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Chapter 10

CHAPTER 10 : RATE OF REACTION
10.1 : Meaning of Rate of Reaction 1. Rate of reaction is a measurement of the change in quantity of reactant or product in a certain
range of time. Rate of reaction =
change in quantity of reac tan t / product tim taken e

2. It is the speed at which reactants are converted into the products in a chemical reaction. 3. A rate of reaction is …………. if the reaction occurs fast within a short period of time. 4. A rate of reaction is…………. if the reaction occurs slowly within a long period of time. 5. Rate of reaction is inversely proportional with time.
Rate of reaction ∝
tim e 1 taken

 The shorter the time taken, the higher the rate of reaction.  The longer the time taken, the lower the rate of reaction. 6. The change in amout of reactant or product that can be measured by :  increasing in volume of gas released  increasing in mass/concentration of product  decreasing in mass/concentration of reactant
 Formation of precipitate  changes in pH, temperature or electrical conductivity. Activity 1:Study the reaction between 2.0 g of CaCO3 with excess of 1.0 mol dm-3 HCl.

CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq)
Sketch the graph below :
Mass of CaCO3 (g) 2

→ CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
Concentration of HCl (mol dm-3 )

t Concentration of CaCl2 (mol dm-3 )

Time (s) Volume of CO2 gas (cm3)

Time (s)

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Time (s) 1

Rate of Time (s) Reaction

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10.2 : Measuring the Rate of Reaction
1. Two ways to measure the rate of reaction : (a) Average Rate Of Reaction Average rate of reaction =
increa sin g in am ount of product // decrea sin g in am ount tim taken for the change to occur e of reac tan t

Determination the average rate of reaction from the graph : Volume of gas/cm3 The average rate of reaction for the

whole reaction =
V3 V2 V1

t1

t2

t3

Time/s

The average rate of reaction in the first t1 second = ( t1 – 0 ) s

( V1 – 0) cm3

The average rate of reaction between t1 second and t2 second =

( V2 – V1) cm3 ( t2 – t1) s

(b) Instantaneous Rate Of Reaction ( Rate of Reaction at any given time ) :
= the gradient of the graph of the amount of reactant / product against time at any given time. Volume of gas/ cm3

V2
∆ y

The rate of reaction at ta second = the gradient of tangent to the curve at the given time = = ∆ y cm3 ∆ xs V2 - V1 t2 - t1
Rate of Reaction

V1

∆ x

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t1

ta

t2

2 Time/ s

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Activity 2 :An experiment is carried out to determine the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid. The volumes of carbon dioxide gas evolved at fixed intervals are recorded. Graph of the volumes of carbon dioxide gas against time are shown below.

Volume of carbon dioxide gas /cm3

Graph of the volumes of carbon dioxide gas against time

40

30

20

10

Time/s

40

80

120

160

200

(a) Write an equation for the above reaction. ……….…………………………………………………………………………… (b) Draw a labeled diagram to show the set-up of the apparatus in the experiment.

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(c) Calculate : (i) the average rate of reaction for the whole reaction.

(ii) the rate of reaction at 40 second and 80 second. at 40 second at 80 second

(d) Base on the answer in (c) (ii), which have the higher rate of reaction. Explain your answer. …………………….…………………………………………………………………………… …………….…………………………………………………………………………………… ………………..………………………………………………………………………………… ………………..………………………………………………………………………………… (e) Suggest another way to increase the rate of above reaction …………………...……………….…………………………………………………………… …………………...……………….…………………………………………………………… …………………...……………….……………………………………………………………

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Activity 3 :20 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 HCl is reacted with magnesium ribbon. The results are shown below. Time /s Volume of H2 /cm3 0 0.0 15 8.5 30 16.0 45 22.0 60 27.5 75 32.0 90 36.0 105 39.0 120 42.0 135 44.0 150 46.0

(a) Draw the graph of the volume of hydrogen gas released against time.

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(b) From the graph, calculate : (i)
the average rate of reaction in the first 20 seconds.

(ii)

the average rate of reaction between 30 seconds and 75 seconds.

(iii)

the rate of reaction at 30 seconds.

(iv)

the rate of reaction at 105 seconds.

