Table of Contents

Chapters 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction Enrolling Waste Managers to Take Action Planning to Get Started Implementing the C&D Waste Management Process Summary

Appendices A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Definitions Characterization Tables of C&D Waste C&D Waste Materials Checklist Case Studies Waste Management Planning Spreadsheets and Worksheets Websites for Material Exchanges and Related C&D Waste Information List of Potential Asbestos Containing Building Materials WasteSpec References for Managing Hazardous Waste and Construction Waste Management Sample C&D Waste Management Strategy and Plan Bibliography

Tables Value of C&D Waste Characterization of C&D Waste Reusable Building Materials Impact on AF MoM by Possible Non-hazardous C&D Waste Diversion Percentages 5. Comparison of Key Project Factors When Using and Not Using Specialty Contractors 6. Comparison of Waste Management Audit Results for Residential Renovation Projects 7. Comparison of Savings for Residential Renovation Projects 8. Comparison Between Deconstruction and Demolition 9. Weighted Average C&D Waste Generation Rates 10. Average C&D Waste Generation Rates for Typical Residential Renovation Scopes 11. Average C&D Waste Generation Rates for Additional Residential Renovation Scopes 12. Rounded Average Percentage of Waste Composition 1. 2. 3. 4.

Introduction

“ ‘Waste’ - A resource in the wrong place.”
An old Chinese proverb Purpose
The broad purpose of the Construction and Demolition (C&D) Waste Management Guide is to assist readers involved in the management of C&D wastes to track and divert the C&D portion of the total solid waste stream. Specifically, the goals of the Guide are to: • • • • Explain how C&D waste management can lower disposal cost and support Air Force goals for solid waste reduction. Show design and construction project managers how to manage C&D waste and support solid waste reduction goals. Identify and explain how to comply with environmental concerns, such as asbestos and lead-based paint, when managing C&D waste. Identify and provide tools, as well as their sources, for C&D waste management, such as spreadsheets and templates for specification writing.

Preview of Chapters

The Guide meets the specific goals with five chapters, beginning with this Introduction, that recaps the purposes of the Guide and provides a preview for subsequent chapters, and ending with a Summary of how the specific goals are met. The substantive chapters of the Guide include Enrolling Waste Mangers to Take Action, Planning to Get Started and Implementing the C&D Waste Management Process. Each is previewed below. Chapter 2 – Enrolling Waste Mangers to Take Action People who read and use this chapter will take committed action toward the possibility of safe and cost effective C&D waste management. Enrollment is defined as generating a possibility in the consciousness of others such that they accept the possibility, commit and act. Enrollment is accomplished by: • • • • Providing a common background of traditional C&D waste management practices and incentives for change. Readers see their own relationship to the possibility. Discussing the possibilities for diverting C&D waste while meeting or exceeding new AF C&D waste diversion goals. Readers see what has changed or their new options with respect to the possibility. Describing through successful case studies the opportunities for C&D waste management. Readers are given evidence that the possibility is feasible. Issuing a challenge for readers to commit to C&D waste diversion actions.

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Introduction

Providing a Common Background. This includes the scope of the Guide and some important C&D waste definitions. Traditional C&D waste management practices are explained, as well as incentives for change. The Guide also describes a number of C&D waste management options available to contractors and waste managers, and the five categories of C&D work on installations are identified. The scope of the Guide was purposely narrowed. Important aspects of the science of sustainable buildings involve waste prevention, as well as reducing waste, energy, and resources. While prevention and reduction are closely linked, comprehensive details of preventing C&D waste as part of design and construction of sustainable buildings is outside the scope of the Guide. However, the Guide does provide an overview of generally available waste prevention techniques. Possibilities for Diverting C&D Waste. Based on common background, an AF policy memo created the possibility. The HQ USAF/ILEV Memorandum, 26 Jan 1999, Subject: Non-hazardous Solid Waste Diversion Rate Measure of Merit (MoM) placed a new focus on C&D (construction and demolition) waste management. This memorandum not only established clear policy, but also mandated an annual MoM (measure of merit) for diverting non-hazardous solid waste from disposal in landfills and incinerators. The Guide shows the impact of successful C&D waste diversion on achieving the AF MoM by calculating a range of possible C&D waste diversion rates based on diverting C&D waste only. Opportunities for C&D Waste Management. Given that the possibility exists for safe and efficient C&D waste management, can we capitalize on the opportunities? The Guide uses a total of 26 case studies to answer this question with a resounding “yes.” The case studies cover the gamut of work expected on installations: new construction, renovation, and demolition for both residential and non-residential projects. The case studies clearly demonstrate the feasibility of lower cost alternatives to C&D waste management. The Challenge. Chapter 2 ends with a challenge to C&D waste managers to make a commitment to action. The Guide provides readers with the background knowledge, tools, resources, and step by step directions for taking action immediately. Chapter 3 – Planning to Get Started C&D waste managers must complete a significant amount of research and planning before they can develop an overall C&D waste strategy. This critical research and planning phase lays the foundation for preparation of subsequent waste management plans. Success in implementing plans and diverting C&D waste will depend largely on completing the following seven steps outlined in this chapter. PLANNING STEP 1 - Identify contractors, markets and facilities, material exchanges, and partnering organizations. PLANNING STEP 2 - Identify existing local resources and determine what they bring to the C&D waste management challenge.

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Introduction

while contracted work and projects use a 17-step process. PLANNING STEP 6 . mitigating or complying with the requirements PLANNING STEP 4 . & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Introduction . executing. and documenting the diversion of installation C&D waste after planning is completed. A 12-step process is provided for in-house work and projects. monitoring.Identify the range of contracting options available to implement C&D waste management practices. PLANNING STEP 5 .PLANNING STEP 3 . PLANNING STEP 7 .Quantify and characterize the potential annual C&D waste stream on the installation. The Guide takes waste management teams from the start of the C&D work and projects to the finish. Chapter 4 – Implementing the C&D Waste Management Process This chapter describes and prescribes the step-by-step waste management process for incorporating.Identify environmental compliance requirements and best C&D management practices for eliminating.Develop generic waste management plans.Develop a C&D waste management strategy for complying with AF policy and achieving the AF measure of merit (MoM).

This may cause some confusion. & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Enrolling Waste Managers To Take Action . Discuss the possibilities for diverting C&D waste to meet new Air Force C&D waste diversion goals. Successful C&D waste management requires the efforts of varied team members each using their areas of expertise. Planning Step 2 in Chapter 3 identifies two teams responsible for C&D waste management. resources. materials are C&D waste if they would normally be hauled away for disposal. The phrases either refer to the entire team or are meant to capture the appropriate members of these teams according to an installations interpretation. The Guide will. There is a current focus on constructing resource efficient buildings. An important part of this science involves preventing waste and reducing energy. stumps. and roofing material. This is accomplished by four steps: • • • • Provide a common background on traditional C&D waste management practices and incentives for change. The phrases do NOT refer only to the individual in the Environmental Flight assigned solid waste management responsibility. demolition. and waste. The Guide uses the phrase “C&D waste managers” or just “waste managers” freely throughout the text. wood. Experts vary on whether land-clearing debris such as soil. specifically C&D waste. Components of C&D waste typically include concrete. DEFINITIONS C&D waste is material produced during the construction. or deconstruction of structures. details of preventing C&D waste as part of the sustainable design process is outside the scope of this Guide. Describe the opportunities for meeting C&D waste reduction goals with successful case studies. Structures include residential and commercial buildings and their infrastructure. For the purposes of this Guide. SCOPE It is important to define the scope of the Guide. provide an overview of general prevention techniques available. While prevention and reduction are closely linked. A full list of definitions is provided in Appendix A. metals.Chapter 2 Enrolling Waste Managers to Take Action Common background Reading and using the Guide will enroll the reader ensuring committed action and safe and cost effective C&D waste management are taken. gypsum wallboard. The science of resource efficient buildings allows us to sustain environmental resources despite heavy demand by a rapidly growing and advancing society. guidance. what it isn't as well as what it is. however. Challenge readers to make a commitment to C&D waste diversion actions. and tools. asphalt. and rocks are C&D waste. renovation.

For example: asphalt and gypsum wallboard can only be recycled in a few parts of the country at this time. It is perceived as being more costly. Also. There is limited market awareness. Regardless. little concern.8 pounds per person per day or 136 million tons per year. 4. According to the most recent Environmental Protection Agency research C&D waste is generated in the United States at a rate of 2. Old convenient habits of disposing of C&D waste by incineration and landfilling are often hard to break. because many job sites have space constraints. There are limited recycling markets. Time is still money. Some specialized recyclers only accept one type of waste and this often makes waste management costly and inconvenient. the varied types of generating sources and activities from year to year and the range of accurate sampling procedures found in both research and practice.TRADITIONAL C&D MANAGEMENT AND INCENTIVES FOR CHANGE C&D waste has traditionally not been managed. and little oversight. Building contractors are concerned over the need for providing sorting and storage space. Air Force installations may experience rates lower or higher than the national rate. Markets often either don't exist locally or recyclers do not accept the broad spectrum of C&D waste. It is perceived as requiring more space. These factors include the differing definitions of C&D waste across states. & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Enrolling Waste Managers To Take Action . “Will the C&D waste management revenues and disposal cost savings offset labor costs?” 5. Modifying standard construction and demolition contract specifications to require or encourage C&D waste management has been met with resistance. In the end. Building contractors are concerned over the perception of additional time employees will spend segregating waste. Many building contractors are simply not aware of all the reuse and recycling opportunities available. These regulated materials may pose a threat to human health and the environment and become a compliance risk. Because of the variability factors. many recyclers to not provide pickup and transport service adding to the cost and inconvenience. 3. some researchers concede and theorize it may be equal to or even greater in quantity to the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream. The estimated magnitude of the C&D waste stream varies greatly because of several factors. with this huge potential resource. the question arises: Why haven't we vigorously pursued waste diversion as a management option? There are five obstacles to diverting C&D waste: 1. For these reasons it is difficult to quantify what part of the total waste stream is actually C&D waste. Yet we know C&D waste consumes vast volumes of constrained landfill space and often contains regulated materials. It is a relatively new practice. The construction industry remains a conservative culture resistant to change. 2. But most researchers report C&D waste quantities within a range of 10-30% of the quantity of MSW. Contractors ask. Private waste contractors have collected and disposed of C&D waste with little record keeping.

Not surprisingly most C&D waste can be delivered to a recycler for fees ranging from $0 to $35. the national average for MSW tipping fees has risen in the past ten years from $17. there is a growing public awareness of C&D waste and a moral concern about having to live with what we discard. Value of C&D Waste Materials vs.” Builder Magazine. 50. & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Enrolling Waste Managers To Take Action . Illinois. C&D W ASTE CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS The types and quantities of C&D waste generated can vary widely from project to project. Finally. p. Third. diverting C&D wastes can be cheaper than landfilling. Efficient C&D waste managers can take credit for being responsible resource conservationists and good neighbors. there is an increase in state and local legislation mandating specific goals and actions for waste stream reduction. These data provide C&D waste managers with a broad view of what to expect on the job site. and corrugated cardboard have generally been found to be the largest waste stream components. Minnesota area and the results are summarized in Table 2. Complete characterization tables are provided in Appendix B.00/ton.00/ton. Action now will prevent compliance requirements later.Despite these obstacles. gypsum wallboard. Feb. four factors are strong incentives for changing the way we manage C&D waste. “Research at the Center. The tipping fees for landfills continue to skyrocket. McHenry County.00/ton. There can be incredible value in creating and maintaining positive public relations. However. The amendment would make a building permit contingent upon preparing a waste separation plan and building occupancy contingent upon proving at least three waste materials were recycled on the job. metals. Wood.00 to $70.) Second. Waste characterization research was done in the Metropolitan Twin Cities. With 50% of our landfills projecting closure by 2000. Disposal ($/Ton) Material Disposal Cost Material Value Oriented Strand Board 137 725 (OSB) Lumber 79 280 Gypsum Wallboard 148 269 Cardboard 42 varies (Source: National Association of Homebuilders. has proposed an amendment to their building code. 95. making traditional land disposal methods costly. the composition of these varied waste streams has some predictability. California now requires cities to reduce their waste streams by 50% by 2000. C&D wastes contain valuable resources. First. Studies show that over the past twenty years the national average for C&D tipping fees has risen from $4. Similarly. The following table provides a glimpse of just how valuable: Table 1.90 to $32. it is only a matter of time before our C&D waste management behavior is legally driven. concrete and block.

