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4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

CHAPTER 12 : OXIDATION & REDUCTION

REDOX REACTIONS

1.1 The meaning of REDOX reaction


1. REDOX reaction  A reaction where both oxidation and reduction occur at the same time.

2. Oxidation and reduction can be defined in four ways :


OXIDATION REDUCTION Example :

(i) Loss of oxygen 2Mg + O2 → 2MgO


Gain of oxygen Loss of oxygen
and gain in oxygen CuO + H2 → Cu + H2O
(ii) Loss of hydrogen
Loss of hydrogen Gain of hydrogen N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3
and gain in hydrogen

(iii) Loss of electrons Mg → Mg2+ + 2e


Loss of electron Gain of electron
and gain in electrons Cl + e → Cl-
(iv) Change in Increase in Decrease in oxidation
oxidation number number
Zn + Cu2+ → Zn2+ + Cu
oxidation number

3. (i) Oxidizing agent :


 a substance that oxidized another substance.
 the oxidizing agent is reduced in the process.

(ii) Reducing agent :


 a substance that reduced another substance.
 the reducing agent is oxidized in the process.

1.2 Example of REDOX reactions


(i) In terms of gain/loss of oxygen

Example 1 :
Magnesium is oxidised (gain of oxygen)

Mg + CuO → MgO + Cu

Copper(II) oxide is reduced (loss of oxygen)

Explanation :
 Magnesium, Mg gains oxygen and it is oxidized. Magnesium has reduced copper(II) oxide,
CuO. Magnesium, Mg is reducing agent.
 Copper(II) oxide , CuO loses oxygen and it is reduced. Copper(II) oxide has oxidized
magnesium, Mg. Copper(II) oxide is oxidizing agent.
Chapter 12 1 Oxidation & Reduction
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

(ii) In terms of gain/loss of hydrogen

Example 2 :
Hydrogen sulphide is oxidised (loss of hydrogen)

H2S + Cl2 → S + 2HCl

Chlorine is reduced (gain of hydrogen)

Explanation :
 Hydrogen sulphide, H2S loses hydrogen and it is oxidized. Hydrogen sulphide, H2S has
reduced chlorine, Cl2. Hydrogen sulphide, H2S is reducing agent.
 Chlorine, Cl2 gains hydrogen and it is reduced. Chlorine, Cl2 has oxidized hydrogen
sulphide, H2S. Chlorine, Cl2 is an oxidizing agent.

Example 3 :

Copper(II) oxide is reduced (loss of oxygen)

3CuO + NH3 → 3Cu + 3H2O + N2

Ammonia is oxidised ( loss of hydrogen)

Explanation :
 Copper(II) oxide, CuO loses oxygen and it is reduced. Copper(II) oxide, CuO has oxidized
ammonia, NH3. Copper(II) oxide, CuO is oxidizing agent.
 Ammonia, NH3 loses hydrogen and it is oxidized. Ammonia, NH3 has reduced copper(II)
oxide. Ammonia, NH3 act as reducing agent.

(iii) In terms of gain/loss of electron NaCl is an ionic compound. It exist as


Example 4 : Na+ ions and Cl- ions.

(i) NaCl → Na+ + Cl-

2Na + Cl2 → 2NaCl

Chapter 12 2 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

(ii)

Explanation :
(i)  Sodium, Na with an electron arrangement of 2.8.1 loses an electron to form sodium ion,
Na+ in sodium chloride, NaCl. Sodium is oxidized.
Na → Na+ + e

(ii)  Chlorine, Cl2 gains electrons to form chloride ions. Cl- in sodium chloride, NaCl. Chlorine is
reduced.
Cl2 + 2e → 2Cl-
 Sodium, Na has reduced chlorine, Cl2.
 Sodium, Na is a reducing agent.
 Chlorine, Cl2 has oxidized sodium, Na.
 Chlorine, Cl2 is an oxidizing agent.
MgSO4 is an ionic compound. It exist as
Mg2+ ions and SO42- ions.
Example 5 :
MgSO4 → Mg2+ + SO42-
(i)

Mg + CuSO4 → MgSO4 + Cu

(ii)

Explanation :
(i)  Magnesium atom, Mg loses two electrons to form magnesium ion, Mg2+.
Mg → Mg2+ + 2e
(ii)  Magnesium is oxidized.

 Copper(II) ion, Cu2+ gains two electrons to form copper atom, Cu.
Cu2+ + 2e → Cu
 Copper(II) ion, Cu2+ is reduced.

 Magnesium, Mg has reduced copper(II) ion, Cu2+.


 Magnesium, Mg is a reducing agent.
 copper(II) ion, Cu2+ has oxidized Magnesium, Mg.

Chapter 12 3 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12
 copper(II) ion, Cu2+ is an oxidizing agent.

(iv) In terms of change in oxidation number

General rules to determine Oxidation Number

1. The oxidation number of atoms and molecules of elements is zero.


Example :
Atom of Element Oxidation number
Copper, Cu 0
Sodium, Na 0
Iron, Fe 0
Helium,He 0

Molecule of Element Oxidation number


Hydrogen gas, H2 0
Oxygen gas , O2 0
Chlorine gas, Cl2 0

2. The oxidation number for hydrogen in most of its compound is +1.

H H2 HCl
Hydrogen Hydrogen Hydrogen
atom molecule ion
Oxidation
0 0 +1
number

3. The oxidation number for oxygen in most of its compound is -2.

O O2 MgO Na2O
Oxygen Oxygen
Oxide ion Oxide ion
atom molecule
Oxidation
0 0 -2 -2
number

4. The oxidation number for a simple ion is similar to the charge of the ion.
Example :

Ion Oxidation number Ion Oxidation number


Na+ +1 Cl- -1

Cu2+ +2 Br- -1
Chapter 12 4 Oxidation & Reduction
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12
2+ 2-
Fe +2 O -2

Fe3+ +3 S2- -2

5. The oxidation number of the ions from Group 1, 2 and 13 are fixed because the atom of these Groups
achieve stable octet electron arrangement by losing 1 e-, 2e- and 3e- respectively. Therefore, the oxidation
number for these ions are :
Ion from element in Group Example Oxidation number
+
1 Na +1
2 Mg2+ +2
13 Al3+ +3