(c) Compare the rate of reaction at 30 seconds and 105 seconds. Explain why?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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10.3 : FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF REACTION
1. Size of Reactant / Total Surface Area (a) [ Experiment I ] The reaction of large pieces of calcium carbonate chips with hydrochloric acid is conducted. The volume of gas collected in the burette are recorded at every 30 seconds. [ Experiment II ] This experiment is repeated using small pieces of calcium carbonate chips. Temperature, volume and concentration of HCl acid, and the mass of calcium carbonate are fixed. (b) Chemical equation for the reaction :

CaCO3

+

2HCl

→ CaCl2

+

H2O

+

CO2

(c) The graph of volume of carbon dioxide gas against time obtained is as shown below : Volume of CO2 gas / cm3

V
Experiment I Large pieces Experiment II Small pieces

Time / s tx ty tz

Based on the graph complete the following statements :

Average rate of reaction for the whole experiment : Experiment I p = Experiment II q =

The value of p is ………………… than q.
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 The average rate of reaction in Experiment II is …………………. than Experiment I throughout the experiment.

Rate of reaction at a given time : The gradient of the graph at tx seconds for Experiment II is …………………. than the gradient of the graph for Experiment I. The rate of the reaction in Experiment II is …………………. than Experiment I at tx seconds.

The rate of reaction of the small pieces of calcium carbonate chips is …………………… than the rate of reaction of the large pieces. Relationship between the size of marble chips and their total surface area :  small pieces have a ……………… total surface area than that of large pieces of marble chips of the same mass.  The smaller the size of marble chips, the ………………….. the total surface area of marble chips. The larger the total surface area of marble chips, the ………………….. the rate of reaction.  The smaller the size of marble chips, the ………………….. the rate of reaction.

The maximum volume of carbon dioxide gas collected for both experiments are

…………………. because the …………………. of the reactants are ………………….

Activity 4 :A group of students was carried out two experiments to investigate the factor affecting the rate of a reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid. Table below shows information about the reactants used in each experiment. Experiment I II Reactants Excess zinc granules and 25 cm³ of 0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid. Excess zinc powder and 25 cm³ of 0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid.

(a)

Write the chemical equation for the reaction occur in these experiments. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

(b)

State the factor that affecting the rate of the reaction of Experiment I and Experiment II.

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……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

The graph below shows the result obtained from these experiments.

Volume of gas collected (cm3)

20

II 15 I 10

5

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Time (s)

(c)

Calculate the average rate of reaction for Experiment I and Experiment II.

(b)

Based on the table and graph, compare the rate of reaction between Experiment I and Experiment II ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

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………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

2. Concentration of Reactant (a) An experiment to show a reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and dilute hydrochloric acid acid is conducted. (b) The rate of reaction is measured by how fast yellow precipitate (sulphur) is formed. Observation is made on the time taken for the “X” sign placed under the conical flask to disappear from view. Temperature, volume and concentration of the hydrochloric acid are fixed but the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution is varied. (c) Chemical equation for the reaction :

Na2S2O3

+

H2SO4

Na2SO4

+ S

+ SO2

+

H2O

(d) The graph of concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution against time, and the graph of concentration against 1/time are plotted.
Concentration of Na2S2O3 (mol dm-3 ) Concentration of Na2S2O3 (mol dm-3 )

Time (s)

1/time (s-1 )

• Concentration is ……………….proportional to time.
When the concentration of Na2S2O3 increases, the time taken for yellow precipitate formed that covers the ‘X’ mark is ………………………..

• Concentration is …………….proportional to 1/time.
[ 1/time shows the rate of reaction ] When the concentration of Na2S2O3 increases, the rate of reaction is ………………………..

• The higher the concentration of Na2S2O3, (the higher the
number of moles of Na2S2O3, ) the ……………… the number of particles perunit ………………………  Therefore, the ……………… the frequency of collision between particles.

• The higher the concentration of Na2S2O3, the ………….
……… the number of particles perunit ………………….  Therefore, the ……………… the frequency of collisions between particles.

 The ……………… the frequency of effective
collisions.  The ……………… the rate of reaction.

 The ……………… the frequency of effective
collisions.  The ……………… the rate of reaction.

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3. Temperature

()a Study through observation to yellow precipitate (sulphur), the product of the reaction between
sodium thiosulphate solution with hydrochloric acid.

()b In this reaction, the temperature of the sodium thiosulphate solution is changed. ()c All other conditions such as volume and concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution and
hydrochloric acid is remain constant.

()d Time taken for certain amount of the yellow precipitate formed and covered the ‘X’ mark below
the beaker is recorded.

()e Two graph are obtained :
Temperature of Na2S2O3 (mol dm-3 ) Temperature of Na2S2O3 (mol dm-3 )

Time (s)

1/time (s-1 )

• Temperature is ……………….proportional to time.
When the temperature of Na2S2O3 increases, the time taken for yellow precipitate formed that covers the ‘X’ mark is ………………………..