93. and waste oils and greases.” Mar. is provided as a useful checklist in Appendix C. adhesives. including regulated materials. lead-based paints and coatings.Table 2. sealer tubes. p.) The C&D waste stream may also contain regulated materials. Regulated materials typically found on a construction site may include. and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). 4-5. re-rod. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Characterization of C&D Waste from New Construction (Rough % of total waste volume) Commercial Predominant Materials (10% or greater) Wood Concrete and block Drywall Cardboard 20-30% 10-20% 5-10% 5-10% Residential 20-35% 10-20% 5-15% Secondary Materials (less than 10%) Steel from decking. waste solvents. waste paints and coatings. but are not limited to. 1-8% Shingles 1-8% Brick 1-5% Concrete 1-8% Crates and pallets 1-5% Extruded polystyrene (rigid) insulation 3% range Fiberboard 1-8% Kraft paper packaging 3% range Plastic sheeting and bags 3% range Electrical wire 2% range Overspray from fireproofing products 0-5% (Source: Innovative Waste Management. A more comprehensive list of all C&D waste materials. Regulated materials typically found on a demolition site may include but are not limited to asbestos. “Construction Materials Recycling Guidebook. & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Enrolling Waste Managers To Take Action . etc.

Asset management Planning Design Demolition Construction Reuse Recycle Composting Burning Project planners and designers can prevent C&D waste in the asset management. and construction phases. While expanded details of these actions are beyond the scope of this Guide. excessive lumber at window and door openings. 4.and 4-foot increments to reduce the number of off-cuts. planners assess existing buildings and properties against project needs.Framing details are designed to minimize unnecessary corner studs. existing buildings are used to avoid new construction and demolition wherever possible.Waste Management Options Hierarchy Reduce C&D contractors and waste managers have a growing number of options for managing C&D wastes. The Waste Management Options Hierarchy shown is a useful guide.Building dimensions are in standard 2. design. use aqueous and biodegradable cleaners instead of petroleum-based cleaners.Require suppliers to take or buy back substandard or rejected materials. use less toxic materials.Pre-cut and pre-fabricated materials like trusses and structural insulated panels allow scrap to be efficiently recycled at the factory rather than the job site. 2. During the construction phase. and over-built lintels. Solicit their help with substituting materials of lesser & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Enrolling Waste Managers To Take Action . it is worthwhile to provide a brief overview. and use nonchlorinated or water-based paints and coatings. Supplier Coordination .For example. Specifying Non-hazardous Materials .Ensure only the correct amount of materials are purchased and delivered to the site. This hierarchy can be applied against the five phases in the life of a construction project: 1. the source reduction concept is used to consume less materials. Specifying Recyclable Materials and Recycled-Content Material. During the design phase. builders can further prevent waste through the following efficient purchasing techniques: Tight Estimating . Landfill During the asset management phase. Optimally. Using Advanced Framing . Specifying Prefabricated Materials . and reduce or eliminate subsequent waste at the source. Project designers can accomplish this with the following techniques: Choosing Simple Plans . 3. 5.

Require suppliers to reduce their packaging materials or provide sturdy. Reduce Packaging Waste .Waste materials can be sorted for recycling at the job site for hauling to or pick-up by a material handling facility.Coordinate material delivery to coincide with its use in order to reduce material damage and waste. The focus of this Guide is the options for managing C&D wastes that have already been generated at the job site. design. Referring again to the Waste Management Hierarchy. Salvage Reusable Materials . A few of the C&D materials that are typically salvaged are shown in Table 3. Just-in-time Delivery . demolition. returnable pallets and containers. recycling of wood and gypsum wallboard can be optimized during the framing and sheet-rocking stages of construction. and model specifications are covered in Chapter 3. C&D managers can take action to reduce. During the Design Phase. waste managers can use the following methods for efficiently managing C&D waste: Explain Established Goals . Require suppliers to back-haul all shipping and packing materials. Planning to Get Started. or salvage materials for resale or donation. plan. Recycle Waste Materials . This is called time-phased recycling. waste materials can be separated and picked up for recycling during a specific construction stage. and construction phases of a project life.toxicity and their ideas on reducing job site material spoilage. waste managers should develop a C&D Waste Management Strategy and establish overall waste diversion goals.Ensure strategic and project specific reuse and recycling goals are clearly explained to the builders and their sub-contractors. As a third option. For example. Centralize material cutting operations to promote reuse of off-cuts. reuse and recycle wastes during the planning. During the Planning Phase. The details of the strategy. designers should specify builders be required to design a Waste Management Plan for each construction project. & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Enrolling Waste Managers To Take Action . Designers should also tailor C&D waste management model specifications for each project. Reduce Job Site Waste . respectively.Salvage materials for reuse at this or other project sites. They can also be commingled for delivery to a materials recovery facility where they are sorted for recycling.Store and handle materials carefully to prevent wasteful damage. During the Demolition and Construction Phases.

Possibilities for Diverting C&D Waste Efficient C&D waste management hasn't traditionally been a possibility because of the five previously mentioned barriers. by Simplified Acquisition of Base Engineering and Repair (SABER) or Military Family Housing contractors. however. They have indirect control over C&D accomplished under categories 2. by organizations using the installation Self-Help Store and housing residents using the U-Fix-It Store. In-house. HQ USAF/ILEV letter. It becomes a team effort to ensure that builders outside the waste managers’ direct control are aware of the strategy. has pumped new life into & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Enrolling Waste Managers To Take Action .Table 3. and they have little to no control over C&D accomplished under category 5.” Jan. p. Externally. 3. DeCA and NAF. waste managers must recognize the importance of establishing and widely communicating the installationapproved C&D Waste Management Strategy. 2. 5. In-house. by agencies like RED HORSE and National Guard forces. regions. Waste managers only have direct control over construction and demolition accomplished under category 1. and states. 99. by outside contractors acquired through the installation contracting office or other Air Force organizations and tenants like AAFES. 26 Jan 1999.) CATEGORIES OF CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION C&D waste managers must be aware that there are five categories in which construction and demolition can be accomplished on an installation. Therefore. In general. 4. 3. “Contractors’ Guide to Preventing Waste and Recycling. and are required to track and report on their success with diverting C&D waste. by the Civil Engineer Squadron/Group workforce. installation personnel have not been motivated to efficiently manage C&D waste because the evolving incentives vary greatly across installations. Externally. 1. Subject: Non-hazardous Solid Waste Diversion Rate Measure of Merit (MoM). are required to use or submit Waste Management Plans. Reusable Building Materials Appliances Flooring OSB & Plywood Bathroom Fixtures Insulation Shelving Bricks Lighting Fixtures Siding Cabinets Marble Tile Carpeting Metal Framing Trim Dimensional Lumber Paneling Windows Doors Pipes Wood Beams Ductwork (Source: Business and Recycling Business Venture and King County Solid Waste Division. and 4. In-house. 5.

solid and composite wood scraps were recycled into boiler fuel and building materials. If the research is accurate and C&D waste equates to between 25% and 100% of MSW quantities. This type of incineration does not count as recycling in calculating the AF MoM. The client specifically requested construction waste be recycled and a waste audit was performed to precisely track waste quantities and their disposition. the MoM requires that: “By the end of FY 2005. The Guide includes additional nineteen case studies in Appendix D. and concrete was used as & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Enrolling Waste Managers To Take Action . CASE STUDY #1 . 50%. The Air Force now has established a policy and a MoM for diverting non-hazardous solid waste from disposal in landfills and incinerators. Impact on AF MoM by Possible Non-hazardous C&D Waste Diversion Percentages C&D Diversion Rate (percent) C&D 25% of MSW Impact on MoM (percent) C&D 50% of MSW C&D 100% of MSW 50 9 60 11 70 12 80 14 90 15 (Source: The Author. Drywall scraps were recycled into new gypsum wall board. then reliable C&D diversion can be achieved. or 100% of MSW and MoM values were calculated assuming MSW remained constant and no other waste diversion occurred. cardboard was recycled into new cardboard.000 in southwest Portland.C&D waste management.) Opportunities for C&D Waste Management 14 17 19 21 23 20 23 26 28 31 While the possibilities for efficient C&D waste management are clear.” C&D waste diversion is only a part of the MoM.4 tons of material and disposed only 0.5 tons of mixed waste.RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION A private sector contractor constructed a new 2. ensure the diversion rate for non-hazardous waste is greater than 40 percent.800 square feet home for $275. are the opportunities achievable? The following seven case studies are summarized to illustrate the answer is a resounding “yes” across all six construction categories. Table 4. 99. CAVEAT: A number of the case studies count incineration of waste as a boiler fuel as recycling. Specifically. The contractor successfully recycled 6. Oregon. while ensuring integrated non-hazardous solid waste management programs provide an economic benefit when compared with disposal using landfilling and incineration alone. Jun. But what impact can successful C&D waste diversion have on achieving the AF MoM? The impacts of diverting C&D waste only are shown in Table 4 for a range of C&D waste diversion rates. C&D wastes have been assumed to equate to 25%.

RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION A private-sector contractor constructed two 1. Results: 92% waste diversion rate and $693 in recycling savings. drywall scraps were recycled into new gypsum wallboard.660 pounds 260 pounds The total cost to recycle for both houses was $710.698 280 138 pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds The cost to recycle.9 tons of construction waste required landfilling. The contractor’s crews saved labor time because the specialty contractor did not require diverted materials to be separated on-site.800 in the Tigard area subdivision of Portland. Below is the breakout of recycled materials: • • • Wood Drywall Cardboard 14. CASE STUDY #2 .290 square feet homes for a total of $233. Only 0.400 pounds 2. and cardboard was used in manufacturing new cardboard. Oregon. & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Enrolling Waste Managers To Take Action .7 tons of materials. compared to standard hauling and disposal cost estimates of $1. Appropriate data has been normalized in the figures below to account for the difference in home square footages. A specialty contractor was hired to recycle construction waste. including additional labor for job-site separation and selfhauling was $600.806 1. The budgeted cost for waste hauling and landfill tipping fees was $1. A comparison between Case Study #1 and #2 may be worthwhile to assess the potential advantages of using a recycling specialty contractor for new residential construction.403.000.945 3.clean fill. Following is the breakout by characteristics and quantity of recycled waste: • • • • • Wood Drywall Concrete Cardboard Metal 6. Results: 93% waste diversion rate and $400 in recycling savings. Recycling saved the client $400. Solid and composite wood scraps were recycled into boiler fuel. The contractor recycled a total of 8.

Table 5. Metro selected the following three renovation projects: Project & Type Kitchen Family Room & Kitchen/Outdoor Deck C Bathrooms A B Budget $24. The shorter time can be explained for Case Study #1 because the construction contractor had previous experience in building this tract housing. The purpose of the project was to develop. Each client and remodeling contractor volunteered to participate in this demonstration project.) It appears from this example C&D waste managers would benefit from using a recycling specialty contractor for constructing new residential housing.4 tons Diversions Rate 92% 93% (Source: Palermini & Associates. document. salvage and reuse. CASE STUDY #3 . contracted with a privatesector firm and several participating contractors for a residential remodeling waste reduction demonstration project. The specialty contractor diverted 47% more construction waste by weight and increased savings from recycling by 88%. The contractor in Case Study #2 was building two custom homes incorporating several unique environmental measures beyond construction waste recycling.800 90 The primary contractor audited the weight and type of wastes generated during each project. Metro defined diversion as source separation. Job Site Recycling Fact Sheets “Two Tract Homes Save $316 and $377”. None of the remodeling contractors used any sustainable design techniques to further prevent C&D waste. Oregon’s Metro Regional Services.200 $80.4 tons 9. Regional Environmental Management Department. The auditor also identified waste that could be diverted and then recorded their ultimate disposition. undated and no page numbers. The substantial difference in construction time is misleading and should not necessarily be considered justification for not using a specialty contractor.RESIDENTIAL RENOVATIONS This case study is of particular interest because the scope of work is very similar to that of military family housing. and teach cost effective waste diversion techniques for residential renovation projects. p. 6.500 Square Footage 275 550 $9. and recycling. Metro. Metro. “Construction Industry Recycling Project.” Metro. The remodeling contractors for Projects A and C had & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Enrolling Waste Managers To Take Action . 93. The diversion rate was approximately the same under both options. Portland. Jul. and the Author. The remodeling contractors estimated the cost of their standard C&D waste management practices and these costs were compared to their costs for separation and diversion. Comparison of Key Project Factors When Using and Not Using Specialty Contractors Project Factors No Specialty Contractor Specialty Contractor Construction Time 70 days 270 days Recycling Savings $400 $752 Tons Diverted 6.

recessed ceiling lights. and toilet in one bathroom and replaced a window with a skylight in the second. The remodeler completely gutted the existing kitchen and an exterior wall to make room for the addition. appliances. island. trim. fixtures. garden window. vanity with sink. and materials. The kitchen square footage remained the same and the existing built-in cupboard and most cabinet frames remained. built-in storage shelves. The remodeler for Project B had no experience beyond some occasional salvaging but was interested in learning about job-site waste diversion. sink. wall and floor coverings. large island. The table on the next page summarizes the waste audit weight in pounds for this demonstration project: & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Enrolling Waste Managers To Take Action . drywall. sink. light fixtures. The contractor for Project C remodeled two bathrooms totaling 90 square feet in a 1950’s ranch-style home. The shower had leaked and caused extensive dry rot on the supporting frame so most of these materials were not recycled. appliances. cabinets and countertops. The contractor removed island cabinets. The contractor for Project B altered and added a 550 square-foot kitchen and family room area in a 10-year old home also located in suburban Portland. The contractor for Project A remodeled the 275 square-foot kitchen in a 1940’s vintage home in suburban Portland. some soffits and lath and plaster finish. The remodeler removed the shower stall. built-in storage shelves. and a total repainting. floor coverings.already implemented source separation and diversion techniques into their job practice and trained their crews. and a total repainting. floor-to-ceiling cabinets with built-in oven. one window. cabinet doors and drawers. New project items included wood flooring. The contractor purchased very high quality appliances. windows and doors. New items included additional floor area and walls. and appliances. sink. The project also included replacement of a 250 square-foot exterior deck.