6. The sum of the oxidation numbers for elements in a compound is zero.


Example :
KMnO4

+1 -2
x

(+1) + x + 4(-2) = 0
x = +7

7. The sum of the oxidation numbers for elements in a polyatomic ion is equals to the charges of the
polyatomic ion.
Example :
SO42-

y
-2

y + 4(-2) = -2
y = +6

8. The oxidation number of the Transition Elements and most of non-metal elements are vary from one
compound to another.

Example :

Oxidation Oxidation
Formula Name Formula Name
number number
CuO Copper(II) oxide +2 FeCl2 Iron(II) chloride +2

Cu2O Copper(I) oxide +1 FeCl3 Iron(III) chloride +3

Chapter 12 5 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

Activity 1:-
State the oxidation number of the underlined element in the following table :
Oxidation Oxidation
number number
(a) (i) MnO2 (c) (i) K2Cr2O7
(ii) KMnO4 (ii) Na2Cr2O3
(b) (i) CO32- (d) (i) NH3
(ii) CO2 (ii) NO2
(iii) CO (iii) NH4+
(iv) NO3-

 Nomenclature of ionic compounds using IUPAC Nomenclature

(i) Elements from Group 1, 2 and 13 have only one oxidation number, the names of the compounds are written
without the oxidation number.
Example :
K2O is potassium oxide ; not potassium(I) oxide.

MgO is magnesium oxide ; not magnesium(II) oxide.

Al2Cl3 is aluminium chloride ; not magnesium(III) chloride.

(ii) Transition elements/metals and most of non metals compounds have more than one oxidation number.
The oxidation number of the element is written in Roman numeral, placed in a bracket behind the name of
the element.
Example :

Chemical Oxidation number


Common name formula of of transition metal/ IUPAC Name
compound non metal

Ferrous hydroxide Fe(OH)2 +2 Iron(II) hydroxide

Ferric hydroxide Fe(OH)3 +3 Iron(III) hydroxide

Lead monoxide PbO +2 Lead(II) oxide

Lead dioxide PbO2 +4 Lead(IV) oxide

Chapter 12 6 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12
Copper oxide CuO +2 Copper(II) oxide

Copper oxide Cu2O +1 Copper(I) oxide

☺ Redox Reaction in terms of change in Oxidation Number

 When the oxidation number of an element increases, the element is oxidized.


 The element is a reducing agent.
 When the oxidation number of an element decreases, the element is reduced.
 The element is an oxidizing agent.

☻A reaction is not a redox reaction if no elements undergo a change in oxidation state.

Example :
Determine whether the reactions below are redox or not.

(a) AgNO3 + NaCl → AgCl + NaNO3

Oxidation number : +1 +5 -2 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +5 -2

 This reaction is not a redox reaction because no changes of oxidation number of all elements in the
compounds of substances of reactants and products.
(b)
Mg + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + H2
Oxidation number : 0 +1 +6 -2 +2 +6 -2 0

 This reaction is a redox reaction because the oxidation number of magnesium and hydrogen in the
substances have changed.
Explanation :
 Magnesium, Mg is oxidized because its oxidation number increases from 0 to +1.
 Hydrogen ion, H+ is reduced because its oxidation number decreases from +1 to 0.
 Oxidizing agent is hydrogen ion, H+.
 Reducing agent is magnesium, Mg.

1.3 Writing Equations For Redox Reactions


Equations for redox reactions are :
(i) Chemical Equation for the reaction.
(ii) Half equation for oxidation (loss of electron/ increase in oxidation number).
Half equation for reduction (gain in electron/ decrease in oxidation number).
Chapter 12 7 Oxidation & Reduction
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12
(iii) Overall Ionic equation for redox reaction  formed by combining half equation for oxidation and
half equation for reduction (the number of electrons in both the half equations must cancel each other).

Example 1 :

Reaction Aluminium and copper(II) sulphate


Chemical Equation for the reaction 2Al + 3CuSO4 → Al2(SO4)3 + 3Cu

Al Cu2+ SO42- Al3+ SO42- Cu

Half equation for oxidation Al → Al3+ + 3e

Half equation for reduction Cu2+ + 2e → Cu


Changing of the coefficient of the half
2Al → 2Al3+ + 6e
equation of oxidation*
Changing of the coefficient of the half
3Cu2+ + 6e → 3Cu
equation of reduction*
Ionic equation 2Al + 3Cu2+ → 2Al3+ + 3Cu

* Make sure that the number of electrons released in half equation for oxidation are equal to the
number of electrons received in half equation for reduction.

Activity 2:-
1 Sodium metal react with water
sodium

water

Reaction Sodium and water


Chemical Equation for the reaction

Half equation for oxidation

Half equation for reduction


Changing of the coefficient of the half
equation of oxidation*
Changing of the coefficient of the half
equation of reduction*
Chapter 12 8 Oxidation & Reduction
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12
Ionic equation

2 Copper(II) oxide react with dry hydrogen gas (Determine the empirical formula of copper(II) oxide)

Copper(II) oxide
Dry hydrogen gas

Reaction Copper(II) oxide and hydrogen gas


Chemical Equation for the reaction

Half equation for oxidation

Half equation for reduction


Changing of the coefficient of the half
equation of oxidation*
Changing of the coefficient of the half
equation of reduction*
Ionic equation

1.4 Analysing Redox Reactions in :

1.4.1 Displacement of metals from its salt solution.


[Refer to C7 : ELECTROCHEMISTRY]
1.4.2 Electrolytic and Chemical Cell (Voltaic cell)
1.4.3 Rusting of Iron // Corrosion of Metal
1.4.4 Displacement of halogen from its halide solution.
1.4.5 Change of : Fe2+ → Fe3+ and Fe3+ → Fe2+
1.4.6 Transfer of electron at a distance.
1.4.7 Reactivity Series of Metals and Its Applications.

Chapter 12 9 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

1.4.1 Redox Reaction in the Displacement of Metals from its Salt solution

Electrochemical Series :
 Electrochemical Series is an arrangement of elements according to their tendency to release/donate
electrons to form a positive ion (cation).

Electrochemical
Series
K

Na

Ca

Mg

Al
MORE ELECTROPOSITIVE
Zn
Easier to release/donate electrons to
Fe form a positive ion (cation)
Sn

Pb

Cu

Ag

• The higher the position of the metal in the Electrochemical Series, the greater is the tendency of the metal
atoms to donate/release electrons (become more Electropositive).

