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Table of Contents

Chapters

1. Introduction
2. Enrolling Waste Managers to Take Action
3. Planning to Get Started
4. Implementing the C&D Waste Management Process
5. Summary

Appendices

A. Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Definitions


B. Characterization Tables of C&D Waste
C. C&D Waste Materials Checklist
D. Case Studies
E. Waste Management Planning Spreadsheets and Worksheets
F. Websites for Material Exchanges and Related C&D Waste Information
G. List of Potential Asbestos Containing Building Materials
H. WasteSpec References for Managing Hazardous Waste and
Construction Waste Management
I. Sample C&D Waste Management Strategy and Plan
J. Bibliography

Tables

1. Value of C&D Waste


2. Characterization of C&D Waste
3. Reusable Building Materials
4. Impact on AF MoM by Possible Non-hazardous C&D Waste Diversion
Percentages
5. Comparison of Key Project Factors When Using and Not Using
Specialty Contractors
6. Comparison of Waste Management Audit Results for Residential
Renovation Projects
7. Comparison of Savings for Residential Renovation Projects
8. Comparison Between Deconstruction and Demolition
9. Weighted Average C&D Waste Generation Rates
10. Average C&D Waste Generation Rates for Typical Residential
Renovation Scopes
11. Average C&D Waste Generation Rates for Additional Residential
Renovation Scopes
12. Rounded Average Percentage of Waste Composition
Introduction

“ ‘Waste’ - A resource in the wrong place.”


An old Chinese proverb

Purpose
The broad purpose of the Construction and Demolition (C&D) Waste
Management Guide is to assist readers involved in the management of C&D
wastes to track and divert the C&D portion of the total solid waste stream.
Specifically, the goals of the Guide are to:

• Explain how C&D waste management can lower disposal cost and support Air
Force goals for solid waste reduction.
• Show design and construction project managers how to manage C&D waste
and support solid waste reduction goals.
• Identify and explain how to comply with environmental concerns, such as
asbestos and lead-based paint, when managing C&D waste.
• Identify and provide tools, as well as their sources, for C&D waste
management, such as spreadsheets and templates for specification writing.

Preview of Chapters The Guide meets the specific goals with five chapters, beginning with this
Introduction, that recaps the purposes of the Guide and provides a preview for
subsequent chapters, and ending with a Summary of how the specific goals are
met. The substantive chapters of the Guide include Enrolling Waste Mangers to
Take Action, Planning to Get Started and Implementing the C&D Waste
Management Process. Each is previewed below.

Chapter 2 – Enrolling Waste Mangers to Take Action

People who read and use this chapter will take committed action toward the
possibility of safe and cost effective C&D waste management. Enrollment is
defined as generating a possibility in the consciousness of others such that they
accept the possibility, commit and act. Enrollment is accomplished by:

• Providing a common background of traditional C&D waste management


practices and incentives for change. Readers see their own relationship to the
possibility.
• Discussing the possibilities for diverting C&D waste while meeting or
exceeding new AF C&D waste diversion goals. Readers see what has changed
or their new options with respect to the possibility.
• Describing through successful case studies the opportunities for C&D waste
management. Readers are given evidence that the possibility is feasible.
• Issuing a challenge for readers to commit to C&D waste diversion actions.

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Providing a Common Background. This includes the scope of the Guide and some
important C&D waste definitions. Traditional C&D waste management practices
are explained, as well as incentives for change. The Guide also describes a
number of C&D waste management options available to contractors and waste
managers, and the five categories of C&D work on installations are identified.

The scope of the Guide was purposely narrowed. Important aspects of the science
of sustainable buildings involve waste prevention, as well as reducing waste,
energy, and resources. While prevention and reduction are closely linked,
comprehensive details of preventing C&D waste as part of design and
construction of sustainable buildings is outside the scope of the Guide. However,
the Guide does provide an overview of generally available waste prevention
techniques.

Possibilities for Diverting C&D Waste. Based on common background, an AF


policy memo created the possibility. The HQ USAF/ILEV Memorandum, 26 Jan
1999, Subject: Non-hazardous Solid Waste Diversion Rate Measure of Merit
(MoM) placed a new focus on C&D (construction and demolition) waste
management. This memorandum not only established clear policy, but also
mandated an annual MoM (measure of merit) for diverting non-hazardous solid
waste from disposal in landfills and incinerators. The Guide shows the impact of
successful C&D waste diversion on achieving the AF MoM by calculating a
range of possible C&D waste diversion rates based on diverting C&D waste only.

Opportunities for C&D Waste Management. Given that the possibility exists for
safe and efficient C&D waste management, can we capitalize on the
opportunities? The Guide uses a total of 26 case studies to answer this question
with a resounding “yes.” The case studies cover the gamut of work expected on
installations: new construction, renovation, and demolition for both residential
and non-residential projects. The case studies clearly demonstrate the feasibility of
lower cost alternatives to C&D waste management.

The Challenge. Chapter 2 ends with a challenge to C&D waste managers to make
a commitment to action. The Guide provides readers with the background
knowledge, tools, resources, and step by step directions for taking action
immediately.

Chapter 3 – Planning to Get Started


C&D waste managers must complete a significant amount of research and
planning before they can develop an overall C&D waste strategy. This critical
research and planning phase lays the foundation for preparation of subsequent
waste management plans. Success in implementing plans and diverting C&D
waste will depend largely on completing the following seven steps outlined in this
chapter.

PLANNING STEP 1 - Identify contractors, markets and facilities, material


exchanges, and partnering organizations.

PLANNING STEP 2 - Identify existing local resources and determine what they
bring to the C&D waste management challenge.

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PLANNING STEP 3 - Identify environmental compliance requirements and best
C&D management practices for eliminating, mitigating or complying with the
requirements

PLANNING STEP 4 - Quantify and characterize the potential annual C&D waste
stream on the installation.

PLANNING STEP 5 - Identify the range of contracting options available to


implement C&D waste management practices.

PLANNING STEP 6 - Develop a C&D waste management strategy for complying


with AF policy and achieving the AF measure of merit (MoM).

PLANNING STEP 7 - Develop generic waste management plans.

Chapter 4 – Implementing the C&D Waste Management Process


This chapter describes and prescribes the step-by-step waste management process
for incorporating, executing, monitoring, and documenting the diversion of
installation C&D waste after planning is completed. A 12-step process is provided
for in-house work and projects, while contracted work and projects use a 17-step
process. The Guide takes waste management teams from the start of the C&D
work and projects to the finish.

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Chapter 2 Enrolling Waste Managers
to Take Action

Common background
Reading and using the Guide will enroll the reader ensuring committed action and
safe and cost effective C&D waste management are taken. This is accomplished
by four steps:

• Provide a common background on traditional C&D waste management


practices and incentives for change.
• Discuss the possibilities for diverting C&D waste to meet new Air Force
C&D waste diversion goals.
• Describe the opportunities for meeting C&D waste reduction goals with
successful case studies, guidance, and tools.
• Challenge readers to make a commitment to C&D waste diversion actions.

SCOPE
It is important to define the scope of the Guide, what it isn't as well as what it is.
There is a current focus on constructing resource efficient buildings. The science
of resource efficient buildings allows us to sustain environmental resources
despite heavy demand by a rapidly growing and advancing society. An important
part of this science involves preventing waste and reducing energy, resources, and
waste, specifically C&D waste. While prevention and reduction are closely linked,
details of preventing C&D waste as part of the sustainable design process is
outside the scope of this Guide. The Guide will, however, provide an overview of
general prevention techniques available.

DEFINITIONS
C&D waste is material produced during the construction, renovation, demolition,
or deconstruction of structures. Structures include residential and commercial
buildings and their infrastructure. Components of C&D waste typically include
concrete, wood, metals, gypsum wallboard, asphalt, and roofing material. Experts
vary on whether land-clearing debris such as soil, stumps, and rocks are C&D
waste. For the purposes of this Guide, materials are C&D waste if they would
normally be hauled away for disposal. A full list of definitions is provided in
Appendix A.

The Guide uses the phrase “C&D waste managers” or just “waste managers”
freely throughout the text. This may cause some confusion. Planning Step 2 in
Chapter 3 identifies two teams responsible for C&D waste management. The
phrases either refer to the entire team or are meant to capture the appropriate
members of these teams according to an installations interpretation. The phrases
do NOT refer only to the individual in the Environmental Flight assigned solid
waste management responsibility. Successful C&D waste management requires
the efforts of varied team members each using their areas of expertise.

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TRADITIONAL C&D MANAGEMENT AND INCENTIVES FOR CHANGE
C&D waste has traditionally not been managed. Private waste contractors have
collected and disposed of C&D waste with little record keeping, little concern,
and little oversight. For these reasons it is difficult to quantify what part of the
total waste stream is actually C&D waste. Yet we know C&D waste consumes
vast volumes of constrained landfill space and often contains regulated materials.
These regulated materials may pose a threat to human health and the environment
and become a compliance risk.

The estimated magnitude of the C&D waste stream varies greatly because of
several factors. These factors include the differing definitions of C&D waste
across states, the varied types of generating sources and activities from year to
year and the range of accurate sampling procedures found in both research and
practice. In the end, some researchers concede and theorize it may be equal to or
even greater in quantity to the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream. But most
researchers report C&D waste quantities within a range of 10-30% of the quantity
of MSW. According to the most recent Environmental Protection Agency
research C&D waste is generated in the United States at a rate of 2.8 pounds per
person per day or 136 million tons per year. Because of the variability factors, Air
Force installations may experience rates lower or higher than the national rate.
Regardless, with this huge potential resource, the question arises: Why haven't we
vigorously pursued waste diversion as a management option?

There are five obstacles to diverting C&D waste:

1. It is a relatively new practice. The construction industry remains a


conservative culture resistant to change. Old convenient habits of disposing of
C&D waste by incineration and landfilling are often hard to break. Modifying
standard construction and demolition contract specifications to require or
encourage C&D waste management has been met with resistance.

2. There are limited recycling markets. Markets often either don't exist locally or
recyclers do not accept the broad spectrum of C&D waste. For example:
asphalt and gypsum wallboard can only be recycled in a few parts of the
country at this time. Some specialized recyclers only accept one type of waste
and this often makes waste management costly and inconvenient. Also, many
recyclers to not provide pickup and transport service adding to the cost and
inconvenience.

3. There is limited market awareness. Many building contractors are simply not
aware of all the reuse and recycling opportunities available.

4. It is perceived as being more costly. Building contractors are concerned over


the perception of additional time employees will spend segregating waste.
Time is still money. Contractors ask, “Will the C&D waste management
revenues and disposal cost savings offset labor costs?”

5. It is perceived as requiring more space. Building contractors are concerned


over the need for providing sorting and storage space, because many job sites
have space constraints.

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Despite these obstacles, four factors are strong incentives for changing the way we
manage C&D waste. First, C&D wastes contain valuable resources. The following
table provides a glimpse of just how valuable:

Table 1. Value of C&D Waste Materials vs. Disposal ($/Ton)


Material Disposal Cost Material Value
Oriented Strand Board
137 725
(OSB)
Lumber 79 280
Gypsum Wallboard 148 269
Cardboard 42 varies
(Source: National Association of Homebuilders, “Research at the Center,” Builder
Magazine, Feb. 95, p. 50.)

Second, diverting C&D wastes can be cheaper than landfilling. The tipping fees
for landfills continue to skyrocket, making traditional land disposal methods
costly. Studies show that over the past twenty years the national average for C&D
tipping fees has risen from $4.90 to $32.00/ton. Similarly, the national average for
MSW tipping fees has risen in the past ten years from $17.00 to $70.00/ton. Not
surprisingly most C&D waste can be delivered to a recycler for fees ranging from
$0 to $35.00/ton.

Third, there is a growing public awareness of C&D waste and a moral concern
about having to live with what we discard. Efficient C&D waste managers can
take credit for being responsible resource conservationists and good neighbors.
There can be incredible value in creating and maintaining positive public
relations.

Finally, there is an increase in state and local legislation mandating specific goals
and actions for waste stream reduction. California now requires cities to reduce
their waste streams by 50% by 2000. McHenry County, Illinois, has proposed an
amendment to their building code. The amendment would make a building permit
contingent upon preparing a waste separation plan and building occupancy
contingent upon proving at least three waste materials were recycled on the job.
With 50% of our landfills projecting closure by 2000, it is only a matter of time
before our C&D waste management behavior is legally driven. Action now will
prevent compliance requirements later.

C&D W ASTE CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS


The types and quantities of C&D waste generated can vary widely from project to
project. However, the composition of these varied waste streams has some
predictability. Wood, gypsum wallboard, concrete and block, metals, and
corrugated cardboard have generally been found to be the largest waste stream
components. Waste characterization research was done in the Metropolitan Twin
Cities, Minnesota area and the results are summarized in Table 2. Complete
characterization tables are provided in Appendix B. These data provide C&D
waste managers with a broad view of what to expect on the job site.

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Table 2. Characterization of C&D Waste
from New Construction (Rough % of total waste volume)

Commercial Residential
Predominant Materials (10% or greater)
Wood 20-30% 20-35%
Concrete and block 10-20%
Drywall 5-10% 10-20%
Cardboard 5-10% 5-15%

Secondary Materials (less than 10%)


Steel from decking, re-rod, etc. 1-8%
Shingles 1-8%
Brick 1-5%
Concrete 1-8%
Crates and pallets 1-5%
Extruded polystyrene (rigid) insulation 3% range
Fiberboard 1-8%
Kraft paper packaging 3% range
Plastic sheeting and bags 3% range
Electrical wire 2% range
Overspray from fireproofing products 0-5%
(Source: Innovative Waste Management, “Construction Materials Recycling
Guidebook,” Mar. 93, p. 4-5.)

The C&D waste stream may also contain regulated materials. Regulated materials
typically found on a construction site may include, but are not limited to, waste
solvents, waste paints and coatings, adhesives, sealer tubes, and waste oils and
greases. Regulated materials typically found on a demolition site may include but
are not limited to asbestos, lead-based paints and coatings, polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). A more comprehensive list of
all C&D waste materials, including regulated materials, is provided as a useful
checklist in Appendix C.

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Waste Management
Options Hierarchy
C&D contractors and waste managers have a growing number of options for
managing C&D wastes. The Waste Management Options Hierarchy shown is a
Reduce useful guide. This hierarchy can be applied against the five phases in the life of a
construction project:
Reuse
1. Asset management
2. Planning
Recycle 3. Design
4. Demolition
5. Construction
Composting

Burning
Project planners and designers can prevent C&D waste in the asset management,
design, and construction phases. While expanded details of these actions are
beyond the scope of this Guide, it is worthwhile to provide a brief overview.
Landfill

During the asset management phase, planners assess existing buildings and
properties against project needs. Optimally, existing buildings are used to avoid
new construction and demolition wherever possible. During the design phase, the
source reduction concept is used to consume less materials, use less toxic
materials, and reduce or eliminate subsequent waste at the source. Project
designers can accomplish this with the following techniques:

Choosing Simple Plans - Building dimensions are in standard 2- and 4-foot


increments to reduce the number of off-cuts.

Using Advanced Framing - Framing details are designed to minimize


unnecessary corner studs, excessive lumber at window and door openings, and
over-built lintels.

Specifying Prefabricated Materials - Pre-cut and pre-fabricated materials like


trusses and structural insulated panels allow scrap to be efficiently recycled at
the factory rather than the job site.

Specifying Recyclable Materials and Recycled-Content Material.

Specifying Non-hazardous Materials - For example, use aqueous and


biodegradable cleaners instead of petroleum-based cleaners, and use non-
chlorinated or water-based paints and coatings.

During the construction phase, builders can further prevent waste through the
following efficient purchasing techniques:

Tight Estimating - Ensure only the correct amount of materials are purchased
and delivered to the site.

Supplier Coordination - Require suppliers to take or buy back substandard or


rejected materials. Solicit their help with substituting materials of lesser

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toxicity and their ideas on reducing job site material spoilage.

Just-in-time Delivery - Coordinate material delivery to coincide with its use in


order to reduce material damage and waste.

Reduce Packaging Waste - Require suppliers to reduce their packaging


materials or provide sturdy, returnable pallets and containers. Require
suppliers to back-haul all shipping and packing materials.

The focus of this Guide is the options for managing C&D wastes that have already
been generated at the job site. Referring again to the Waste Management
Hierarchy, C&D managers can take action to reduce, reuse and recycle wastes
during the planning, design, demolition, and construction phases of a project life.

During the Planning Phase, waste managers should develop a C&D Waste
Management Strategy and establish overall waste diversion goals. During the
Design Phase, designers should specify builders be required to design a Waste
Management Plan for each construction project. Designers should also tailor C&D
waste management model specifications for each project. The details of the
strategy, plan, and model specifications are covered in Chapter 3, Planning to Get
Started.

During the Demolition and Construction Phases, waste managers can use the
following methods for efficiently managing C&D waste:

Explain Established Goals - Ensure strategic and project specific reuse and
recycling goals are clearly explained to the builders and their sub-contractors.

Reduce Job Site Waste - Store and handle materials carefully to prevent
wasteful damage. Centralize material cutting operations to promote reuse of
off-cuts.

Salvage Reusable Materials - Salvage materials for reuse at this or other


project sites, or salvage materials for resale or donation. A few of the C&D
materials that are typically salvaged are shown in Table 3.

Recycle Waste Materials - Waste materials can be sorted for recycling at the
job site for hauling to or pick-up by a material handling facility. They can also
be commingled for delivery to a materials recovery facility where they are
sorted for recycling. As a third option, waste materials can be separated and
picked up for recycling during a specific construction stage. This is called
time-phased recycling. For example, recycling of wood and gypsum
wallboard can be optimized during the framing and sheet-rocking stages of
construction, respectively.

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Table 3. Reusable Building Materials
Appliances Flooring OSB & Plywood
Bathroom Fixtures Insulation Shelving
Bricks Lighting Fixtures Siding
Cabinets Marble Tile
Carpeting Metal Framing Trim
Dimensional Lumber Paneling Windows
Doors Pipes Wood Beams
Ductwork
(Source: Business and Recycling Business Venture and King County Solid Waste
Division, “Contractors’ Guide to Preventing Waste and Recycling,” Jan. 99, p. 5.)

CATEGORIES OF CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION

C&D waste managers must be aware that there are five categories in which
construction and demolition can be accomplished on an installation.

1. In-house, by the Civil Engineer Squadron/Group workforce.

2. In-house, by organizations using the installation Self-Help Store and housing


residents using the U-Fix-It Store.

3. In-house, by Simplified Acquisition of Base Engineering and Repair (SABER)


or Military Family Housing contractors.

4. Externally, by agencies like RED HORSE and National Guard forces.

5. Externally, by outside contractors acquired through the installation contracting


office or other Air Force organizations and tenants like AAFES, DeCA and NAF.

Waste managers only have direct control over construction and demolition
accomplished under category 1. They have indirect control over C&D
accomplished under categories 2, 3, and 4; and they have little to no control over
C&D accomplished under category 5. Therefore, waste managers must recognize
the importance of establishing and widely communicating the installation-
approved C&D Waste Management Strategy. It becomes a team effort to ensure
that builders outside the waste managers’ direct control are aware of the strategy,
are required to use or submit Waste Management Plans, and are required to track
and report on their success with diverting C&D waste.

Possibilities for
Diverting C&D Waste
Efficient C&D waste management hasn't traditionally been a possibility because
of the five previously mentioned barriers. In general, installation personnel have
not been motivated to efficiently manage C&D waste because the evolving
incentives vary greatly across installations, regions, and states.

HQ USAF/ILEV letter, 26 Jan 1999, Subject: Non-hazardous Solid Waste


Diversion Rate Measure of Merit (MoM), however, has pumped new life into

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C&D waste management. The Air Force now has established a policy and a MoM
for diverting non-hazardous solid waste from disposal in landfills and
incinerators. Specifically, the MoM requires that: “By the end of FY 2005, ensure
the diversion rate for non-hazardous waste is greater than 40 percent, while
ensuring integrated non-hazardous solid waste management programs provide an
economic benefit when compared with disposal using landfilling and incineration
alone.”

C&D waste diversion is only a part of the MoM. If the research is accurate and
C&D waste equates to between 25% and 100% of MSW quantities, then reliable
C&D diversion can be achieved. But what impact can successful C&D waste
diversion have on achieving the AF MoM? The impacts of diverting C&D waste
only are shown in Table 4 for a range of C&D waste diversion rates. C&D wastes
have been assumed to equate to 25%, 50%, or 100% of MSW and MoM values
were calculated assuming MSW remained constant and no other waste diversion
occurred.

Table 4. Impact on AF MoM by Possible Non-hazardous C&D


Waste Diversion Percentages

C&D Diversion Impact on


Rate (percent) MoM (percent)
C&D 25% of MSW C&D 50% of MSW C&D 100% of MSW
50 9 14 20
60 11 17 23
70 12 19 26
80 14 21 28
90 15 23 31
(Source: The Author, Jun. 99.)

Opportunities for
C&D Waste Management
While the possibilities for efficient C&D waste management are clear, are the
opportunities achievable? The following seven case studies are summarized to
illustrate the answer is a resounding “yes” across all six construction categories.
The Guide includes additional nineteen case studies in Appendix D. CAVEAT: A
number of the case studies count incineration of waste as a boiler fuel as
recycling. This type of incineration does not count as recycling in calculating the
AF MoM.

CASE STUDY #1 - RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION


A private sector contractor constructed a new 2,800 square feet home for
$275,000 in southwest Portland, Oregon. The client specifically requested
construction waste be recycled and a waste audit was performed to precisely track
waste quantities and their disposition.

The contractor successfully recycled 6.4 tons of material and disposed only 0.5
tons of mixed waste. Drywall scraps were recycled into new gypsum wall board;
solid and composite wood scraps were recycled into boiler fuel and building
materials; cardboard was recycled into new cardboard; and concrete was used as

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clean fill. Following is the breakout by characteristics and quantity of recycled
waste:

• Wood 6,945 pounds


• Drywall 3,806 pounds
• Concrete 1,698 pounds
• Cardboard 280 pounds
• Metal 138 pounds

The cost to recycle, including additional labor for job-site separation and self-
hauling was $600. The budgeted cost for waste hauling and landfill tipping fees
was $1,000. Recycling saved the client $400.