Jun. “Residential Remodeling Waste Reduction Demonstration Project. Comparison of Savings for Residential Renovation Projects Project C Project A Project B Budgeted Disposal Costs $390 $1. 3.584 1. Jun. 93.220 $44e Diversion Savings $385 $1.212 1. Table 7.” Metro.628 85 Owner Sales 205 Recycled 549 6. 10.100 762 Gypsum 201 582 185 Ferrous Metals 40 Non-ferrous Metals 38 Plastic Sheeting 10 Prunings 10 (Source: O’Brien & Associates and Palermini & Associates.313 Disposed Waste 400 1.) NOTE: The author estimated (e) the recycling revenues and diversion savings for Project C by extrapolating the figures from the audit results in the table above.100 $100 Estimated Recycling Revenues $300 $1. and 12. p.188 9.” Metro.000 NA Diversion Rate 75% 89% 62% Salvaged & Reused 585 2. & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Enrolling Waste Managers To Take Action . p.) The results of the demonstration project show the economic viability of diverting rather than landfilling C&D waste.420 $39e (Source: O’brien & Associates and Palermini & Associates. 1314.628 85 Contractor Sales 380 2. 93.382 2.423 Diverted Topsoil NA 20. and for additional fees for multiple diversion sites and still save money. and the Author.588 10. 8-9. and17-18.Table 6.170 890 Diverted Waste 1. “Residential Remodeling Waste Reduction Demonstration Project.827 311 Cardboard 55 Carpet 40 Ceramic Tile 15 80 Concrete 2.338 Wood Sub-total 215 3. for the auditors’ labor. The contractors for each renovation project were able to pay for added labor hours for source separation.300 $95 Estimated Diversion Costs $305 $1. Comparison of Waste Management Audit Results for Residential Renovation Projects (pounds) Project A Project B Project C Total Waste 1. The following key findings also resulted from this demonstration project: • Labor costs required to remove and separate salvageable items were comparable to costs of standard demolition practices.

Lower-value salvageable materials can also be resold in time. Lay-away funds are those budgeted for placing a building into an unused state. JOINT CIVILIAN AND MILITARY NON-RESIDENTIAL CASE STUDY #4 DECONSTRUCTION Several non-profit civilian organizations teamed with the commander of Naval Air Station Alameda (NAS) in California to research the use of deconstruction methods for appropriate buildings on closing military installations. & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Enrolling Waste Managers To Take Action . there was a Study for Building Deconstruction.” but could not implement the test in time to capitalize on this funding source. where operations and maintenance costs are minimized. This is the most significant barrier. including building and environmental information and a salvage value rating created using a spreadsheet. contracting. It was hoped that a model could be created for financing. Clients who desire a clean site and do not recognize the value of perceived waste can be a significant barrier to diversion. All involved organizations sought an assessment of the opportunities for and obstacles to planning and implementing deconstruction as an option for solid waste managers. Region 9 of the Environmental Protection Agency provided subsequent funding once the initial source was expended. But non-profit recycling contractors were unable to meet remodeling contractor’s demand for prompt pickup. A comparison of deconstruction and demolition cost estimates for candidate buildings. and implementing deconstruction on closing military installations. A sample Request for Proposals for deconstruction. Motivated contractors and crews that understand diversion goals and have a positive attitude are successful because they create ways to overcome barriers and work efficiently. First. The added costs of labor and hauling to multiple diversion sites are the greatest barriers to successful diversion.• • • • • High-quality salvageable materials can easily be reused or resold. The NAS Deconstruction Demonstration Project had three components. The team explored obtaining project funds from the military operations and maintenance account but found deconstruction couldn’t compete for this highly constrained resource. These nonprofit organizations included: • Materials for the Future Foundation • The East Bay Conversion and Reinvestment Commission (EBCRC) • Center for Economic Conversion • National Economic Development and Law Center This research became known as the NAS Deconstruction Demonstration Project. They also explored using what the Navy calls “lay-away funds. The study included the following: • • • • A building survey. A recommendation of building candidates for deconstruction. The Office of Economic Development provided initial project funding through the EBCRC.

These projects were also used in defining the lessons learned outlined below. The BOSS crew recovered 10. an assistant. This was a project diversion rate of nearly 91%.100 pounds of debris to the landfill. The first project was a 9. removed nails from lumber. a local property investment services company.000 square-foot warehouse at the Port of Oakland. Therefore. the team safely stated that deconstruction was an economically sound decision over conventional demolition.The second component of the project was the actual deconstruction activity at Alameda NAS. The deconstruction crew included five people: a supervisor. The team selected two buildings with a total area of 2400 squarefoot. Both buildings were wood construction. The EBCRC report included the results of deconstruction projects at two other Bay Area installations. The laborers were participants in the BOSS employment training program. One was a redwood timber frame structure and the other was an engineered metal frame building. and two laborers.” prepared by the EBCRC and the other members of the team.. This contractor was Building Opportunities for Self-Sufficiency (BOSS) Enterprises. but all labor costs were avoided by using the BOSS crew. The cost of deconstruction was estimated higher at $14. This was later modified into a broader report titled.180 square-foot building at the Presidio and the second was a 120. The team selected a non-profit contractor to perform the deconstruction. The crew disassembled the buildings. There were no figures available on revenues earned for the recycled and reused metals and wood.506.850 pounds of usable material and sent only 1. the team estimated the cost of demolition at $8. and stacked all recovered material in about eight crew days or 279 total hours. sorted waste. The following tables compare deconstruction versus demolition: & ':DVWH0DQDJHPHQW&KDSWHU Enrolling Waste Managers To Take Action . During project planning. a journey-level lead. Inc. The third component was a strategy for financing and implementing deconstruction station-wide at Alameda.404. “Building Deconstruction on Closing Military Bases.

The team captured the following valuable lessons for consideration of deconstruction for additional buildings at Alameda NAS and other closing bases: • Deconstruction conserves resources by: • Reducing debris going to landfills.010 hours Deconstruction Expenses $330.” Dec. • Decisions on deconstruction are best made by all interested parties after LRA selection and property transfer from installations to command authorities.) NOTE: This project was not complete when the study was published.000 Diversion Rate Unknown 160 hours $268.Table 8. • Deconstruction is easiest to implement before building ownership is transferred.000e Total Cost $150. Comparison Between Deconstruction and Demolition Deconstruction Presidio Building #901 Activity Time Deconstruction Expenses Revenue from Sales Total Cost Diversion Rate 690 hours $53.000 $43. & ':DVWH0DQDJHPHQW&KDSWHU Enrolling Waste Managers To Take Action . 1997. “Building Deconstruction on Closing Military Bases.000 Revenue from Sales $180. • Deconstruction provides opportunities for small business or job development programs.800 93% Port of Oakland. • Conserving resources through recycling and reuse.800e 0 $268. • Military funding for deconstruction is unlikely considering environmental clean-up requirements and limited resources.800e Unknown (Source: The East Bay Conversion and Reinvestment Commission.000 $9. 7-8 and the Author. so some data were unknown or estimated (e) by extrapolation. • Deconstruction licensing agreements are needed in property leases with local redevelopment authorities (LRA). p. • Reducing greenhouse gases through forest preservation. • Deconstruction can be economical. Building #733 (see note) Activity Time 12. • Deconstruction provides training opportunities for work readiness and basic construction skills.340 87% Demolition 80 hours 0 0 $16.

Oregon.850 square-foot correctional facility for $8. Washington office building.187 in project savings. The tiles were five years old but had useful life remaining.6 tons of carpet and padding were diverted from the landfill. The same subcontractor replaced 3. Drywall scraps and cardboard from material packaging were recycled locally. Usable portions were sold for reuse and unusable carpet padding was recycled through a local material recycling facility. Results: 89% diversion rate and $2. Wood debris was recycled by a material recovery facility for boiler fuel or the manufacture of composite particle board. The carpet and padding were six years old. Results: 98% Reuse rate and $2. A total of 4. The contractor diverted 413 tons of construction waste as follows: • Concrete 378 tons • Wood 18 tons • Cardboard 17 tons The concrete was used as clean fill for roads and other projects.235 in recycling savings.9 million in northeast Portland. & ':DVWH0DQDJHPHQW&KDSWHU Enrolling Waste Managers To Take Action .455 while actual costs to recycle were $220 (estimated savings do not include the reuse of wood and metal components or recycled drywall).000 square feet of carpet tiles in an Auburn. Results: 75% Reuse rate and $378 in project savings.NON-RESIDENTIAL CARPET RENOVATIONS A carpeting subcontractor replaced 9. the tiles were easily removed without damage and all 27 tons were sold for reuse. Useable lumber and metal building components were salvaged and used for the second phase of the project. The county was proactive in getting a contractor who was experienced in job-site material reuse and recycling. CASE STUDY #6 . Traditional disposal costs were estimated at $2. Because they had been installed with tape rather than glue.000 square feet of carpet and padding in a Federal Way. Washington office building.CASE STUDY #5 .NON-RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION A contractor constructed a 41.

000 square-foot department store in northeast Portland.5% waste diversion rate and $235. Reinforcing bars and other metals were recycled and the remaining concrete and steel rubble was hauled off-site for use as clean fill. tools. Oregon. The owner decided to require recycling after receiving a bid with traditional waste disposal. & ':DVWH0DQDJHPHQW&KDSWHU Enrolling Waste Managers To Take Action .CASE STUDY #7 – NON-RESIDENTIAL DEMOLITION A commercial demolition contractor removed a 44.267 42 323 2 tons tons tons tons Results: 99. and ground the clean concrete into gravel used for the base of new site construction. The contractor also separated wood on-site and had it recycled as boiler fuel and recycle-content particle board.941 in recycling savings. and steps for taking immediate action. This management guide provides readers with the background knowledge. The Challenge Installations should develop and implement a C&D waste diversion strategy if they do not already meet the Air Force Measure of Merit for Non-Hazardous Solid Waste Diversion Rate. Follow the steps outlined in subsequent sections and determine what will work at your installation and what local factors will impact your waste management plans. The contractor crushed all concrete structural members on site. Select a local construction or demolition project on which you can run a pilot of your strategy. The total materials recycled were: • • • • Concrete Wood Metals Glass 3. But don’t bite off more than you can chew. resources. removed and separated most reinforcement bars.

But this step involves determining exactly who has or is willing to fully implement an installation's diversion strategy. but only a request for information to be used for soliciting and awarding future contracts. • • Enter these data on C&D Waste Management Planning Spreadsheet A. MATERIAL EXCHANGES. Your success in implementing plans and diverting C&D waste will depend largely on your completing the steps outlined in this section. installations must know exactly what can be accomplished locally and regionally in the areas of sustainable building design. Most contractors have some experience in salvage and reuse. reuse. Place a solicitation in the Commerce Business Daily asking for the data outlined above.Chapter 3 Planning to Get Started C&D waste management teams must complete a significant amount of research and planning before they can develop an overall C&D waste strategy. and reuse. Contact the local chapters of the Associated General Contractors. recycling. AND PARTNERING ORGANIZATIONS First. build. C&D waste managers need to identify the local and regional salvage. and deconstruction techniques. National Society of Professional Engineers. Planning Step 1 IDENTIFY CONTRACTORS. There are several sources and methods for obtaining these data: • Get a list of the most frequently used design. Ask for their help with identifying design firms and building and demolition contractors with experience and interest in C&D waste management. and demolition contractors from the installation engineering and contracting offices. MARKETS AND FACILITIES. The solicitation should be clear that it is not a guarantee for specific work. It is important to determine what the capabilities and interests of contractors are. in Appendix E and ensure the information is reviewed and updated periodically. If they indicate they have little or no experience in these areas. then ask whether they would be interested in employing these techniques on future installation test projects. and American Institute of Architects. because contractors accomplish most construction and demolition at installations. job-site waste diversion. and recycling markets and material handling contractors and & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . This critical research and planning phase lays the foundation for preparation of subsequent waste management plans. Contact each contractor and ask whether they are experienced in sustainable building design. Second. but at least annually. Parts 1 and 2.