• Displacement of metals :
 The metal which is higher in the electrochemical series will donate/lose/release its electrons to the metal
ion which is lower in the electrochemical series from its salt solution. The more electropositive metal
will be oxidized and dissolves. The less electropositive metal ion will be reduced and deposited.

Chapter 12 10 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

Example : A piece of zinc metal plate is dipped in copper(II) sulphate solution.

zinc metal + copper(II) sulphate solution Zn plate

Zn + CuSO4 → Zn SO4 + Cu CuSO4(aq)

Zinc is more electropositive than copper


Zn → Zn2+ + 2e Observation :
Zinc corrodes.
 Zinc plate becomes
Copper is less electropositive thinner // Part of zinc
Cu2+ + 2e → Cu copper displaced. plate dissolves

 Brown solid is formed


Zn + Cu 2+
→ Zn 2+
+ Cu on the surface of the
remaining part of the
zinc plate
 The blue colour of
copper(II) sulphate
Explanation : solution becomes
colourless
 In terms of gain/loss of electron
Zn is above Cu in the Electrochemical Series.
Zinc atom releases/donates/loses two electrons to form zinc ion, Zn2+.
Zinc is oxidized.
Copper(II) ion, Cu2+ gains/receives two electrons to form copper atom, Cu.
Copper(II) ion, Cu2+ is reduced.
Zinc has reduced copper(II) ion, Cu2+. Zinc is the reducing agent.
Copper(II) ion, Cu2+ has oxidized zinc. Copper(II) ion is the oxidizing agent.

Half equation of oxidation : Zn → Zn2+ + 2e

Half equation of reduction : Cu2+ + 2e → Cu

Ionic equation : Zn + Cu2+ → Zn2+ + Cu

 In terms of change in oxidation number


Zinc is oxidized as its oxidation number increases from 0 to +2.
As copper(II) ion, Cu2+ causes Zn to be oxidized, copper(II) ion, Cu2+ is the oxidizing agent.
Copper(II) ion, Cu2+ is reduced as its oxidation number decreases from +2 to 0.
As zinc , Zn causes copper(II) ion to be reduced, zinc, Zn is the reducing agent.

Chapter 12 11 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

1.4.2 Redox Reaction in the Electrolytic and Chemical Cell (Voltaic cell)

• Electrolysis :
 The selected cation will gain/receive electrons and undergoes reduction at the cathode (negatively
charged electrode).
The selected anion will release/lose its electrons and undergoes oxidation at the anode (positively
charged electrode)

• Chemical cell / Voltaic cell :


 The metal which is higher in the Electrochemical Series will become the negative terminal and release
electrons. The metal undergoes oxidation and dissolves. The metal which is lower in the
Electrochemical Series becomes the positive terminal. The ion that is selected for discharge in the
solution undergoes reduction and the mass of the positive terminal will increase.
 The further the distance between two metals in the Electrochemical Series, the higher the voltage of the
chemical cell.

(a) Differences between an electrolytic cell and a chemical cell :

CHARACTERISTIC ELECTROLYTIC CELL CHEMICAL CELL

A V

Set up of apparatus

It has cells/ batteries It has no cell


It has Ammeter It has Voltmeter
Same type of electrodes Different type of electrodes

Chapter 12 12 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

• Consist of two electrodes


(usually carbon / two similar or • Consist of two different
different metals) connected to metals dipped in an
batteries and dipped in a electrolyte and connected to
electrolyte using connecting a voltmeter / galvanometer /
wires. bulb using connecting wires.
 Negative terminal : the
Structure metal that is higher in the
 Anode : the electrode that is
Electrochemical Series
connected to the positive (more electropositive).
terminal of the battery.
 Positive terminal : the metal
that is lower in the
 Cathode : the electrode that is Electrochemical Series (less
connected to the negative electropositive ).
terminal of the battery.

Electrical energy to chemical energy Chemical energy to electrical energy


Energy conversion
 (involves redox reaction)  (involves redox reaction)

(b) Redox reaction in an electrolytic cell and a chemical cell.

Electrolytic cell Chemical cell


Negative terminal Positive terminal
Anode Cathode
(Anode) (Cathode)
Anion / Metal atom Cation in the electrolyte The more The metal ion in the
loses its electrons and gains electrons and acts electropositive metal electrolyte gains
acts as a reducing as an oxidizing agent. loses its electrons and electrons and acts as
Transfer agent. acts as a reducing an oxidizing agent.
of agent.
electron
e.g : e.g : e.g : e.g :
- + 2+
4OH → 2H2O + O2 + 4e 2H + 2e → H2 Mg → Mg + 2e Cu2+ + 2e → Cu
Cu → Cu2+ + 2e Ag+ + e → Ag Zn → Zn2+ + 2e Ag+ + e → Ag

The more The metal ion in the


Redox Anion / Metal atom Cation undergoes
electropositive metal electrolyte undergoes
reaction undergoes oxidation reduction
undergoes oxidation reduction

• Oxidation occurs at the anode in an electrolytic cell and at the negative terminal in a chemical
cell.
 the term anode is assigned for the electrode at which oxidation occurs, negative terminal  anode
• Reduction occurs at the cathode in an electrolytic cell and at the positive terminal in a chemical
cell.
 the term cathode is assigned for the electrode at which reduction occurs, positive terminal  cathode
Chapter 12 13 Oxidation & Reduction
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

Activity 3 :-
1 Diagram below shows the set up of the apparatus used for the electrolysis of potassium sulphate solution.

Carbon electrod X Carbon electrod Y

potassium sulphate, K2SO4 solution

(a) State all the ions present in the electrolyte.

...............................................................................................................................................................................

(b) State the product formed at electrode X and Y.

X : ............................................................. Y : ...........................................................................................

(c) Write the half equation for the reaction at


(i) electrode X :
...................................................................................................................................................................

(ii) electrode Y :

...................................................................................................................................................................

(d) Name the substance which is


(i) oxidized : ......................................................................................................................................................

(ii) reduced : ......................................................................................................................................................

(e) Name the


(i) oxidizing agent : ...........................................................................................................................................