Results: 93% waste diversion rate and $400 in recycling savings.

CASE STUDY #2 - RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION


A private-sector contractor constructed two 1,290 square feet homes for a total of
$233,800 in the Tigard area subdivision of Portland, Oregon. A specialty
contractor was hired to recycle construction waste. The contractor’s crews saved
labor time because the specialty contractor did not require diverted materials to be
separated on-site.

The contractor recycled a total of 8.7 tons of materials. Only 0.9 tons of
construction waste required landfilling. Solid and composite wood scraps were
recycled into boiler fuel; drywall scraps were recycled into new gypsum
wallboard; and cardboard was used in manufacturing new cardboard. Below is the
breakout of recycled materials:

• Wood 14,400 pounds


• Drywall 2,660 pounds
• Cardboard 260 pounds

The total cost to recycle for both houses was $710, compared to standard hauling
and disposal cost estimates of $1,403.

Results: 92% waste diversion rate and $693 in recycling savings.

A comparison between Case Study #1 and #2 may be worthwhile to assess the


potential advantages of using a recycling specialty contractor for new residential
construction. Appropriate data has been normalized in the figures below to
account for the difference in home square footages.

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Table 5. Comparison of Key Project Factors
When Using and Not Using Specialty Contractors

Project Factors No Specialty Contractor Specialty Contractor


Construction Time 70 days 270 days
Recycling Savings $400 $752
Tons Diverted 6.4 tons 9.4 tons
Diversions Rate 92% 93%
(Source: Palermini & Associates, “Construction Industry Recycling Project,”
Metro, Jul. 93, p. 6; Metro, Job Site Recycling Fact Sheets “Two Tract Homes
Save $316 and $377”, Metro, undated and no page numbers; and the Author.)

It appears from this example C&D waste managers would benefit from using a
recycling specialty contractor for constructing new residential housing. The
specialty contractor diverted 47% more construction waste by weight and
increased savings from recycling by 88%. The diversion rate was approximately
the same under both options. The substantial difference in construction time is
misleading and should not necessarily be considered justification for not using a
specialty contractor. The shorter time can be explained for Case Study #1 because
the construction contractor had previous experience in building this tract housing.
The contractor in Case Study #2 was building two custom homes incorporating
several unique environmental measures beyond construction waste recycling.

CASE STUDY #3 - RESIDENTIAL RENOVATIONS


This case study is of particular interest because the scope of work is very similar
to that of military family housing. Portland, Oregon’s Metro Regional Services,
Regional Environmental Management Department, contracted with a private-
sector firm and several participating contractors for a residential remodeling waste
reduction demonstration project. The purpose of the project was to develop,
document, and teach cost effective waste diversion techniques for residential
renovation projects. Metro selected the following three renovation projects:

Project & Type Budget Square Footage


A Kitchen $24,200 275
B Family Room & $80,500 550
Kitchen/Outdoor
Deck
C Bathrooms $9,800 90

The primary contractor audited the weight and type of wastes generated during
each project. The auditor also identified waste that could be diverted and then
recorded their ultimate disposition. The remodeling contractors estimated the cost
of their standard C&D waste management practices and these costs were
compared to their costs for separation and diversion. Metro defined diversion as
source separation, salvage and reuse, and recycling. None of the remodeling
contractors used any sustainable design techniques to further prevent C&D waste.

Each client and remodeling contractor volunteered to participate in this


demonstration project. The remodeling contractors for Projects A and C had

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already implemented source separation and diversion techniques into their job
practice and trained their crews. The remodeler for Project B had no experience
beyond some occasional salvaging but was interested in learning about job-site
waste diversion.

The contractor for Project A remodeled the 275 square-foot kitchen in a 1940’s
vintage home in suburban Portland. The kitchen square footage remained the
same and the existing built-in cupboard and most cabinet frames remained. The
contractor removed island cabinets, floor-to-ceiling cabinets with built-in oven,
wall and floor coverings, trim, one window, sink, light fixtures, some soffits and
lath and plaster finish, and appliances. New project items included wood flooring,
drywall, cabinet doors and drawers, sink, garden window, island, appliances,
recessed ceiling lights, built-in storage shelves, and a total repainting.

The contractor for Project B altered and added a 550 square-foot kitchen and
family room area in a 10-year old home also located in suburban Portland. The
remodeler completely gutted the existing kitchen and an exterior wall to make
room for the addition. The project also included replacement of a 250 square-foot
exterior deck. New items included additional floor area and walls, windows and
doors, floor coverings, cabinets and countertops, sink, large island, appliances,
built-in storage shelves, and a total repainting. The contractor purchased very high
quality appliances, fixtures, and materials.

The contractor for Project C remodeled two bathrooms totaling 90 square feet in a
1950’s ranch-style home. The remodeler removed the shower stall, vanity with
sink, and toilet in one bathroom and replaced a window with a skylight in the
second. The shower had leaked and caused extensive dry rot on the supporting
frame so most of these materials were not recycled.

The table on the next page summarizes the waste audit weight in pounds for this
demonstration project:

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Table 6. Comparison of Waste Management Audit Results for
Residential Renovation Projects (pounds)

Project A Project B Project C


Total Waste 1,588 10,382 2,313
Disposed Waste 400 1,170 890
Diverted Waste 1,188 9,212 1,423
Diverted Topsoil NA 20,000 NA
Diversion Rate 75% 89% 62%
Salvaged & Reused 585 2,628 85
Contractor Sales 380 2,628 85
Owner Sales 205
Recycled 549 6,584 1,338
Wood Sub-total 215 3,827 311
Cardboard 55
Carpet 40
Ceramic Tile 15 80
Concrete 2,100 762
Gypsum 201 582 185
Ferrous Metals 40
Non-ferrous Metals 38
Plastic Sheeting 10
Prunings 10
(Source: O’Brien & Associates and Palermini & Associates, “Residential
Remodeling Waste Reduction Demonstration Project,” Metro, Jun. 93, p. 8-9, 13-
14, and17-18.)

The results of the demonstration project show the economic viability of diverting
rather than landfilling C&D waste. The contractors for each renovation project
were able to pay for added labor hours for source separation, for the auditors’
labor, and for additional fees for multiple diversion sites and still save money.

Table 7. Comparison of Savings for Residential Renovation Projects

Project A Project B Project C


Budgeted Disposal Costs $390 $1,300 $95
Estimated Diversion Costs $305 $1,100 $100
Estimated Recycling Revenues $300 $1,220 $44e
Diversion Savings $385 $1,420 $39e
(Source: O’brien & Associates and Palermini & Associates, “Residential
Remodeling Waste Reduction Demonstration Project,” Metro, Jun. 93, p. 3, 10,
and 12; and the Author.)

NOTE: The author estimated (e) the recycling revenues and diversion savings for
Project C by extrapolating the figures from the audit results in the table above.

The following key findings also resulted from this demonstration project:
• Labor costs required to remove and separate salvageable items were
comparable to costs of standard demolition practices.

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• High-quality salvageable materials can easily be reused or resold.
• Lower-value salvageable materials can also be resold in time. But non-profit
recycling contractors were unable to meet remodeling contractor’s demand for
prompt pickup. This is the most significant barrier.
• Motivated contractors and crews that understand diversion goals and have a
positive attitude are successful because they create ways to overcome barriers
and work efficiently.
• Clients who desire a clean site and do not recognize the value of perceived
waste can be a significant barrier to diversion.
• The added costs of labor and hauling to multiple diversion sites are the
greatest barriers to successful diversion.

CASE STUDY #4 - JOINT CIVILIAN AND MILITARY NON-RESIDENTIAL


DECONSTRUCTION
Several non-profit civilian organizations teamed with the commander of Naval
Air Station Alameda (NAS) in California to research the use of deconstruction
methods for appropriate buildings on closing military installations. These non-
profit organizations included:
• Materials for the Future Foundation
• The East Bay Conversion and Reinvestment Commission (EBCRC)
• Center for Economic Conversion
• National Economic Development and Law Center

This research became known as the NAS Deconstruction Demonstration Project.


All involved organizations sought an assessment of the opportunities for and
obstacles to planning and implementing deconstruction as an option for solid
waste managers. It was hoped that a model could be created for financing,
contracting, and implementing deconstruction on closing military installations.

The Office of Economic Development provided initial project funding through the
EBCRC. Region 9 of the Environmental Protection Agency provided subsequent
funding once the initial source was expended. The team explored obtaining
project funds from the military operations and maintenance account but found
deconstruction couldn’t compete for this highly constrained resource. They also
explored using what the Navy calls “lay-away funds,” but could not implement
the test in time to capitalize on this funding source. Lay-away funds are those
budgeted for placing a building into an unused state, where operations and
maintenance costs are minimized.

The NAS Deconstruction Demonstration Project had three components. First,


there was a Study for Building Deconstruction. The study included the following:

• A building survey, including building and environmental information and a


salvage value rating created using a spreadsheet.
• A recommendation of building candidates for deconstruction.
• A sample Request for Proposals for deconstruction.
• A comparison of deconstruction and demolition cost estimates for candidate
buildings.

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The second component of the project was the actual deconstruction activity at
Alameda NAS. The team selected two buildings with a total area of 2400 square-
foot. One was a redwood timber frame structure and the other was an engineered
metal frame building. The third component was a strategy for financing and
implementing deconstruction station-wide at Alameda. This was later modified
into a broader report titled, “Building Deconstruction on Closing Military Bases,”
prepared by the EBCRC and the other members of the team.

The team selected a non-profit contractor to perform the deconstruction. This


contractor was Building Opportunities for Self-Sufficiency (BOSS) Enterprises,
Inc., a local property investment services company. The deconstruction crew
included five people: a supervisor, a journey-level lead, an assistant, and two
laborers. The laborers were participants in the BOSS employment training
program. The crew disassembled the buildings, removed nails from lumber, sorted
waste, and stacked all recovered material in about eight crew days or 279 total
hours.

The BOSS crew recovered 10,850 pounds of usable material and sent only 1,100
pounds of debris to the landfill. This was a project diversion rate of nearly 91%.
There were no figures available on revenues earned for the recycled and reused
metals and wood. During project planning, the team estimated the cost of
demolition at $8,506. The cost of deconstruction was estimated higher at $14,404,
but all labor costs were avoided by using the BOSS crew. Therefore, the team
safely stated that deconstruction was an economically sound decision over
conventional demolition.

The EBCRC report included the results of deconstruction projects at two other
Bay Area installations. These projects were also used in defining the lessons
learned outlined below. The first project was a 9,180 square-foot building at the
Presidio and the second was a 120,000 square-foot warehouse at the Port of
Oakland. Both buildings were wood construction. The following tables compare
deconstruction versus demolition:

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Table 8. Comparison Between Deconstruction and Demolition

Deconstruction Demolition
Presidio Building #901
Activity Time 690 hours 80 hours
Deconstruction Expenses $53,000 0
Revenue from Sales $43,000 0
Total Cost $9,340 $16,800
Diversion Rate 87% 93%

Port of Oakland, Building #733 (see note)


Activity Time 12,010 hours 160 hours
Deconstruction Expenses $330,000 $268,800e
Revenue from Sales $180,000e 0
Total Cost $150,000 $268,800e
Diversion Rate Unknown Unknown

(Source: The East Bay Conversion and Reinvestment Commission, “Building


Deconstruction on Closing Military Bases,” Dec. 1997, p. 7-8 and the Author.)

NOTE: This project was not complete when the study was published, so some
data were unknown or estimated (e) by extrapolation.

The team captured the following valuable lessons for consideration of


deconstruction for additional buildings at Alameda NAS and other closing bases:
• Deconstruction conserves resources by:
• Reducing debris going to landfills.
• Conserving resources through recycling and reuse.
• Reducing greenhouse gases through forest preservation.
• Deconstruction can be economical.
• Deconstruction provides opportunities for small business or job development
programs.
• Deconstruction provides training opportunities for work readiness and basic
construction skills.
• Military funding for deconstruction is unlikely considering environmental
clean-up requirements and limited resources.
• Deconstruction is easiest to implement before building ownership is
transferred.
• Deconstruction licensing agreements are needed in property leases with local
redevelopment authorities (LRA).
• Decisions on deconstruction are best made by all interested parties after LRA
selection and property transfer from installations to command authorities.

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CASE STUDY #5 - NON-RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION
A contractor constructed a 41,850 square-foot correctional facility for $8.9 million
in northeast Portland, Oregon. The county was proactive in getting a contractor
who was experienced in job-site material reuse and recycling.

The contractor diverted 413 tons of construction waste as follows:


• Concrete 378 tons
• Wood 18 tons
• Cardboard 17 tons

The concrete was used as clean fill for roads and other projects. Useable lumber
and metal building components were salvaged and used for the second phase of
the project. Wood debris was recycled by a material recovery facility for boiler
fuel or the manufacture of composite particle board. Drywall scraps and cardboard
from material packaging were recycled locally. Traditional disposal costs were
estimated at $2,455 while actual costs to recycle were $220 (estimated savings do
not include the reuse of wood and metal components or recycled drywall).

Results: 89% diversion rate and $2,235 in recycling savings.

CASE STUDY #6 - NON-RESIDENTIAL CARPET RENOVATIONS


A carpeting subcontractor replaced 9,000 square feet of carpet tiles in an Auburn,
Washington office building. The tiles were five years old but had useful life
remaining. Because they had been installed with tape rather than glue, the tiles
were easily removed without damage and all 27 tons were sold for reuse.

Results: 98% Reuse rate and $2,187 in project savings.

The same subcontractor replaced 3,000 square feet of carpet and padding in a
Federal Way, Washington office building. The carpet and padding were six years
old. Usable portions were sold for reuse and unusable carpet padding was recycled
through a local material recycling facility. A total of 4.6 tons of carpet and
padding were diverted from the landfill.

Results: 75% Reuse rate and $378 in project savings.

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CASE STUDY #7 – NON-RESIDENTIAL DEMOLITION
A commercial demolition contractor removed a 44,000 square-foot department
store in northeast Portland, Oregon. The owner decided to require recycling after
receiving a bid with traditional waste disposal. The contractor crushed all concrete
structural members on site; removed and separated most reinforcement bars; and
ground the clean concrete into gravel used for the base of new site construction.
Reinforcing bars and other metals were recycled and the remaining concrete and
steel rubble was hauled off-site for use as clean fill. The contractor also separated
wood on-site and had it recycled as boiler fuel and recycle-content particle board.
The total materials recycled were:

• Concrete 3,267 tons


• Wood 42 tons
• Metals 323 tons
• Glass 2 tons

Results: 99.5% waste diversion rate and $235,941 in recycling savings.

The Challenge Installations should develop and implement a C&D waste diversion strategy if
they do not already meet the Air Force Measure of Merit for Non-Hazardous
Solid Waste Diversion Rate. This management guide provides readers with the
background knowledge, tools, resources, and steps for taking immediate action.
But don’t bite off more than you can chew. Select a local construction or
demolition project on which you can run a pilot of your strategy. Follow the steps
outlined in subsequent sections and determine what will work at your installation
and what local factors will impact your waste management plans.

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Chapter 3 Planning to Get Started

C&D waste management teams must complete a significant amount of


research and planning before they can develop an overall C&D waste
strategy. This critical research and planning phase lays the foundation for
preparation of subsequent waste management plans. Your success in
implementing plans and diverting C&D waste will depend largely on your
completing the steps outlined in this section.

Planning Step 1 IDENTIFY CONTRACTORS, MARKETS AND FACILITIES, MATERIAL


EXCHANGES, AND PARTNERING ORGANIZATIONS

First, installations must know exactly what can be accomplished locally and
regionally in the areas of sustainable building design, recycling, and reuse. It
is important to determine what the capabilities and interests of contractors
are, because contractors accomplish most construction and demolition at
installations. Most contractors have some experience in salvage and reuse.
But this step involves determining exactly who has or is willing to fully
implement an installation's diversion strategy.

There are several sources and methods for obtaining these data:

• Get a list of the most frequently used design, build, and demolition
contractors from the installation engineering and contracting offices.
Contact each contractor and ask whether they are experienced in
sustainable building design, job-site waste diversion, and deconstruction
techniques. If they indicate they have little or no experience in these
areas, then ask whether they would be interested in employing these
techniques on future installation test projects.
• Contact the local chapters of the Associated General Contractors,
National Society of Professional Engineers, and American Institute of
Architects. Ask for their help with identifying design firms and building
and demolition contractors with experience and interest in C&D waste
management.
• Place a solicitation in the Commerce Business Daily asking for the data
outlined above. The solicitation should be clear that it is not a guarantee
for specific work, but only a request for information to be used for
soliciting and awarding future contracts.

Enter these data on C&D Waste Management Planning Spreadsheet A, Parts


1 and 2, in Appendix E and ensure the information is reviewed and updated
periodically, but at least annually.

Second, C&D waste managers need to identify the local and regional
salvage, reuse, and recycling markets and material handling contractors and

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facilities. The identification of markets, contractors, and facilities is
absolutely critical to successfully manage waste diversion. Without this
information, waste managers and implementing team members may spend a
great deal of unproductive time asking for what can't be accomplished. For
example, it would make no sense to implement a strategy which requires a
contractor to separate and recycle gypsum wallboard if there is no supporting
market or handling facility.

There are several sources and methods for obtaining these data:

• Contact the local or regional Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office


(DRMO) and ask for their local or regional listing of salvage, reuse and
recycling contractors and material handling facilities.
• Search the local yellow pages for the same information under
“recycling,” “demolition,” “waste,” “salvage,” and “contractors.” A look
in a local metropolitan area yellow pages by the author identified ads for
30 salvage and demolition contractors and 21 recycling centers.
• Contact the pollution prevention office at your installation. Installations
are already required to have a qualified recycling program. Those with
viable programs should have knowledge of existing markets and a listing
of recycling contractors and material handling facilities.
• Contact the pollution prevention office at your command headquarters.
Command pollution prevention offices have often formed partnerships
with their state counterparts and may have access to much of the
research required here.

Enter these data on C&D Waste Management Planning Spreadsheet A, Part


3 in Appendix E and ensure the information is reviewed and updated
periodically, but at least annually. Contact each contractor and facility listed
and ask for the following information:

• A list of specific items or materials accepted for reuse and recycling,


including the current market value of recycled materials.
• A list of any special conditions applying to reused or recycled items and
materials. For example, dimensional lumber is definitely a reusable
resource, easily separated and stored at the job-site. But it may not be
accepted by a material handling facility if the nails are not removed or it
is wet because it was unprotected during storage. Waste managers must
clearly understand the specific conditions under which contractors and
facilities will accept or reject materials for reuse or recycling.
• A list of specific items or materials NOT accepted for reuse and
recycling.
• Whether material pick-up and the cost for pick-up are provided, or
whether self-hauling is required.
• Whether material handling facilities require reuse and recycling fees and
if yes, the amount of those fees.

Enter the detailed lists of items for reuse, materials for recycling, and any
special conditions on C&D Waste Management Planning Spreadsheet A in
Appendix E.

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Third, project designers, planners, and managers of in-house work forces
must identify local or regional material exchanges. Material exchanges
complete the diversion loop by offering reused and recycled materials for
construction. Installation designers can specify procurement of reused and
recycled construction materials from exchanges and installations and
contractors can procure diverted materials from exchanges. Several
examples follow:

• Habitat for Humanity operates over 40 "Restores" across North America.


Restores are focused on selling used building and household materials.
Contact your local Habitat for Humanity office for information on using
the nearest Restore.
• The Recycler’s Exchange is a world wide trading site for used building
materials that also provides global access to recycling markets. See
Appendix F for a description for accessing and using their web site.
• The Salvaged Building Materials Exchange is another international
trading site for diverted building materials. See Appendix F for a
description for accessing and using their web site.
• The Reusable Building Materials Exchange is a State of Washington
exchange for buying or listing small and large quantities of used or
surplus building materials. See Appendix F for a description for
accessing and using their web site.

Project designers, in-house work force managers, and waste managers, with
assistance from their command and state counterparts, should spend some
time exploring the Internet for other exchanges. Waste managers can also
use exchanges for help in defining the reuse and recycling markets, since
some receive, as well as sell, diverted C&D waste. Enter the names,
descriptions, and web sites of useful material exchanges on C&D Waste
Management Planning Spreadsheet A, Part 4, in Appendix E.

Finally, waste managers must provide persistent direction and seek effective
cooperation as well as financial and labor assistance through available
partnerships in order to successfully implement their C&D waste
management strategy and plans. Here are several examples of opportunities
worth pursuing:

• There are non-profit organizations like California's property investment


services company, Building Opportunities for Self-Sufficiency (BOSS)
Enterprises, Inc., that can be sources of free or non-Davis-Bacon wage
labor for installation pilot projects.
• Oregon's Metro Regional Environmental Management Department and
California's Materials for the Future Foundation have participated in
demonstration projects (see Case Study #3 in Chapter 2).
• Organizations like California's East Bay Conversion and Reinvestment
Commission, the Office of Economic Development, and the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have also participated in
funding waste diversion pilot projects (see Case Study #4 in Chapter 2).
• Some installations have prison work programs that could be a labor
resource.

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Waste managers should pursue forming partnerships with federal, state,
local, or privately operated job-training programs for possible labor
resources. They should contact their command counterparts and identify
agencies like the EPA and organizations like the EBCRC. Waste managers
should be aware that, while not necessarily a reliable financial resource,
financial assistance may become available as a result of these partnerships.
Finally, they should identify, with help from their command and state
counterparts, other organizations like Metro that could be available to assist
installations with implementing C&D waste strategy and plans. Enter the
names, descriptions, and demographic data on C&D Waste Management
Planning Spreadsheet A, Part 5, in Appendix E.