Search the local yellow pages for the same information under “recycling. or whether self-hauling is required. dimensional lumber is definitely a reusable resource.” and “contractors. • • Enter these data on C&D Waste Management Planning Spreadsheet A. Whether material handling facilities require reuse and recycling fees and if yes. For example.” “demolition. contractors. Those with viable programs should have knowledge of existing markets and a listing of recycling contractors and material handling facilities. it would make no sense to implement a strategy which requires a contractor to separate and recycle gypsum wallboard if there is no supporting market or handling facility. and facilities is absolutely critical to successfully manage waste diversion. Whether material pick-up and the cost for pick-up are provided. But it may not be accepted by a material handling facility if the nails are not removed or it is wet because it was unprotected during storage. Installations are already required to have a qualified recycling program. Part 3 in Appendix E and ensure the information is reviewed and updated periodically. Contact the pollution prevention office at your installation. reuse and recycling contractors and material handling facilities. Without this information.” A look in a local metropolitan area yellow pages by the author identified ads for 30 salvage and demolition contractors and 21 recycling centers. For example. Contact the pollution prevention office at your command headquarters. & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . but at least annually. A list of any special conditions applying to reused or recycled items and materials. Waste managers must clearly understand the specific conditions under which contractors and facilities will accept or reject materials for reuse or recycling. The identification of markets. Contact each contractor and facility listed and ask for the following information: • • A list of specific items or materials accepted for reuse and recycling. A list of specific items or materials NOT accepted for reuse and recycling. There are several sources and methods for obtaining these data: • • Contact the local or regional Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) and ask for their local or regional listing of salvage. easily separated and stored at the job-site.” “waste. • • • Enter the detailed lists of items for reuse. including the current market value of recycled materials. and any special conditions on C&D Waste Management Planning Spreadsheet A in Appendix E. Command pollution prevention offices have often formed partnerships with their state counterparts and may have access to much of the research required here. waste managers and implementing team members may spend a great deal of unproductive time asking for what can't be accomplished. materials for recycling. the amount of those fees.facilities.” “salvage.

• • • Project designers. and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have also participated in funding waste diversion pilot projects (see Case Study #4 in Chapter 2). Material exchanges complete the diversion loop by offering reused and recycled materials for construction. since some receive. as well as sell. • • • & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . See Appendix F for a description for accessing and using their web site.Third. See Appendix F for a description for accessing and using their web site. Enter the names. waste managers must provide persistent direction and seek effective cooperation as well as financial and labor assistance through available partnerships in order to successfully implement their C&D waste management strategy and plans. Finally. and waste managers. The Reusable Building Materials Exchange is a State of Washington exchange for buying or listing small and large quantities of used or surplus building materials. Several examples follow: • Habitat for Humanity operates over 40 "Restores" across North America. and managers of in-house work forces must identify local or regional material exchanges. Here are several examples of opportunities worth pursuing: • There are non-profit organizations like California's property investment services company. should spend some time exploring the Internet for other exchanges. Installation designers can specify procurement of reused and recycled construction materials from exchanges and installations and contractors can procure diverted materials from exchanges. that can be sources of free or non-Davis-Bacon wage labor for installation pilot projects. and web sites of useful material exchanges on C&D Waste Management Planning Spreadsheet A. descriptions. Building Opportunities for Self-Sufficiency (BOSS) Enterprises. diverted C&D waste. Part 4.. planners. project designers. Contact your local Habitat for Humanity office for information on using the nearest Restore. Oregon's Metro Regional Environmental Management Department and California's Materials for the Future Foundation have participated in demonstration projects (see Case Study #3 in Chapter 2). with assistance from their command and state counterparts. Some installations have prison work programs that could be a labor resource. in Appendix E. the Office of Economic Development. The Recycler’s Exchange is a world wide trading site for used building materials that also provides global access to recycling markets. Restores are focused on selling used building and household materials. Waste managers can also use exchanges for help in defining the reuse and recycling markets. Inc. The Salvaged Building Materials Exchange is another international trading site for diverted building materials. See Appendix F for a description for accessing and using their web site. in-house work force managers. Organizations like California's East Bay Conversion and Reinvestment Commission.

personal protection. but they generally contain an inventory and analysis of solid waste disposal technologies and methods. Waste managers can review the plan quickly and get a general picture of how C&D waste is currently being managed and what the essential tools and opportunities are for improving management. and set installation recycling goals. an evaluation of installation disposal operations. other organizations like Metro that could be available to assist installations with implementing C&D waste strategy and plans. Enter the names. local. conservation and recycling. Waste managers can determine from a review of this plan exactly what current recycling markets are being used and how the installation is doing in those markets. Waste managers should be aware that. with help from their command and state counterparts. waste managers must obtain copies of the existing plans and programs that impact the safe and efficient management of C&D waste. or privately operated job-training programs for possible labor resources. and medical surveillance and evaluation requirements for inspection and repair teams. training. state.Waste managers should pursue forming partnerships with federal. an analysis of solid waste recovery. The purpose of this plan is to identify organizations covered by the plan. Contents of plans vary. Finally. It also outlines notification. establish recycling responsibilities and procedures for those organizations. Qualified Recycling Program (QRP) – The plan covering the QRP may be called the Recycling Management Plan or have other names. each installation should have the following plans and programs available: • Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan (ISWMP) – This plan may also be called the Solid Waste Management Plan or have other names. The AMP designates key management roles and assigns responsibilities. state. an inventory of solid waste streams and management methods. financial assistance may become available as a result of these partnerships. They should contact their command counterparts and identify agencies like the EPA and organizations like the EBCRC. The Asbestos Operating Plan (AOP) is a supplement to the AMP and it details the requirements and procedures for • • & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . and local guidelines on safely managing asbestos. federal. while not necessarily a reliable financial resource. The purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for managing solid waste on an installation and identifying opportunities for reducing the amount of waste generated and disposed. in Appendix E. equipment. At a minimum. and demographic data on C&D Waste Management Planning Spreadsheet A. First. Planning Step 2 IDENTIFY EXISTING LOCAL RESOURCES AND DETERMINE WHAT THEY BRING TO THE C&D W ASTE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGE The next important planning step involves two parts. Part 5. Asbestos Management Plan (AMP) – The purpose of this plan is to protect installation workers and residents from exposure to airborne asbestos fibers and help installations comply with AF. and guidance on implementing the plan. descriptions. they should identify.

managing asbestos at the project level. Information on the presence, location, quantity, and condition of asbestos on the installation is contained in supporting databases. While these data are not always comprehensive, they provide waste managers with a valuable resource for ensuring asbestos is properly handled during C&D projects. Lead-based Paint Management Plan (LBPMP) - The purpose of this plan is to protect installation workers and residents from exposure to LBP and help installations comply with AF, federal, state, and local guidelines on safely managing LBP. The LBPMP designates key management roles and assigns responsibilities. It also outlines notification, equipment, training, personal protection, and medical surveillance and evaluation requirements for inspection and repair teams. The LBP Operations Plan (LBPOP) is a supplement to the LBPMP and it details requirements and procedures for managing LBP at the project level. Information on the presence, location, quantity, and condition of LBP on the installation is contained in supporting databases. While these data are not always comprehensive, they provide waste managers with a valuable resource for ensuring LBP is properly handled during C&D projects. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Management Plan (PCBMP) - The content, supplemental plan, and databases of this plan are similar to those outlined for asbestos and LBP. While the AF no longer requires this plan, it may still exist in installation files and may be of value to waste managers planning for a C&D project in a building with questionable PCB status. Environmental Impact Analysis Process (EIAP) Documents - These documents include Environmental Impact Statements and Environmental Assessments. Both contain chapters identifying the affected environment on installations. The details in these chapters can often provide important data on the miscellaneous hazardous materials buildings may contain. Installation Restoration Program (IRP) - Histories of installation buildings and sites were completed as part of the IRP. These histories can often provide detailed information about past operations in and around buildings. From this information, waste managers can determine what miscellaneous hazardous materials the buildings or sites may contain.

Second, waste managers should establish two waste management teams. As an alternative, installations may use existing organizational groups, like the Environmental Protection Committee or the Environmental Safety and Occupational Health Committee and their respective subcommittees or working groups. The intent is not to create more bureaucracy, but rather to clearly assign responsibility and accountability for C&D waste management. The first team is the “Steering Group for C&D Waste Management.” Installation middle managers with the following oversight responsibilities should be on this team:

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• • • • • • •

Procurement of materials. Designing C&D projects. Conducting in-house or contract C&D projects. Contracting for C&D project design or execution. Protecting human health and the environment. Complying with environmental laws, rules, and regulations. Disposing of C&D waste.

This team should meet at least annually and use the data gathered in Planning Steps 1 and 3 for establishing and getting Wing Commander approval of the installation C&D waste management strategy. Key team members include: • • • • • • • • Commander, Civil Engineer Squadron/Group. Chief, Environmental Flight/Squadron. Chief, Engineering Flight/Squadron. Chief, Operations Flight/Squadron. Commander, Contracting Squadron/Group. Commander, Supply Squadron/Group. Bioenvironmental Engineer, Aeromedical-Dental Squadron. Environmental Lawyer, Judge Advocate General.

The second team is called the “C&D Waste Management Execution Team.” The composition of this team varies widely depending on the size of the C&D project generating waste, how it is being accomplished, and what other organizations are involved. For example, if the project is accomplished through the installation's self-help store, representatives from the store and the requesting customer could form the team. The store representative provides the customer with the installation strategy and the generic C&D waste management plan for self-help projects. The customer is responsible for following the plan and providing documentation for the files. The team members are those who are directly involved with the project and can collectively influence all aspects of C&D waste management. For larger projects key team members may include (recommended core members are indicated by an asterisk*): • • • Waste manager*- This is the person responsible for the safe and efficient management of an installation’s solid waste and is normally a member of the Environmental Flight Staff. Project manager*- This could be a CE shop superintendent, self-help store manager, installation project engineer or representative of a contract construction agent like the Corps of Engineers. Project designer*- This could be a planner from the CE Operations Flight or self-help store; a design engineer/architect from the Engineering Flight, the construction agent or a contractor; or a designer from other agencies like the tenants, Air National Guard or Defense Commissary Agency. Project inspector*- This could be an in-house inspector, a contractor’s internal inspector, or both.

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• • • •

• • • •

Contracting representative*- This would be the specific Contracting Officer from the installation Contracting Squadron. Client or customer representative - This is a representative of the organization requesting or responsible for the project. Contractor representative* - This is the person responsible for C&D waste management. Representative(s) from local, regional or state organizations, like Habitat for Humanity or the National Association of Homebuilders Research Center, who have an involved interest in the safe and efficient management of an installation's C&D waste. Representative(s) from local or regional reuse and recycling facilities. Representative with compliance background from the Environmental Flight. Representative from Bioenvironmental Engineering. Representative from the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office.

Waste managers who complete Planning Steps 1 and 2 have a clear picture of the sustainable design and waste diversion opportunities for their installation and the team memberships and responsibilities needed for the process. They must next obtain a general understanding of the compliance requirements and best management practices associated with managing C&D waste containing regulated material.

Planning Step 3

IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE REQUIREMENTS & BEST C&D MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR ELIMINATING, MITIGATING, OR COMPLYING WITH THE REQUIREMENTS C&D waste managers have very focused environmental concerns generally involving the following hazardous materials and equipment components: • • • • • • • • Asbestos Containing Building Materials (ACBMs). Lead-based Paint (LBP). Poly-chlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Batteries containing lead and cadmium. Mercury. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Treated Wood. Miscellaneous (e.g., fluorescent lights, thermostats).

Waste managers need to be generally aware of the hazardous materials and equipment components used on the job site, the environmental impacts of those components, the compliance requirements, and best management practices for dealing with hazardous materials and waste. It is not the purpose of this Guide to make readers fully knowledgeable experts on hazardous materials and environmental compliance law. Waste managers must always rely on the expertise of the installation's environmental, bioenvironmental engineering, and judge advocate offices. But the Guide will provide a description of the primary hazardous components, what amounts trigger compliance with federal laws, and what can be done about preventing or reducing compliance requirements.

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Asbestos is the general name for a group of minerals including anthophyllite. Friable generally means asbestos fibers may become airborne. certification. Waste managers must coordinate with and accept their part of the overall responsibility for compliance. Asbestos is contained in over 3. state and local laws. These minerals occur naturally and are unique because they are comprised of crystals shaped into long fibers. Category I ACBM that has become friable due to destructive handling. rules and Air Force policies govern asbestos work. and resistant to chemical corrosion. whereas non-friable means asbestos fibers remain captured within a material. Epidemiological studies conducted in the 1960s and early 1970s confirmed the connection between long-term exposure to asbestos fibers and disease. ACBMs can become friable during renovation. grinding. cutting. and spackling compounds. regulations. and judge advocate offices each have a role in ensuring construction and demolition activities satisfy all compliance requirements. crocidolite. roofing felt and shingles. Asbestos is extremely versatile and this is clearly depicted by the myriad of potential ACBMs listed in Table G. or abrading. Category II ACBM that has been or will become friable due to sanding. and deconstruction activities when ACBM waste is generated. and asphalt roofing) and Category II (any non-friable ACBM not included in Category I). non-flammable. a good thermal and sound insulator.A number of federal. duct and pipe insulation. chrysotile. Compliance Requirements . reporting. floor tiles. wall board. bioenvironmental engineering. and tremolite. Chrysotile is the most common asbestos mineral found and it is used in the majority of U. Non-friable asbestos is further divided into Category I (packings. Asbestos minerals can survive fire and insulate against heat because of this distinctive structural shape. demolition. asbestos products and applications. 3. These diseases are particularly alarming to the public because they often do not occur until 20-30 years after the exposure. Impacts – Many people exposed to friable asbestos have contracted a lungscarring disease called asbestosis and several other forms of cancer. The most familiar ACBMs are boiler. inexpensive. and disposal.S. & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . sound proofing and acoustical treatment. Friable ACBM. work force practices. resilient flooring. 2. strong yet flexible. Waste managers need to understand that regulated ACBM covers the following four groups: 1.Asbestos Containing Building Materials (ACBM) Description . adhesives. ACBM and presumed ACBM (PACBM) are classified as either friable or non-friable. floor and wall coverings. The environmental. putties. and a variety of building supplies including: caulking. For regulatory purposes. gaskets.600 commercial and industrial products because it is plentiful. training. amosite. taping compounds. siding.