• Temperature is ……………. proportional to 1/time.
[ 1/time shows the rate of reaction ] When the temperature of Na2S2O3 increases, the rate of reaction is ………………………..

• The higher the temperature of Na2S2O3, the …………
the kinetic energy of S2O3 ions and H ions.
2+

• The higher the temperature of Na2S2O3, the …………
the kinetic energy of S2O32- ions and H+ ions.

 Therefore, the ……………… the frequency of
collision between particles [ S2O3 ions and H ions ].
2+

 Therefore, the ……………… the frequency of
collision between particles [ S2O32- ions and H+ ions ].  The ……………… the frequency of ……………. collision  The ……………… the rate of reaction.

 The ……………… the frequency of effective
collision.  The ……………… the rate of reaction.

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4. Catalyst

• • •

Catayst is a chemical substance that increases the rate of reaction [change the rate of reaction], but it does not change chemically at the end of the reaction. Positive catalyst increase the rate of reaction while negative catalyst decrease the rate of reaction. Characteristics of catalyst :


    

It does not change the quantity (amount) of the products formed. It is unchanged chemically at the end of the reaction. The amount of catalyst is the same before and after reaction. It is specific. Only small amount is needed. It could become less effective when there are impurities.

• • • •

Most catalysts are transition elements or compounds of transition elements. The presence of catalyst affects the rate of reaction. Quantity of catalyst also can effect the rate of reaction. Study through : I : The reaction between zinc with dilute sulphuric acid [copper(II) sulphate, CuSO4 solution as the catalyst] II : The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 [using different quantity of manganese(IV) oxide, MnO2 as the catalyst] Experiment I :

 The reaction between zinc with dilute sulphuric acid [CuSO4 as the catalyst]
(a) Chemical equation for the reaction :

Zn + H2SO4 → ZnSO4
(b)

+ H2

(c) (d) (e)

Volume of hydrogen gas collected in a burette are recorded at every 30 seconds. This experiment is repeated by adding 2 cm3 copper(II) sulphate solution. In this reaction, mass of zinc, volume and concentration of sulphuric acid and temperature are remain constant. Graph of volume of hydrogen gas produced against time are obtained :
Volume of H2 gas /cm3

With catalyst

Without catalyst Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

From the graph above :  The gradient of the curve with catalyst is ………………. than the curve without catalyst.

 At the end of this reaction, the total volume of H2 gas in both reactions is the same because
the ……….. of zinc and the…………………………………. of sulphuric acid is the same.

Copper(II) sulphate as catalyst lowered the ………………...………, Ea for the reaction.

 therefore, more particles will reach the same or more than the ………………………, Ea of
the reaction.

 the frequency of collision between particles ……………………………..  the frequency of effective collision ………………………………………
 the rate of reaction ..……………………………………….. Experiment II :

(a)

In this reaction, all other conditions such as volume and concentration of hydrogen peroxide, temperature are remain constant.

2H2O2 (f)

2H2O +

O2

Graph of volume of oxygen gas produced againts time are obtained :

Volume of O2 gas (cm3)

V
1 spatula of MnO2

An increase in the quantity of catalyst used will increase the rate of reaction. The quantity of catalyst does not affect the total volume of gas produced.

½ spatula of MnO2

From the graph :

t1

t2

Time (s)

 The gradient of the curve using 1 spatula of MnO2 is ………………. than using ½ spatula
of MnO2.
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 At the end of this reaction, the total volume of O2 gas in both reactions is the same because
the …………………. and …………………………… of hydrogen peroxide is same.

Manganese(VI) oxide as catalyst lowered the ………………………...…, Ea for the decomposition of H2O2.

 therefore, more particles will reach the same or more than the ……………………….., Ea
of the reaction.

 the frequency of collision between particles ……………………………..  the frequency of effective collision ………………………………………
 the rate of reaction ..……………………………………….. 5. Pressure

• • •

Only for reactions involving reactants in gaseous state. When the pressure of a reaction (involving gaseous reactants) increases, the rate of reaction increases. When the pressure of the gaseous reactants increases, the particles of the gaseous reactants are compressed to occupy a smaller volume.

 Thus, the number of gas particles per unit volume increases.  the frequency of collision between particles ……………………………..  the frequency of effective collision ………………………………………
 the rate of reaction ..………………………………………..

