallel. If the characteristic to be measured is likely to fluctuate over time. validity of measuring instruments like scales is also found by comparison with a standard measure. Although they don’t meet the requirements for the legitimate designation ‘parallel’. Developing alternate forms can be time consuming and expensive but at the same time. This method also avoids the disadvantages of the test. it can be used in several ways. validity is a term used in conjunction with the meaningfulness of a test score. 2.g.what the test score truly means. Correlation between the two scores is the estimate of the test reliability. meaningful or well grounded on principles or evidence. Validity is concerned . However.retest reliability is an estimate of reliability obtained by correlating pairs of scores from the same person on two different administrations of the same test. there would be little sense in assessing the reliability of the test using the test retest method. In the language of psychological testing. it is advantageous. Test. any differences in the result is likely due to measurement error rather than a change in the room size. we say something is valid if it is sound. It is basically to administer Test A to a group and then administer Test B to same group. Validity In everyday language. The change might be due to measurement error e. if you measure children’s reading ability in February and the again in June the change is likely due to changes in children’s reading ability.
Validity asks "Is the test measuring what you think it’s measuring?" For example. The studies reported in the test manual should support the claims that are made about the tests and its use. say. or proficiency in mathematics.with what the test score actually measures. a test must be reliable. and provide the basis on which the test user can make inferences about people’s behaviour and predictions about the future performance. mechanical aptitude. we might define "aggression" as an act intended to cause harm to another person (a conceptual definition) but the operational definition might be seeing: • • • How many times a child hits a doll How often a child pushes to the front of the queue How many physical scraps he/she gets into in the playground In order to be valid. Like reliability. A test is not simply either valid or not. it is possible to have a highly reliable test which is meaningless (invalid). Validity is a subjective judgment made on the basis of experience and empirical indicators. Types of Validity • Face validity . because validity is contextual. Test manuals will contain reports of research relating to various aspects of what the test is designed to measure. the understanding the concept of validity is critical to competent test use. i. These studies will never prove the tests validity. but reliability does not guarantee validity.e. It is insufficient to merely state that a test is a measure of. Statements like these must be supported by research that demonstrates a test score is a meaningful measure of the quality or qualities the test was designed to assess. tolerance of stress. A test can be valid for one application but completely irrelevant for another. once and for all.
by demonstrating that certain patterns of human behavior account to some degree for performance on the test. that is. then the test is high on ‘face validity’. A test measuring the trait “need for achievement. on the face it. If a measure has construct validity it measures what it purports to measure. kings etc. if the respondent has difficulty in asking subordinates to do what is required of them and in social situations such as whether the respondent would send back a sizzler not done to order in a fancy restaurant. • Construct validity Construct Validity is the most important kind of validity. • Content validity Content validity describes a judgment of how adequately a test samples behaviour representative of the universe of behaviour that the test was designed to sample. seem to measure what is intended? Ultimately. A test on Mathematics should have numerical questions. face validity may be more a matter of public relations than psychometric soundness. Does the measure. . persist longer on problem-solving tasks. It is based on a comparison of the analysis of test content with the analysis of the course content and the instructional objectives. If a test definitely appears to measure what it claims to measure.” for instance. and do better in competitive situations than low scorers. It has something to do with the mere appearance. Such a test would contain items sampling from hypothetical situations at home such as whether the respondent has difficulty making her views known to family members.e. a test on history should have questions on wars. It is a judgment concerning how relevant the test items appear to be. The analysis is done through logical and rational processes which is why content validity is also referred to as rational or logical validity. Construct validity is generally determined by investigating what psychological traits or qualities a test measures.Face validity relates more to what a test appears to measure to the person being tested than to what the test actually measures. might be shown to predict that high scorers work more independently. on the job i.
the use of the test data can be unfair. which is more of a technically complex statistical problem. The criterion can be a test scorer. Whatever the criterion. bias is a factor inherent in a test that systematically prevents accurate.• Criterion validity Criterion related validity is a judgment of how adequately a test score can be used to infer an individual’s most probable standing on some measure of interest. impartial measurement. Fairness as applied to tests is a difficult and complicated subject. Test fairness In contrast to questions of test bias. behaviour. Test bias In testing. ideally it is relevant. Concurrent validity is an index of the degree to which a test score is related to some criterion measure obtained at the same time i. Some tests have been found to be biased because of the design of the research study rather than the design of the test. Test fairness is the extent to which a test is used in an impartial. Relation between Reliability and Validity . There are no rules for what can constitute a criterion. Systematic is a key word in the definition. Bias implies systematic variation. just and equitable way. Prevention during test development is the best cure for test bias. concurrently. test fairness tends to be rooted in issues involving values. valid and uncontaminated.the measure of interest being the criterion. time.e. questions concerning the validity of a test are intimately tied to questions concerning the fair use of tests and the issues of bias and fairness. Although a test is not inherently unfair. For people. Criterion validity consists of concurrent and predictive validity. rating etc. Predictive validity is an index of the degree to which a test score predicts some criterion measure.
the clock isn’t valid. judged against a standard time piece. Norms for many tests are expressed as percentile norms.Reliability is concerned with the stability of the test score and doesn’t go beyond the test. • Grade norms Designed to indicate the average test performance of test takers in a given test grade. it needs to be reliable. 3. Percentile norms are the raw data from a test’s standardization sample converted to a percentile form i. the meaning of an individual test score is understood relative to other test scores on the same test. grade norms are developed by administering the test to representative samples of children . However. For e. Validity on the other hand implies evaluations in terms of an independent criterion. The general norms used are: • Age norms They indicate the average performance of different samples of test takers who were at various ages at the time the test was administered. A test to be reliable need not be valid but to be valid. a clock which gains 20 minutes a day is reliable as it’ll repeat the same everyday. it is an expression of the percentage of people whose score on a test or measure falls below a particular raw score. In this approach. Norms Norm referenced testing and assessment is a method of evaluation and a way of deriving meaning from test scores by evaluating an individual test taker’s score and comparing it to the scores of a group of test takers.e.g.