Builders encounter asbestos under numerous work conditions. At least 15 square meters or 160 square feet on other facility components. Remove regulated ACBM from the facility to be renovated or demolished. Category II ACBM that has a high probability of becoming or has become crumbled.4. or otherwise applied surfacing of ACBM and PACBM. floor tile and siding shingles. or reduced to powder by demolition or renovation processes. Class III means repair and maintenance activities that will disturb ACBM. or vacuuming floors in areas where ACBM or PACBM are present. Examples include sweeping. Examples include the removal of asbestos-containing wallboard. and removal of presumed asbestos-containing window glazing during window repairs. including those defined as Class I. Protect employees who may be exposed to asbestos during removal and handling operations. • The waste management team must ensure the following compliance requirements are met: • • • • • • • • Inspect the facility to be renovated or demolished for friable and nonfriable asbestos. pulverized. Notify the local pollution control agency if threshold amounts will be disturbed. Class II means the removal of any ACBM not covered in Class I. Transport asbestos-containing waste in covered vehicles that also prevent visible emissions to outside air. Class IV means maintenance and custodial work where employees are in contact with ACBM and PACBM but do not disturb it. Wet and bag asbestos-containing waste for disposal. troweled-on. Deposit asbestos-containing waste only at acceptable waste disposal sites. removal of small amounts of asbestos-containing wall board to repair electrical wiring. Examples include the repair of small amounts of pipe insulation disturbed while repairing a leaking valve. & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . But what triggers ACBM compliance requirements? The EPA has established the following threshold amounts for regulated ACBM: • • At least 80 linear meters or 260 linear feet on piping . Their asbestos work practices and engineering control requirements are regulated under the following classes of work: • • • Class I means the removal of thermal system insulation (TSI) and sprayed-on. dusting. Handle PACBM resulting from renovation and demolition work as asbestos-containing waste.

and corrosion control of items previously coated with LBP. 4. Review the installation Asbestos Management Plan and Asbestos Operating Plan prior to project design and facility inspection. The people most likely to be exposed are inspectors. etc. and in airfield and roadway pavement markings. 3. Its most frequent construction uses are found in batteries. painters.Exposure to lead from abraded paint. Design the project to: • Remove all regulated ACBM required to conduct the work. Impacts . Track asbestos compliance milestones by inspection and periodic status meetings. People who work unprotected in lead-related areas can transmit the lead on clothing and expose others. abatement of LBP in renovation and demolition projects can produce large quantities of potentially hazardous & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . and drinking water can result in lead poisoning and this sometimes has serious consequences. Notify the local pollution control agency of the project.The following practices by waste management teams are recommended to ensure the safe and efficient handling of regulated ACBM: 1.• At least 1 cubic meter or 35 cubic feet of facility components where the amount of regulated ACBM was previously removed but could not be measured before removal. electrical conductivity. and malleability. Adults are exposed to lead through facility maintenance. flashing. and paint. roofing. • Cover compliance requirements in the specifications. Various lead chemical compounds have been and are used to provide pigment for paint. 6. LBPs are oil-based paints used in industrial facilities on steel structures like water towers. Lead and Lead Based Paint (LBP) Description . These compounds also have a chemical affinity for paint that reinforces the paint film making it tough yet flexible and usually resistant to becoming brittle. 2. 5. and operators of abrasive blasters. • Require an asbestos compliance plan. lead-contaminated soil and dust. pipelines. abatement work. They were primarily applied in kitchens and bathrooms and on interior and exterior wood trim and siding. Inspect the facility to verify the status and condition of all ACBM and identify new or suspected ACBM. Arrange for testing of suspected ACBM and update plans accordingly. durability.Lead is a naturally occurring metal with important physical and functional properties of low melting point. Best Management Practices . personnel who clean in areas that may contain lead-contaminated dust. LBPs have excellent stain resistant and anti-corrosion properties and are resistant to ultraviolet light. Additionally. piping. renovation and demolition work. These properties have made it a common constituent of modern products and applications.

then the waste is strictly managed from identification to disposal.0 mg/cm2 or 0. Should the proposed changes to rules become effective. and disposal. salvaged. state. or recycled if the LBP coatings are not deteriorated. Under current rules. Most of these compliance requirements address the issue of protecting people on installations from the health risks associated with lead in their living and working environments. work practice standards. rules. These compliance requirements are not a part of this Guide. The environmental. and local laws. If LBP debris is determined to be hazardous (equaling or exceeding 5 mg/liter lead according to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure). regulations. storage. Always check with the environmental. the disposal of LBP debris. Waste managers must determine whether it is more cost effective to simply dispose & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . family housing is exempt from the disposal rules. The rules for storing.5% by weight. LBPAC have lead paint or coatings equaling or exceeding 1. The material remaining after an abatement project may be disposed of in MSW landfills if lead levels are less than 1 mg/cm2. and Air Force policies govern LBP. treatment. This Guide covers the much smaller number of compliance requirements dealing with the management of lead-containing waste on construction and demolition sites. and judge advocate offices each have a role in ensuring construction and demolition activities satisfy all compliance requirements. and disposing of LBP debris may be changing should rule changes proposed in December 1998 become effective. Note: In many states. certification. They cover inspections. The decision to select an alternative to manage LBP debris and LBPAC generated during renovation and demolition is typically an economic one. is based on a hazardous waste determination by the generator or by sampling and testing. LBP debris can be removed from the larger uncontaminated C&D waste stream and be disposed separately in a C&D landfill. LBPACs can be removed from the larger unregulated waste stream and reused. transportation.lead-contaminated waste. or it can remain in the larger contaminated waste stream that all goes to a C&D landfill. and demolition projects. disclosure. Waste managers must coordinate with these offices and accept their part of the overall responsibility for compliance. C&D waste managers may encounter LBP debris or LBPAC during abatement. bioenvironmental engineering. and judge advocate offices for current exemptions and compliance requirements. C&D waste containing LBP debris or LBP architectural components (LBPAC) may be disposed as non-hazardous waste in a C&D waste landfill. reporting. training.A number of federal. bioenvironmental engineering. Compliance Requirements . from buildings that have not otherwise been exempted. keeping records on. renovations. LBP waste materials generated during abatement do not fall under the new rules and must comply with other environmental regulations. handling. This waste can leach into potable water tables if improperly disposed.

& ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . if cost effective and not otherwise affected by proposed LBP rule changes. Use safe. demolition methods like grinding buildings for significantly reducing waste volumes. or determine whether new rules apply for LBP contaminated C&D waste. inspectors. 3. Transport lead-containing waste in covered vehicles that also prevent visible emissions to outside air. The waste management team must be familiar with the latest LBP laws and regulations and ensure the following compliance requirements are met: • • • • • • • Train. Track LBP compliance milestones by inspection and periodic status meetings. if necessary under current rules. Remove. 5. risk assessors. Design the Project to: a) Minimize the cost of handling and disposing of LBP debris or C&D waste containing regulated LBP. 7. Characterize under current rules whether lead debris resulting from renovation and demolition work is hazardous waste or not. and standardized methods when conducting LBP assessments. Segregate. 4. Protect employees who may be exposed to lead during removal and handling operations. lead-containing materials from the facility to be renovated or demolished. LBP debris and LBPAC in the waste stream to reduce the amount of C&D waste classified as hazardous or requiring disposal in C&D landfills. Deposit hazardous lead waste or debris containing lead only at acceptable waste disposal sites according to current rules. c) Require a LBP handling and disposal cost analysis and compliance plan. Review the Installation LBP Management Plan and ensure current LBP rules have been incorporated. and license LBP project designers. effective. Blastox or other LBP stabilizing products during abatement projects to render the waste non-hazardous. and workers according to EPA and state requirements. Use. and abatements (states may have promulgated laws or regulations with specific standards). 2. supervisors.of lead contaminated debris in C&D landfills or to remove LBP debris and LBPAC and handle them separately. 6. Best Management Practices 1. if cost effective. d) Limit or prohibit the use of LBP in new or replacement materials. Use. Identify potential LBP materials and components in facilities scheduled to be renovated or demolished and determine the most cost effective handling and disposal alternative. inspections. certify. b) Cover compliance requirements in the specifications. if cost effective and not a violation of state regulations.

PCBs are extremely persistent when released to the environment because they resist metabolic processes that would break them down into simpler compounds. studies with animals have demonstrated PCBs cause cancer and a variety of other adverse health effects on the immune. high boiling point.PCBs are a subset of the man-made family of organic chemicals called chlorinated hydrocarbons. and in pigments.5 billion pounds of PCBs in producing PCB-containing materials between 1926 and 1977.The Congress enacted the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) in 1976 because of its concern over the toxicity and persistence in the environment of PCBs. heat transfer. and hydraulic equipment. These materials are classified as follows: & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . These properties made PCBs ideal for hundreds of industrial and commercial uses. Scientists have not found conclusive evidence that either background levels or even very high levels of PCBs in some occupational groups result in acute or carcinogenic effects. waste managers can still find these items in construction and demolition debris. processing. Compliance Requirements . and fluorescent lighting ballasts. and rubber products. In 1976. Scientists have found a strong association between chloracne. The EPA and risk assessors have classified PCBs as probable human carcinogens and toxicants based largely on the evidence derived from the animal studies. Manufacturers used more than 1. high flash point. reproductive. Most installations have PCBcontaining materials in electric transformers. the federal government mandated the elimination of PCBs in commercial production. plastics. and low water solubility. Impacts . Congress largely prohibited the manufacture. These chemicals have similar physical properties including non-flammability. Researchers have not shown that the presence of PCBs in human tissues or its environmental persistence alone adversely impact human health or the environment. electric capacitors. and endocrine systems. high chemical stability.Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Description . low electrical conductivity. plasticizers and additives in lubricating and cutting fluids. However. PCBs were eliminated from production by 1979. dyes. and distribution in commerce of PCBs and required PCBs be carefully managed from manufacture to disposal in order to protect human health and the environment. Without careful planning. and carbonless copy paper. Under the law. The most common uses for these materials were dielectric fluids in electrical. PCB-containing materials are regulated according to the concentration of PCBs in them. nervous. plasticizers in paints. The low water solubility of PCBs also allows them to accumulate in the fatty tissues of exposed animals and humans. changes in skin pigmentation and chronic skin and eye irritation and populations exposed to unusually high levels of PCBs and other chemicals known to be skin sensitizers.