10.5 : Application of factors that affect the Rate of Reaction
 Daily lives :

⊗ Cooking of solid food in smaller size
 The total surface area on a smaller cut pieces of food is larger. The food can absorbed more heat. Hence, the time taken for the food to be cooked is lower/decrease.

⊗ Storage of food in a refrigerator
 When the food kept in refrigerator, the food lasts longer. The low temperature in the refrigerator slows down the activity of the bacteria. The bacteria produce less toxin , the rate of decomposition of food lower.

⊗ Cooking in a pressure cooker
 The high pressure in pressure cooker increases the boiling point of water to a temperature above 100 °C. The kinetic energy of the particles in the food is increase/higher. Hence time taken for the food to be cooked is lower/decrease. Thus the food cooked faster at a higher temperature in a pressure cooker.

 In Industry : ⊗ Haber process; manufacture of ammonia :
Optimum conditions : Temperature : 400 - 500 oC Pressure : 200 – 400 atm Catalyst : Iron/ferum,Rate of Reaction Fe

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N2 +

3H2 →

2NH3

⊗ Contact process; manufacture of sulphuric acid [ catalyst : Vanadium(V) oxide, V2O5 ] ⊗ Ostwald process; manufacture of nitric acid [ catalyst : platinum, Pt ]

10.6 : The Collision Theory • • •
For a reaction to occur, the reactant’s particles must collide. Not all collisions result in chemical reactions. For a reaction to occur, the collisions must satisfy two conditions :

(i) (ii) •

The colliding particles must have the right orientation of collision. The colliding particles must have enough energy; i.e equal or more than a minimum amount of energy known as Activation Energy, Ea

The collisions that lead to a chemical reaction are known as effective collisions.

10.6 : Energy Profile Diagram and Activation Energy, Ea
Energy

Ea = Activation Energy without a catalyst Ea’ = Activation Energy with a catalyst
reactants

Ea’ ΔH

Ea
products

ΔH = Heat of reaction
(The energy diffence in the reactants and in the products)

Progress of reaction

Ea  The minimum energy the reactant particles must possessed before collision between them
can result in a chemical reaction.

Ea’
Activity 5 :-

The lower activation energy in the presence of a catalyst.

Zinc powder reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid. The temperature of the mixture increases. (a) Draw an Energy Profile Diagram for the reaction. On the diagram, show the :

  
Chapter 10

Heat of reaction, ΔH Activation energy without a catalyst, Ea Activation energy with a catalyst, Ea’

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(b)

Explain the Energy Profile Diagram.

Frequency of Effective Collision and Rate of Reaction • •
When the frequency of collision between particles of reactants increases, the frequency of effective collisions between particles will also increase. The effective collisions will result in chemical reaction. When frequency of effective collision increases, the rate of reaction will also increase.

Collision Theory and Factors Influencing The Rate of Reaction CATALYST CONCENTRATION
OF REACTANTS The higher the concentration of reactants, the higher is the number of particles in a unit volume.

SIZE OF
REACTANTS /

TOTAL SURFACE AREA
The smaller the size of reactant, the larger is the total surface area exposed to collision.

TEMPERATURE OF REACTION MIXTURE
The higher the temperature, the higher is the kinetic energy of reacting particles. The reacting particles move faster.

Catalyst provides an alternative path of reaction which needs lower Activation Energy, (Ea’). More particles are able to overcome the new Activation Energy, (Ea’)

The frequency of collision between particles increases.

The frequency of effective collision between particles increases.

The rate of reaction increases.

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Activity 6 :Four experiments are carried out to study the factors that affect the rate of reaction. The table below shows the details of each experiment. Experiment I II III IV Reactants Excess of magnesium ribbon and 50 cm3 hydrochloric acid 1.0 mol dm–3 Excess of magnesium powder and 50 cm3 hydrochloric acid 1.0 mol dm–3 Excess of magnesium powder and 50 cm3 hydrochloric acid 1.0 mol dm–3 Excess of magnesium powder and 50 cm3 sulphuric acid 1.0 mol dm–3 Temperature of HCl / °C 30 30 40 40

(a) Write the chemical equation of the reaction occurred in Experiment I and IV
Experiment I : …….………………………………………………………………………………….. Experiment IV : ………………………………………………………………………………………..

(b) Calculate the maximum volume of gas released at room condition in :
[ Molar volume of gas at room condition = 24.0 dm3 ]

(i) Experiment II

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(ii) Experiment IV

(c) Sketch the graph of the volume of gas released against time for each Experiment I, II, III and IV on
the axes provided below. Volume of H2 gas / cm3

Time / s
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(d) Explain the difference in the rate of reaction in the experiments below.
Use the Collision Theory in your explanation.