Planning Step 2 IDENTIFY EXISTING LOCAL RESOURCES AND DETERMINE WHAT THEY
BRING TO THE C&D W ASTE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGE

The next important planning step involves two parts. First, waste managers
must obtain copies of the existing plans and programs that impact the safe
and efficient management of C&D waste. At a minimum, each installation
should have the following plans and programs available:

• Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan (ISWMP) – This plan may


also be called the Solid Waste Management Plan or have other
names. The purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for managing
solid waste on an installation and identifying opportunities for
reducing the amount of waste generated and disposed. Contents of
plans vary, but they generally contain an inventory and analysis of
solid waste disposal technologies and methods; an inventory of solid
waste streams and management methods; an analysis of solid waste
recovery, conservation and recycling; an evaluation of installation
disposal operations; and guidance on implementing the plan. Waste
managers can review the plan quickly and get a general picture of
how C&D waste is currently being managed and what the essential
tools and opportunities are for improving management.
• Qualified Recycling Program (QRP) – The plan covering the QRP
may be called the Recycling Management Plan or have other names.
The purpose of this plan is to identify organizations covered by the
plan, establish recycling responsibilities and procedures for those
organizations, and set installation recycling goals. Waste managers
can determine from a review of this plan exactly what current
recycling markets are being used and how the installation is doing in
those markets.
• Asbestos Management Plan (AMP) – The purpose of this plan is to
protect installation workers and residents from exposure to airborne
asbestos fibers and help installations comply with AF, federal, state,
and local guidelines on safely managing asbestos. The AMP
designates key management roles and assigns responsibilities. It also
outlines notification, equipment, training, personal protection, and
medical surveillance and evaluation requirements for inspection and
repair teams. The Asbestos Operating Plan (AOP) is a supplement to
the AMP and it details the requirements and procedures for

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managing asbestos at the project level. Information on the presence,
location, quantity, and condition of asbestos on the installation is
contained in supporting databases. While these data are not always
comprehensive, they provide waste managers with a valuable
resource for ensuring asbestos is properly handled during C&D
projects.
• Lead-based Paint Management Plan (LBPMP) - The purpose of this
plan is to protect installation workers and residents from exposure to
LBP and help installations comply with AF, federal, state, and local
guidelines on safely managing LBP. The LBPMP designates key
management roles and assigns responsibilities. It also outlines
notification, equipment, training, personal protection, and medical
surveillance and evaluation requirements for inspection and repair
teams. The LBP Operations Plan (LBPOP) is a supplement to the
LBPMP and it details requirements and procedures for managing
LBP at the project level. Information on the presence, location,
quantity, and condition of LBP on the installation is contained in
supporting databases. While these data are not always
comprehensive, they provide waste managers with a valuable
resource for ensuring LBP is properly handled during C&D projects.
• Polychlorinated Biphenyls Management Plan (PCBMP) - The
content, supplemental plan, and databases of this plan are similar to
those outlined for asbestos and LBP. While the AF no longer
requires this plan, it may still exist in installation files and may be of
value to waste managers planning for a C&D project in a building
with questionable PCB status.
• Environmental Impact Analysis Process (EIAP) Documents - These
documents include Environmental Impact Statements and
Environmental Assessments. Both contain chapters identifying the
affected environment on installations. The details in these chapters
can often provide important data on the miscellaneous hazardous
materials buildings may contain.
• Installation Restoration Program (IRP) - Histories of installation
buildings and sites were completed as part of the IRP. These
histories can often provide detailed information about past
operations in and around buildings. From this information, waste
managers can determine what miscellaneous hazardous materials the
buildings or sites may contain.

Second, waste managers should establish two waste management teams. As


an alternative, installations may use existing organizational groups, like the
Environmental Protection Committee or the Environmental Safety and
Occupational Health Committee and their respective subcommittees or
working groups. The intent is not to create more bureaucracy, but rather to
clearly assign responsibility and accountability for C&D waste management.

The first team is the “Steering Group for C&D Waste Management.”
Installation middle managers with the following oversight responsibilities
should be on this team:

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• Procurement of materials.
• Designing C&D projects.
• Conducting in-house or contract C&D projects.
• Contracting for C&D project design or execution.
• Protecting human health and the environment.
• Complying with environmental laws, rules, and regulations.
• Disposing of C&D waste.

This team should meet at least annually and use the data gathered in
Planning Steps 1 and 3 for establishing and getting Wing Commander
approval of the installation C&D waste management strategy. Key team
members include:

• Commander, Civil Engineer Squadron/Group.


• Chief, Environmental Flight/Squadron.
• Chief, Engineering Flight/Squadron.
• Chief, Operations Flight/Squadron.
• Commander, Contracting Squadron/Group.
• Commander, Supply Squadron/Group.
• Bioenvironmental Engineer, Aeromedical-Dental Squadron.
• Environmental Lawyer, Judge Advocate General.

The second team is called the “C&D Waste Management Execution Team.”
The composition of this team varies widely depending on the size of the
C&D project generating waste, how it is being accomplished, and what other
organizations are involved. For example, if the project is accomplished
through the installation's self-help store, representatives from the store and
the requesting customer could form the team. The store representative
provides the customer with the installation strategy and the generic C&D
waste management plan for self-help projects. The customer is responsible
for following the plan and providing documentation for the files. The team
members are those who are directly involved with the project and can
collectively influence all aspects of C&D waste management. For larger
projects key team members may include (recommended core members are
indicated by an asterisk*):

• Waste manager*- This is the person responsible for the safe and efficient
management of an installation’s solid waste and is normally a member
of the Environmental Flight Staff.
• Project manager*- This could be a CE shop superintendent, self-help
store manager, installation project engineer or representative of a
contract construction agent like the Corps of Engineers.
• Project designer*- This could be a planner from the CE Operations
Flight or self-help store; a design engineer/architect from the
Engineering Flight, the construction agent or a contractor; or a designer
from other agencies like the tenants, Air National Guard or Defense
Commissary Agency.
• Project inspector*- This could be an in-house inspector, a contractor’s
internal inspector, or both.

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• Contracting representative*- This would be the specific Contracting
Officer from the installation Contracting Squadron.
• Client or customer representative - This is a representative of the
organization requesting or responsible for the project.
• Contractor representative* - This is the person responsible for C&D
waste management.
• Representative(s) from local, regional or state organizations, like Habitat
for Humanity or the National Association of Homebuilders Research
Center, who have an involved interest in the safe and efficient
management of an installation's C&D waste.
• Representative(s) from local or regional reuse and recycling facilities.
• Representative with compliance background from the Environmental
Flight.
• Representative from Bioenvironmental Engineering.
• Representative from the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office.

Waste managers who complete Planning Steps 1 and 2 have a clear picture
of the sustainable design and waste diversion opportunities for their
installation and the team memberships and responsibilities needed for the
process. They must next obtain a general understanding of the compliance
requirements and best management practices associated with managing
C&D waste containing regulated material.

Planning Step 3 IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE REQUIREMENTS & BEST C&D


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR ELIMINATING, MITIGATING, OR
COMPLYING WITH THE REQUIREMENTS

C&D waste managers have very focused environmental concerns generally


involving the following hazardous materials and equipment components:

• Asbestos Containing Building Materials (ACBMs).


• Lead-based Paint (LBP).
• Poly-chlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).
• Batteries containing lead and cadmium.
• Mercury.
• Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
• Treated Wood.
• Miscellaneous (e.g., fluorescent lights, thermostats).

Waste managers need to be generally aware of the hazardous materials and


equipment components used on the job site, the environmental impacts of
those components, the compliance requirements, and best management
practices for dealing with hazardous materials and waste. It is not the
purpose of this Guide to make readers fully knowledgeable experts on
hazardous materials and environmental compliance law. Waste managers
must always rely on the expertise of the installation's environmental, bio-
environmental engineering, and judge advocate offices. But the Guide will
provide a description of the primary hazardous components, what amounts
trigger compliance with federal laws, and what can be done about preventing
or reducing compliance requirements.

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Asbestos Containing Building Materials (ACBM)

Description - Asbestos is the general name for a group of minerals including


anthophyllite, amosite, chrysotile, crocidolite, and tremolite. These minerals
occur naturally and are unique because they are comprised of crystals shaped
into long fibers. Asbestos minerals can survive fire and insulate against heat
because of this distinctive structural shape.

Asbestos is contained in over 3,600 commercial and industrial products


because it is plentiful, inexpensive, non-flammable, strong yet flexible, a
good thermal and sound insulator, and resistant to chemical corrosion.
Chrysotile is the most common asbestos mineral found and it is used in the
majority of U.S. asbestos products and applications. Asbestos is extremely
versatile and this is clearly depicted by the myriad of potential ACBMs
listed in Table G. The most familiar ACBMs are boiler, duct and pipe
insulation; sound proofing and acoustical treatment; floor tiles; floor and
wall coverings; roofing felt and shingles; wall board; siding; adhesives; and
a variety of building supplies including: caulking, putties, taping
compounds, and spackling compounds.

For regulatory purposes, ACBM and presumed ACBM (PACBM) are


classified as either friable or non-friable. Friable generally means asbestos
fibers may become airborne, whereas non-friable means asbestos fibers
remain captured within a material. Non-friable asbestos is further divided
into Category I (packings, gaskets, resilient flooring, and asphalt roofing)
and Category II (any non-friable ACBM not included in Category I).

Impacts – Many people exposed to friable asbestos have contracted a lung-


scarring disease called asbestosis and several other forms of cancer.
Epidemiological studies conducted in the 1960s and early 1970s confirmed
the connection between long-term exposure to asbestos fibers and disease.
These diseases are particularly alarming to the public because they often do
not occur until 20-30 years after the exposure. ACBMs can become friable
during renovation, demolition, and deconstruction activities when ACBM
waste is generated.

Compliance Requirements - A number of federal, state and local laws,


regulations, rules and Air Force policies govern asbestos work, work force
practices, certification, training, reporting, and disposal. The environmental,
bioenvironmental engineering, and judge advocate offices each have a role
in ensuring construction and demolition activities satisfy all compliance
requirements. Waste managers must coordinate with and accept their part of
the overall responsibility for compliance.

Waste managers need to understand that regulated ACBM covers the


following four groups:

1. Friable ACBM.
2. Category I ACBM that has become friable due to destructive handling.
3. Category II ACBM that has been or will become friable due to sanding,
grinding, cutting, or abrading.

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4. Category II ACBM that has a high probability of becoming or has
become crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by demolition or
renovation processes.

Builders encounter asbestos under numerous work conditions. Their asbestos


work practices and engineering control requirements are regulated under the
following classes of work:

• Class I means the removal of thermal system insulation (TSI) and


sprayed-on, troweled-on, or otherwise applied surfacing of ACBM and
PACBM.
• Class II means the removal of any ACBM not covered in Class I.
Examples include the removal of asbestos-containing wallboard, floor
tile and siding shingles.
• Class III means repair and maintenance activities that will disturb
ACBM, including those defined as Class I. Examples include the repair
of small amounts of pipe insulation disturbed while repairing a leaking
valve, removal of small amounts of asbestos-containing wall board to
repair electrical wiring, and removal of presumed asbestos-containing
window glazing during window repairs.
• Class IV means maintenance and custodial work where employees are in
contact with ACBM and PACBM but do not disturb it. Examples
include sweeping, dusting, or vacuuming floors in areas where ACBM
or PACBM are present.

The waste management team must ensure the following compliance


requirements are met:

• Inspect the facility to be renovated or demolished for friable and non-


friable asbestos.
• Notify the local pollution control agency if threshold amounts will be
disturbed.
• Protect employees who may be exposed to asbestos during removal and
handling operations.
• Remove regulated ACBM from the facility to be renovated or
demolished.
• Handle PACBM resulting from renovation and demolition work as
asbestos-containing waste.
• Wet and bag asbestos-containing waste for disposal.
• Transport asbestos-containing waste in covered vehicles that also
prevent visible emissions to outside air.
• Deposit asbestos-containing waste only at acceptable waste disposal
sites.

But what triggers ACBM compliance requirements? The EPA has


established the following threshold amounts for regulated ACBM:

• At least 80 linear meters or 260 linear feet on piping .


• At least 15 square meters or 160 square feet on other facility
components.

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• At least 1 cubic meter or 35 cubic feet of facility components where the
amount of regulated ACBM was previously removed but could not be
measured before removal.

Best Management Practices - The following practices by waste management


teams are recommended to ensure the safe and efficient handling of
regulated ACBM:

1. Review the installation Asbestos Management Plan and Asbestos


Operating Plan prior to project design and facility inspection.
2. Inspect the facility to verify the status and condition of all ACBM and
identify new or suspected ACBM.
3. Arrange for testing of suspected ACBM and update plans accordingly.
4. Notify the local pollution control agency of the project.
5. Design the project to:
• Remove all regulated ACBM required to conduct the work.
• Cover compliance requirements in the specifications.
• Require an asbestos compliance plan.
6. Track asbestos compliance milestones by inspection and periodic status
meetings.

Lead and Lead Based Paint (LBP)

Description - Lead is a naturally occurring metal with important physical and


functional properties of low melting point, electrical conductivity, durability,
and malleability. These properties have made it a common constituent of
modern products and applications. Its most frequent construction uses are
found in batteries, roofing, flashing, piping, and paint.

Various lead chemical compounds have been and are used to provide
pigment for paint. These compounds also have a chemical affinity for paint
that reinforces the paint film making it tough yet flexible and usually
resistant to becoming brittle. LBPs are oil-based paints used in industrial
facilities on steel structures like water towers, pipelines, etc. and in airfield
and roadway pavement markings. LBPs have excellent stain resistant and
anti-corrosion properties and are resistant to ultraviolet light. They were
primarily applied in kitchens and bathrooms and on interior and exterior
wood trim and siding.

Impacts - Exposure to lead from abraded paint, lead-contaminated soil and


dust, and drinking water can result in lead poisoning and this sometimes has
serious consequences. Adults are exposed to lead through facility
maintenance, renovation and demolition work, abatement work, and
corrosion control of items previously coated with LBP. The people most
likely to be exposed are inspectors, painters, personnel who clean in areas
that may contain lead-contaminated dust, and operators of abrasive blasters.
People who work unprotected in lead-related areas can transmit the lead on
clothing and expose others. Additionally, abatement of LBP in renovation
and demolition projects can produce large quantities of potentially hazardous

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lead-contaminated waste. This waste can leach into potable water tables if
improperly disposed.

Compliance Requirements - A number of federal, state, and local laws,


regulations, rules, and Air Force policies govern LBP. They cover
inspections, disclosure, certification, training, work practice standards,
reporting, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal. Most of these
compliance requirements address the issue of protecting people on
installations from the health risks associated with lead in their living and
working environments. These compliance requirements are not a part of this
Guide.

This Guide covers the much smaller number of compliance requirements


dealing with the management of lead-containing waste on construction and
demolition sites. The environmental, bioenvironmental engineering, and
judge advocate offices each have a role in ensuring construction and
demolition activities satisfy all compliance requirements. Waste managers
must coordinate with these offices and accept their part of the overall
responsibility for compliance.

The rules for storing, handling, keeping records on, and disposing of LBP
debris may be changing should rule changes proposed in December 1998
become effective. Under current rules, the disposal of LBP debris, from
buildings that have not otherwise been exempted, is based on a hazardous
waste determination by the generator or by sampling and testing. If LBP
debris is determined to be hazardous (equaling or exceeding 5 mg/liter lead
according to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), then the waste
is strictly managed from identification to disposal. Should the proposed
changes to rules become effective, C&D waste containing LBP debris or
LBP architectural components (LBPAC) may be disposed as non-hazardous
waste in a C&D waste landfill. LBPAC have lead paint or coatings equaling
or exceeding 1.0 mg/cm2 or 0.5% by weight. Note: In many states, family
housing is exempt from the disposal rules. Always check with the
environmental, bioenvironmental engineering, and judge advocate offices for
current exemptions and compliance requirements.

C&D waste managers may encounter LBP debris or LBPAC during


abatement, renovations, and demolition projects. LBP waste materials
generated during abatement do not fall under the new rules and must comply
with other environmental regulations. The material remaining after an
abatement project may be disposed of in MSW landfills if lead levels are less
than 1 mg/cm2.

The decision to select an alternative to manage LBP debris and LBPAC


generated during renovation and demolition is typically an economic one.
LBP debris can be removed from the larger uncontaminated C&D waste
stream and be disposed separately in a C&D landfill, or it can remain in the
larger contaminated waste stream that all goes to a C&D landfill. LBPACs
can be removed from the larger unregulated waste stream and reused,
salvaged, or recycled if the LBP coatings are not deteriorated. Waste
managers must determine whether it is more cost effective to simply dispose

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of lead contaminated debris in C&D landfills or to remove LBP debris and
LBPAC and handle them separately.

The waste management team must be familiar with the latest LBP laws and
regulations and ensure the following compliance requirements are met:

• Train, certify, and license LBP project designers, inspectors, risk


assessors, supervisors, and workers according to EPA and state
requirements.
• Use safe, effective, and standardized methods when conducting LBP
assessments, inspections, and abatements (states may have promulgated
laws or regulations with specific standards).
• Characterize under current rules whether lead debris resulting from
renovation and demolition work is hazardous waste or not, or determine
whether new rules apply for LBP contaminated C&D waste.
• Protect employees who may be exposed to lead during removal and
handling operations.
• Remove, if necessary under current rules, lead-containing materials from
the facility to be renovated or demolished.
• Transport lead-containing waste in covered vehicles that also prevent
visible emissions to outside air.
• Deposit hazardous lead waste or debris containing lead only at
acceptable waste disposal sites according to current rules.

Best Management Practices

1. Review the Installation LBP Management Plan and ensure current LBP
rules have been incorporated.
2. Identify potential LBP materials and components in facilities scheduled
to be renovated or demolished and determine the most cost effective
handling and disposal alternative.
3. Segregate, if cost effective, LBP debris and LBPAC in the waste stream
to reduce the amount of C&D waste classified as hazardous or requiring
disposal in C&D landfills.
4. Use, if cost effective and not a violation of state regulations, Blastox or
other LBP stabilizing products during abatement projects to render the
waste non-hazardous.
5. Use, if cost effective and not otherwise affected by proposed LBP rule
changes, demolition methods like grinding buildings for significantly
reducing waste volumes.
6. Design the Project to:
a) Minimize the cost of handling and disposing of LBP debris or C&D
waste containing regulated LBP.
b) Cover compliance requirements in the specifications.
c) Require a LBP handling and disposal cost analysis and compliance
plan.
d) Limit or prohibit the use of LBP in new or replacement materials.
7. Track LBP compliance milestones by inspection and periodic status
meetings.

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Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)

Description - PCBs are a subset of the man-made family of organic


chemicals called chlorinated hydrocarbons. These chemicals have similar
physical properties including non-flammability, high chemical stability, high
boiling point, high flash point, low electrical conductivity, and low water
solubility. These properties made PCBs ideal for hundreds of industrial and
commercial uses. Manufacturers used more than 1.5 billion pounds of PCBs
in producing PCB-containing materials between 1926 and 1977. The most
common uses for these materials were dielectric fluids in electrical, heat
transfer, and hydraulic equipment; plasticizers in paints, plastics, and rubber
products; plasticizers and additives in lubricating and cutting fluids; and in
pigments, dyes, and carbonless copy paper. In 1976, the federal government
mandated the elimination of PCBs in commercial production. PCBs were
eliminated from production by 1979. Most installations have PCB-
containing materials in electric transformers, electric capacitors, and
fluorescent lighting ballasts. Without careful planning, waste managers can
still find these items in construction and demolition debris.

Impacts - PCBs are extremely persistent when released to the environment


because they resist metabolic processes that would break them down into
simpler compounds. The low water solubility of PCBs also allows them to
accumulate in the fatty tissues of exposed animals and humans. Researchers
have not shown that the presence of PCBs in human tissues or its
environmental persistence alone adversely impact human health or the
environment. However, studies with animals have demonstrated PCBs cause
cancer and a variety of other adverse health effects on the immune,
reproductive, nervous, and endocrine systems.

Scientists have not found conclusive evidence that either background levels
or even very high levels of PCBs in some occupational groups result in acute
or carcinogenic effects. Scientists have found a strong association between
chloracne, changes in skin pigmentation and chronic skin and eye irritation
and populations exposed to unusually high levels of PCBs and other
chemicals known to be skin sensitizers.

The EPA and risk assessors have classified PCBs as probable human
carcinogens and toxicants based largely on the evidence derived from the
animal studies.

Compliance Requirements - The Congress enacted the Toxic Substance


Control Act (TSCA) in 1976 because of its concern over the toxicity and
persistence in the environment of PCBs. Under the law, Congress largely
prohibited the manufacture, processing, and distribution in commerce of
PCBs and required PCBs be carefully managed from manufacture to
disposal in order to protect human health and the environment.

PCB-containing materials are regulated according to the concentration of


PCBs in them. These materials are classified as follows:

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• PCB material PCB >=500 ppm
• PCB-contaminated 5-500 ppm PCB
• TSCA-regulated 50-500 ppm PCB

Materials containing less than 5 ppm PCB are classified as non-PCB or “No
PCB.” While TSCA regulates materials containing concentrations of PCB
between 50 and 500, some states regulate down to 5 ppm.

The law requires mixtures like construction and demolition debris that
include PCB-containing materials be regulated to the requirements of the
highest classification of PCB concentration. For example: if you demolish a
building known to contain TSCA-regulated PCB capacitors and light
ballasts, then all of the demolition debris is regulated under TSCA. The law
prohibits diluting PCB-containing materials simply to reduce PCB
concentrations below regulated thresholds.

Manufacturers of PCB-containing materials and equipment were required to


label these items with the PCB classification. Where this was not done,
owners of these items were required to affix classification labels. Yet even
fluorescent light ballasts labeled "no PCB" may contain PCBs in the potting
material. Therefore, waste managers must use the TCLP sampling method to
characterize waste known to contain either potting material that may contain
PCBs or unlabeled capacitors and lighting ballasts. Waste failing the TCLP
must be disposed as hazardous waste.