Notify the local pollution control agency of the project. Best Management Practices . 6. Therefore.” While TSCA regulates materials containing concentrations of PCB between 50 and 500. some states regulate down to 5 ppm. 5. 4. then all of the demolition debris is regulated under TSCA. 3. Review the installation PCB Management Plan prior to project design and facility inspection.The following practices by waste management teams are recommended to ensure the safe and efficient handling of regulated PCB-containing materials: 1. Yet even fluorescent light ballasts labeled "no PCB" may contain PCBs in the potting material. Design the project to: a) Remove all regulated or suspected PCB prior to demolition or deconstruction. The law requires mixtures like construction and demolition debris that include PCB-containing materials be regulated to the requirements of the highest classification of PCB concentration. Where this was not done. The law prohibits diluting PCB-containing materials simply to reduce PCB concentrations below regulated thresholds. 2. Manufacturers of PCB-containing materials and equipment were required to label these items with the PCB classification. owners of these items were required to affix classification labels.• • • PCB material PCB-contaminated TSCA-regulated PCB >=500 ppm 5-500 ppm PCB 50-500 ppm PCB Materials containing less than 5 ppm PCB are classified as non-PCB or “No PCB. waste managers must use the TCLP sampling method to characterize waste known to contain either potting material that may contain PCBs or unlabeled capacitors and lighting ballasts. Waste failing the TCLP must be disposed as hazardous waste. c) Require a PCB compliance plan. Track PCB compliance plan milestones by inspection and periodic status meetings. b) Cover compliance requirements in the specifications. & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . Inspect the facility to verify the location and classification of PCBcontaining materials and equipment and identify any new or suspected PCB containing materials and equipment. For example: if you demolish a building known to contain TSCA-regulated PCB capacitors and light ballasts. Arrange for sampling and testing of suspected PCB-containing material and update plans according to results.

retaining walls. Treated lumber includes marine piling and fenders. old mercury-bearing wall switches. Coordinate with environmental managers before reusing treated lumber in situations where chemicals could leach into the ground. Lumber treated with chemicals and preservatives and considered for disposal or reuse in a project may also be a hazardous waste. and other applications calling for treated lumber. and a variety of switches. rail ties. and characterized as hazardous or not and manage them accordingly. utility poles. deconstruction. Waste managers should coordinate with environmental managers and obtain details from Environmental Impact Analysis Process (EIAP) and Installation Restoration Program (IRP) documents.Miscellaneous Hazardous Wastes Mercury-containing materials and treated lumber are two of the more common miscellaneous wastes found in construction and demolition debris. Contractors on new construction only projects appear to have no environmental laws requiring compliance. More Best Management Practices Concerns over the proper handling of hazardous C&D waste differ significantly between new construction only and demolition. high-intensity discharge lamps. and arsenic compounds. There are other materials too numerous to cover here that are found in buildings to be demolished that may be classified as hazardous waste. Wastes containing these items must be characterized as hazardous or not using the TCLP method. Fortunately. heating oils. Blue and yellow paints and coatings also may contain regulated levels of cadmium and chromium. and other dimensional lumber that has been coated or impregnated with pentachlorophenol. Otherwise it should be characterized as hazardous or non-hazardous and disposed of accordingly. and test can ensure many of these items are easily removed prior to demolition or during deconstruction. Waste managers should ensure unspecified materials are sampled. Contractors of new construction only in reality typically only produce small amounts of hazardous waste involving the following items: • • Solvents and cleaners Paints and coatings & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . and storage tanks may also be present. These vary from building to building depending on the uses for those buildings. mercury or mercury vapor can be found in fluorescent light bulbs. Waste managers can reduce treated lumber waste by reusing it in landscaping. pole barns. waste managers who plan. and renovation work. Briefly. relays and gauges that use mercury. berms. thermostats. tested. Other materials like asphalt. parking barriers. fencing. creosotes. For example: buildings where plating operations or extensive parts cleaning occurred may have materials containing regulated heavy metals or solvent chemicals that were spilled. inspect.

The key findings were as follows: • • • • • Residential and commercial builders use relatively small amounts of hazardous materials and typically use landfills for waste disposal. • Require low or non-Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) paints and coatings to reduce or eliminate VOC emissions. • Use the installation Hazardous Material Pharmacy. The Metro Solid Waste Department of Portland. • Recycle old and unused latex paint. Again. Painting trades typically produce the majority of hazardous waste in the construction industry. Project designers and waste managers can and should use the following best practices for achieving safe and economical hazardous waste management by contractors and in-house work forces: • Require waste minimization and prevention practices: • Require aqueous cleaners instead of petroleum based solvents. Require reuse and recycling practices: • Reuse thinner as a thinner for cleaning painting equipment. material substitution. Require employee education practices: • Combine waste management discussions with safety meetings. • Require biodegradable cleaners instead of solvents to reduce the accumulation of waste solvent and containers and solventcontaminated rags. Contractors indicated a desire to know the potentially hazardous substances in the materials they use and how to properly dispose of the hazardous waste. Auditors reported the amount of hazardous waste generated for singlefamily residences ranged between 15-69 pounds per unit. and environmentally responsible diversion and disposal methods.• • • Adhesives Sealer tubes Oil and grease lubricants Waste managers should return unused hazardous materials to their HAZMAT pharmacy or suppliers for reuse. Oregon contracted a study on the waste characterization of residential and commercial construction projects. • Combine used solvents with new. • • & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . it is important to coordinate with the installation environmental and judge advocate offices to ensure compliance with state or local requirements. Waste managers have made only limited efforts to educate building trades on hazardous waste reduction. • Require low VOC water based epoxy concrete sealer to reduce VOC emissions. • Require water-based coatings to reduce or prevent the need for petroleum solvents and associated wastes. The study included 23 hazardous waste surveys and 10 random phone interviews to examine the management of potentially hazardous materials used in new construction.

sealants. and 14 through 16 all include applicable portions of the following language under PART 2 PRODUCTS. The organization works to meet the region's needs in a wide range of areas including environmental protection. Orange and Wake counties. WASTE MANAGEMENT: “Use the least toxic [EDIT TO SUIT SECTION] lubricants. primers.Model Specifications for Construction Waste Reduction.” Specification DIVISIONS 7. 9 through 12. non-flammable.nc. and spill prevention and counter measures. cleaners. low VOC content. Durham. manufactured without compounds which contribute to ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere. in-house work force supervisors. adhesives. The following examples from WasteSpec illustrate how specifications can help reduce or eliminate hazardous wastes: • Specification DIVISIONS 2 through 10 and 13 through 16 all include applicable portions of the following language under PART 3 EXECUTION. contracting officers.tcog. water soluble. The Triangle J Council of Governments is a voluntary organization of municipal and county governments in North Carolina's Region J (Chatham. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS: “In the selection of products and materials of this section preference will be given to those with the following characteristics [EDIT TO SUIT SECTION AND PROJECT]: water based. Users need only follow the notes (enclosed in brackets [ ] ) and specification language (enclosed in parentheses). WasteSpec can be ordered by calling 919-549-0551 or an order form is available on the website at www. or eliminating hazardous waste is in Appendix H. A complete reference to WasteSpec specifications for preventing. Project designers.dst. The Triangle J Council of Governments has produced the most comprehensive version titled. and contractors have the capability of reducing or preventing the generation of hazardous waste before potentially hazardous materials are ever procured and used at the job site. and waste managers have a number of sources for model specifications involving reducing or eliminating the toxicity of building materials. Designers must ensure many of the required steps identified above are included in the project specifications. Supervisors and contractors must ensure their material purchasers understand and comply with the specifications.• • Publicize waste management goals. Johnston. WasteSpec . does not contain chlorinated • • & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . Quality assurance inspectors and contracting officers must work with contractors and enforce the specifications. biodegradable. water clean-up. Project designers. Share and recognize successes with employees. sealers. Lee. WasteSpec follows the format of the Construction Specifications Institute making it easy to use. manufactured without compounds which contribute to smog in the lower atmosphere. and finishes necessary to comply with the requirements of this section. reducing. coatings and fluids with low VOC content. Reuse and Recycling. plans. does not contain methylene chloride.us/TJCOG.

Waste managers can update the point source assessment data once they implement their C&D waste management strategies and begin tracking installation waste generation. peer reviewers of the methodology agree this is a credible estimating tool. teams can find these data from existing installation budget & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . bridge and landclearing projects. Nonetheless. Historical waste generation data can then be used to refine the estimating calculations. This is accomplished by first quantifying and then characterizing the installation’s C&D waste stream and comparing these data to the scope of reuse and recycling resources identified in Planning Step 1. Where choices exist in the provision of glass fiber insulation.There are a number of methodologies that have been created and used for quantifying the C&D waste stream and each methodology comes with various strengths and weaknesses. THERMAL AND MOISTURE PROTECTION includes the following language for specifiers: • SECTION 07100. factory applied coatings.” Specification DIVISION 7. B. The use of insulation products manufactured with CFCs as blowing agents is prohibited. this is the first time it has been used. does not contain or generate hazardous or toxic waste." • SECTION 07200.. The methodology can be applied against the following six categories of construction: Residential New Construction Renovation Demolition Non-residential New Construction Renovation Demolition Waste management teams do not need the Census Bureau data used by the EPA. Quantification .• hydrocarbons. preference is to be given to coatings which are water based and require water clean-up. First. Two points about this methodology must be noted.. The EPA has developed a new methodology based on combining Census Bureau data on project activity in the construction industry with point source weight and sampling data from a variety of C&D sites. Instead. INSULATION: “A. Second. This is significant because the limited data available from point source assessments nation-wide are cause for some uncertainty. WATERPROOFING: "Where choices exist. preference is to be given to the following characteristics [EDIT TO SUIT PROJECT]: low or no formaldehyde emissions.” Planning Step 4 QUANTIFY AND CHARACTERIZE THE POTENTIAL ANNUAL C&D W ASTE STREAM ON THE INSTALLATION Waste management teams must know in advance what the potential is for reducing and diverting C&D wastes because these data govern subsequent management activities. it does NOT include point source waste assessment data from roadway.

Environmental Protection Agency. For example.S. A-4. Once the installation is funded for a new fiscal year. such as replacing cabinets ** Complete tear out Rate (tons/job) 0. 2-2. The rates (lbs/sq ft) for these two categories are shown in Table 9: Table 9. Next. Worksheets for each of the six categories mentioned above are included in Appendix E. The rates (tons/job) for these project scopes are as follows: Table 10. “Characterization of Building-Related Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States.38 3. This should be done first on an annual basis so goals can be established within an overall strategy. “Characterization of Building-Related Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States.75 (Source: Franklin Associates. 98.25 1.00 155. The EPA calculated the weighted average C&D waste generation rates in lb/sq ft for the new construction and demolition categories as part of their methodology and these factors make the worksheets easy to use.) The calculations on the residential renovation worksheets are a bit more involved because the scope for individual renovation projects can be vastly different. and A-5. Jun.75 4. teams can calculate an estimate of the C&D waste they expect to be generated.) & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . 2-3.00 0. Jun. Weighted Average C&D Waste Generation Rates Residential (lbs/sq ft) Non-residential (lbs/sq ft) New Construction 4.89 Renovation Varies 17. 98.” U. renovations to military family housing certainly fall into predictable project scopes. 2-9. the amount of C&D waste generation can be calculated for each project or work order so specific project goals can be set and tracked.00 (Source: Franklin Associates. roof replacement generates relatively low amounts of waste per square foot.50 0. 2-8.reports.” U. whereas replacing a concrete driveway generates large amounts of waste per square foot.S. The EPA calculated the average generation rates in tons/job for each project scope within the residential renovation category. p. 2-7. 2-6. 210. Nevertheless. Average C&D Waste Generation Rates for Typical Residential Renovation Scopes Scope Minor kitchen remodel* Major kitchen remodel** Minor bath remodel Major bath remodel Room additions * Facelift only. p.67 Demolition 115. Environmental Protection Agency.

“Characterization of Building-Related Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States.42 Floor. or Pipeless Furnace 0.15 Electric Heat Pump 0. ventilating. Jun.Table 11. you must characterize the composition of the waste.10 Built-in Electric Units 0.30 Warm Air Furnace 0. Characterization .” U.S.Once you know the quantity of waste being generated. Wall. The EPA calculated the C&D waste generated by these jobs as shown in Table 11 above. driveways. The rounded average of the percent ranges of the most common components are summarized in Table 12.30 Steam or Hot Water Systems 0.10 Room Heaters 0.38 HVAC Equipment Replacement Central Air 0. A detailed table of percent ranges and average percentages of other components may be referenced in Appendix B. Environmental Protection Agency. These percentages fall within ranges because.91 Asphalt Roof Replacement 1. Appropriate rates should be used in the worksheets provided in Appendix E. p. Average C&D Waste Generation Rates for Additional Residential Renovation Scopes Rate (tons/unit) Scope Driveway Replacement 8. and heating. & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . The EPA has gathered detailed waste composition data by percentage for each C&D waste category. and air conditioning systems. again. A-6 through A-8 and the Author.68 Wood Roof Replacement 1.10 (Source: Franklin Associates. 98. You can then compare these data with the reuse and recycling resources identified in Planning Step 1 and clearly define your waste management strategy or specific waste management plan.) Residential renovations often have common additional scopes including replacement of roofs. waste generation is dependent upon project scope.