(i) I and II
……………………………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

(ii) II and III
……………………………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

(iii) III and IV
……………………………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

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Activity 7 :-

Interpretation of graph.
Study the graphs below and complete the following :
The gradient of graph I is ………………. than graph II. The rate of reaction for reaction I is ………………. than reaction II. Possibilities : Quantity of product Reaction I used …………. size of reactants than reaction II.  Reaction I : …………. pieces of CaCO3 ;

V II I

 Reaction II : …………. pieces of CaCO3. Temperature of reaction I is …………. than reaction II. Concentration of the reactants for reaction I is …………. than reaction Time t1 t2 II. Presence of catalyst :  Reaction I : ………………………. .  Reaction II : ……………………….. Final quantity of product for reaction I and II are the same. Quantity of the reactants (number of moles) for reaction I and II must be The …………………. I and graph II are …………………….. gradient of graph Mass of reaction for used in reaction I and II is …………………  The rate of the reactants both reactions are …………………….. Number :  Possibilitiesof moles [ n = MV ] of the reactants used in reaction I and II is of reactant for both • Size………………… reactions are ………….. • Temperature for both reactions are …………... • Concentration of the reactants for both reaction are …………...

GRAPH 4.1

Quantity of product

4V V

II I

Final quantity of product for reaction II is twice than reaction I.

 Quantity of the reactants (number of moles) for reaction I must be
…………. than reaction II because the concentration of the reactants are the same in both reactions. Example : Chapter 10 t1 t2 Time

20 Reaction I : 250 cm3 of HCl 1.0 mol dm-3
Reaction II : 1000 cm3 of HCl 1.0 mol dm-3

Rate of Reaction

GRAPH 4.2

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Chapter 10

The gradient of graph I is ……………… than graph II.

 The rate of reaction for reaction I is ……………. than reaction II.
Quantity of product

 Possibilities : • Size of reactants for reaction I is …………. than reaction II.
II I
Reaction I : …………. pieces of CaCO3 ; Reaction II : …………. pieces of CaCO3.

2V V

• Temperature of reaction I is …………. than reaction II.
• Presence of catalyst :
..

 Reaction I : ………………………. ……. Time  Reaction II : ……………………………..

GRAPH 4.3

• Concentration of the reactants for reaction I is …………. than The gradient of graph I is ……………. than graph II. reaction II  The rate of reaction for reaction I is ……………. than reaction II. Final quantity of product for reaction II is twice than reaction I.  Possibilities :  Quantity of the reactants for reaction II must be ……… than reaction I. • Size of reactants for reaction I is …………. than reaction II. • Reaction Ithe………….used in reaction II; is …………………than Mass of : reactants pieces of CaCO3
reaction I. Reaction II : …………. pieces of CaCO3.

• Temperature of reaction I is …………. than reaction II.
• Presence of catalyst :  Reaction I : ………………………. ……. Quantity of product  Reaction II : ……………………………..

• Concentration of the reactants for reaction I is …………. than
reaction II.

2V V

II I

Final quantity of product for reaction II is twice than reaction I.

 Quantity of the reactant for reaction II must be ……… than reaction I. • Mass of the reactants used in reaction II is ……………than
Time reaction I.

t1 Chapter 10

t2

GRAPH 4.4

• Number of moles [ n = MV ] of the reactants used in reaction II is Rate of Reaction 21 ……………than reaction I.
Example :

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Chapter 10

Activity 8 :-

Rate of Reaction and Thermochemistry (Conclusion)
1. 2. 3. The minimum energy of a reaction is …………………………., Ea. …………………………., Ea must be overcome in order for the reaction to take place. Particles of reactants must achieve ……………………………… and with ……………………….. to make the chemical reaction occurs. 4. The use of a …………………………. reduces the Ea.

5.

ΔH

is ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

6. 7. 8. 9.

The ……………… the size of reactants, the ……………… the total surface area. Magnesium ribbon will react ……………… with warm sulphuric acid than cool sulphuric acid. The ……………… the concentration of a solution, the ……………… rate of chemical reaction. A ……………… is a substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction. It ……………… undergo any chemical change.

10. ……………………… is a chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into simpler substances.

Activity 9 :Complete the table below : Industry process
Chapter 10

Reactants

Catalyst
Rate of Reaction

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Chapter 10

Haber process Contact process Ostwald process
END OF CHAPTER

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