Best Management Practices - The following practices by waste management


teams are recommended to ensure the safe and efficient handling of
regulated PCB-containing materials:

1. Review the installation PCB Management Plan prior to project design


and facility inspection.
2. Inspect the facility to verify the location and classification of PCB-
containing materials and equipment and identify any new or suspected
PCB containing materials and equipment.
3. Arrange for sampling and testing of suspected PCB-containing material
and update plans according to results.
4. Notify the local pollution control agency of the project.
5. Design the project to:
a) Remove all regulated or suspected PCB prior to demolition or
deconstruction.
b) Cover compliance requirements in the specifications.
c) Require a PCB compliance plan.
6. Track PCB compliance plan milestones by inspection and periodic status
meetings.

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Miscellaneous Hazardous Wastes

Mercury-containing materials and treated lumber are two of the more


common miscellaneous wastes found in construction and demolition debris.
Briefly, mercury or mercury vapor can be found in fluorescent light bulbs,
high-intensity discharge lamps, thermostats, old mercury-bearing wall
switches, and a variety of switches, relays and gauges that use mercury.
Wastes containing these items must be characterized as hazardous or not
using the TCLP method. Fortunately, waste managers who plan, inspect, and
test can ensure many of these items are easily removed prior to demolition or
during deconstruction.

Lumber treated with chemicals and preservatives and considered for disposal
or reuse in a project may also be a hazardous waste. Treated lumber includes
marine piling and fenders, utility poles, rail ties, and other dimensional
lumber that has been coated or impregnated with pentachlorophenol,
creosotes, and arsenic compounds. Waste managers can reduce treated
lumber waste by reusing it in landscaping, berms, parking barriers, retaining
walls, fencing, pole barns, and other applications calling for treated lumber.
Coordinate with environmental managers before reusing treated lumber in
situations where chemicals could leach into the ground. Otherwise it should
be characterized as hazardous or non-hazardous and disposed of accordingly.

There are other materials too numerous to cover here that are found in
buildings to be demolished that may be classified as hazardous waste. These
vary from building to building depending on the uses for those buildings. For
example: buildings where plating operations or extensive parts cleaning
occurred may have materials containing regulated heavy metals or solvent
chemicals that were spilled. Blue and yellow paints and coatings also may
contain regulated levels of cadmium and chromium. Other materials like
asphalt, heating oils, and storage tanks may also be present. Waste managers
should coordinate with environmental managers and obtain details from
Environmental Impact Analysis Process (EIAP) and Installation Restoration
Program (IRP) documents. Waste managers should ensure unspecified
materials are sampled, tested, and characterized as hazardous or not and
manage them accordingly.

More Best Management Practices -

Concerns over the proper handling of hazardous C&D waste differ


significantly between new construction only and demolition, deconstruction,
and renovation work. Contractors on new construction only projects appear
to have no environmental laws requiring compliance. Contractors of new
construction only in reality typically only produce small amounts of
hazardous waste involving the following items:

• Solvents and cleaners


• Paints and coatings

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• Adhesives
• Sealer tubes
• Oil and grease lubricants

Waste managers should return unused hazardous materials to their


HAZMAT pharmacy or suppliers for reuse. Again, it is important to
coordinate with the installation environmental and judge advocate offices to
ensure compliance with state or local requirements. The Metro Solid Waste
Department of Portland, Oregon contracted a study on the waste
characterization of residential and commercial construction projects. The
study included 23 hazardous waste surveys and 10 random phone interviews
to examine the management of potentially hazardous materials used in new
construction. The key findings were as follows:

• Residential and commercial builders use relatively small amounts of


hazardous materials and typically use landfills for waste disposal.
• Painting trades typically produce the majority of hazardous waste in the
construction industry.
• Waste managers have made only limited efforts to educate building
trades on hazardous waste reduction, material substitution, and
environmentally responsible diversion and disposal methods.
• Auditors reported the amount of hazardous waste generated for single-
family residences ranged between 15-69 pounds per unit.
• Contractors indicated a desire to know the potentially hazardous
substances in the materials they use and how to properly dispose of the
hazardous waste.

Project designers and waste managers can and should use the following best
practices for achieving safe and economical hazardous waste management
by contractors and in-house work forces:

• Require waste minimization and prevention practices:


• Require aqueous cleaners instead of petroleum based solvents.
• Require biodegradable cleaners instead of solvents to reduce the
accumulation of waste solvent and containers and solvent-
contaminated rags.
• Require low or non-Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) paints and
coatings to reduce or eliminate VOC emissions.
• Require water-based coatings to reduce or prevent the need for
petroleum solvents and associated wastes.
• Require low VOC water based epoxy concrete sealer to reduce
VOC emissions.
• Require reuse and recycling practices:
• Reuse thinner as a thinner for cleaning painting equipment.
• Combine used solvents with new.
• Recycle old and unused latex paint.
• Use the installation Hazardous Material Pharmacy.
• Require employee education practices:
• Combine waste management discussions with safety meetings.

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• Publicize waste management goals, plans, and spill prevention and
counter measures.
• Share and recognize successes with employees.

Project designers, in-house work force supervisors, and contractors have the
capability of reducing or preventing the generation of hazardous waste
before potentially hazardous materials are ever procured and used at the job
site. Designers must ensure many of the required steps identified above are
included in the project specifications. Quality assurance inspectors and
contracting officers must work with contractors and enforce the
specifications. Supervisors and contractors must ensure their material
purchasers understand and comply with the specifications.

Project designers, contracting officers, and waste managers have a number


of sources for model specifications involving reducing or eliminating the
toxicity of building materials. The Triangle J Council of Governments has
produced the most comprehensive version titled, WasteSpec - Model
Specifications for Construction Waste Reduction, Reuse and Recycling.
WasteSpec can be ordered by calling 919-549-0551 or an order form is
available on the website at www.tcog.dst.nc.us/TJCOG. The Triangle J
Council of Governments is a voluntary organization of municipal and county
governments in North Carolina's Region J (Chatham, Durham, Johnston,
Lee, Orange and Wake counties. The organization works to meet the region's
needs in a wide range of areas including environmental protection.
WasteSpec follows the format of the Construction Specifications Institute
making it easy to use. Users need only follow the notes (enclosed in brackets
[ ] ) and specification language (enclosed in parentheses). A complete
reference to WasteSpec specifications for preventing, reducing, or
eliminating hazardous waste is in Appendix H. The following examples from
WasteSpec illustrate how specifications can help reduce or eliminate
hazardous wastes:

• Specification DIVISIONS 2 through 10 and 13 through 16 all include


applicable portions of the following language under PART 3 -
EXECUTION, WASTE MANAGEMENT: “Use the least toxic [EDIT
TO SUIT SECTION] lubricants, cleaners, sealants, adhesives, primers,
sealers, and finishes necessary to comply with the requirements of this
section.”

• Specification DIVISIONS 7, 9 through 12, and 14 through 16 all include
applicable portions of the following language under PART 2 -
PRODUCTS, ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS: “In the
selection of products and materials of this section preference will be
given to those with the following characteristics [EDIT TO SUIT
SECTION AND PROJECT]: water based, water soluble, water clean-up,
non-flammable, biodegradable, low VOC content, coatings and fluids
with low VOC content, manufactured without compounds which
contribute to ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere, manufactured
without compounds which contribute to smog in the lower atmosphere,
does not contain methylene chloride, does not contain chlorinated

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hydrocarbons, does not contain or generate hazardous or toxic waste,
factory applied coatings.”
• Specification DIVISION 7, THERMAL AND MOISTURE
PROTECTION includes the following language for specifiers:
• SECTION 07100, WATERPROOFING: "Where choices exist,
preference is to be given to coatings which are water based and
require water clean-up."
• SECTION 07200, INSULATION: “A. The use of insulation
products manufactured with CFCs as blowing agents is prohibited.
B. Where choices exist in the provision of glass fiber insulation,
preference is to be given to the following characteristics [EDIT TO
SUIT PROJECT]: low or no formaldehyde emissions...”

Planning Step 4 QUANTIFY AND CHARACTERIZE THE POTENTIAL ANNUAL C&D W ASTE
STREAM ON THE INSTALLATION

Waste management teams must know in advance what the potential is for
reducing and diverting C&D wastes because these data govern subsequent
management activities. This is accomplished by first quantifying and then
characterizing the installation’s C&D waste stream and comparing these data
to the scope of reuse and recycling resources identified in Planning Step 1.

Quantification - There are a number of methodologies that have been created


and used for quantifying the C&D waste stream and each methodology
comes with various strengths and weaknesses. The EPA has developed a
new methodology based on combining Census Bureau data on project
activity in the construction industry with point source weight and sampling
data from a variety of C&D sites.

Two points about this methodology must be noted. First, it does NOT
include point source waste assessment data from roadway, bridge and land-
clearing projects. Second, this is the first time it has been used. This is
significant because the limited data available from point source assessments
nation-wide are cause for some uncertainty. Nonetheless, peer reviewers of
the methodology agree this is a credible estimating tool.

Waste managers can update the point source assessment data once they
implement their C&D waste management strategies and begin tracking
installation waste generation. Historical waste generation data can then be
used to refine the estimating calculations.

The methodology can be applied against the following six categories of


construction:

Residential Non-residential
New Construction New Construction
Renovation Renovation
Demolition Demolition

Waste management teams do not need the Census Bureau data used by the
EPA. Instead, teams can find these data from existing installation budget

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reports. Once the installation is funded for a new fiscal year, teams can
calculate an estimate of the C&D waste they expect to be generated. This
should be done first on an annual basis so goals can be established within an
overall strategy.

Next, the amount of C&D waste generation can be calculated for each
project or work order so specific project goals can be set and tracked.
Worksheets for each of the six categories mentioned above are included in
Appendix E. The EPA calculated the weighted average C&D waste
generation rates in lb/sq ft for the new construction and demolition
categories as part of their methodology and these factors make the
worksheets easy to use. The rates (lbs/sq ft) for these two categories are
shown in Table 9:

Table 9. Weighted Average C&D Waste Generation Rates

Residential (lbs/sq ft) Non-residential (lbs/sq ft)


New Construction 4.38 3.89
Renovation Varies 17.67
Demolition 115.00 155.00
(Source: Franklin Associates, “Characterization of Building-Related
Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States,” U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Jun. 98, p. 2-2, 2-3, 2-6, 2-7, 2-8, 2-9, 2-
10, and A-5.)

The calculations on the residential renovation worksheets are a bit more


involved because the scope for individual renovation projects can be vastly
different. For example, roof replacement generates relatively low amounts of
waste per square foot, whereas replacing a concrete driveway generates large
amounts of waste per square foot. Nevertheless, renovations to military
family housing certainly fall into predictable project scopes. The EPA
calculated the average generation rates in tons/job for each project scope
within the residential renovation category. The rates (tons/job) for these
project scopes are as follows:

Table 10. Average C&D Waste Generation Rates for Typical Residential
Renovation Scopes

Scope Rate (tons/job)


Minor kitchen remodel* 0.75
Major kitchen remodel** 4.50
Minor bath remodel 0.25
Major bath remodel 1.00
Room additions 0.75
* Facelift only, such as replacing cabinets
** Complete tear out

(Source: Franklin Associates, “Characterization of Building-Related


Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States,” U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Jun. 98, p. A-4.)

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Table 11. Average C&D Waste Generation Rates for
Additional Residential Renovation Scopes

Scope Rate (tons/unit)


Driveway Replacement 8.91
Asphalt Roof Replacement 1.68
Wood Roof Replacement 1.38
HVAC Equipment Replacement
Central Air 0.30
Warm Air Furnace 0.15
Electric Heat Pump 0.30
Steam or Hot Water Systems 0.42
Floor, Wall, or Pipeless Furnace 0.10
Built-in Electric Units 0.10
Room Heaters 0.10
(Source: Franklin Associates, “Characterization of Building-Related
Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States,” U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Jun. 98, p. A-6 through A-8 and the
Author.)

Residential renovations often have common additional scopes including


replacement of roofs; driveways; and heating, ventilating, and air
conditioning systems. The EPA calculated the C&D waste generated by
these jobs as shown in Table 11 above. Appropriate rates should be used in
the worksheets provided in Appendix E.

Characterization - Once you know the quantity of waste being generated,


you must characterize the composition of the waste. You can then compare
these data with the reuse and recycling resources identified in Planning Step
1 and clearly define your waste management strategy or specific waste
management plan.

The EPA has gathered detailed waste composition data by percentage for
each C&D waste category. These percentages fall within ranges because,
again, waste generation is dependent upon project scope. The rounded
average of the percent ranges of the most common components are
summarized in Table 12. A detailed table of percent ranges and average
percentages of other components may be referenced in Appendix B.

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Table 12. Rounded Average Percentage of Waste Composition (%)

Wood Drywall Metals Concrete Plastics


Residential
New Construction 53 19 2 9 2
Renovation 37 31 3 5 <1
Demolition 33 10 4 27 1

Non-residential
New Construction 31 23 10 33 3
Renovation 28 22 19 22 3
Demolition 21 10 7 53 3
(Source: Franklin Associates, “Characterization of Building-Related
Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States,” U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Jun. 98, p. A-10 to A-16 and the Author.)

Apply the waste composition percentages to the quantity of waste you


estimated would be generated. Enter these data onto your waste work sheets
and this planning step is complete. You are now ready to develop the C&D
waste management strategy for your installation.

Planning Step 5 IDENTIFY THE RANGE OF CONTRACTING OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO


IMPLEMENT C&D W ASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Building contractors are often used to execute construction and demolition


projects. There are numerous contracting options available to ensure the
efficient management of C&D wastes. Waste managers must contact the
various contracting agencies involved, discuss the options, and select the
contract vehicle best suited for this effort. Project designers should obtain
and use model specifications for C&D waste reduction, reuse, and recycling.
There are several model specifications that have been developed, but the
most comprehensive is WasteSpec produced by the Triangle J Council of
Governments. These model specifications should be tailored to the specific
C&D project and included in all project specifications and contracting
documents. Contracting options include:

Standard Contracts - These contracts are already in use and simply require
the addition of specifications tailored to implement the C&D waste
management strategy and ensure contractors employ C&D waste
management practices.

Standard Contracts with Bid Alternatives - These contracts have alternatives


attached to the bidding process. For example, for a demolition project
bidders may be asked to submit an alternate bid for deconstructing the
building. Similarly, for a construction project bidders may be asked to
submit an alternate bid for reducing, reusing, and recycling just the
predominant C&D wastes as identified in Tables 2 and 3. The variations for
bid alternatives are endless and offer maximum flexibility.

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Incentive Contracts - In its simplest form an incentive clause is added to a
contract. For example, the contractor has a cost for traditional waste disposal
but is encouraged to use waste reduction, reuse, and recycling techniques.
The contractor gets paid fully for the awarded disposal bid, but is allowed to
profit from any cost reductions realized through C&D waste management.
More elaborate incentive contracts are cost plus award fee. In this instance a
contractor’s periodic award fee is tied to their level of success with C&D
waste management. Again the variations for this contract type are very
flexible.

Delivery-order Contracts - Many installations have access to delivery-order


contracts where the contractor responds to specific Statements of Work.
Here the contractor could be given a delivery order for an entire
deconstruction project. Or a delivery order might centralize an installation’s
entire C&D waste management program under one contractor. Under this
option construction contractors would not have any disposal costs as a part
of their project.

Planning Step 6 DEVELOP A C&D W ASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR COMPLYING


WITH AF POLICY AND ACHIEVING THE AF MEASURE OF MERIT (MOM)

The waste management strategy for your installation provides a minimum of


four things: what the installation’s annual goal for C&D waste diversion is;
what type of wastes will be targeted; what waste generating categories will
be included; and what sustainable design and operating techniques will be
employed. Waste managers should update the strategy at least annually.
They can use the strategy to test new reuse and recycling markets; expand
the strategy to other waste generating categories; test the success of
deconstruction versus standard demolition; and try innovative contracting
options.

Installations must achieve the non-hazardous solid waste diversion MoMs


established by HQ USAF/ILEV. For example, the AF MoM for 2005 is a
40% diversion rate. It has been shown in this Guide that from 9-31% of that
goal can be achieved just from diverting C&D waste. Waste managers
should establish their own progressive diversion goals for C&D waste. An
aggressive strategy might follow this course:

Fiscal Year C&D Diversion Rate Solid Waste Diversion Rate


2000 50% 20%
2001 55% 25%
2002 60% 30%
2003 65% 35%
2004 70% 40%
2005 75% 40%

Waste managers should include the types of waste found to be marketable


from Planning Step 1. For example, the local and regional markets may only
support the reuse and recycling of wood and concrete. Unless markets
subsequently change, these should be the only wastes identified in the
strategy.

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Waste managers should also include in their strategy a list of the types of
installation work and projects to which the strategy will apply. They should
identify the work forces and contractors who will perform the work and the
projects. This part of the strategy must be consistent with the types of waste
being included. For example, if concrete is the only C&D waste being
reused, the strategy couldn’t apply to self-help or U-Fix-It projects. The
range of C&D waste generating categories include:

• Renovation and demolition by installation in-house forces


o Operations and Maintenance work
o Self-Help Store projects
o Military Family Housing U-Fix-It Stores
• Renovation and demolition by contractors performing in-house work
o Operations and Maintenance (O&M) work
o Self-help Store projects
o Military Family Housing O&M work
• New construction, renovation, and demolition by contractors not
performing in-house work:
o Military Construction (MILCON) projects
o Military Family Housing (MFH) projects
o Army Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES) projects
o Defense Commissary Agency (DeCA) projects
o Tenant projects
o Medical projects
• New construction, renovation, and demolition by other DOD forces
o Red Horse projects
o Air National Guard (ANG) projects
o Air Force Reserve Center (AFRC) projects

Finally, the strategy should identify the sustainability techniques that will
apply to work order and project design and other installation operating
procedures like ordering and shipping construction supplies.

Planning Step 7 DEVELOP GENERIC W ASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS

The final step in planning for safe and effective C&D waste managements
entails developing a framework for generic C&D waste management plans
(WMPs). There should be a generic WMP for each of the C&D waste
generating categories identified in the installation’s C&D Waste
Management Strategy. For example, if an installation has a multi-year
program of new family housing construction and their strategy includes the
reduction, reuse, salvage, and recycling of wood, metals, and concrete, then
a generic WMP for these three materials should be developed for application
to each housing project.

A WMP identifies all of the C&D diversion requirements for a specific


project. The plan provides a clear picture of what is expected of the
construction or demolition team. The content of a WMP includes the
following five elements:

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1. Analysis of the project waste. Completion of Planning Step 1 provides
waste managers with possible markets and materials to be included in
the project. Waste managers can then complete Parts 1 and 2 of the
appropriate project worksheet in Appendix E under Planning Step 4.
Results from the worksheet include the potential quantities of materials
identified for diversion from Planning Step 1.
2. A specific waste management goal. The C&D waste management
strategy should have an overall diversion goal for the year and a
supporting goal is identified for the project. Waste managers can
complete Part 3 of one of the appropriate project worksheet in Appendix
E. Results from the worksheet include the potential diversion rate from
which the goal may be set. For example, “The project will achieve a
diversion rate of 75%.”
3. Diversion methods. The possible reduction and diversion methods have
been discussed previously in the Guide. Waste managers should have a
reasonably clear idea of diversion methods by material and material
handling facility after completing Planning Step 1. If the project will be
contracted, specifications should require submission by the contractor of
a draft and final WMP and incorporate the generic WMP. An example
from WasteSpec of Section 01505, Construction Waste Management
is included in Part 2 of Appendix H. This example covers how all
elements of the WMP are handled, with contract specifications.
Appropriate aspects of these guidance specifications may also be
adapted for use in generic WMPs for C&D accomplished by in-house
workforces.
4. Material handling procedures. Completion of Planning Step 1 should
help waste managers know the procedures required for managing wastes
to be diverted. The plan should outline how these materials will be
removed, separated, stored (if required), and transported for reuse,
salvage, recycling, or disposal.
5. Education and promotion of the WMP. Successful implementation of the
WMP requires its contents be widely communicated and clearly
understood. The plan should indicate how and when it would be
communicated to managers and workforces. Each plan should also
employ measurement or tracking methods so effectiveness can be
determined. Diversion success should be provided to those executing the
plan as a means of positive reinforcement.

Waste Management Plans do not need to be complicated documents. With


the help of results from completing Planning Steps 1and 4, waste managers
can easily develop generic WMPs for the various sources of C&D waste
generation. These plans can stand alone for C&D projects accomplished by
in-house workforces, or they can be provided as a resource to contractors
and subcontractors required by specifications to prepare draft and final
WMPs on specific projects. A sample WMP is provided in Appendix I.

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Chapter 4 Implementing The C&D
Waste Management Process

This section describes and prescribes the step-by-step waste management process
for incorporating, executing, monitoring and documenting the diversion of
installation C&D waste.

C&D Waste Management


Process for In-house Work
and Projects
Step 1. The waste manager should use an existing or form a new C&D Waste
Management Execution Team when a work request is received. The members of
this team should represent the shops involved, job planners, recycling and reuse
contractors, environmental experts, and the organization requesting the work.
Representatives of other in-house organizations like RED HORSE, ANG, and
AFRC should be on the team when they perform the work.

Step 2. The team should review the installation C&D waste management strategy
and any generic waste management plans developed for the shops and in-house
work. If there are unique aspects to the work not covered in the generic WMPs,
then the team should revise the plans to fit the work.

Step 3. The team should also review appropriate installation plans and programs
and determine how those plans and programs may impact C&D management for
the job (refer to Chapter 3, Planning Step 2).

NOTE: Steps 1-3 can be streamlined once installation team members gain
experience with the process. Waste managers should use existing work order
planning and review groups as part of their execution team.

Step 4. The team should visit the job site to visualize site conditions, verify known
and identify new material types, discuss potential environmental issues, and
visualize whether the WMPs can be executed.

Step 5. Planners should incorporate the WMP into the work order as the job gets
planned. Planners should use the C&D Waste Worksheet and calculate an
estimate of C&D waste that can be diverted for the specific job.

Step 6. The environmental team representative should review the work order,
ensure all environmental requirements by others are going to be satisfied, and take
on-going actions required of the Environmental Flight/Squadron.