Chapter 12 14 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12
(ii) reducing agent : ............................................................................................................................................

(f) State the oxidation number of sulphur in sulphate ion?


...............................................................................................................................................................................

2 Table below shows the concentration of sodium chloride in solution X and Y.

Solution X Solution Y

0.001 mol dm-3 2.0 mol dm-3

Both solutions are electrolysed separately using carbon as electrodes.

(a) Write the half equation of the reaction that takes place at the anode for electrolysis of :

(i) solution X : ………………………………………………………………………

(ii) solution Y : ………………………………………………………………………

(b) Name the products formed at the cathode and anode.

Product formed at :
Anode Cathode (c) The
Solution X

Solution Y

products collected at the anode in the electrolysis of solutions X and Y are different.
Explain why.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

(d) Name the substance oxidized in the electrolysis of :

(i) solution X : ………………………………………………………………………

(ii) solution Y : ………………………………………………………………………

(e) Name the substance reduced in the electrolysis of :

(i) solution X : ……………………………………………………………………….

(ii) solution Y : ……………………………………………………………………….

Chapter 12 15 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

3 The diagram below shows the set up of an apparatus for an experiment.

Magnesium Copper

Copper(II) sulphate solution


Magnesium sulphate solution Porous pot

(a) Which electrode is the positive terminal?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

(b) Write the observations at the :


(i) negative terminal : .........................................................................................................................

(ii) positive terminal : ..........................................................................................................................

(c) Write the half equation for the reaction that takes place at the :

(i) negative terminal : .........................................................................................................................

(ii) positive terminal : ..........................................................................................................................

(d) Write the ionic equation for the reaction that takes place in the chemical cell above.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

(e) Name the substance reduced in the above reaction.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

(f) Name the substance that acts as a reducing agent in the above reaction.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

(f) How will the voltmeter reading change if the magnesium electrode in the magnesium sulphate
solution is replaced by zinc electrode in zinc sulphate solution? Explain why?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
Chapter 12 16 Oxidation & Reduction
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

4 You are provided with the following materials and apparatus.

Materials :
Zinc plate, copper plate, dilute sulphuric acid, zinc sulphate solution,
copper(II) sulphate solution.
Apparatus :
Beakers, connecting wire, voltmeter, glass tube.

(a) By using all the materials and apparatus provided, draw the set up of the apparatus to produce
electricity from chemical reactions.

(b) (i) Name the solution that is used as a salt bridge.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

(ii) What is the function of the salt bridge?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

(c) Indicate on the set-up apparatus the following :


(i) negative terminal
(ii) positive terminal
(iii) the direction of electron flow.

(d) Write the half equation for the reaction that occurs at :

(i) negative terminal : ……………………………………………………………………………….

(ii) positive terminal : ………………………………………………………………………………

(e) State the substance that oxidized in the above reaction.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………........

Chapter 12 17 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12
(f) Name the substance that acts as an oxidizing agent in the above reaction.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………........

1.4.3 Redox Reaction in Corrosion of Metal [ Rusting of Iron]

 Corrosion of metal is a redox reaction in which a metal oxidized to its ion by losing electrons.
 When metal corrodes, it usually forms a metal oxide coating.
 Aluminium oxide, for example is non porous and firmly coated the metal. It will protect the aluminium
underneath from further corrosion. This further explain the resistance of aluminium to corrosion even though
it is higher in the Electrochemical Series ( electropositive metal). Other metals with similar property are zinc,
lead, nickel and chromium.

Rusting of iron / corrosion of iron.


 Rusting of iron takes place when iron corrodes in the presence of water and oxygen.
 It is a redox reaction whereby oxygen acts as an oxidizing agent while iron acts as a reducing
agent.
Mechanism of rusting of iron.
Water droplet
O2

O2 O2

B A B

Iron

 The surface of iron at A becomes an anode (negative terminal), the electrode at which oxidation
occurs.
 Iron atom, Fe loses electrons and is oxidized to form iron(II) ion, Fe2+
Half equation of oxidation: Fe → Fe2+ + 2e

 The electrons flow through iron to the edge of the water droplet at B, where the
concentration of oxygen here is higher.

 The iron surface at B becomes cathode( positive terminal) , the electrode at which reduction
occurs. Oxygen, O2 gains electrons and is reduced to form hydroxide ions, OH-.
Half equation of reduction: O2 + 2H2O + 4e → 4OH-

Chapter 12 18 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12
 The iron(II) ion, Fe2+ produced combines with hydroxide ions, OH- to form iron(II)
hydroxide.
Fe2+ + 2OH- → Fe(OH)2

Ionic equation for rusting : 2Fe + O2 + 2H2O → 2Fe(OH)2

 Iron(II) ion, Fe2+ is green but rust is brown because iron(II) hydroxide , Fe(OH) 2 undergoes
further oxidation by oxygen to form hydrated iron(III) oxide, Fe2O3 . xH2O (rust).
[ x is an integer whereby the value varies ]
 Iron(II) hydroxide , Fe(OH)2 is oxidised by oxygen to form iron(III) hydroxide,
Fe(OH)3
 Then, iron(III) hydroxide, Fe(OH)3 is decomposed to form hydrated iron(III) oxide
(rust).

 Rust is brittle, porous and not tightly packed. Thus, water and oxygen can penetrate the metal
underneath. Iron will undergo continuous corrosion.

O2 Fe2O3. xH2O (rust)


Fe2O3. xH2O (rust) Water droplet

O2 O2

e- e-
Cathode (positive terminal) Cathode (positive terminal)
O2 + 2H2O + 4e → 4OH - O2 + 2H2O + 4e → 4OH-
Anode (negative terminal)
Fe → Fe2+ + 2e
Iron

 Rusting of iron occurs faster in the presence of acid or salt because when these substances
dissolve in water, the solutions becomes better electrolyte. An electrolyte will increase the
electrical conductivity of water.
 Iron structures at coastal and industrial areas rust faster because of :
• the presence of salt in the coastal breeze
• the presence of acidic gases in industrial area such as sulphur dioxide, SO2 and nitrogen
dioxide, NO2.

Activity 4 :-
Draw a labelled diagram to show how the rusting of iron involved the ionization of iron and the flow of electron.

Chapter 12 19 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

Controlling Metal Corrosion


(i) Metal corrosion can be controlled by using other metal.