scoring. and conflict of interest are sure to exist. honesty. Professionals can overcome the misuse of tests simply by understanding the professional and technical standards that are involved in using psychological tests.over a range of consecutive grade levels. Grade norms don’t provide information as to the content or type of items that a student could or could not answer correctly. It is used basically to understand and gauge how one student’s performance compares to that of fellow student in the same grade. For test takers. In an effort to prevent the misuse of psychological tests. evaluation. Ethics in psychological testing Ethics are an essential part of the administration of psychological tests and it is necessary that all test users follow the ethical guidelines when using any type of psychological test. psychologists developed a set of professional and technical standards for the creation. Usually test administrators do not intentionally misuse tests. administration. However. the misuse of a psychological test could result in improper diagnoses or inappropriate decision making. and even business. issues regarding fairness. misuse of psychological test by the administrators is a constant and troubling issue that has the potential to harm the individuals involved and even society as a whole. The misuse of tests reflects very poorly on the professional organizations along with highly trained test users and overall will result in poor decisions that may harm society in both an economic and mental manner. Psychological tests are an important tool in terms of many professions in an array of settings such as in clinical psychology. In any situation in which a professional offers advice or intervenes in a person's personal life in any way. The term ethics directly indicates any issues or practices that have the potential to . but rather are not properly informed as to the technical knowledge and overall testing procedure involved. and interpretation of all psychological tests. education. Then the mean or median scores for children at each grade level is computed.
many psychologists disagree with each other in terms of the proper way to interpret a client's right to privacy. Issues such as whether knowing a client may be a danger to themselves and others should be protected from legal inquiry poses what is known as an ethical dilemma.influence the decision making process that involves doing the right thing. Therefore. ethics refers to the moral aspect of things in terms of what is right or wrong in regards to various things such as an entire society. one such issue being the right to privacy and confidentiality. and if used improperly. The results should be given directly to respondents and are strictly confidential. it is exceptionally difficult to achieve universal agreement when it comes to ethics. can cause harm to individuals without their knowledge of it. Another example of confidentiality being breached in a professional setting is when teachers may seek prior . For example. it is necessary that we provide an ethical use of psychological tests for anyone who relies upon them. direct. However. will seek out psychological information about their employees. an organization. While ethical standards are not government appointed laws. that confidentiality is breached because managers. There are many issues of concern when it comes to ethics. There are times however. or a culture. violating ethical standards of an organization or profession can have numerous and varied penalties as well which can include expulsion from the organization. Psychologists should protect data kept on file so that only those who have a right of access can obtain them. including maintaining the privacy from employers. Ethical dilemmas are problems that will arise in which there is no clear. Testing is an essential part of the psychological network. The concepts of individual rights and privacy are a fundamental part of our society. The Ethical Principles affirm individual rights to privacy and confidentiality as well as self-determination. or agreed upon moral solution. The term confidentiality indicates that individuals are guaranteed privacy in terms of all personal information that is disclosed and that no information will then be disclosed without the individual's direct permission which is usually required in writing. for example. Therefore.
Another important issue is the right to informed consent. These complete explanations are commonly known as informed consent and should be conveyed in such a way that is straight-forward and easy for examinees to understand. due to the fact that some test results may influence the participant's self esteem as well as behavior. parental permission should not be confused with informed consent. Anonymous testing is more commonly used in double-blind studies in which the researchers are completely unaware of the identity of their participants. Some research suggests that anonymous testing may be a more valid option in terms of accurate and truthful information about participants because participants will be more likely to answer questions truthfully about themselves if their identity is never revealed. participants are also entitled to be prompted with an explanation. . Psychologists have a responsibility to ensure that the examinee as well as their parent or guardian understand all implications and requirements that will be involved in a psychological test before it is even administered.test scores for students. informed consent needs to come from both the examinee themselves as well as their parent or guardian. Anonymity refers to the practice of obtaining information through the use of tests while concealing the identity of the participant involved. Self-determination is a right to every individual which means that individuals are entitled to receive complete explanations in regards to why exactly they are being tested as well as how the results of the test will be used and what their results mean. with the good intention of understanding issues of performance. However. it is crucial that a trained professional explain the results to the participant in a sensitive and understanding manner. however. of the test results. However. A term involved with an individual's right to privacy is known as anonymity. In situations involving minors or those with limited cognitive abilities. In addition to the issue of informed consent. as nontechnical as it may be.
In conjunction with the participant's right to know and understand their results. Therefore. With sensitivity to the situation. They should then be provided a written description of their preferences. Another issue that involves ethics in terms of psychological tests is the right to protection from stigma or the right to the least stigmatizing label. the test user will inform the test taker of the purpose of the test and will be available top answer further questions test takers or their guardians have about the test scores. The Respondents should also be allowed to clarify their results. the results that the test taker receives along with their parent or guardian in cases involving minors should bring upon positive growth and development for the test taker. It is the duty of the psychologist to protect the integrity of the test by not coaching individuals on actual test materials or other practice materials that might unfairly influence their test performance. researchers need to be careful not to use any stigmatizing labels when describing the results in terms of the participant. Ensuring that test techniques are not described publicly in such a way that their usefulness is impaired is also important. and must choose to take it voluntarily and should not be compelled to take it. Ideally. . Researchers need to refrain from using terms such as "feebleminded" and "addictive personality". counseling resources will be available for those who react adversely to information that has been presented. Respondents should be informed of the nature of the test before taking it.The right to be informed of test findings is another one of the important ethical issues.
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