There are several model specifications that have been developed. Standard Contracts with Bid Alternatives . for a construction project bidders may be asked to submit an alternate bid for reducing. There are numerous contracting options available to ensure the efficient management of C&D wastes.These contracts are already in use and simply require the addition of specifications tailored to implement the C&D waste management strategy and ensure contractors employ C&D waste management practices. and recycling. Contracting options include: Standard Contracts . A-10 to A-16 and the Author.” U. Similarly. The variations for bid alternatives are endless and offer maximum flexibility. reuse. but the most comprehensive is WasteSpec produced by the Triangle J Council of Governments. Project designers should obtain and use model specifications for C&D waste reduction. Enter these data onto your waste work sheets and this planning step is complete.These contracts have alternatives attached to the bidding process.S. Rounded Average Percentage of Waste Composition (%) Wood Residential New Construction Renovation Demolition 53 37 33 Drywall 19 31 10 Metals 2 3 4 Concrete 9 5 27 Plastics 2 <1 1 Non-residential New Construction 31 23 10 33 3 Renovation 28 22 19 22 3 Demolition 21 10 7 53 3 (Source: Franklin Associates.Table 12. and recycling just the predominant C&D wastes as identified in Tables 2 and 3. For example. reusing. Planning Step 5 IDENTIFY THE RANGE OF CONTRACTING OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO IMPLEMENT C&D W ASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Building contractors are often used to execute construction and demolition projects. discuss the options. 98. p.) Apply the waste composition percentages to the quantity of waste you estimated would be generated. “Characterization of Building-Related Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States. These model specifications should be tailored to the specific C&D project and included in all project specifications and contracting documents. You are now ready to develop the C&D waste management strategy for your installation. for a demolition project bidders may be asked to submit an alternate bid for deconstructing the building. Environmental Protection Agency. Jun. Waste managers must contact the various contracting agencies involved. & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . and select the contract vehicle best suited for this effort.

these should be the only wastes identified in the strategy. what type of wastes will be targeted. An aggressive strategy might follow this course: Fiscal Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 C&D Diversion Rate 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% Solid Waste Diversion Rate 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 40% Waste managers should include the types of waste found to be marketable from Planning Step 1. Again the variations for this contract type are very flexible. Here the contractor could be given a delivery order for an entire deconstruction project. The contractor gets paid fully for the awarded disposal bid. It has been shown in this Guide that from 9-31% of that goal can be achieved just from diverting C&D waste. In this instance a contractor’s periodic award fee is tied to their level of success with C&D waste management. Waste managers should establish their own progressive diversion goals for C&D waste. and what sustainable design and operating techniques will be employed. test the success of deconstruction versus standard demolition. the AF MoM for 2005 is a 40% diversion rate. & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . Or a delivery order might centralize an installation’s entire C&D waste management program under one contractor.Many installations have access to delivery-order contracts where the contractor responds to specific Statements of Work. Delivery-order Contracts . expand the strategy to other waste generating categories. More elaborate incentive contracts are cost plus award fee. For example. and try innovative contracting options. Planning Step 6 DEVELOP A C&D W ASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR COMPLYING WITH AF POLICY AND ACHIEVING THE AF MEASURE OF MERIT (MOM) The waste management strategy for your installation provides a minimum of four things: what the installation’s annual goal for C&D waste diversion is. Under this option construction contractors would not have any disposal costs as a part of their project. For example. Installations must achieve the non-hazardous solid waste diversion MoMs established by HQ USAF/ILEV. the contractor has a cost for traditional waste disposal but is encouraged to use waste reduction. but is allowed to profit from any cost reductions realized through C&D waste management. reuse.Incentive Contracts . They can use the strategy to test new reuse and recycling markets. the local and regional markets may only support the reuse and recycling of wood and concrete. Unless markets subsequently change. and recycling techniques.In its simplest form an incentive clause is added to a contract. what waste generating categories will be included. For example. Waste managers should update the strategy at least annually.

The content of a WMP includes the following five elements: & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Planning to Get Started . The range of C&D waste generating categories include: • Renovation and demolition by installation in-house forces o Operations and Maintenance work o Self-Help Store projects o Military Family Housing U-Fix-It Stores Renovation and demolition by contractors performing in-house work o Operations and Maintenance (O&M) work o Self-help Store projects o Military Family Housing O&M work New construction. This part of the strategy must be consistent with the types of waste being included.Waste managers should also include in their strategy a list of the types of installation work and projects to which the strategy will apply. They should identify the work forces and contractors who will perform the work and the projects. if an installation has a multi-year program of new family housing construction and their strategy includes the reduction. and demolition by other DOD forces o Red Horse projects o Air National Guard (ANG) projects o Air Force Reserve Center (AFRC) projects • • • Finally. renovation. the strategy couldn’t apply to self-help or U-Fix-It projects. and recycling of wood. and concrete. renovation. and demolition by contractors not performing in-house work: o Military Construction (MILCON) projects o Military Family Housing (MFH) projects o Army Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES) projects o Defense Commissary Agency (DeCA) projects o Tenant projects o Medical projects New construction. Planning Step 7 DEVELOP GENERIC W ASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS The final step in planning for safe and effective C&D waste managements entails developing a framework for generic C&D waste management plans (WMPs). if concrete is the only C&D waste being reused. For example. metals. then a generic WMP for these three materials should be developed for application to each housing project. The plan provides a clear picture of what is expected of the construction or demolition team. For example. There should be a generic WMP for each of the C&D waste generating categories identified in the installation’s C&D Waste Management Strategy. salvage. the strategy should identify the sustainability techniques that will apply to work order and project design and other installation operating procedures like ordering and shipping construction supplies. reuse. A WMP identifies all of the C&D diversion requirements for a specific project.

1. Analysis of the project waste. Completion of Planning Step 1 provides waste managers with possible markets and materials to be included in the project. Waste managers can then complete Parts 1 and 2 of the appropriate project worksheet in Appendix E under Planning Step 4. Results from the worksheet include the potential quantities of materials identified for diversion from Planning Step 1. 2. A specific waste management goal. The C&D waste management strategy should have an overall diversion goal for the year and a supporting goal is identified for the project. Waste managers can complete Part 3 of one of the appropriate project worksheet in Appendix E. Results from the worksheet include the potential diversion rate from which the goal may be set. For example, “The project will achieve a diversion rate of 75%.” 3. Diversion methods. The possible reduction and diversion methods have been discussed previously in the Guide. Waste managers should have a reasonably clear idea of diversion methods by material and material handling facility after completing Planning Step 1. If the project will be contracted, specifications should require submission by the contractor of a draft and final WMP and incorporate the generic WMP. An example from WasteSpec of Section 01505, Construction Waste Management is included in Part 2 of Appendix H. This example covers how all elements of the WMP are handled, with contract specifications. Appropriate aspects of these guidance specifications may also be adapted for use in generic WMPs for C&D accomplished by in-house workforces. 4. Material handling procedures. Completion of Planning Step 1 should help waste managers know the procedures required for managing wastes to be diverted. The plan should outline how these materials will be removed, separated, stored (if required), and transported for reuse, salvage, recycling, or disposal. 5. Education and promotion of the WMP. Successful implementation of the WMP requires its contents be widely communicated and clearly understood. The plan should indicate how and when it would be communicated to managers and workforces. Each plan should also employ measurement or tracking methods so effectiveness can be determined. Diversion success should be provided to those executing the plan as a means of positive reinforcement. Waste Management Plans do not need to be complicated documents. With the help of results from completing Planning Steps 1and 4, waste managers can easily develop generic WMPs for the various sources of C&D waste generation. These plans can stand alone for C&D projects accomplished by in-house workforces, or they can be provided as a resource to contractors and subcontractors required by specifications to prepare draft and final WMPs on specific projects. A sample WMP is provided in Appendix I.

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Planning to Get Started

Chapter 4

Implementing The C&D Waste Management Process
This section describes and prescribes the step-by-step waste management process for incorporating, executing, monitoring and documenting the diversion of installation C&D waste.

C&D Waste Management Process for In-house Work and Projects
Step 1. The waste manager should use an existing or form a new C&D Waste Management Execution Team when a work request is received. The members of this team should represent the shops involved, job planners, recycling and reuse contractors, environmental experts, and the organization requesting the work. Representatives of other in-house organizations like RED HORSE, ANG, and AFRC should be on the team when they perform the work. Step 2. The team should review the installation C&D waste management strategy and any generic waste management plans developed for the shops and in-house work. If there are unique aspects to the work not covered in the generic WMPs, then the team should revise the plans to fit the work. Step 3. The team should also review appropriate installation plans and programs and determine how those plans and programs may impact C&D management for the job (refer to Chapter 3, Planning Step 2). NOTE: Steps 1-3 can be streamlined once installation team members gain experience with the process. Waste managers should use existing work order planning and review groups as part of their execution team. Step 4. The team should visit the job site to visualize site conditions, verify known and identify new material types, discuss potential environmental issues, and visualize whether the WMPs can be executed. Step 5. Planners should incorporate the WMP into the work order as the job gets planned. Planners should use the C&D Waste Worksheet and calculate an estimate of C&D waste that can be diverted for the specific job. Step 6. The environmental team representative should review the work order, ensure all environmental requirements by others are going to be satisfied, and take on-going actions required of the Environmental Flight/Squadron. Step 7. The team should monitor execution of the WMP throughout accomplishment of the work. The following milestones are good points at which to review the work: • Before work starts - Hold a meeting with the Waste Management Execution Team, work force, and shop supervisors. Remind everyone of the C&D waste

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Implementing The C&D Waste Management Process

diversion goals of the job and encourage innovations to waste management practices. During work - Periodically provide feedback to supervisors and workers on achievement of C&D waste diversion goals, any new waste management innovations, and execution of the WMP. This may be done in conjunction with required safety meetings. Visit the job site and ensure workers are following waste management practices covered in the WMP. Before work is complete - Check documentation and ensure the weight and type of diverted C&D waste is being recorded. It may also be beneficial to break this documentation down into various diversion categories like reduced, salvaged for future reuse, reused on site, recycled, and composted. These data will help in updating future WMPs and the installation strategy. After work is complete - Calculate the final quantities diverted, complete the final worksheet in Appendix E, and file it.

Step 8. In-house forces should clear the site (if included in the job scope) and stockpile soil for use as fill and grubbed trees and brush for composting or mulching. Salvage materials for reuse, sale, or give-away. Step 9. In-house forces should perform deconstruction if the job scope (demolition or renovation work) calls for it. In-house forces may be augmented with outside labor forces from partnerships as described in Chapter 3, pgs. 3-3 and 3-4. Step 10. In-house forces should reuse C&D waste materials that were either segregated at the job site or stored from previous jobs. Recycle C&D waste materials segregated at the job site. Step 11. In-house forces should backfill and finish the site, if the job scope (demolition or renovation work) calls for it, using crushed concrete and stockpiled soil. Step 12. The O&M flight should account for completed C&D waste management documentation and ensure it gets coordinated with waste managers and filed.

C&D Waste Management Process for Contracted Work and Projects
Step 1. The waste manager should use an existing or form a new C&D Waste Management Execution Team just before project design begins. The members of this team should represent design engineering, project inspection, JAG, bioenvironmental engineering, environmental flight, contracting squadron, and the client organization requiring the work. Representatives from other organizations like the Medical Group, tenants, AAFES, and DeCA should be on the team when they contract for work. Step 2. The team should review the installation C&D waste management strategy and any generic waste management plan developed for contractors and contracted work.

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Implementing The C&D Waste Management Process

Hold a meeting with the Waste Management Execution Team. The following milestones are good points at which to monitor the work: • Before work starts . and inspectors. verify known and identify new material types. The team representatives from design engineering and contracting should include appropriate C&D waste management specifications in the Statement of Work. contractor. Teams are not constrained in the order they choose to follow. The team should be expanded after contract award to include representatives from the winning contractors and subcontractors. Step 6. The team should visit the co ntract site to visualize site conditions. p. The team representatives from design engineering. Step 8. Remind everyone of the C&D & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Implementing The C&D Waste Management Process . The team representative from environmental should review the project scope. ensure all environmental requirements by others are identified to engineering for inclusion in the design. Step 4. NOTE: Steps 6 . The team should present and discuss the C&D waste management strategy and waste management goals for the project at any pre-bid meetings and site visits with prospective contractors and subcontractors. The contractors should monitor execution of the WMP throughout accomplishment of the work. Planning Step 2). Delivery Order.8 may actually occur simultaneously or overlap. and take on-going actions required of the Environmental Flight. The expanded team should make a site visit to clarify for the contractors and subcontractors the C&D waste management goals and requirements of the contract. work force. Step 11. Step 10. The team should select the appropriate type of contract option (refer to Chapter 3. Source Selection. Designers should use one of the model specifications available in the industry. Step 9.Step 3. and discuss potential environmental issues. Performance Specification. and contracting should tailor contract specifications to optimize C&D waste diversion and require the contractors and subcontractors to submit a WMP for the project. Step 7. Design engineers should specify that these plans and program documents will be made available to the contractors. Statement of Requirements. Planning Step 5. the A-E firm (if used). Step 5. Step 12. The Engineering flight or an architect-engineering (A-E) firm will design the project. and bid request documents. The team should also review appropriate installation plans and programs and determine how those plans and programs may impact C&D management by the contractor (refer to Chapter 3. 3-21).

It may also be beneficial to break this documentation down into various diversion categories like reduced. stockpile soil and crushed concrete for use as fill. These data will help in updating future WMPs and the installation strategy. Step 17. Before work is complete . & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Implementing The C&D Waste Management Process . complete the final worksheet. salvaged for future reuse.Check documentation and ensure the weight and type of diverted C&D waste is being recorded. The contractors should clear the site (if included in the contract scope). recycled.Periodically provide feedback to supervisors and workers on achievement of C&D waste diversion goals and execution of the WMPs. sale. After work is complete .• • • waste diversion goals of the job and encourage innovations to waste management practices. and composted. The contractors should backfill and finish the site. Step 13. and grub trees and brush for composting. The contractors should salvage materials for reuse. Step 15. The contractors should perform deconstruction if the contract scope (demolition or renovation work) calls for it. and file it. Step 16. Step 14. Visit the job site and ensure workers are following waste management practices covered in the WMP. During work . This may be done in conjunction with required safety meetings. The contractors should reuse C&D waste materials that were either segregated at the job site or stored from previous jobs. reused on site. if the job scope (demolition or renovation work) calls for it. The contractors should recycle C&D waste materials segregated at the job site.Calculate the final quantities diverted. The project inspector should account for completed C&D waste management documentation and ensure it gets coordinated with waste managers and filed. using crushed concrete and stockpiled soil. or giveaway.