K Na Ca Mg Al Zn Fe Sn Pb Cu Ag

Ease of releasing electron increases (more electropositive)


 When iron is in contact with more electropositive metal for example zinc, rusting of iron is
prevented.
 Zinc, Zn loses electrons more easily than iron, Fe. Zinc corrodes or is oxidized instead of
iron.
Half equation of oxidation : Zn → Zn2+ + 2e
 The electrons that are released by zinc flow through the iron to the metal surface where there
is water and oxygen.
Half equation reduction : O2 + 2H2O + 4e → 4OH-

 When iron is in contact with less electropositive metal for example copper, rusting of iron is
faster.
 Iron, Fe loses electron more easily than copper, Cu. Hence, iron corrodes / rusts or is
oxidized instead of copper.
 The further apart the metals in the electrochemical series are, the faster the more
electropositive metal corrodes.

Activity 5 :-
Diagram below shows the use of zinc plates on an iron ship to prevent rusting.

TAQ 8388

Iron ship

Zinc plate
Sea water
Chapter 12 20 Oxidation & Reduction
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

()a Explain how the zinc plates protect the iron ship from rusting.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

()b Write the half equation for the reaction in (a).

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Activity 6 :-
1 The diagram shows the set up of the apparatus to study the effect of other metals on the rusting of iron nails.
SPM
2008
Q9 (b) Jelly + phenolphthalein + potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Al
Zn
Fe
Zinc Magnesium
Copper Sn
Pb
Iron nail Iron nail H
Iron nail Iron nail
Cu
Ag
P Q R S

(a) What is the function of :

(i) phenolphthalein?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

(ii) potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

(b) State the observation for each test tube P, Q, R and S after a days.

Chapter 12 21 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12
(i) Test tube P

…………………………………………………………………………………………

(ii) Test tube Q


…………………………………………………………………………………………

(iii) Test tube R


…………………………………………………………………………………………

(iv) Test tube S


…………………………………………………………………………………………

(c) Based on the observations,


(i) state the metals that can prevent the rusting of iron nail

…………………………………………………………………………………………

(ii) state the metal that can accelerate the rusting of iron nail.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

(iii) arrange the four metals i.e. iron, zinc, magnesium and copper in ascending order of their
electropositivity.
…………………………………………………………………………………………

(d) (i) State the type of reaction that takes place when iron rusts.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

(ii) Write the half equation for the reaction in (d) (i).
…………………………………………………………………………………………

(iii) What is the purpose of test tube R in this experiment?


…………………………………………………………………………………………

2 The diagram below shows three iron nails that are coiled with stannum, metal Y, and metal Z
respectively and placed in three different beakers.

Tin Y Z
Chapter 12 22 Oxidation & Reduction
A B C
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

Each beaker is filled with aqueous sodium chloride. After a few days the following results are obtained.
Beaker Observation
A The iron nail rusts a little.
B The iron nail does not rust.
C The iron nail rusts a lot.

(a) Based on the observations, arrange the metals i.e. tin, Y and Z in a descending order
of their electropositivity.

………………………….., ……………………………., …………………………………

(b) Suggest one possible metal for

Y : ……………………………………. Z : ……………………………………

(c) Explain why the iron in beaker B does not rust.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………………

(d) For the chemical changes that takes place in beaker A, write the :

(i) oxidation half equation :

……………………………………………………………………………………………

(ii) reduction half equation :

……………………………………………………………………………………………

(ii) overall ionic equation :

……………………………………………………………………………………………

3 • Metals will corrode when exposed to the atmosphere over a period of time.

• The rate of corrosion depends on the position of the metal in the Electrochemical
Chapter 12 23 Oxidation & Reduction
Series.
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

()c If magnesium and iron are exposed to the atmosphere. Which metal will corrode faster?
Explain your answer.

………………………………………………………………………………………….............................

………………………………………………………………………………………….............................

()d Why are the products made of aluminium self-protected from corrosion?

………………………………………………………………………………………….............................

………………………………………………………………………………………….............................

()e Electroplating is one way to control the rusting of iron. Suggest two other ways to prevent iron from
rusting?

………………………………………………………………………………………….............................

1.4.4 Redox Reaction In Displacement of Halogen From Its Halide Solution.

a) Electronegativity Series of Halogen and Halide

HALOGEN HALIDE

Cl2 (Potassium
Chlorine Cl- chloride
Bromine water Chloride ion
Electronegativity molecule solution)
of halogens increases.

[A measurement of the Br2 (Potassium The tendency for a


Br-
strength of an atom in Chlorine Bromine bromide halide to become a
Bromide ion
its molecule to attract molecule water solution) halogen increases.
electrons towards its
nucleus to form
negative ions] I2 Potassium
Iodine
I- iodide
Iodine Iodide ion
molecule water solution)

 The more electronegative halogen :


 can attract electrons from halides that are less electronegative.
 displaces less electronegative halogen from its halide solution
 gains electrons and acts as an oxidizing agent.
 undergoes reduction to form halide ions.
Chapter 12 24 Oxidation & Reduction
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12
Example :

Cl2 + 2e → 2Cl-

Chlorine molecule :
• gain / lose two electrons.
• undergo oxidation / reduction.
• acts as an oxidizing / reducing agent.

 The halide ions of the less electronegative halogen :


 lose their electrons, undergo oxidation, acts as a reducing agent.
Example :

2I- → I2 + 2e

Iodide ion :
• gain / lose electrons
• undergo oxidation / reduction.
• acts as a oxidizing / reducing reducing agent.

Activity 7 :-

1 Predict whether the following reactions occur or not.


[ If the reaction occurs, put a tick ( √ ) ; if no reaction occurs, put a cross ( X ) ]

Reactants √ / X Products
1 KI + Cl2
2 KI + Br2
3 KBr + Cl2
4 NaI + Br2
5 NaBr + I2
6 KCl + Br2
7 NaCl + I2

2 A few drops of chlorine water are added to 2 cm3 of potassium iodide solution and the
mixture is then shaken thoroughly.