Step 7. The team should monitor execution of the WMP throughout


accomplishment of the work. The following milestones are good points at which
to review the work:

• Before work starts - Hold a meeting with the Waste Management Execution
Team, work force, and shop supervisors. Remind everyone of the C&D waste

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Management Process
diversion goals of the job and encourage innovations to waste management
practices.
• During work - Periodically provide feedback to supervisors and workers on
achievement of C&D waste diversion goals, any new waste management
innovations, and execution of the WMP. This may be done in conjunction
with required safety meetings. Visit the job site and ensure workers are
following waste management practices covered in the WMP.
• Before work is complete - Check documentation and ensure the weight and
type of diverted C&D waste is being recorded. It may also be beneficial to
break this documentation down into various diversion categories like reduced,
salvaged for future reuse, reused on site, recycled, and composted. These data
will help in updating future WMPs and the installation strategy.
• After work is complete - Calculate the final quantities diverted, complete the
final worksheet in Appendix E, and file it.

Step 8. In-house forces should clear the site (if included in the job scope) and
stockpile soil for use as fill and grubbed trees and brush for composting or
mulching. Salvage materials for reuse, sale, or give-away.

Step 9. In-house forces should perform deconstruction if the job scope (demolition
or renovation work) calls for it. In-house forces may be augmented with outside
labor forces from partnerships as described in Chapter 3, pgs. 3-3 and 3-4.

Step 10. In-house forces should reuse C&D waste materials that were either
segregated at the job site or stored from previous jobs. Recycle C&D waste
materials segregated at the job site.

Step 11. In-house forces should backfill and finish the site, if the job scope
(demolition or renovation work) calls for it, using crushed concrete and stockpiled
soil.

Step 12. The O&M flight should account for completed C&D waste management
documentation and ensure it gets coordinated with waste managers and filed.

C&D Waste Management


Process for Contracted Work
and Projects
Step 1. The waste manager should use an existing or form a new C&D Waste
Management Execution Team just before project design begins. The members of
this team should represent design engineering, project inspection, JAG,
bioenvironmental engineering, environmental flight, contracting squadron, and the
client organization requiring the work. Representatives from other organizations
like the Medical Group, tenants, AAFES, and DeCA should be on the team when
they contract for work.

Step 2. The team should review the installation C&D waste management strategy
and any generic waste management plan developed for contractors and contracted
work.

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Management Process
Step 3. The team should select the appropriate type of contract option (refer to
Chapter 3, Planning Step 5, p. 3-21).

Step 4. The team should visit the co ntract site to visualize site conditions, verify
known and identify new material types, and discuss potential environmental
issues.

Step 5. The team representative from environmental should review the project
scope, ensure all environmental requirements by others are identified to
engineering for inclusion in the design, and take on-going actions required of the
Environmental Flight.

Step 6. The Engineering flight or an architect-engineering (A-E) firm will design


the project. The team representatives from design engineering, the A-E firm (if
used), and contracting should tailor contract specifications to optimize C&D
waste diversion and require the contractors and subcontractors to submit a WMP
for the project.

Step 7. The team representatives from design engineering and contracting should
include appropriate C&D waste management specifications in the Statement of
Work, Statement of Requirements, Delivery Order, Performance Specification,
Source Selection, and bid request documents. Designers should use one of the
model specifications available in the industry.

Step 8. The team should also review appropriate installation plans and programs
and determine how those plans and programs may impact C&D management by
the contractor (refer to Chapter 3, Planning Step 2). Design engineers should
specify that these plans and program documents will be made available to the
contractors.

NOTE: Steps 6 - 8 may actually occur simultaneously or overlap. Teams are not
constrained in the order they choose to follow.

Step 9. The team should present and discuss the C&D waste management strategy
and waste management goals for the project at any pre-bid meetings and site visits
with prospective contractors and subcontractors.

Step 10. The team should be expanded after contract award to include
representatives from the winning contractors and subcontractors.

Step 11. The expanded team should make a site visit to clarify for the contractors
and subcontractors the C&D waste management goals and requirements of the
contract.

Step 12. The contractors should monitor execution of the WMP throughout
accomplishment of the work. The following milestones are good points at which
to monitor the work:

• Before work starts - Hold a meeting with the Waste Management Execution
Team, contractor, work force, and inspectors. Remind everyone of the C&D

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Management Process
waste diversion goals of the job and encourage innovations to waste
management practices.
• During work - Periodically provide feedback to supervisors and workers on
achievement of C&D waste diversion goals and execution of the WMPs. This
may be done in conjunction with required safety meetings. Visit the job site
and ensure workers are following waste management practices covered in the
WMP.
• Before work is complete - Check documentation and ensure the weight and
type of diverted C&D waste is being recorded. It may also be beneficial to
break this documentation down into various diversion categories like reduced,
salvaged for future reuse, reused on site, recycled, and composted. These data
will help in updating future WMPs and the installation strategy.
• After work is complete - Calculate the final quantities diverted, complete the
final worksheet, and file it.

Step 13. The contractors should clear the site (if included in the contract scope),
stockpile soil and crushed concrete for use as fill, and grub trees and brush for
composting. The contractors should salvage materials for reuse, sale, or give-
away.

Step 14. The contractors should perform deconstruction if the contract scope
(demolition or renovation work) calls for it.

Step 15. The contractors should reuse C&D waste materials that were either
segregated at the job site or stored from previous jobs. The contractors should
recycle C&D waste materials segregated at the job site.

Step 16. The contractors should backfill and finish the site, if the job scope
(demolition or renovation work) calls for it, using crushed concrete and stockpiled
soil.

Step 17. The project inspector should account for completed C&D waste
management documentation and ensure it gets coordinated with waste managers
and filed.

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Management Process
Chapter 5 Summary

The safe and economic management of C&D waste has been an unrealized
opportunity for many years. Despite the common sense value in reducing, reusing,
and recycling C&D waste, the barriers to implementing waste management
techniques have been a convenient excuse to continuing the traditional practices
of burning and landfilling.

The Air Force policy letter and MoM now requires at least a 40% diversion rate
for non-hazardous solid waste by 2005 and provides renewed focus on our waste
management efforts. The policy and MoM create the possibility, where before
only opportunity existed. But the leverage of the policy and MoM are insufficient
alone to achieve the AF goals and comply with its waste management policy.
Some practical “how to” guidance is also required.

The “C&D Waste Management Guide” was written to provide the missing
guidance. The Guide is a “how to” document intended to satisfy four goals in
supporting solid waste diversion. First, it explained how C&D waste management
could lower disposal cost. Second, it showed design and construction project
managers and other waste management team members how to manage C&D
waste. Third, it identified and explained how to comply with environmental
concerns when managing C&D waste. And fourth, it identified and provided
C&D waste management tools that installation managers will need to be
successful.

For the first goal, readers were shown in Chapter 2 that C&D waste has value in
two ways. There is the inherent value of specific material, as was illustrated in
Table 1 on page 2-3 and there are the savings that accrue through a
comprehensive waste management process. The Case Studies provided in Chapter
2 and Appendix D repeatedly demonstrated how following the waste management
options hierarchy on page 2-5 and using sustainable design and construction
techniques resulted in lower disposal costs than those experienced under
conventional disposal methods.

Chapters 3 and 4 showed installation managers how they can safely and
effectively manage C&D waste under the second goal. The Guide outlined seven
planning steps in Chapter 3 and walked waste managers through a process of
identifying all of the resources and requirements critical to preparing specific
C&D waste management plans. The planning steps lay the foundation for
developing the specific plans and the specific plans then guide waste managers
through implementation. Chapter 4 then prescribed, step-by-step, C&D waste
management implementation processes for both in-house and contracted C&D
work and projects. By following these processes, waste managers could
successfully incorporate, execute, monitor, and document the diversion of
installation C&D waste.

Planning Step 3 in Chapter 3 of the Guide covered the third goal. The primary
environmental concerns with C&D projects were identified. Then the Guide

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described for each concern the environmental impacts of hazardous components
and equipment, general compliance requirements, and best management practices
for preventing or reducing compliance requirements. Waste managers were
reminded to include the installation’s environmental, bioenvironmental, and judge
advocate experts for complying with all environmental issues.

Finally, the Guide is filled with C&D waste management tools to satisfy the
fourth goal. Formatted spreadsheets, worksheets, and example waste strategy and
management plans were provided to assist waste mangers in completing the
planning steps. The Guide identified websites as possible resources and provided
website excerpts to serve as examples for obtaining potential material exchanges.
Guide specifications were referenced and excerpts were included to serve as
examples for project designers and work planners. While the tools provided by no
means exhaust what is available, they are sufficient to allow waste managers to
take immediate action.

The Guide is a credible start for helping installations improve management of


their C&D waste and achieve an important piece of the AF non-hazardous waste
diversion MoM. Waste managers are challenged to make a commitment to act and
employ the Guide for ensuring success. Begin with a pilot project or manageable
group of projects and determine what will work best at your installation. Then
build on this early success until C&D waste management according to the Guide
is a natural and voluntary part of the installation culture.

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Appendix A

Abbreviations, Acronyms and Definitions

List of Abbreviations
Metro Metropolitan Solid Waste Department of Portland, Oregon
mg/cm2 milligrams per square centimeter
ppm parts per million

List of Acronyms

AAFES Army Air Force Exchange Service


ACBM Asbestos Containing Building Materials
AF Air Force
AFRC Air Force Reserve Center
AMP Asbestos Management plan
ANG Air National Guard
AOP Asbestos Operations Plan
BOSS Building Opportunities for Self-Sufficiency
C&D Construction and Demolition
CE Civil Engineer
CFC Chlorofluorocarbons
DeCA Defense Commissary Agency
DOD Department of Defense
DRMO Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office
EBCRC East Bay Conversion and Reinvestment Commission
EIAP Environmental Impact Analysis Process
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
FY Fiscal Year
HAZMAT Hazardous Materials
HQ USAF Headquarters United States Air Force
HVAC Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning
ILEV Headquarters Air Force Environmental Directorate, Office of the Civil Engineer
IRP Installation Restoration Program
ISWMP Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan
JAG Judge Advocate General
LBP Lead Based Paint
LBPAC Lead Based Paint Architectural Components
LBPMP Lead Based Paint Management Plan
LBPOP Lead Based Paint Operations Plan
LRA Local
MFH Military Family Housing
MILCON Military Construction
MoM Measure of Merit
MSW Municipal Solid Waste
NAF Non-Appropriated Fund

Appendix A - 1
Appendix A

Abbreviations, Acronyms and Definitions


NAS Naval Air Station
O&M Operations and Maintenance
PACBM Presumed Asbestos Containing Building Materials
PCB Polychlorinated Biphenyls
PCBMP Polychlorinated Biphenyls Management Plan
QRP Qualified Recycling Program
RED HORSE Rapid Engineer Deployable Heavy Operational Repair Squadron Engineers
SABER Simplified Acquisition of Base Engineering and Repair
TCLP Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure
TJCOG Triangle J Council of Governments
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds
WasteSpec Waste Specification
WMP Waste Management Plan

List of Definitions
Associated General Contractors – The Associated General Contractors (AGC) is the nation's
largest and oldest construction trade association, established in 1918 after a request by President
Woodrow Wilson. Wilson recognized the construction industry's national importance and desired
a partner with which the government could discuss and plan for the advancement of the nation.
AGC has been fulfilling that mission for the last 80 years. AGC is dedicated to improving the
construction industry daily by educating the industry to employ the finest skills, promoting use of
the latest technology and advocating building the best quality projects for owners--public and
private. AGC is committed to three tenets of industry advancement and opportunity: Skill,
Integrity and Responsibility. Source: www.agc.org/agc_overview/index.asp.

Back-haul – The use of empty containers or vehicles to return waste packaging from delivered
materials and supplies. May also refer to the return of damaged materials and supplies in the
containers and vehicles used for their delivery.

Berms – A bank of earth or stone or timbers placed against an exterior wall or used to define a
specific landscaped area. Source: Webster’s New Universal Unabridged Dictionary and the
Author.

Blastox ® – A granular chemical abrasive blasting media additive that is available pre-blended
from licensed blenders with slags, sands or other media for use in the removal of lead based paint.
Standard blasting equipment is used with no change in efficiency or profile. The spent residue is
non-hazardous and can be disposed of in a local Subtitle D landfill.

Builders – The broad term used in this document when referring to those work forces who
construct or demolish all or parts of buildings and infrastructure. The term includes the in-house
forces of the Civil Engineer Squadron/Group, Air National Guard, Air Force Reserve Center,
tenants and organizations performing Self-Help projects. The term also includes the work forces
of all contractors. Source: The Author.

Appendix A - 2
Appendix A

Abbreviations, Acronyms and Definitions


Built lintels – A horizontal architectural member constructed over door and window openings
and designed to carry the loading or weight from above the opening. Built lintels are constructed
of wood.

C&D landfills – MSW landfills that also accept C&D waste (characterized as non-hazardous)
and landfills designated to accept only C&D waste (characterized as non-hazardous). Source: Air
Force Instruction 32-7042 and the Author.

Chloracne – Chloracne is a rare skin condition typically caused by workplace exposure through
the skin or by inhalation - to certain halogenated aromatic organic chemicals. The condition
involves an increase of keratin in the skin and a reduction in its capacity to produce sebum. This
typically leads to the development of acne-like spots or lesions on the face and neck and
sometimes other parts of the body. Chloracne can take from several months to several years to
clear, depending on the level of exposure and the speed with which the causative agent(s) can be
expelled from the body. (Chem. Br., April 1998, p68.)" Source: Dr A. R. MacKenzie, Director,
Discovery Chemistry and S. Brooks, Head of Research, Safety and Environmental group, Pfizer
Central Research.

Commerce Business Daily – The Commerce Business Daily (CBD) lists notices of proposed
government procurement actions, contract awards, sales of government property and other
procurement information. A new edition of the CBD is issued every business day. Each edition
contains approximately 500-1,000 notices. Each notice appears in the CBD only once.

Construction and Demolition (C&D) Debris – Waste material that is produced in the process of
construction, renovation, or demolition of structures. Structures include buildings of all types
(both residential and non-residential) as well as roads and bridges. Components of C&D debris
typically include concrete, asphalt, wood, metals, gypsum wallboard and roofing. Land clearing
debris, such as stumps, rocks and dirt, are also included in some state definitions of C&D debris.
Source: “Characterization of Building-Related Construction and Demolition Debris in the United
States,” EPA Report, June 1999.

Construction and Demolition (C&D) Waste – Waste building materials, dredging materials,
tree stumps and rubble resulting from construction, remodeling, repair and demolition of homes,
commercial buildings and other structures and pavements. May contain lead, asbestos, or other
hazardous substances. Refer also to definition of C&D debris above. Source: "Terms of
Environment," USEPA, http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/ and the Author.

Deconstruction – The careful dismantling of buildings in order to salvage as much material as


possible. Traditional demolition practice is to simply knock buildings down, occasionally
recycling the most valuable materials and dispose most of the material at the local landfill.
Deconstruction, on the other hand, allows for far more material to be salvaged. Windows, doors
and other fixtures can often be resold; sheet metal, structural steel components and electrical and
plumbing fixtures can be reused or recycled; wood can be resold as is or remanufactured into a
variety of new products.

Dimensional Lumber – Lumber that when reused still has its original sawed size. The value of
this lumber is it may still be marketed as reused as originally intended. Source: Basic Carpentry
by John Capotosto.

Appendix A - 3
Appendix A

Abbreviations, Acronyms and Definitions

Formaldahyde – Formaldehyde, also known as formalin, formal and methyl aldehyde, is a


colorless liquid or gas with a pungent odor. It is generally known as a disinfectant, germicide,
fungicide, defoamer and preservative. Formaldehyde is found in adhesives, cosmetics,
deodorants, detergents, dyes, explosives, fertilizer, fiber board, garden hardware, germicide,
fungicide, foam insulation, synthetic lubricants, paints, plastic, rubber, textile, urethane resins and
water softening chemicals. Source: Purdue Research Foundation, 1996, West Lafayette, Indiana
47907.

Grubbed – The clearing of roots, stumps, etc. from the surface of a construction area. Source:
Webster’s New Universal Unabridged Dictionary and the Author.

Habitat for Humanity – Habitat for Humanity International is an ecumenical Christian non-
profit housing organization working in partnership with God's people in need to build simple,
decent and affordable houses. The organization is based in Americus, Georgia. There are over
1470 other affiliates in the United States and Habitat for Humanity builds in over 60 countries
worldwide.

Habitat for Humanity ReSTORE – The ReSTORE is a division of Habitat for Humanity
International. ReSTORES recycle overstocked, seconds, used, discontinued and salvaged
building materials donated by contractors and individuals. Donated items are used to build decent
houses for low-income families or re-sold to the general public to help finance building Habitat
for Humanity projects. The ReSTORE diverts tons of useable materials from landfills while
providing low-cost building materials to homeowners, landlords and businesses to maintain their
properties. Some ReSTORES operate a "deconstruction" crew, which salvages all types of re-
sellable material from buildings scheduled for renovation or destruction. Friable asbestos– Friable
asbestos material means any material containing more than 1 percent asbestos as determined
using the method specified in appendix E, subpart E, 40 CFR part 763 section 1, Polarized Light
Microscopy, that, when dry, can be crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by hand pressure.
If the asbestos content is less than percent as determined by a method other than point counting
by polarized light microscopy (PLM), verify the asbestos content by point counting using PLM."
Source: Title 40 CFR 61.141.

Ladder Blocking – A carpentry technique for backing the unsupported ends of wall finishes. The
technique conserves wood by using wood blocks horizontally between studs instead of adding
another stud.

Lead-Based Paint – Paint or other surface coatings that contain lead equal to or in excess of 1.0
milligram per square centimeter or 0.5 percent by weight (5,000 ppm). Source: Air Force Policy
and Guidance on Lead-based Paint (LBP) Final Disclosure Rule, August 18, 1996.

Methylene chloride – Methylene chloride, also known as dichloromethane, is a colorless liquid


that has a mild sweet odor, evaporates easily and does not easily burn. It is widely used as an
industrial solvent and as a paint stripper. It can be found in certain aerosol and pesticide products
and is used in the manufacture of photographic film. The chemical may be found in some spray
paints, automotive cleaners and other household products. Methylene chloride does not appear to
occur naturally in the environment. It is made from methane gas or wood alcohol." Source:
ATSDR Toxicological Profiles, Copyright 1999, CRC Press LLC.

Appendix A - 4
Appendix A

Abbreviations, Acronyms and Definitions


MSW landfill – A discrete area of land or an excavation that receives household waste and that is
not a land application unit, surface impoundment, injection well, or waste pile, as those terms are
defined under Sec. 257.2. A MSWLF unit also may receive other types of RCRA subtitle D
wastes, such as commercial solid waste, nonhazardous sludge, conditionally exempt small
quantity generator waste and industrial solid waste. Such a landfill may be publicly or privately
owned. A MSWLF unit may be a new MSWLF unit, an existing MSWLF unit or a lateral
expansion. Source: 40CFR Part 258, CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
LANDFILLS, Subpart A—General, Sec. 258.2 Definitions.

Municipal Solid Waste – Common garbage or trash generated industries, businesses, institutions
and homes." Source: "Terms of Environment," USEPA, http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/.

Non-friable asbestos – Nonfriable asbestos-containing material means any material containing


more than 1 percent asbestos as determined using the method specified in appendix E, subpart E,
40 CFR part 763, section 1, Polarized Light Microscopy, that, when dry, cannot be crumbled,
pulverized, or reduced to powder by hand pressure." Source: Title 40 CFR 61.141.

Off-cuts – The pieces of lumber remaining after lumber is cut to size.

Oriented Strand Board (OSB) – OSB panels are engineered, layered mats made of strands,
flakes or wafers sliced from small diameter, round wood logs and bonded with an exterior-type
binder. Exterior or surface layers consist of strands aligned in the long panel direction; inner-
layers consist of cross- or randomly-aligned strands. These large mats are then subjected to heat
and pressure to become a "master" panel and finally cut to size. OSB's strength comes mainly
from the uninterrupted wood fiber, interweaving of the long strands or wafers and the degree of
orientation of strands in the surface layers. Waterproof and boil proof resin binders are combined
with the strands to provide internal strength, rigidity and moisture resistance. OSB, as a
performance-based structural use panel, is recognized by all the major U.S. model code agencies.
Source: www.osbguide.com/sba.osb.info/sba.osbinfo.1.html.

Pentachlorophenol – Pentachlorophenol is a man-made substance, made from other chemicals


and does not occur naturally in the environment. It is made by only one company in the United
States. At one time, it was one of the most widely used biocides in the United States. Now the
purchase and use of pentachlorophenol are restricted to certified applicators. It is no longer
available to the general public. Application of pentachlorophenol in the home as an herbicide and
pesticide accounted for only 3% of its consumption. Before use restrictions, pentachlorophenol
was as widely used as a wood preservative. It is now used industrially as a wood preservative for
power line poles, cross arms, fence posts and the like. Pure pentachlorophenol exists as colorless
crystals. Pentachlorophenol can be found in two forms: pentachlorophenol itself or as the sodium
salt of pentachlorophenol. The sodium salt dissolves easily in water, but pentachlorophenol does
not." Source: ATSDR Toxicological Profiles, Copyright 1999, CRC Press LLC.

Plasticizer – Liquids added to elastomer mixes in order to soften and plasticize the compound,
either in processing or later in use. For example, elastomers with high glass transition
temperatures (and correspondingly slow molecular motions) can be improved by adding low-
temperature plasticizers--i.e., compatible liquids that act as internal lubricants. Plasticizers must
have low vapor pressure and a high boiling point in order to be retained within the compound

Appendix A - 5
Appendix A

Abbreviations, Acronyms and Definitions


over long periods of service. Examples are aliphatic esters and phthalates. Phosphate plasticizers
also confer a measure of flame resistance. Source: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls – PCB and PCBs means any chemical substance that is limited to the
biphenyl molecule that has been chlorinated to varying degrees or any combination of substances
which contains such substance. Refer to A7761.1(b) for applicable concentrations of PCBs. PCB
and PCBs as contained in PCB items are defined in A7761.3. For any purposes under this part,
inadvertently generated non-Aroclor PCBs are defined as the total PCBs calculated following
division of the quantity of monochlorinated biphenyls by 50 and dichlorinated biphenyls by 5.
Source: Title 40 CFR 761.3.