Chlorine water

Potassium iodide solution


Chapter 12 25 Oxidation & Reduction
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

Half equation for reduction : Cl2 + 2e- → 2Cl-


Half equation for oxidation : 2I- → I2 + 2e-
Ionic equation : Cl2 + 2I- → 2Cl- + I2

Explanation :

Explanation :

• Chlorine molecules, Cl2 gain / lose electrons to form chloride ions, Cl- .
• Chlorine molecule is oxidized / reduced.
• Iodide ions, I- gain / lose to form iodine molecule, I2.
• Iodide ions are oxidized / reduced.
• Iodide ions have oxidized / reduced chlorine molecule, Cl2 . Iodide ion is an oxidizing /
reducing.
• Chlorine molecules, Cl2 has oxidized / reduced iodide ions. Chlorine is a oxidizing / reducing.

Note :
The colour of halogen cannot be differentiated in aqueous solution, especially bromine and
iodine. The presence of halogens is confirmed using 1,1,1 trichloroethane, CH3CCl3

aqueous solution layer

1,1,1-trichloroethane layer

Chapter 12 26 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12
 Two layers are formed when an aqueous solution of halogen is mixed with 1,1,1-trichloroethane.
 The denser 1,1,1-trichloroethane will be at the bottom and less dense aqueous solution will be at the
top.

Halogen Colour in aqueous solution Colour in 1,1,1 trichloroethane, CH3CCl3

Chlorine, Cl2 Pale yellow or colourless Pale yellow or colourless

Brown / yellowish brown / yellow Brown / yellowish brown / yellow


Bromine, Br2
(depends on concentration) (depends on concentration)
Brown / yellowish brown / yellow
Iodine, I2 Purple
(depends on concentration)

Activity 8 :-

Iodine is formed when bromine water is added to potassium iodide solution.

(a) How do you confirm the formation of iodine in the experiment?


…………………………………………………………………………………………………

(b) Write the half equation for the chemical change that takes place in :
(i) bromine water :……………………………………………………………………

(ii) potassium iodide :……………………………………………………………………

(iii) a reducing agent :……………………………………………………………………

(iv) an oxidizing agent :……………………………………………………………………

(c) Write ionic equation for redox reaction.


…………………………………………………………………………………………………
(d) Suggest halogen X that can replace bromine water so that iodine is also formed.
Chapter 12 27 Oxidation & Reduction
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12
…………………………………………………………………………………………………

1.4.5 Redox Reaction In The Change Of Fe 2+ → Fe 3+ and Fe 3+ → Fe 2+

(a) Changing of iron(II) ion, Fe2+ to iron(III) ion, Fe3+

Bromine water

Iron(II) sulphate
solution

Heat

Iron (II) ion, Fe2+ undergoes oxidation by losing its electron to form iron(III) ion, Fe3+
Oxidation half equation : Fe2+ → Fe3+ + e
The substance added is an oxidizing agent such as bromine water, Br2.
Bromine molecule gains electrons and undergoes reduction to form bromide ion, Br-.
Reduction half equation : Br2 + 2e → 2Br-

Chapter 12 28 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12
Observation for the change of iron(II) ion, Fe2+ to iron(III) ion, Fe3+ :
(i) Iron(II) solution changes colour from pale green to yellow
(ii) Brown colour of bromine water decolourises

Confirmatory test for iron(III) ion, Fe3+ :


 Add sodium hydroxide solution to the solution until excess.
 A brown precipitate is formed. It is insoluble in excess sodium hydroxide solution.

Other oxidizing agents that can replace bromine water to change Fe2+ to Fe3+ are :

Oxidizing agent Reduction half equation

Chlorine water, Cl2 Cl2 + 2e → 2Cl-


Acidified potassium manganate(VII)
solution, KMnO4 MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e → Mn2+ + 4H2O
Acidified potassium dichromate(VI)
solution, K2Cr2O7 Cr2O72- + 14H+ + 6e → 2Cr3+ + 7H2O

Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 H2O2 + 2H+ + 2e → 2H2O

Activity 9 :-

1 Chlorine water is added drop by drop to 2 cm3 of iron(II) sulphate solution in a test tube. The test
tube is warmed gently.
(a) Write the :

Half equation of oxidation : ………………………………………………………………..

Half equation of reduction : ………………………………………………………………..

Overall ionic equation : …………………………………………………………………


G

2 Diagram Carbon
2 showselectrode
the set- upP of apparatus to investigate the reaction between iron(II) chloride solution
and potassium manganate(VII) solution through the transfer of electronsCarbon electrode Q
at a distance.

Potassium
Iron(II) chloride solution mangganate(VII)

Chapter 12 Dilute sulphuric acid 29 Oxidation & Reduction

DIAGRAM 2
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

(a) What is the function of dilute sulphuric acid?

……………………………………………………………………………………………

(b) In Diagram 2, draw the direction of the flow of electrons.

(c) (i) What is the colour change in the solution around electrode P?

..................................................................................................................................

(ii) Describe a chemical test to determine the product formed in the solution at electrode P.

……………………………………………………………………………..............

……………………………………………………………………………...............

(d) What is the substance that is being oxidized in the experiment? Explain why.

………………………………………………………………………………………….....

………………………………………………………………………………………….....

(e) Write the half equation for the reaction that occurs at electrode Q.

………………………………………………………………………………………….....

(f) Suggest another reagent that can replace potassium manganate(VII) solution.

………………………………………………………………………………....................

(g) What is the change in oxidation number of manganese in the reaction?

…………………………………………………………………………………………......

(b) Changing of iron(III) ion, Fe3+ to iron(II) ion, Fe2+


Chapter 12 30 Oxidation & Reduction
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

Iron(III) sulphate solution

Zinc powder

Heat

Iron (III) ion, Fe3+ undergoes reduction by gaining one electron to form iron(III) ion, Fe2+
Oxidation half equation : Fe3+ + e → Fe2+
The substance added is an reducing agent such as zinc, Zn.
Zinc atom loses electrons and undergoes oxidation to form zinc ion, Zn2+.
Reduction half equation : Zn → Zn2+ + 2e

 Ionic equation : 3Zn + 2Fe3+ → 3Zn2+ + 2Fe

Observation for the change of iron(III) ion, Fe3+ to iron(II) ion, Fe2+ :
(i) Iron(III) solution changes colour from brown to pale green
(ii) Some zinc powder dissolved

Confirmatory test for iron(II) ion, Fe2+ :


 Add sodium hydroxide solution to the solution until excess.
 A green precipitate is formed. It is insoluble in excess sodium hydroxide solution.