Self-Help Store projects – Construction and demolition projects accomplished by organizations


working on installations. These organizations use the installation Self-Help Store for planning
projects and procuring materials and supplies. The Self-Help Store (other names may be used) is
a function within the Civil Engineer Squadron/Group that provides planning, materials and
supplies for these projects.

Sensitizers – A chemical that causes a substantial proportion of exposed people or animals to


develop an allergic reaction in normal tissue after repeated exposure to the chemical. Source:
Title 29 CFR 1900.1200, Appendix A, "Health Hazard Definitions.”

Simplified Acquisition of Base Engineering and Repair – SABER is a delivery-order contract


used normally by the Civil Engineer Squadron/Group to simplify accomplishing various types of
repair, maintenance, renovation, construction and demolition work. The contract includes
negotiated labor rates. Users submit project scopes to the contractor by delivery orders.

Time-phased pick-up – The pick-up of materials from the waste stream for salvage, reuse, or
recycling at the time when the separation of materials at the construction or demolition site has
been completed. Phasing the time of pick-up activities reduces the transportation and storage
costs and reduces storage space on site.

Time-phased separation – The separation of materials from the waste stream for salvage, reuse,
or recycling at the time when those materials are being used at the construction site or removed
from the demolition site. Phasing the time of separation activities reduces the labor costs.

Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure – Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure


(TCLP) is test Method 1311 in "Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical
Methods," EPA Publication SW-846, an extract from a representative sample of the waste
contains any of the contaminants listed in table 1 (40 CFR 261.24) at the concentration equal to or
greater than the respective value given in that table. Where the waste contains less than 0.5
percent filterable solids, the waste itself, after filtering using the methodology outlined in Method
1311, is considered to be the extract for the purpose ofthis section. Source: Title 40 CFR 261.24.

Triangle J Council of Governments – The Triangle J Council of Governments is a voluntary


organization of municipal and county governments in North Carolina's Region J (Chatham,
Durham, Johnston, Lee, Orange and Wake counties). It is one of 18 regional councils established
in 1972 by the North Carolina General Assembly. The organization works to meet the region's
needs in a wide range of areas, from land-use planning, economic development and emergency

Appendix A - 6
Appendix A

Abbreviations, Acronyms and Definitions


medical services support to environmental protection, programs for the aging and information
services. The organization produced WasteSpec.

WasteSpec – WasteSpec is a manual which provides architects and engineers with model
specifications and background information addressing waste reduction, reuse and recycling
before and during construction and demolition. The 114-page manual includes model
specifications tailored to all sixteen divisions of the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI)
system of specifications. WasteSpec comes in a three-ring binder with a computer disk containing
the model specifications in a generic format that can be electronically cut and pasted into a
specifier's standard specifications.

U-Fix-It Store projects – Construction and demolition projects accomplished by residents living
in Military Family Housing. These residents use the installation U-Fix-It Store for planning
projects and procuring materials and supplies. The U-Fix-It Store (other names may be used) is a
function within the Civil Engineer Squadron/Group that provides planning, materials and supplies
for these projects.

Volatile Organic Compound – Volatile organic compounds (VOC) means any compound of
carbon, excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or
carbonates and ammonium carbonate, which participates in atmospheric photochemical
reactions." Source: Title 40 CFR 51.100(s).

Waste managers – The broad term used in this document when referring to all who may be
involved with the management of C&D waste, regardless of individual functional area. The term
is NOT meant to refer only to the individual, usually in the Civil Engineer Squadron/Group,
specifically assigned waste management responsibilities for an installation. Source: The Author.

Appendix A - 7
Appendix B
Characterization Tables for C&D Waste
Table B1. Characterization of C&D Waste
from Commercial New Construction
(% of total waste volume)

Rough Percentages
Predominant Materials (10% or greater)

Wood 20-30%
Concrete and block 10-20%
Drywall 5-10%
Cardboard 5-10%

Secondary Materials (less than 10%)

Steel from decking, re-rod, etc 1-8%


Brick 1-5%
Crates and pallets 1-5%
Extruded polystyrene (rigid) insulation 3% range
Kraft paper packaging 3% range
Plastic sheeting and bags 3% range
Electrical wire 2% range
Overspray from fireproofing products 0-5%

Materials comprising 1% or less

Carpet scrap, padding and backing 1% or less


Fiberglass (bat) insulation 1% or less
Excess mortar 1% or less
Particle board 1% or less
Solvent containers 1% or less
Caulking containers 1% or less
Epoxy containers 1% or less
Small bore pipe, steel or pvc 1% or less
Plaster 1% or less
Iron 1% or less
Polystyrene foam packaging 1% or less
Plastic laminate 1% or less
Adhesive containers 1% or less
Silicone containers 1% or less
Sheet metal 1% or less
Vinyl tile 1% or less

(Source: Innovative Waste Management, “Construction Materials Recycling Guidebook,” Mar. 93, p. 4)

Appendix B - 1
Appendix B
Characterization Tables for C&D Waste

Table B2: Characterization of C&D Waste from Residential New Construction


(% of total waste volume)
Rough Percentages
Predominant Materials (10% or greater)

Wood 20-35%
Drywall 10-20%
Corrugated Cardboard 5-15%

Secondary Materials - (less than 10%)

Shingles 1-8%
Concrete 1-8%
Fiberboard 1-8%

Materials comprising 1% or less

Fiberglass insulation 1% or less


Carpet scrap, padding and insulation 1% or less
Kraft paper 1% or less
Sheathing 1% or less
Aluminum siding 1% or less
Vinyl siding 1% or less
Concrete block 1% or less
Copper wire 1% or less
Other wire 1% or less
PVC pipe 1% or less
Core cardboard 1% or less
Plastic buckets 1% or less
Earth and rock from excavation 1% or less
Aluminum duct-work 1% or less
Foam packaging 1% or less
Plastic sheeting or bags 1% or less
Steel banding 1% or less
Lunch garbage, including pop cans 1% or less
Plastic pails 1% or less
Paint cans 1% or less
Flooring scrap 1% or less
1% or less
Materials comprising less than 1%, but notable because they may be considered problem materials

Paint, including frozen or damaged (cans/ pails) 1% or less


Driveway sealant (pails) 1% or less
Caulk (tubes) 1% or less
Tile adhesive (cans) 1% or less

(Source: Innovative Waste Management, “Construction Materials Recycling Guidebook,” Mar. 93, p. 4-5)

Appendix B - 2
Appendix C
C&D Waste Materials Checklist
Demolition Materials Comments and Concerns

The following checklist will be useful when planning to salvage, reuse and recycle
demolition materials

Air conditioning equipment CFC


Air conditioning: Computer room packages CFC
Air conditioning: Mini central systems CFC
Air conditioning: Window units CFC
Aluminum: Handrails, other
Appliances, white goods
Asbestos Containing Materials: Insulation, floor and ceiling
tile, floor and wall coverings, roofing felt and shingles, wall
board, siding, ductwork, adhesives, caulking, putties, taping
and spackling compounds.
Asbestos: Various possible materials Testing, removal
Asphalt
Asphalt: Paving
Asphalt: Shingles
Batteries
Brass
Brick
Bronze
Cabinets
Cable: Various
Cardboard
Carpet, padding and backing
Cast iron: Radiators, pipes, other
Clay tile blocks
Compressors CFC
Computer equipment
Computers, monitors
Concrete
Concrete masonry units
Decking: Wood
Door frames: Wood, metal
Doors: Elevator vintage
Doors: Heavy vault
Doors: Thin panel and various Non-rated
Doors: Wood, Metal
Ductwork
Earth
Electric switchgear, feeder cables, conduit
Electrical equipment PCB
Electrical: Cable
Elevator cabs, machinery, shaft equipment, rails
Fabric
Fiberglass
Fire suppression equipment
Fixtures & fittings: Plumbing

Appendix C - 1
Appendix C
C&D Waste Materials Checklist
Demolition Materials Comments and Concerns

Fixtures: Electrical
Flooring: Carpet
Flooring: Vinyl
Flooring: Wood
Fuel storage tanks
Furniture: Metal
Furniture: Metal shelving
Furniture: Reusable
Furniture: System Can be remanufactured
Furniture: Wood
Glass: Interior and exterior
Glass: Plate
Glass: Wired, laminated
Glazing compound: Asbestos, lead possible Testing
Gutters and flashing
Gypsum blocks
Gypsum board
Hardwood
Hazardous materials
Heavy timbers
Insulation ACBM
Interior air handlers and controls
Kraft paper
Lamps: Fluorescent Mercury retrieval
Lead: Paint Testing, removal
Lead: Roofing
Lead: Flashing
Lead: Piping
Light bulbs
Light fixtures: Decorative
Light fixtures: Fluorescent and utility fixtures
Light fixtures: Vintage fluorescent, incandescent PCB Ballasts
Marble: Toilet partitions
Marble: Walls
Metal: Brass
Metal: Bronze
Metal: Cable
Metal: Cast iron
Metal: Conduit
Metal: Copper
Metal: Galvanized Steel
Metal: Miscellaneous
Metal: Steel
Mirrors
Paper
Partitions, demountable panels
Partitions: Aluminum tracks, misc framing
PBX/telephone equipment, conduit, cables
Petroleum products

Appendix C - 2
Appendix C
C&D Waste Materials Checklist
Demolition Materials Comments and Concerns

Photocopy machine
Piping
Plaster
Plastic: ABS
Plastic: Polyethylene
Plastic: Polystyrene
Plastic: PVC
Plumbing fittings, faucets, etc
Possible lead waste pipes
Pressure treated wood
Pre-cast concrete
Pumps
Radioactive materials
Raised access flooring
Rock
Roofing: Asphalt and stone
Roofing: Membrane, various
Roofing: Metal
Rubber
Sand
Sheathing
Sheet metal: Miscellaneous
Software, floppy disks Disks recyclable
Stainless steel
Standpipe
Steel
Steel: Heavy
Steel: Reinforcement
Steel: Sheet
Steel: Stairs, handrails
Steel: Structural
Steel: Studs and misc framing
Stone
Telecommunications equipment
Terrazo
Textiles
Toxic materials
Transformers PCB
Treated lumber
Trees
Vinyl
Water fountains
Windows: Steel frames
Windows: Wood frames, cast iron weights
Wiring
Wood

(Source: Triangle J Council of Governments, “WasteSpec,” Jul 95, page C1-3)

Appendix C - 3
Appendix D
Case Studies

CAVEAT: A NUMBER OF THE CASE STUDIES COUNT INCINERATION OF WASTE AS A BOILER FUEL AS
RECYCLING.
THIS TYPE OF INCINERATION DOES NOT COUNT AS RECYCLING IN CALCULATING THE AF MOM.

CASE STUDY #1 – NEW NON-RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION


Private sector contractors in Hudson, Wisconsin, constructed a 70,000 square feet new corporate headquarters
for Erickson’s. The contract specified the successful bidder submit a draft and use a final C&D waste
management plan (WMP) for the project. The prime contractor hired a separate waste manager to implement
the WMP with subcontractors. Local landfill tipping fees were $63/ton. The waste manager and subcontractors
set a diversion goal of 75 percent and met this goal using the following techniques:

• Held weekly site meetings among principal players


• Provided all site employees with written updates
• Used recycled materials
• Required suppliers to use pallets instead of boxes

Results: The contractors complied with the C&D waste specifications with no increase in project costs and they
recycled 75 percent of the projects C&D waste.

Case Study #2 – New Non-residential Construction


Private sector contractors in Spokane, Washington, constructed a 47,000 square feet new Tidyman’s Grocery
Store. During bidding, contractors were required to include a specific line item for disposal costs. This cost was
subtracted from the winning bid before contract award and an independent C&D waste manager was hired to
handle recycling and disposal. Local landfill tipping fees were $57/ton. The waste manager positioned
recycling containers on the site, discussed waste diversion problems and goals with subcontractors at weekly
safety meetings, and periodically posted diversion results.

Results: Contractors recycled 48 tons of construction waste (2 lbs/sf) and reduced disposal costs by 56 percent.

Case Study #3 – Bids on Non-residential Renovation and Construction


Private sector contractors in Austin, Texas, bid on the renovation of two health clinics and construction of a
third. The total project was 35,000 square feet and landfill tipping fees were only $18/ton. The bid
specifications required contractors commit to sustainable architecture by following the City of Austin’s Green
Builder Program and recycle the following items: lumber; bricks and block; metal; cardboard; plastic; paints,
stains, solvents, and sealants; and trees and branches.

Results: The bids for this project were the same as those expected had traditional disposal methods been
allowed.

Case Study #4 – Non-residential Demolition


Public sector contractors in Issaquah, Washington, demolished a police station and adjoining post office. The
project size was 22,000 square feet and local landfill tipping fees were $75/ton. The contract specifications
simply encouraged alternatives to land disposal and reuse and recycling as proved practical. This
encouragement was emphasized at the pre-demolition meeting. Creative salvage achievements included reusing
bullet-proof glass in the manufacturing of fish tanks.

Results: Overall, the contractor recycled or reused 83 percent of the demolition waste at no additional cost to
the contract.

Appendix D - 1
Appendix D
Case Studies

Case Study #5 – Non-residential Renovation


Private sector contractors in Seattle, Washington, renovated 48,000 square feet of classrooms and office space
in a university’s adult education center. Local landfill tipping fees were $110/ton. Contract specifications
required draft and final WMPs and recycling of clean dimensional lumber, concrete, bricks, concrete blocks
and metal. The contractor was able to comply with the specifications and recycle drywall, acoustical ceiling
tiles, and all fluorescent light bulbs.

Results: Contractor efforts reduced project costs by 25 to 50 percent.

Case Study #6 – Residential Deconstruction and Demolition


New homeowners in Mercer Island, Washington decided to demolish their 5,300 square-foot 1940s colonial
and rebuild. Site constraints prohibited the use of large vehicles for conventional mechanical demolition, so a
salvage and recycling specialty firm was hired and lowered the demolition bid by $7,000.

Results: The house was deconstructed and the 170-ton foundation was demolished and recycled. Eighty percent
of the home was either salvaged or recycled.

The following hand-crafted home details totaled 45 tons and were salvaged:
• Entire library interior, stairwell, and wood interior siding and trim.
• Exotic hardwood shelves, paneling, and box-beam ceiling.
• Six sets of french doors, lighting fixtures, and marble mantle.
• All doors and windows and 1 ton of exterior siding and trim.
• Most plumbing fixtures and 18 tons of dimensional lumber.

The following construction materials totaled 26 tons and were recycled:


• Oak strip flooring.
• Roof framing and cedar shake shingles.
• Wiring and heating ductwork.

Results: These subtler techniques kept 240 tons of waste material out of landfills and saved $9,000.

Case Study #7 – Residential Construction


A general contractor constructed 60 new homes for the Klahanie housing development in Issaquah,
Washington. The total size of the project was 120,000 square feet. The developer used sustainable design and
construction techniques and managed construction waste. Each house construction site used wire-mesh corrals
for segregating wood, drywall, cardboard and copper construction waste. The builder avoided the rental cost of
waste dumpsters by using the corrals. The corrals were dismantled and contents emptied into trucks for
recycling.

The following estimated material amounts were recycled from each house:
• Wood – 2,200 pounds
• Drywall – 2,200 pounds
• Cardboard – 17 pounds
• Copper – 7.5 pounds

Results: Waste management diverted nearly 133 tons of construction waste or 55% of C&D waste was recycled
and this saved $245 per house for a total project savings of $14,726.

Appendix D - 2
Appendix D
Case Studies

Case Study #8 –Residential Construction


The Portland, Oregon, Habitat for Humanity constructed a new 1,120 square-foot three-bedroom home using
sustainable design and construction techniques to reduce construction waste. These techniques included using a
standard 2-foot house design module, 2x6s on 24 vice 16 inch centers for wall framing, ladder blocking at
partitions, box vice solid headers, 24-inch composite floor truss spacing, and triple composite trusses to replace
beams. Habitat used small pieces of lumber for blocking and had suppliers deliver pre-cut lumber to fit the
modular design. These practices left little scrap wood for disposal. Sustainable techniques saved material, labor,
and disposal costs.

Results: One thousand board feet of dimensional lumber were saved when compared to traditional house design
and construction. Sustainable construction techniques nearly eliminated all waste wood.

Case Study #9 –Residential Construction


A private citizen constructed a 220 square feet deck on his home in West Linn, Oregon. The home owner saved
$280 in material costs by visiting various construction sites and asking permission to salvage materials
identified as waste. Salvaged materials included concrete piers, posts, joists, decking, screws, paint, and wood
protective finish. This case study provides an example to construction contractors of how easy it can be to
divert waste by allowing on-site salvage.

Results: Using salvaged materials saved 24% of project cost.

Case Study #10 – Non-residential Renovation


A commercial contractor gutted and remodeled a 6,000 square-foot office for $61,700 in Portland, Oregon. A
recycling contractor was hired and required to haul materials at night to prevent any project slowdown. Night
operations allowed the recycler time to haul small loads out without the expense of a waste chute and on-street
drop boxes. Only 400 pounds of C&D waste were disposed and the total materials recycled were:

• Drywall 10,000 pounds


• Wood 7,200 pounds
• Metals 300 pounds

Results: The savings from recycling instead of land disposal were $310. A C&D waste diversion rate of 98%
was achieved.

Case Study #11 – Non-residential Demolition & Construction


Commercial joint venture contractors demolished three facilities and constructed a 1.7 million square-foot
sports entertainment complex for $262 million in northeast Portland, Oregon. (C&D waste management results
were only available at the 25% complete stage of this). The contract required recycling. The contractors
removed a car wash manufacturing facility, the exhibit space in an existing coliseum, and a road. Contractors
used material reuse and recycling extensively. Twenty-five hundred tons of soil were used as clean fill and
25,800 tons of concrete and asphalt rubble were used for clean fill and road surfacing. A total of 845 tons of
materials were recycled:

• Metals 301 tons


• Drywall 538 tons
• Cardboard 6 tons

Appendix D - 3
Appendix D
Case Studies

Traditional C&D waste disposal would have cost $69,300 just for landfill tipping fees. Recycling cost $7,850
for fees and earned $19,600 from the sale of metal. Only 499 tons of mixed waste was disposed.

Results: Recycling savings totaled $81,000 and the C&D waste diversion rate was 98%.

Case Study #12 – Non-residential Demolition


A commercial contractor demolished a 60,000 square-foot institutional facility in 60 days in Portland, Oregon.
The contractor voluntarily used material reuse and recycling. Seventy-one tons of wood and organic debris
were recycled at a local material recovery facility. One hundred and twenty eight tons of miscellaneous metals
were recycled locally and 2x and 3x lumber was salvaged for eventual resale. Finally, 3,605 tons of concrete
were used as fill for new road construction.

The savings from recycling were primarily a result of the difference between tipping fees for traditional
landfilling and recycling fees when charged. The costs for hauling waste for disposal or recycling were very
nearly equal. The added cost of labor for on-site separation of recyclables was offset by the sale of metals and
lumber.

Results: Savings from recycling totaled $9,442 and the C&D waste diversion rate was 70%.

Case Study #13 – Non-residential Demolition


A salvage contractor and a commercial trucking and excavating contractor demolished an 86,400 square-foot
warehouse for $265,000 at the Port of Vancouver, Washington. The contractors were very successful in using
material reuse and recycling, and diverted 1,537 tons of materials as follows:
• Recycled Wood 570 tons
• Salvaged Lumber 678 tons
• Recycled Metals 201 tons
• Concrete 88 tons
Only 29.4 tons of mixed waste had to be landfilled and it was comprised primarily of asbestos roofing.

Results: Recycling saved $134,500 and the C&D waste diversion rate was 98%.

Case Study #14 – Residential Construction


A private-sector contractor constructed 205 apartment units for $9 million as Phase I of a Sunnyside, Oregon,
multifamily complex. The contractor was recycling for the first time, so it was decided to recycle only wood
and gypsum wallboard for this phase of the project. Contractor and subcontractor crews separated these
material into on-site containers and achieved a high rate of diversion of clean materials. Solid and composite
wood scraps were ground by a local material recovery facility, then sent to a manufacturer of particle board.
The gypsum wallboard scraps went to a drywall manufacturer to be used in making new drywall.

Results: A total of 686 tons of wood and drywall were recycled and the estimated savings was the difference
between the cost of traditional disposal fees and the cost of labor, transportation, and processing fees for
recycling. This difference was $16,000.

Case Study #15 – Non-residential Demolition and Renovation


A commercial contractor renovated a 198,500 square-foot department store into a new office headquarters for
$14.1 million in northeast Portland, Oregon. The demolition subcontractor completely gutted the existing
building down to the reinforced concrete frame. Drywall scraps were used to manufacture new gypsum

Appendix D - 4
Appendix D
Case Studies

wallboard; wood was processed for use as boiler fuel; and mixed metals and cardboard were recycled locally. A
total of 725 tons of materials were recycled as follows:

• Drywall 111 tons


• Metal 406 tons
• Wood 203 tons
• Cardboard 5 tons

A total of 155 tons of materials were salvaged as follows:

• Wood 124 tons


• Flooring 20 tons
• Carpet 9 tons
• Doors & Fixtures 2 tons

Remaining rubble was used as clean fill at a number of area sites. Only 265 tons of mixed waste was disposed
in landfills.

Results: Recycling saved $35,000, and the C&D waste diversion rate was 76%.

Case Study #16 – Non-residential Construction


A private contractor constructed two adjacent office buildings of 3,673 and 3,780 square feet in Tigard,
Oregon. A specialty contractor was hired to divert waste. Local residents were invited to salvage any solid or
composite wood scraps before the remainder was process for boiler fuel. Over two tons of wood were recycled
using these simple methods. A total of 3.75 tons of mixed waste and drywall were disposed in landfills.
Drywall was not recycled, but additional savings of $60 were possible had it been. The cost of traditional waste
disposal was estimated at $1,300, but the actual cost to recycle was only $700.

Results: Recycling saved $600, and the C&D waste diversion rate was 37%.

Case Study #17 – Residential Deconstruction


A private contractor deconstructed a 1,280 square-foot 1920s house in southeast Portland, Oregon, for $5,400.
Hand labor was used instead of mechanical demolition and the contractor carefully disassembled, cleaned and
sorted materials for recycling or reuse using this approach. Deconstruction took two weeks. Lumber, siding,
doors, hardware, and other building materials were sorted for resale and reuse. The estimated market value of
these reusable materials was estimated at $5,100, although this amount was not used in calculating the
recycling savings. Remaining wood scraps were recycled as boiler fuel and scrap metals were sold.

A total of 22.5 tons of materials were diverted for reuse or recycling as follows:
RECYCLE SALVAGE

Wood 9.5 tons Wood 17,000 pounds


Metal 2.0 tons Brick 4,600 pounds
Hardware 300 pounds
Doors 200 pounds

Appendix D - 5
Appendix D
Case Studies

The bid range for conventional demolition was $8,000 to $10,000. The contractor avoided demolition
equipment costs and tipping fees. These avoided costs were more than offset by the added cost for hand labor to
deconstruct. Fifteen tons of concrete rubble were used off site as clean fill, leaving a total of 10.5 tons of mixed
waste for landfills.

Results:

It is interesting to compare the results of deconstructing a house in this case study to the conventional
demolition of a similar home in the next. Since both employed waste recycling, what might be the
distinguishing factors for choosing one method over the other? If you normalize appropriate data because of the
difference in square footage, then the following comparisons can be made:

Deconstruction vs. Demolition


• Time 10 days 2 days
• Recycling Savings $2,600 $1,402
• Tons Diverted 22.5 tons 23.8 tons
• Diversion Rate 77% 76%

In this example deconstruction has the advantage of producing a 30% greater savings but at the expense of
taking five times as long to complete the job. If time to complete the job is critical, then conventional
demolition with recycling may be the best option. Otherwise, the greater savings can be achieved with
deconstruction.

Case Study #18 – Residential Demolition (Mechanized)


A private-sector contractor demolished in one day a 750 square-foot home in Hillsboro, Oregon, using a track
hoe and bucket. The owner salvaged wood doors and fixtures before demolition. The contractor shipped wood
and shake roofing for recycling into boiler fuel and sent the broken concrete foundation and asphalt driveway to
a material recovery facility for reuse as clean fill later.

The cost to recycle, including added labor for source separation of materials and hauling them to recycling
processors, was $2,125. Traditional waste hauling and disposal in landfills was estimated at $3,000. The
savings occurred primarily from recycling the wood and shake roofing.

The contractor diverted a total of 14 tons of demolition waste for recycling or reuse as follows:
• Wood and Shakes 18,000 pounds
• Concrete and Asphalt 10,000 pounds

One and a half tons of mixed waste and drywall were disposed in landfills. The contractor would have saved an
additional $30 had the drywall been recycled.

Results: Recycling saved $825 and the C&D waste diversion rate was 76%.

Case Study #19 – Residential Construction


A private-sector contractor constructed a new 2,800 square-foot home for $275,000 in southwest Portland,
Oregon. The client specifically requested construction waste be recycled and a waste audit was performed to
precisely track waste quantities and their disposition.

Appendix D - 6
Appendix D
Case Studies

The contractor successfully recycled 6.4 tons of material and disposed only 0.5 tons of mixed waste. Drywall
scraps were recycled into new gypsum wall board; solid and composite wood scraps were recycled into boiler
fuel and building materials; cardboard was recycled into new cardboard; and concrete was used as clean fill.
The breakout by characteristics and quantity of the recycled waste was as follows:

• Wood 6,945 pounds


• Drywall 3,806 pounds
• Concrete 1,698 pounds
• Cardboard 280 pounds
• Metal 138 pounds

The cost to recycle, including additional labor for job-site separation and self-hauling, was $600. The budgeted
cost for waste hauling and landfill tipping fees was $1,000.

Results: Recycling saved the client $400 and the C&D waste diversion rate was 93%.

Appendix D - 7
Appendix F
Websites for Material Exchanges and
Related C&D Waste Information
Part 1 – Material Exchanges

http://cbot-recycle.com - This is the homepage of the Chicago Board of Trades


(CBOT) Recyclables Exchange. The CBOT Recyclables Exchange is dedicated to the trade of
recyclable goods and is open to all Registered Users worldwide. Users can register on-line by
clicking on the “Subscribe” key or Register now online and following instructions. There is a $
10 one-time registration fee and a small charge for posting listings on a pay-as-you-go basis.
Unregistered users can click the “Preview” key or Learn more about how it works to see how the
system works.

CBOT’s goal is to allow easy and immediate contact between Buyers and Sellers of recyclable
commodities, active on the market at any given time. Sellers post their sell listings in the
exchange while Buyers enter into the system their buy parameters for the commodities they are
interested in, and the system automatically delivers to them by e-mail, within minutes, copies of
all the matching sell listings as they are posted. Extensive information on materials such as:
definitions, specifications and sampling or test methods is freely available in the CBOT
Recyclables Exchange for your convenience.

www.ciwmb.ca.gov/CalMAX - This is the homepage for the California Material Exchange


(CalMAX). CalMAX is a free service designed to help businesses find markets for materials they
have traditionally discarded. CalMAX helps businesses, industries, and institutions save resources
and money. Users should click on Search Listings and follow instructions to obtain listings like
the following sample search request for wood:

S4S YELLOW/WHITE PINE (Available)


15 -yr old! 35,000 pieces available (1'' x 8'' to 1'' x 9'' wide, 60/63). All priced to sell.
Robbie Wood - Park Hill, OK - 918-458-5303 RWOODY@FULLNET.NET
Region: 'Out of State' Listing ID: 22205-1

WOOD (Wanted)
2`` x 4``, 2`` x 6``, 4`` x 4``, 4`` x 10``, and 6`` x 12`` longer than 6 ft. Plywood or any
thickness, full sheets, half sheets are acceptable. Please note that the telephone number is
in Mexico. Lou Hernandez - Ensenada, Mexico, - 011-526-177-4987
Region: 'Out of State' Listing ID: 10651-3

Users should click on Create Listings and follow instructions if they desire to post a
listing.
www.greenguide.com/exchange - This is the Salvaged Building Materials Listing page within the
Green Building Resource Guide homepage. This exchange is a free service. Users should click on
“Search The Listings” and follow instructions to obtain listings like the following sample request:

Item, Status: salvaged wood, for sale


Company, Contact: Duluth Timber Company, Liz Bieter
Location: Duluth, Minnesota 55816, United States

Appendix F - 1
Appendix F
Websites for Material Exchanges and
Related C&D Waste Information
Phone Number, Email: 218-727-2145, dtc@computerpro.com
Description: reclaimed timbers, 'as is', resawn beams, flooring, paneling, trim, mantels,

custom millwork, douglas fir, southern yellow pine, redwood decking, cypress, limited
quantities of other species.

Item, Status: wood window, looking to buy


Company, Contact: D. Maran Const., not given not given
Location: not given, Not in US or Canada 94025, United States
Phone Number, Email: not given, drewd@aol.com
Description: need one fixed single light wood window, standard sash and jamb.

Users should click on Add a Listing and follow instructions for adding a new record.

www.metrokc.gov/hazwaste/imex - This is the Industrial Materials Exchange (IMEX)) page


within the Metro, King County, WA local waste management homepage. IMEX is a free service
designed to match businesses that produce wastes, industrial by-products, or surplus materials
with businesses that need them. The bimonthly print catalog lists wanted or available materials.
By utilizing IMEX, waste generators can be matched with waste users. Users may click on How
to Use the Catalog for general IMEX instructions. Users should click on the bimonthly IMEX
Catalog key, then click on either the appropriate item under Wanted or Available to obtain
listings like the following samples:

W0904106 - LUMBER
Wanted in Greater Seattle, Tacoma Area, :
I will haul your unwanted lumber away anytime. I am interested in "2 by anything" and
"1 by anything" lumber. No plywood. Wood can be wet, full of nails, or old and
weathered.
CONTACT: Tor Clausen, Phone: E-Mail: torlissa@olywa.net

A0900083 - PLYWOOD
Available in Spokane, WA :
200-300 pieces of ABX plywood, .290 thickness 5 ply x 6" wide x 12' to 24' lengths.
Available 4 times/year. Packaged by steel banding. Can be used for siding applications,
fascias, fencing, etc. Also, 1/2" by 8' and 1/2" x 10', 10" wide 5 ply ACX. Probably 300
sheets of each available.
CONTACT: Gary Bugbey, Stinson Manufacturing Co. Phone:(509)534-1509 E-Mail:
stinmfg@aol.com

Users should click on Online Listing Form and follow the instructions to enter a listing.

www.rbme.com - This is the homepage of the Reusable Building Materials Exchange (RBME).
RBME is a convenient way to easily exchange small or large quantities of used or surplus
building materials. You can post listings of materials you wish to get rid of or browse for
materials currently available in your area. Each listing contains a description of the materials
along with a name and telephone number and any cost or delivery information. The actual
exchange transactions are carried out directly between the interested parties.

Appendix F - 2
Appendix F
Websites for Material Exchanges and
Related C&D Waste Information
Users should click on one of six participating State of Washington counties and then click on
Browse Materials to obtain a summary of material type from which to choose. The number of
entries for Available and Sought materials follows each type. Selecting one of these numbers will
provide the following sample listings for available and sought materials, respectively:

Post #488 (posted 10/15/1999, expires 01/13/2000)


Type: Lumber
Description: Glulam Beam(new in wrap) 5-1/8"x18"x14' $125/OBO (cost $230)
Contact: Greg Brown
Cost? Y
City: Bellevue
Will deliver or ship? Y
Phone: 425-649-8207
Delivery or shipping cost? Y
Email: Gbrown1754@aol.com

Post #230 (posted 10/09/1999, expires 01/07/2000)


Type: Lumber
Description: plywood, 4x4, 6x6, any treated wood suitable for outdoor buildings
Contact: Debbie Gaebler
City: Kent
Phone: 253-630-9936
Call: varies
Email: gaebler@nwlink.com
Users desiring to add a listing must click Register and follow the instructions. Once registered,
users should select a county, click List/Edit Materials, log in, then follow the instructions after
clicking available material or sought material.

www.recycle.net/recycle - This is the homepage for Recycler’s World. Recycler's World is a


world wide trading site for information related to secondary or recyclable commodities, by-
products, used & surplus items or materials. Users should select one of the listed Secondary
Commodity Sections, for example: Used Building Materials Section. Next the user should select
one of the categories offered, for example: Used/Reusable Lumber & Wood. The user is then
offered three choices: Recycler's Exchange Policies & Procedures, Add a Free Listing, or View
Wanted & Available Listings [91]. Selecting “add” allows the user to Add or View listings in the
area of choice. Just click and follow instructions. Selecting “View” provides listings like the
following samples:
WANTED - Used/Reusable Lumber and Wood -Used/Reusable Barn Board
Item ID#: LW079424
Name: 5TH WHEEL LOADS OF 2X,4X,6X'S ETC
Description: I HAVE SEVERAL BARNS TO BEEN TORN DOWN THAT
HAS THOUSANDS OF BOARD FT OF 2X'S 4X'S 6X'S ETC.. ALSO 3FT UP
TO 12 WIDE, JUST A HAIR BELOW 6 FT LONG, WILL TO SELL AT BEST
OFFER.

Appendix F - 3
Appendix F
Websites for Material Exchanges and
Related C&D Waste Information
[Quantity: TRAILER LOADS] [TONS] [WEEKLY] [Price: BEST OFFER]
[TONS] [USA DOLLARS]
[Shipping Point: LOST CREEK W.VA]

AVAILABLE - Used/Reusable Lumber and Wood -Used/Reusable Barn Board


Item ID#: LA079709
Name: HAND HEWN WHITE PINE BEAMS
Description: BEAUTIFUL 2/4 SIDED HAND HEWN BARN BEAMS. 9x9 to
10x11. 20 to 26 ft LONG. WOULD MAKE NICE LOGS FOR A CABIN OR A
HOUSE. NO BUG DAMMAGE. ALSO WE GET LOTS OF BARN WOOD IN
WEEKLY.

[Quantity: 40pcs.] [TONS] [EVERY WEEK] [Price: $3 a ft.] [] [US. DOLLAR]


[Shipping Point: MERCERSBURG, PA. USA]

Part 2 – Related C&D Waste Information


www.amcity.com/albany/stories/1997/10/13/story1.html - This site contains an article titled,
“Landfill Expansion Proposed,” from the Capital District Business Review, week of October 13,
1997 edition. The article highlights the problem of shrinking landfill space and opposition to
creating construction and demolition landfills and may be used as reference material. Slightly
Useful

www.epages.net/dsw/disposal/constr.htm - This site contains the Construction & Demolition


Waste page of the Durban Solid Waste (DSW) homepage for Durban, South Africa. The page
provides a summary of C&D waste, waste management possibilities, limiting factors, and
remaining issues. The information provided may be used as reference material. Slightly Useful

www.ciwmb.ca.gov - This is the homepage for the California Integrated Waste Management
Board (CIWMB). The CIWMB is responsible for managing California's solid waste stream. The
Board is helping California divert 50 percent of its waste from landfills by 2000. The site
provides access to related programs like: Construction/Demolition Debris Recycling, Buy
Recycled Programs, and the California Materials Exchange. The site provides access to
publications, valuable links, important calendar events, and waste/waste handling databases.
Highly Useful

www.cdwaste.com - This is the C&D Waste Web for Canada. This site is being developed as a
repository of information for Canadian construction and demolition waste management and
options for reducing, reusing, and recycling waste. The site provides access to case studies,

reference documents, training materials, a Province service directory, and related links. The
information provided may be used as reference material. Moderately Useful

Appendix F - 4
Appendix F
Websites for Material Exchanges and
Related C&D Waste Information
www.co.washtenaw.mi.us/DEPTS/EIS/constfs.htm - This site is the Waste Reduction and
Recycling Opportunities for Construction and Demolition Debris page of the Washtenaw County,
MI homepage. The site provides a useful primer for implementing C&D waste management at the
local level and may be used as reference material. Slightly Useful

www.tourism.gov.au/publications/BPE/BuildingMaterials.html - This site is the Building


Materials page of the Australian Office of Tourism homepage. It contains a summary of actions
being recommended for waste minimization. The site also has links to Solid Materials,
Newspaper and Cardboard, and Glass pages containing a summary of actions and issues for
reusing and recycling these wastes. The information provided may be used as reference material.
Slightly Useful

www.gov.ns.ca/envi/wasteman/index.htm - This site is the Waste Resource Management page of


the Nova Scotia Department of the Environment homepage. The site contains access to
information on the Nova Scotia Solid Waste-Resource Strategy; waste diversion
accomplishments as reported by The Resource Recovery Fund Board; disposal, composting, and
C&D sites in Nova Scotia; recycling and composting; waste reduction fact sheets; and other
related resources. The information provided may be used as reference material. Slightly Useful

www.informinc.org/cdreport.html - This site contains the following construction and demolition


waste report, “Building for the Future: Strategies to Reduce Construction and Demolition Waste
in Municipal Projects,” by Bette K. Fishbein, June 1998, 100 pp. Building for the Future
identifies strategies that have been used successfully around the country to reduce C&D waste
during the design, construction, and demolition phases of municipal building projects. The
information provided may be used as reference material. Highly Useful

www.nahbrc.org - This site is the homepage for the National Association of Home Builders
(NAHB) Research Center. The NAHB Research Center is a separately incorporated, wholly-
owned, not-for-profit subsidiary of the NAHB. The Research Center keeps U.S. homebuilders in
tune with new technology and changing needs. Their programs include testing and certification of
building products. The Research Center links the research and product development communities
with the practitioners who put methods into practice and products into use. The site has a Green
Building Activities page that provides access to “The Green Builder Guide,” construction waste
management publications, information on the 2000 National Green Building Conference, and
other resources. The site may provide help in minimizing new housing construction waste.
Slightly Useful

www.floridacenter.org - This is the homepage for the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous
Waste Management. The Center provides leadership in the field of waste management research
and supports the Florida Department of Environmental Protection mission to preserve and protect
the state's natural resources. The Center's research program meets two major objectives: develop
and test innovative, low-cost, and environmentally sound methods and strategies for managing
Florida's solid and hazardous wastes; and transfer research results to the public and private
sectors for practical solutions to Florida's waste management problems. Principal areas of related
research include: construction and demolition debris, hazardous waste management, pollution
prevention, recycling and reuse, and waste reduction. The site provides access to conference

Appendix F - 5
Appendix F
Websites for Material Exchanges and
Related C&D Waste Information
information, brochures and bulletins, research publications and projects and helpful links.
Moderately Useful

www.redo.org - This is the homepage for the Reuse Development Organization (ReDO). ReDO is
a national and international tax-exempt, 501(c) (3) non-profit organization dedicated to promoting
reuse as an environmentally sound, socially beneficial, and economical means for managing
surplus and discarded materials. ReDo provides education, training, and technical assistance to
start up and operate reuse programs. ReDO is working to create a national reuse network and
infrastructure. The site contains access to reuse expertise in a variety of areas, identifies some
model programs, and provides a useful reuse fact sheet, current news, website links, and
publications. Moderately Useful

www.materials4future.org - This is the homepage for the Materials for the Future (MFF). MFF is
a nonprofit organization founded in 1992 by a group of San Francisco Bay Area financers and
recycling advocates. MFF supports community-based initiatives that integrate the environmental
goals of resource conservation through waste prevention, reuse, and recycling with the economic
development goals of job creation/retention, enterprise development, and local empowerment.
The site contains descriptions of MFF's granting programs;guidelines and current MFF grant
recipients; current MFF projects on deconstruction and profiles of 50 small business opportunities
using recovered materials; related publications; and links to other recycling and community
economic development organizations. Slightly Useful

www.smartgrowth.org - This is the homepage for the Smart Growth Network (SGN). SGN helps
create national, regional, and local coalitions to encourage metropolitan development that
is: environmentally, fiscally, and economically and socially smart. The site has a Smart Buildings
page that leads to information on deconstruction, deconstruction resources, related links, and
case studies. Moderately Useful

www.multnomah.lib.or.us/metro/rem/rwp/constrcy.html - This is the Construction Site Recycling


page from the Metro homepage. Metro is an elected regional government serving more than 1.3
million residents in the 3 counties and 24 cities comprising the Portland, Oregon metropolitan
area. Metro provides transportation and land-use planning services and oversees regional garbage
disposal and recycling waste reduction programs. The page provides information on how to begin
recycling programs, how to salvage and recycle on new construction and demolition projects, and
accessing and using the International Material Exchange. Moderately Useful

www.eren.doe.gov/femp/greenfed/5.0/5_3_construct_waste_manage.htm - This page is Chapter


5.3, Construction Waste Management, of the Greening Federal Facilities guide, located within the
homepage of the Federal Energy Management Program, Greening Initiatives. This is a resource
guide for Federal facility managers to assist them in reducing energy consumption and costs,
improving the working environment of the facilities they manage, and reducing the

environmental impacts of their operations. This chapter provides an excellent summary of


managing construction waste, references, and contacts. Moderately Useful

www.montana.com/CRBT - This is the homepage for the Center for Resourceful Building
Technology (CRBT). The CBRT is a non-profit corporation dedicated to promoting

Appendix F - 6
Appendix F
Websites for Material Exchanges and
Related C&D Waste Information
environmentally responsible practices in construction. Its mission is to serve as both catalyst and
facilitator in encouraging building technologies which realize a sustainable and efficient use of
resources. Through research, education, and demonstration, CRBT promotes resource efficiency
in building design, materials selection and construction practices. The site contains pages on
current research, education, and demonstration projects; and related publications and links.
Moderately Useful

www.rbme.com - This is the homepage for the Reusable Building Materials Exchange (RBME).
RBME is a convenient way to easily exchange small or large quantities of used or surplus
building materials for participating counties in WA. The site uses the International Material
Exchange (IMEX). Slightly Useful

www.greenguide.com - This is the homepage for the “Green Building Resource Guide.” The
Guide is a database of over 600 green building materials and products selected specifically for
their usefulness to the design and building professions. The site also provides access to the
Salvaged Building Materials Exchange. Highly Useful

www.state.nc.us/TJCOG/cdwaste.htm - This is the Construction and Demolition waste programs


page of the Triangle J Council of Governments (TJCOG) homepage. The Triangle J Council of
Governments is a voluntary organization of municipal and county governments in North
Carolina's Region J (Chatham, Durham, Johnston, Lee, Orange and Wake counties). The
organization works to meet the region's needs in a wide range of areas including support to
environmental protection programs. TJCOG produced “WasteSpec, Model Specifications for
Construction Waste Reduction, Reuse, and Recycling.” WasteSpec is a manual which provides
architects and engineers with both model specifications and background information addressing
waste reduction, reuse, and recycling before and during construction and demolition. The site
summarizes WasteSpec and provides the capability of ordering it. Highly Useful

www.enveng.ufl.edu/homepp/townsend/default.htm - This is the Solid and Hazardous Research


and Education page within the homepage for the Department of Environmental Engineering
Science at the University of Florida. The page is provided as a tool to the program's students and
as a means of information dissemination. The site lists related courses, provides access to
publications covering research projects, and links to related sites. Highly Useful

www.cwc.org - This is the homepage for the Clean Washington Center (CWC). CWC is a not-
for-profit organization within the Pacific Northwest Economic Region (PNWER). PNWER is a
regional economic development and public policymaking entity based in Seattle. CWC develops
markets for recycled materials. CWC has worked in partnership with business, industry, and local
government to increase the manufacturing capacity for materials recovered from the waste
stream. The site provides phone contact for the following services: Business Development,
Recycling Technology, Product Marketing, and Policy Research & Analysis. It also provides
Internet access to the Chicago Board of Trades Recyclables Exchange. Slightly Useful

www.informinc.org/cdreport.html - This is the homepage for INFORM, Inc., an independent


research organization that examines the effects of business practices on the environment and on
human health. The goal of INFORM is to identify ways of doing business that ensure
environmentally sustainable economic growth. Government, industry, and environmental leaders

Appendix F - 7
Appendix F
Websites for Material Exchanges and
Related C&D Waste Information
around the world use INFORM reports. INFORM publishes its research in books, newsletters,
articles, and on the Internet. They have published more than 100 reports on how to avoid unsafe
uses of toxic chemicals, protect land and water resources, conserve energy, and safeguard public
health. Source for “Building for the Future: Strategies to Reduce Construction and Demolition
Waste in Municipal Projects.” Highly Useful

Appendix F - 8
Appendix G
List of Potential Asbestos Containing
Building Materials

• Acoustical Plaster • Fire Doors


• Adhesives • Fireproofing Materials
• Asphalt Floor Tile • Flexible Fabric Connections
• Base Flashing • Flooring Backing
• Blown-in Insulation • Heating and Electrical Ducts
• Boiler Insulation • High Temperature Gaskets
• Breaching Insulation • HVAC Duct Insulation
• Caulking/Putties • Joint Compounds
• Ceiling Tiles and Lay-in Panels • Laboratory gloves
• Cement Pipes • Laboratory Hoods/Table Tops
• Cement Siding • Packing Materials
• Cement Wallboard • Pipe Insulation
• Chalkboards • Roofing Felt
• Construction Mastics/Adhesives • Roofing Shingles
• Decorative Plaster • Spackling Compounds
• Ductwork • Spray-Applied Insulation
• Electric Wiring Insulation • Taping Compounds (Thermal)
• Electric Cloth • Textured Paints/Coatings
• Electric Panel Partitions • Thermal Paper Products
• Elevator Brake Shoes • Vinyl Floor Tile
• Elevator Equipment Panels • Vinyl Sheet Flooring Cooling Towers
• Fire Blankets • Vinyl Wall Coverings
• Fire Curtains • Wallboard

Appendix G - 1
Appendix H
Part 1 - WasteSpec References for
Managing Hazardous Waste

• In specification DIVISION 1, GENERAL REQUIREMENTS, these sections include the


following [notes] or “language” to specifiers:

• SECTION 01010, SUMMARY OF WORK, PART 1 – GENERAL, CUTTING AND


PATCHING, [This is an appropriate location for additional language pertaining to
environmental issues beyond the scope of WasteSpec, such as requirements to provide
environmentally benign, non-hazardous, or recycled content materials for…]
• SECTION 01060, REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS, [Incorporate…any statutes,
ordinances, or regulations relevant to … waste reduction…]
• SECTIONS 01300, SUBMITTALS and 01630, SUBSTITUTIONS, PART 1 –
GENERAL, [This is an appropriate location for additional language pertaining to
environmental issues beyond the scope of WasteSpec, such as requests for Material
Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for alternative environmental products or materials, Volatile
Organic Compounds (VOC) emissions data for proposed materials…]
• SECTIONS 01500, CONSTRUCTION FACILITIES AND TEMPORARY CONTROLS
and 01700, CONTRACT CLOSE-OUT, PART 1 – GENERAL, CLEANING and FINAL
CLEANING, “Cleaning materials. Use cleaning materials that are non-hazardous.”