Other reducing agents that can replace zinc to change Fe2+ to Fe3+ are :

Reducing agent Half equation of Oxidation

Magnesium, Mg Mg → Mg2+ + 2e

Sulphur dioxide, SO2 SO2 + 2H2O → SO42- + 4H+ + 2e

Hydrogen sulphide, H2S H2S → 2H+ + S + 2e

Sodium sulphite solution, Na2SO3 SO32- + H2O→ SO42- + 2H+ + 2e

Activity 10 :-
Chapter 12 31 Oxidation & Reduction
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

1 The following is an equation represents a redox reaction.

Based2Fe
on 3+the redox+reaction
(aq) H2S(g): → 2Fe2+(aq) + 2H+ (aq) + S(s)
(a) Write half equation for :
(i) oxidation : H2S → 2H+ + S + 2e // S2- → S + 2e

(ii) reduction : Fe3+ → Fe2+ + e

(b) Name the substance that acts as :

(i) Oxidizing agent : Iron(III) ion, Fe3+

(ii) Reducing agent : Hydrogen sulphide, H2S // sulphide ion, S2-

(c) Change in oxidation ;


(i) Oxidation number of iron is decrease from +3 to +2

(ii) Oxidation number of sulphur is increase from -2 to 0

1.3.6 Redox Reaction In term of Transfer of Electron at a Distance


1. Transfer of electron at a distance occurs when two solutions of reducing agent and oxidizing agent
are separated by an electrolyte in a U-tube.

2. Redox reaction occurs as a result of electron flow through an external circuit.


3. Electrons flow from the reducing agent (loses electrons) to the oxidizing agent (gains electrons)
through the connecting wires and can be detected by a galvanometer.

4. Carbon electrode that is immersed in a reducing agent is known as the negative terminal (anode).
G
5. Carbon electrode that is immersed in an oxidizing agent is known as the positive terminal (cathode).
6. The electrolyte allows the movement of ions and completes the electric circuit.
7. The diagram shows the set up of the
+
_ apparatus for the electron transfer at a distance.
Carbon electrode
Carbon electrode

Reducing agent
Loses electron
Undergoes oxidation Oxidizing agent
Gains electron
Undergoes reduction
Chapter 12 32 Oxidation & Reduction
electrolyte
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

8. Reducing agent loses its electron and undergoes oxidation.


9. Oxidation agent gains its electron and undergoes reduction.

Examples of common substances used as reducing agents are :

Substance Half equation for oxidation Observation/ Test


Potassium iodide,
KI
Potassium bromide,
KBr
Iron(II) chloride //
Iron(II) sulphate

 In U-tube cell / a chemical cell  electrode that is immersed in the reducing agent becomes the negative
terminal or anode because the agent loses electrons and undergoes oxidation.
 Oxidation agent gains the electrons and undergoes reduction.

Examples of common substances used as oxidizing agents are :


Observation //
Substance Half equation for reduction
Confirmatory test

Chapter 12 33 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12
Acidified potassium
manganate(VII) MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e → Mn2+ + 4H2O

Acidified potassium/
sodium dichromate(VI) Cr2O72- + 14H+ + 6e → 2Cr3+ + 7H2O

Chlorine water Cl2 + 2e → 2Cl-

Bromine water Br2 + 2e → 2Br-

Iron(III) chloride,
Iron(III) sulphate Fe3+ + e → Fe2+

- In a chemical cell / U-tube cell– electrode that is immersed in an aqueous solution of an oxidizing agent becomes
the positive terminal or anode because the agent gains electrons and undergoes reduction.

Chapter 12 34 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12
Complete the table below for the electron transfer at a distance
Diagram for the set up of
Half equation for Half equation for apparatus :
Oxidizing Reducing oxidation : reduction :  The direction of
Reactants Ionic equation
agent agent  losses of electron  gains of electron electron flow
 negative terminal  positive terminal  Positive / negative
terminal

FeSO4(aq)
and
Br2(aq)

KI(aq)
and
KMnO4(aq)

Chapter 12 35 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

FeSO4(aq)
and
K2Cr2O7(aq)

Chapter 12 36 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

1.3.7 Redox Reaction In The Reactivity Series Of Metals And Its Applications
(a) Reactivity series of metals is an arrangement of metals in accordance to the reactivity of their
reactions with oxygen to form metal oxides.

Reactivity of metal towards oxygen increases.


K
The more reactive metal is able to remove oxygen from less reactive metal oxide.
Na The more reactive metal gains oxygen to form metal oxide and undergoes oxidation /
Ca oxidation number of metal increases.
Mg The less reactive metal oxide loses oxygen to form metal and undergoes reduction / oxidation
number of metal in the metal oxide decreases.
Al
The more reactive metal has reduced the less reactive metal oxide and acts as reducing a
C
agent.
Zn
The less reactive metal cannot remove oxygen from more reactive metal oxide.
H
Fe The empirical formula of metal oxide for a more reactive metal than hydrogen in the
reactivity series (such as magnesium) can be determined by heating the metal strongly in a
Sn crucible.
The empirical formula of metal oxide for a less reactive metal than hydrogen (such as copper)
Pb can be determined by passing dry hydrogen gas through strongly heated metal oxides in a
combustion tube.
Cu

(b) The metals are arranged in the Reactivity Series by observing how vigorously they react with
oxygen. The metal at the top of the series burns most vigorously and most quickly in oxygen.
(c) Carbon reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. Carbon is also an element in the Reactivity Series
of metals.
(d) Determination the position of Carbon in Reactivity Series of metals :
(i) If carbon can remove oxygen from a metal oxide // (reduce the metal oxide to metal),

Carbon + metal oxide → metal + carbon dioxide


 Carbon is above the metal in the Reactivity Series of metal.

(ii) Conversely, if carbon cannot remove oxygen from metal oxide, carbon is less reactive than the
metal in the reactivity series of metal. Thus, no reaction will occur.

Carbon + metal oxide → (no reaction)

 Carbon is below the metal in the Reactivity Series of metal.

Chapter 12 37 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

(e) Determination the position of Hydrogen in Reactivity Series of metals :


(i) If hydrogen can remove oxygen from a metal oxide // (reduce the metal oxide to metal),

Hydrogen + metal oxide → metal + water

 Carbon is above the metal in the Reactivity Series of metal.