• Specification DIVISION 2, SITEWORK, PART 3 – EXECUTION, includes the following


language and note in SECTION 02282, TERMITE CONTROL, ENVIRONMENTAL
CONSIDERATIONS, “Use the least toxic treatment methods and materials for rodent,
termite and vegetation control, including, but not limited to, installation of physical controls”
and, [This is an appropriate location for additional language pertaining to environmental
issues beyond the scope of WasteSpec, such as requirements for non-chemical termite control
using an anti-termite sand barrier…]

• Specification DIVISIONS 2 through 10 and 13 through 16 all include applicable portions of


the following language under PART 3 - EXECUTION, WASTE MANAGEMENT: “Use the
least toxic [EDIT TO SUIT SECTION] lubricants, cleaners, sealants, adhesives, primers,
sealers and finishes necessary to comply with the requirements of this section”.

• Specification DIVISIONS 6, WOOD AND PLASTICS, PART 3 - EXECUTION includes the


following language under SECTION 06400, ARCHITECTURAL WOODWORK,
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS: “All substrate materials to be manufactured
without the use of urea formaldehyde additives or permanently sealed to prevent outgassing”.

• Specification DIVISIONS 7, 9 through 12 and 14 through 16 all include applicable portions


of the following language under PART 2 – PRODUCTS, ENVIRONMENTAL
CONSIDERATIONS: “In the selection of products and materials of this section preference
will be given to those with the following characteristics [EDIT TO SUIT SECTION AND
PROJECT]: water based, water soluble, water clean-up, non-flammable, biodegradable, low
VOC content, coatings and fluids with low VOC content, manufactured without compounds
which contribute to ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere, manufactured without
compounds which contribute to smog in the lower atmosphere, does not contain methylene

Appendix H-1
Appendix H
Part 1 - WasteSpec References for
Managing Hazardous Waste
chloride, does not contain chlorinated hydrocarbons, does not contain or generate hazardous
or toxic waste, factory applied coatings”.

• Specification DIVISION 7, THERMAL AND MOISTURE PROTECTION includes the


following language for specifiers:

• SECTION 07100, WATERPROFFING, “Where choices exist, preference is to be given


to coatings which are water based and require water clean-up.”
• SECTION 07200, INSULATION, “A. The use of insulation products manufactured with
CFCs as blowing agents is prohibited. B. Where choices exist in the provision of glass
fiber insulation, preference is to be given to the following characteristics [EDIT TO SUIT
PROJECT]: low or no formaldehyde emissions…”

Appendix H-2
Appendix H
Part 2 - WasteSpec References for
Construction Waste Management
SECTION 01505

CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT

THIS SECTION HAS BEEN INTRODUCED TO DEAL SPECIFICALLY WITH


CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE MANAGEMENT.

DEPENDING ON THE SIZE AND COMPLEXITY OF THE PROJECT, YOU MAY


INCORPORATE ALL CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE MANAGEMENT
INFORMATION AND REQUIREMENTS INTO A SINGLE, STAND ALONE SECTION,
SECTION 01505 - CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT,

**OR**

YOU MAY DISTRIBUTE CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE MANAGEMENT


INFORMATION AND REQUIREMENTS THROUGHOUT RELATED DOCUMENTS AND
SECTIONS OF THE PROJECT MANUAL FOLLOWING THE EXAMPLE USED IN THIS
WASTESPEC. LIST ALL RELATED SECTIONS.

IF YOU SPECIFIED THE USE OF AN ALTERNATE IN SECTION 01031 IN ORDER TO


OBTAIN COST INFORMATION RELATED TO JOB SITE RECYCLING, YOU MAY
DELETE REQUIREMENTS IN THIS SECTION FOR THE CONTRACTOR TO DEVELOP A
DRAFT WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN. IF YOU DID NOT SPECIFY AN ALTERNATE IN
ORDER TO DETERMINE RECYCLING COST INFORMATION, THE DRAFT WASTE
MANAGEMENT PLAN OUTLINED IN THIS SECTION SHOULD BE USED TO ESTIMATE
THE COST OF RECYCLING.

EDIT TO SUIT PROJECT AND LOCATION. DELETE OR EDIT REFERENCES TO WASTE


DISPOSAL IN OTHER SECTIONS THAT CONFLICT WITH THE PROVISIONS OF THIS
SECTION.

PART 1 - GENERAL

REQUIREMENTS INCLUDED IN THIS SECTION

[EDIT LIST BELOW TO SUIT PROJECT.]

A. Waste Management Goals.


B. Waste Management Plan.
C. Management Plan Implementation.
D. Special Programs.

RELATED SECTIONS

[EDIT LIST BELOW TO SUIT PROJECT.]

Appendix H-3
Appendix H
Part 2 - WasteSpec References for
Construction Waste Management
A. Document 00120-Supplementary Instructions to
Bidders-Resource Efficiency.
B. Document 00800 - Supplementary General Conditions.
C. Section 01010 - Summary of the Work.
D. Section 01030 - Alternates, or
Section 01031 - Waste Management / Recycling
Alternates.
E. Section 01060 - Regulatory Requirements.
F. Section 01094 - Definitions.
G. Section 01200 - Project Meetings.
H. Section 01300 - Submittals.
I. Section 01400 - Quality Control.
J. Section 01500 - Construction Facilities and
Temporary Controls.
K. Section 01505 - Construction Waste Management.
L. Section 01600 - Materials and Equipment.
M. Section 01630 - Substitutions.
N. Section 01700 - Contract Close-out.

WASTE MANAGEMENT GOALS

A. The Owner has established that this Project shall


generate the least amount of waste possible and
that processes that ensure the generation of as
little waste as possible due to error, poor
planning, breakage, mishandling, contamination, or
other factors shall be employed.

B. Of the inevitable waste that is generated, as many


of the waste materials as economically feasible
shall be reused, salvaged, or recycled. Waste
disposal in landfills shall be minimized. [REFER
TO SECTION 01094 - DEFINITIONS FOR TERMS USED IN
THIS SECTION.] [FOR PURPOSES OF THIS SECTION, THE
FOLLOWING DEFINITIONS APPLY: REUSE, SALVAGE,
RECYCLE, RETURN.]

[EDIT STATEMENTS ABOVE ACCORDING


TO WHETHER THIS SECTION (01505) IS INTEGRATED INTO
THE SPECIFICATION OR WHETHER IT IS USED AS A
STAND-ALONE SECTION.

C. With regard to these goals the Contractor shall


develop, for the Architect’s review, a Waste
Management Plan for this Project.

WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN

A. Draft Waste Management Plan: Within [SPECIFY TIME


FRAME] [10 CALENDAR DAYS] after receipt of Notice
of Award of Bid, or prior to any waste removal,

Appendix H-4
Appendix H
Part 2 - WasteSpec References for
Construction Waste Management
whichever occurs sooner, the Contractor shall
submit to the Owner and Architect a Draft Waste
Management Plan.

[SEE APPENDIX D FOR A SAMPLE


WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN WHICH CAN BE APPENDED TO
PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS.]

The Draft Plan shall contain the following:

1. Analysis of the proposed jobsite waste to be


generated, including types and quantities.

2. Landfill options: The name of the landfill(s)


where trash will be disposed of, the
applicable landfill tipping fee(s), and the
projected cost of disposing of all Project
waste in the landfill(s).

3. Alternatives to Landfilling: A list of each


material proposed to be salvaged, reused, or
recycled during the course of the Project, the
proposed local market for each material, and
the estimated net cost savings or additional
costs resulting from separating and recycling
(versus landfilling) each material. “Net”
means that the following have been subtracted
from the cost of separating and recycling:
(a) revenue from the sale of recycled or
salvaged materials and
(b) landfill tipping fees saved due to
diversion of materials from the landfill. The
list of these materials is to include, at
minimum, the following materials:

[LIST BELOW MATERIALS APPLICABLE TO PROJECT


AND LOCATION. THE LIST OF MATERIALS SHOULD
INCLUDE AT MINIMUM THE MATERIALS LISTED IN (a)
THROUGH (i) BELOW. ADD OTHER MATERIALS
RELEVANT TO LOCAL AREA. EXAMPLES MAY INCLUDE
DRYWALL; PLASTIC BUCKETS; CARPET AND CARPET
PAD TRIM; PAINT; ASPHALT ROOFING SHINGLES;
VINYL SIDING; PLASTIC SHEETING; AND RIGID FOAM
INSULATION.]

a. Cardboard.
b. Clean dimensional wood.
c. Beverage containers.
d. Land clearing debris.
e. Concrete.
f. Bricks.
g. Concrete Masonry Units (CMU).

Appendix H-5
Appendix H
Part 2 - WasteSpec References for
Construction Waste Management
h. Asphalt.
i. Metals from banding, stud trim, ductwork,
piping, rebar, roofing, other trim, steel,
iron, galvanized sheet steel, stainless
steel, aluminum, copper, zinc, lead, brass,
and bronze.

B. Resources for Development of Waste Management Plan:


The following sources may be useful in developing
the Draft Waste Management Plan:

[EDIT LIST OF RECYCLING RESOURCES BELOW TO SUIT


PROJECT. REFER TO APPENDICES A, B, C, AND D OF
THIS WASTESPEC FOR RESOURCES YOU CAN USE TO DEVELOP
RECYCLING WORKSHEETS AND LIST OF LOCAL MARKETS
SPECIFIC TO YOUR PROJECT.]

1. Recycling Haulers and Markets: [APPENDIX


_____] [THE ATTACHED LIST] contains local
haulers and markets for recyclable materials.
This list is provided for information only and
is not necessarily comprehensive; other
haulers and markets are acceptable. For more
information, contact the [STATE] [COUNTY]
[RECYCLING DEPARTMENT] [LISTED IN
APPENDIX _____] [AT PHONE NUMBER _________.]

2. Recycling Economics Information: [APPENDIX


___] [THE ATTACHED FORMS] contain information
that may be useful in estimating the costs or
savings or recycling options.

C. Final Waste Management Plan: Once the Owner has


determined which of the recycling options addressed
in the draft Waste Management Plan are
acceptable, the Contractor shall submit, within
[SPECIFY TIME FRAME] [10 CALENDAR DAYS] a Final
Waste Management Plan.

[SEE APPENDIX D FOR A SAMPLE WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN


WHICH CAN BE APPENDED TO PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS.]

The Final Waste Management Plan shall contain the


following:

1. Analysis of the proposed jobsite waste to be


generated, including types and quantities.

2. Landfill options: The name of the landfill(s)


where trash will be disposed of, the
applicable landfill tipping fee(s), and the
projected cost of disposing of all Project

Appendix H-6
Appendix H
Part 2 - WasteSpec References for
Construction Waste Management
waste in the landfill(s).

3. Alternatives to Landfilling: A list of the


waste materials from the Project that will be
separated for reuse, salvage, or recycling.

4. Meetings: A description of the regular


meetings to be held to address waste
management. Refer to Section 01200 - Project
Meetings.

5. Materials Handling Procedures: A description


of the means by which any waste materials
identified in item (3) above will be protected
from contamination, and a description of the
means to be employed in recycling the above
materials consistent with requirements for
acceptance by designated facilities.

6. Transportation: A description of the means of


transportation of the recyclable materials
(whether materials will be site-separated and
self-hauled to designated centers, or whether
mixed materials will be collected by a waste
hauler and removed from the site) and
destination of materials.

WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN IMPLEMENTATION

A. Manager: The Contractor shall designate an on-site


party (or parties) responsible for instructing
workers and overseeing and documenting
results of the Waste Management Plan for the
Project.

[DEPENDING ON THE SIZE AND COMPLEXITY OF THE


PROJECT, YOU MAY EITHER DESIGNATE A FULL TIME
CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGER OR ASSIGN RESPONSIBILITY
TO THE JOB SUPERVISOR OR APPROPRIATE PERSONNEL.]

B. Distribution: The Contractor shall distribute


copies of the Waste Management Plan to the Job Site
Foreman, each Subcontractor, the Owner, and the Architect.

C. Instruction: The Contractor shall provide on-site


instruction of appropriate separation, handling,
and recycling, salvage, reuse, and return
methods to be used by all parties at the
appropriate stages of the Project.

D. Separation facilities: The Contractor shall lay

Appendix H-7
Appendix H
Part 2 - WasteSpec References for
Construction Waste Management
out and label a specific area to facilitate
separation of materials for potential recycling,
salvage, reuse, and return. Recycling and waste
bin areas are to be kept neat and clean
and clearly marked in order to avoid contamination
of materials.

E. Hazardous wastes: Hazardous wastes shall be


separated, stored, and disposed of according to
local regulations.

F. Application for Progress Payments: The Contractor


shall submit with each Application for Progress
Payment a Summary of Waste Generated by the
Project. Failure to submit this information shall
render the Application for Payment incomplete and
shall delay Progress Payment. The Summary shall be
submitted on a form acceptable to the Owner
[SEE APPENDIX ____] and shall contain the following
information:

1. The amount (in tons or cubic yards) of


material landfilled from the Project, the
identity of the landfill, the total amount of
tipping fees paid at the landfill, and the
total disposal cost. Include manifests, weight
tickets, receipt, and invoices.

2. For each material recycled, reused, or


salvaged from the Project, the amount (in tons
or cubic yards), the date removed from the
jobsite, the receiving party, the
transportation cost, the amount of any
money paid or received for the recycled or
salvaged material, and the net total cost or
savings of salvage or recycling each material.
Attach manifests, weight tickets, receipts,
and invoices.

SPECIAL PROGRAMS

A. The Contractor shall be responsible for final


implementation of programs involving tax credits or
rebates or similar incentives related
to recycling, if applicable to the Project.
Revenues or other savings obtained for recycling or
returns shall accrue to the [CONTRACTOR] [OWNER].

1. Applicable programs are the following:

[LIST APPLICABLE PROGRAMS HERE.]

Appendix H-8
Appendix H
Part 2 - WasteSpec References for
Construction Waste Management

2. The Contractor is responsible for obtaining


information packets relevant to all of the
above-listed programs prior to starting work
on the Project.

3. The Contractor shall document work methods,


recycled materials,[LIST OTHER] that qualify
for tax credits, rebates, and other
savings under each of the above-listed
programs.

PART 2 PRODUCTS Not Used.

PART 3 EXECUTION Not Used.

END OF SECTION

Appendix H-9
Appendix I

Part 1 – Sample C&D Waste Management Strategy

INSTALLATION C&D WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

The government employees and residents of installation are committed to sustaining an economic
mission, healthy environment and vibrant economy. Consistent with this commitment, there has
been a fundamental shift in the way we view C&D waste. The Air Force has promulgated a waste
diversion policy that recognizes C&D waste is a resource that can save costs, generate revenues
and create jobs through cost effective and environmentally responsible management. The Air
Force measure of merit for diverting non-hazardous solid waste is 40% by FY 2004.

The installation is committed to achieving an overall objective of 50% C&D waste diversion by
the year 200X. In order to achieve this goal, the Installation has developed a forward-looking
strategy. The achievement of the strategic objective and goals will be monitored and assessed at
the periodic Environmental Safety and Occupational Health Committee meetings.

The C&D Waste Resource Management Strategy for installation includes the following goals:

o Require all contractors to analyze C&D waste diversion potential and submit C&D Waste
Management Plans for specific projects. This includes installation and family housing
maintenance contractors.

o Require all project designs to use a model specification like WasteSpec for reducing,
reusing and recycling C&D waste.

o Exploit existing markets for diverting wood, concrete, metals, reusable architectural
building components and drywall and identify new unused diversion markets for future
use.

o Monitor the successful implementation of Affirmative Procurement.

o Require all in-house construction work forces to prepare and implement generic C&D
waste management plans. This includes the installation Self-Help and family housing U-
Fix-It Stores.

o Identify and use partnerships to maximize additional C&D waste diversion resources.

o Conduct one pilot project for deconstruction and compare it with conventional demolition
for costs, revenues and time.

The C&D Waste Resource Management Strategy for the installation will include these benefits:

o Sustained mission through lower operating expenses for waste disposal.

o Reduced contract and in-house costs from material salvage, reuse and recycling.

o Extended landfill life.

o Sustained natural resources through reduced material and energy consumption.

Appendix I-1
Appendix I

Part 2 – Sample C&D Waste Management Plan


Project Title: Northwest Bank Construction Location: Kent, WA

Project Type: Demolition and New Construction

Waste Management Coordinators:

Waste Management Plan Guidelines:

1. This project shall target a C&D waste diversion rate of 75%. Work forces shall generate the
least amount of waste possible by planning and ordering carefully, following all proper storage
and handling procedures to reduce broken and damaged materials, and reusing materials
wherever possible. Waste materials generated shall be salvaged for donation or resale, or
separated for recycling to the extent that is economically feasible.

2. The Waste Management Chart identifies the waste materials expected to be generated on this
project, the disposal method for each material, and any handling requirements.

3. Waste diversion activities will be discussed at each safety meeting. Each contractor and
subcontractor will receive this WMP and be provided a tour of the job site. Each subcontractor
will be expected to make sure all work crews comply with the WMP. All containers will be
clearly labeled and lists of accepted/unaccepted materials will be posted throughout the site.

Waste Management Chart

Material Qty. Disposal Method Handling Procedure


Demolition
Asphalt from parking lot 100 tons Ground on-site, Reused as Fill
Wood framing 6 tons Recycled- Wood Recycling NW Separate clean wood into
“clean wood” dumpsters.
Decorative wood beams 300 bd. ft. Salvaged-Timber Frame Salvaging Remove by hand, store on-site,
on pallets for pick up.
Remaining wastes 8 tons Garbage-Sound Disposal

Appendix I-2
Appendix I

Part 2 – Sample C&D Waste Management Plan


Material Qty. Disposal Method Handling Procedure
New Construction
Concrete 2 tons Recycled-Puget Sound Concrete Break up any wastes or mistakes
and put in “concrete” dumpster.
Rebar OK.
Forming boards Reuse as many times as possible, Stack next to supply of new form
then recycled-Wood Recycling NW boards for reuse. Recycle clean
unusable forms in “clean wood”
recycling dumpsters.
Clean wood scrap 12 tons Scraps reused for form work, fire-breaks Stack reusable pieces next to
etc. Recycled-Wood Recycling dumpster for reuse. Separate
NW unusable clean wood into “clean
wood” recycling dumpsters.
Scrap metal 5 tons Recycled-Seattle Metals Deposit all metals in “metal”
Dumpster.
Drywall 10 tons Subcontractor will recycle and submit Either provide container or collect
reports to waste coordinator in vehicle for recycling.
Electric/plumbing sub- Subcontractor will recycle and submit Either provide container or collect
contractors’ metal and reports to waste coordinator in vehicle for recycling.
other recyclables
All other waste 14 tons Garbage-Sound Disposal Dispose in “trash” dumpster.

Appendix I-3
Appendix J

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Mumma, Tracy, “Cost-Effective Demolition Waste Management,” Good Cents Magazine (Summer),
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McGregor, Mark, Howard Washburn and Debbi Palermini, “FINAL REPORT-Characterization of


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Goddard, Jim, “Waste Reduction Specifications,” Construction Specifications Institute Technical


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Appendix J-1
Appendix J

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Appendix J-2
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Appendix J-3
Appendix J

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Appendix J-4