(ii) If hydrogen is unable to remove oxygen from metal oxide, hydrogen is less reactive than the
matel in the Reactivity Series of metals.

Note :
• If metal X is more reactive than metal Y,
 then metal X can remove oxygen from the oxide of metal
Y.
 metal X can reduce oxide of metal Y.

X + Y oxide → X oxide + Y

(f) Application of the Reactivity Series

• Metals that are located below carbon in the Reactivity Series (less reactive than carbon)
can be extracted from their ores (metal oxides) using carbon.

Metal oxide + Carbon → Metal + Carbon dioxide ↑

Carbon is released as carbon dioxide gas after the reaction

(i) Carbon is widely used to extract iron (Fe), tin/stanum (Sn), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) from their
ores. Carbon is more reactive than these metals and act as reducing agent in the metal
extraction process.

(ii) The extraction is carried out in the a blast furnace. Hot air is pumped to the blast furnace to
burn carbon and carbon monoxide is produced . In the blast furnace, a series of chemical
reactions take place.

 The extraction of iron, Fe :

C(s) + O2 (g) → CO2(g)


C(s) + CO2(g) → 2CO (g)

Both carbon, C and carbon monoxide, CO can remove oxygen from the ores

2Fe2O3(s) + C(s) → 4Fe(s) + 3CO2(g)


Fe2O3(s) + CO(g) → 2Fe(s) + 3CO2(g)
 Iron , Fe is extracted from its ore, hematite ( Fe2O3)

Chapter 12 38 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

 The extraction of Tin, Sn :

SnO2(s) + C(s) → Sn(s) + CO2(g)


SnO2(s) + 2CO(g) → Sn(s) + 2CO2(g)
 Tin, Sn is extracted from its ore, cassiterite (SnO2).

Metals that are located above carbon in the Reactivity Series (more reactive than carbon)
can be extracted from their ores (metal oxides) by electrolysis of molten ores using carbon
electrode.
 Extraction of aluminium metal, Al from aluminium oxide, Al2O3 (bauksite)
[ Refer to Chapter 6/Form 4 : Electrochemistry ]

• The empirical formula of metal oxide :


 for a more reactive metal than hydrogen in the Reactivity series (such as magnesium)
can be determined by heating the metal strongly in a crucible.
 for a less reactive metal than hydrogen (such as copper) can be determined by passing
hydrogen gas through strongly heated metal oxides in a combustion tube.
[ Refer to Chapter 3/Form 4 : Chemical Formulae & Equations ]

Activity 11 :-

1 Determine whether the following reactions occur or not.


If the reaction occurs, mark ‘√’ and if not, mark ‘X’.

Reactants √ / X Chemical Equation

(a) Hydrogen + zinc oxide


(b) Magnesium oxide + carbon
(c) Copper + zinc oxide
(d) Aluminium + carbon dioxide
(e) Carbon + silver oxide
(f) Hydrogen oxide + copper
(g) Iron(II) oxide + hydrogen gas
(h) Magnesium + steam
(i) carbon dioxide + lead
(j) Iron + lead(II) oxide

Chapter 12 39 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

2 Diagram below shows the set up of apparatus to investigate the reactivity of metal P, Q and R
towards oxygen. Metal P, Q and R is heated before hydrogen peroxide is poured into the conical
flask.

P Q R

Heat

Hydrogen peroxide
+ Manganese(IV) oxide

The observations are given below

Metal Observation
P Burns fairly bright. The residue is yellow when hot but turns white when cold.
Q Glows faintly. The residue is black.
R Burns vigorously with bright flame. The residue is white.

(a) Write chemical equation for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

(b) What is the function of manganese(IV) oxide in the experiment?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

(c) Based on the observations, arrange the metals P, Q and R in a ascending order of their
reactivity.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

(d) Name the P and Q.


Metal P :…………………………………………………….

Metal Q :……………………………………………………

(e) Chemical formula the oxide of metal R is R2O3. This oxide can be reduced by hydrogen
gas to for metal R.
(i) Write an equation for the reaction between R2O3 with hydrogen.

Chapter 12 40 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12
………………………………………………………………………………………………

(ii) Name the oxidation agent in this reaction.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

(iii) Draw a labeled diagram of the apparatus that can used to conduct this experiment.

(f) (i) Name another substance that can replace hydrogen peroxide.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

(ii) Write an equation to represent the reaction that occurs in (f) (i).

………………………………………………………………………………………………

Activity 12 :-
REVISION :

1. REDOX REACTION is a reaction where oxidation and …………….occur at the


………………………… time.

2. Oxidation involved :
• losses of ……………….….

• gains of……………….…...

• ……………….…of electrons.
• ……………….… oxidation number.

Chapter 12 41 Oxidation & Reduction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

3. Reduction involved :
• losses of ……………….….
• gains of……………….…...
• ……………….… of electrons.
• ……………….… oxidation number.

4. Mg → Mg2+ + 2e

Magnesium atom is oxidized because :


• magnesium atom is released ……….. electrons.

• the oxidation number of magnesium is ……………….… from …..… to ….…….

5. H2S + Cl2 → S + 2HCl

• Hydrogen sulphide, H2S is oxidized to ……………….…


• H2S acts as an ……………………. agent.
• Chlorine gas,Cl2 is reduced to ……………….…
• Cl2 undergoes reduction and acts as an ……………………. agent.

6. Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2

(a) Zn → Zn2+ + 2e
• Zinc atom undergoes…………… because its ……….. electrons.
• Its oxidation number increases from ………… to …………
• Zinc acts as an ………..agent
+
(b) 2H + 2e → H2
• Hydrogen ion undergoes…………… because it ……….. electrons.
• Its oxidation number …………… from ………… to …………
• Hydrogen ion acts as an ………..agent.

7. Cu2+ + 2e → Cu

• Copper(II) ion, Cu2+ undergoes ……………………….


• Cu2+ ion ………………….…….. ………… electrons.
• Its oxidation number decreases from ……….to ………
• Cu2+ ion acts as an……….agent.
Chapter 12 42 Oxidation & Reduction
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 12

END OF CHAPTER 12

Chapter 12 43 Oxidation & Reduction