Despite the common sense value in reducing. For the first goal. where before only opportunity existed. And fourth. The policy and MoM create the possibility. it showed design and construction project managers and other waste management team members how to manage C&D waste. step-by-step. The “C&D Waste Management Guide” was written to provide the missing guidance. The Air Force policy letter and MoM now requires at least a 40% diversion rate for non-hazardous solid waste by 2005 and provides renewed focus on our waste management efforts. the barriers to implementing waste management techniques have been a convenient excuse to continuing the traditional practices of burning and landfilling. Planning Step 3 in Chapter 3 of the Guide covered the third goal. Third. it explained how C&D waste management could lower disposal cost. The Guide is a “how to” document intended to satisfy four goals in supporting solid waste diversion. and recycling C&D waste. as was illustrated in Table 1 on page 2-3 and there are the savings that accrue through a comprehensive waste management process. it identified and explained how to comply with environmental concerns when managing C&D waste. Then the Guide & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Summary . Chapter 4 then prescribed.Chapter 5 Summary The safe and economic management of C&D waste has been an unrealized opportunity for many years. readers were shown in Chapter 2 that C&D waste has value in two ways. reusing. it identified and provided C&D waste management tools that installation managers will need to be successful. Second. waste managers could successfully incorporate. The primary environmental concerns with C&D projects were identified. There is the inherent value of specific material. But the leverage of the policy and MoM are insufficient alone to achieve the AF goals and comply with its waste management policy. The Guide outlined seven planning steps in Chapter 3 and walked waste managers through a process of identifying all of the resources and requirements critical to preparing specific C&D waste management plans. First. Chapters 3 and 4 showed installation managers how they can safely and effectively manage C&D waste under the second goal. and document the diversion of installation C&D waste. The Case Studies provided in Chapter 2 and Appendix D repeatedly demonstrated how following the waste management options hierarchy on page 2-5 and using sustainable design and construction techniques resulted in lower disposal costs than those experienced under conventional disposal methods. monitor. The planning steps lay the foundation for developing the specific plans and the specific plans then guide waste managers through implementation. By following these processes. execute. Some practical “how to” guidance is also required. C&D waste management implementation processes for both in-house and contracted C&D work and projects.

general compliance requirements. Finally. The Guide identified websites as possible resources and provided website excerpts to serve as examples for obtaining potential material exchanges.described for each concern the environmental impacts of hazardous components and equipment. Waste managers were reminded to include the installation’s environmental. and best management practices for preventing or reducing compliance requirements. & ' :DVWH 0DQDJHPHQW &KDSWHU    Summary . and example waste strategy and management plans were provided to assist waste mangers in completing the planning steps. Begin with a pilot project or manageable group of projects and determine what will work best at your installation. the Guide is filled with C&D waste management tools to satisfy the fourth goal. bioenvironmental. and judge advocate experts for complying with all environmental issues. The Guide is a credible start for helping installations improve management of their C&D waste and achieve an important piece of the AF non-hazardous waste diversion MoM. Then build on this early success until C&D waste management according to the Guide is a natural and voluntary part of the installation culture. Formatted spreadsheets. Waste managers are challenged to make a commitment to act and employ the Guide for ensuring success. they are sufficient to allow waste managers to take immediate action. While the tools provided by no means exhaust what is available. worksheets. Guide specifications were referenced and excerpts were included to serve as examples for project designers and work planners.

Appendix A Abbreviations.1 . Acronyms and Definitions List of Abbreviations Metro mg/cm2 ppm Metropolitan Solid Waste Department of Portland. Oregon milligrams per square centimeter parts per million List of Acronyms AAFES ACBM AF AFRC AMP ANG AOP BOSS C&D CE CFC DeCA DOD DRMO EBCRC EIAP EPA FY HAZMAT HQ USAF HVAC ILEV IRP ISWMP JAG LBP LBPAC LBPMP LBPOP LRA MFH MILCON MoM MSW NAF Army Air Force Exchange Service Asbestos Containing Building Materials Air Force Air Force Reserve Center Asbestos Management plan Air National Guard Asbestos Operations Plan Building Opportunities for Self-Sufficiency Construction and Demolition Civil Engineer Chlorofluorocarbons Defense Commissary Agency Department of Defense Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office East Bay Conversion and Reinvestment Commission Environmental Impact Analysis Process Environmental Protection Agency Fiscal Year Hazardous Materials Headquarters United States Air Force Heating. Office of the Civil Engineer Installation Restoration Program Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan Judge Advocate General Lead Based Paint Lead Based Paint Architectural Components Lead Based Paint Management Plan Lead Based Paint Operations Plan Local Military Family Housing Military Construction Measure of Merit Municipal Solid Waste Non-Appropriated Fund Appendix A . Ventilation and Air Conditioning Headquarters Air Force Environmental Directorate.

promoting use of the latest technology and advocating building the best quality projects for owners--public and private. Air Force Reserve Center. Air National Guard. The term also includes the work forces of all contractors. Appendix A . Back-haul – The use of empty containers or vehicles to return waste packaging from delivered materials and supplies. Builders – The broad term used in this document when referring to those work forces who construct or demolish all or parts of buildings and infrastructure.2 .asp. AGC is committed to three tenets of industry advancement and opportunity: Skill. Berms – A bank of earth or stone or timbers placed against an exterior wall or used to define a specific landscaped area. Standard blasting equipment is used with no change in efficiency or profile. Source: Webster’s New Universal Unabridged Dictionary and the Author. AGC is dedicated to improving the construction industry daily by educating the industry to employ the finest skills. The term includes the in-house forces of the Civil Engineer Squadron/Group. The spent residue is non-hazardous and can be disposed of in a local Subtitle D landfill. Integrity and Responsibility.Appendix A Abbreviations. Blastox ® – A granular chemical abrasive blasting media additive that is available pre-blended from licensed blenders with slags. Acronyms and Definitions NAS O&M PACBM PCB PCBMP QRP RED HORSE SABER TCLP TJCOG VOC WasteSpec WMP Naval Air Station Operations and Maintenance Presumed Asbestos Containing Building Materials Polychlorinated Biphenyls Polychlorinated Biphenyls Management Plan Qualified Recycling Program Rapid Engineer Deployable Heavy Operational Repair Squadron Engineers Simplified Acquisition of Base Engineering and Repair Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Triangle J Council of Governments Volatile Organic Compounds Waste Specification Waste Management Plan List of Definitions Associated General Contractors – The Associated General Contractors (AGC) is the nation's largest and oldest construction trade association. established in 1918 after a request by President Woodrow Wilson.agc. Source: The Author. tenants and organizations performing Self-Help projects. AGC has been fulfilling that mission for the last 80 years. May also refer to the return of damaged materials and supplies in the containers and vehicles used for their delivery. sands or other media for use in the removal of lead based paint. Source: www.org/agc_overview/index. Wilson recognized the construction industry's national importance and desired a partner with which the government could discuss and plan for the advancement of the nation.

" USEPA. Deconstruction – The careful dismantling of buildings in order to salvage as much material as possible. Deconstruction.Appendix A Abbreviations. commercial buildings and other structures and pavements. Construction and Demolition (C&D) Waste – Waste building materials. Each edition contains approximately 500-1.000 notices. June 1999. Discovery Chemistry and S.” EPA Report. structural steel components and electrical and plumbing fixtures can be reused or recycled. dredging materials. occasionally recycling the most valuable materials and dispose most of the material at the local landfill.)" Source: Dr A. gypsum wallboard and roofing. or other hazardous substances. Source: Basic Carpentry by John Capotosto. metals. wood. The value of this lumber is it may still be marketed as reused as originally intended. remodeling.to certain halogenated aromatic organic chemicals. R. Construction and Demolition (C&D) Debris – Waste material that is produced in the process of construction. allows for far more material to be salvaged. Each notice appears in the CBD only once. May contain lead. Built lintels are constructed of wood. Land clearing debris. C&D landfills – MSW landfills that also accept C&D waste (characterized as non-hazardous) and landfills designated to accept only C&D waste (characterized as non-hazardous).gov/OCEPAterms/ and the Author. such as stumps. doors and other fixtures can often be resold. Dimensional Lumber – Lumber that when reused still has its original sawed size. Appendix A .3 . Brooks. Structures include buildings of all types (both residential and non-residential) as well as roads and bridges. (Chem. contract awards. sheet metal. p68.epa.. Chloracne can take from several months to several years to clear. Refer also to definition of C&D debris above. asbestos. The condition involves an increase of keratin in the skin and a reduction in its capacity to produce sebum. Traditional demolition practice is to simply knock buildings down. renovation. Source: Air Force Instruction 32-7042 and the Author. Acronyms and Definitions Built lintels – A horizontal architectural member constructed over door and window openings and designed to carry the loading or weight from above the opening. or demolition of structures. Commerce Business Daily – The Commerce Business Daily (CBD) lists notices of proposed government procurement actions. This typically leads to the development of acne-like spots or lesions on the face and neck and sometimes other parts of the body. MacKenzie. repair and demolition of homes. rocks and dirt. Pfizer Central Research. sales of government property and other procurement information. Head of Research. are also included in some state definitions of C&D debris. tree stumps and rubble resulting from construction. depending on the level of exposure and the speed with which the causative agent(s) can be expelled from the body. Source: “Characterization of Building-Related Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States. April 1998. Safety and Environmental group. wood can be resold as is or remanufactured into a variety of new products. Chloracne – Chloracne is a rare skin condition typically caused by workplace exposure through the skin or by inhalation . http://www. Br. Director. Components of C&D debris typically include concrete. Windows. A new edition of the CBD is issued every business day. on the other hand. asphalt. Source: "Terms of Environment.

or reduced to powder by hand pressure. Appendix A . 1996. Habitat for Humanity ReSTORE – The ReSTORE is a division of Habitat for Humanity International. is a colorless liquid or gas with a pungent odor. defoamer and preservative. It is generally known as a disinfectant. The chemical may be found in some spray paints. It is widely used as an industrial solvent and as a paint stripper. plastic.0 milligram per square centimeter or 0. detergents." Source: ATSDR Toxicological Profiles. discontinued and salvaged building materials donated by contractors and individuals. It can be found in certain aerosol and pesticide products and is used in the manufacture of photographic film. Lead-Based Paint – Paint or other surface coatings that contain lead equal to or in excess of 1. that. urethane resins and water softening chemicals. explosives. Source: Purdue Research Foundation. can be crumbled. from the surface of a construction area. pulverized. synthetic lubricants. subpart E. 1996. formal and methyl aldehyde. ReSTORES recycle overstocked. automotive cleaners and other household products." Source: Title 40 CFR 61.000 ppm). Indiana 47907. Habitat for Humanity – Habitat for Humanity International is an ecumenical Christian nonprofit housing organization working in partnership with God's people in need to build simple. Georgia. Methylene chloride does not appear to occur naturally in the environment. Copyright 1999.Appendix A Abbreviations. Methylene chloride – Methylene chloride. If the asbestos content is less than percent as determined by a method other than point counting by polarized light microscopy (PLM). landlords and businesses to maintain their properties.141. deodorants. also known as formalin. etc. cosmetics. textile. stumps. CRC Press LLC. fiber board. is a colorless liquid that has a mild sweet odor. Source: Webster’s New Universal Unabridged Dictionary and the Author. evaporates easily and does not easily burn. rubber. It is made from methane gas or wood alcohol. seconds. There are over 1470 other affiliates in the United States and Habitat for Humanity builds in over 60 countries worldwide. Acronyms and Definitions Formaldahyde – Formaldehyde. 40 CFR part 763 section 1. which salvages all types of resellable material from buildings scheduled for renovation or destruction. The ReSTORE diverts tons of useable materials from landfills while providing low-cost building materials to homeowners. West Lafayette.4 . The technique conserves wood by using wood blocks horizontally between studs instead of adding another stud. germicide. verify the asbestos content by point counting using PLM. Source: Air Force Policy and Guidance on Lead-based Paint (LBP) Final Disclosure Rule. garden hardware. Some ReSTORES operate a "deconstruction" crew. The organization is based in Americus. germicide. paints. foam insulation. used. Polarized Light Microscopy. fungicide. Donated items are used to build decent houses for low-income families or re-sold to the general public to help finance building Habitat for Humanity projects. August 18. Friable asbestos– Friable asbestos material means any material containing more than 1 percent asbestos as determined using the method specified in appendix E. Grubbed – The clearing of roots. when dry. Ladder Blocking – A carpentry technique for backing the unsupported ends of wall finishes. fertilizer. dyes.5 percent by weight (5. decent and affordable houses. Formaldehyde is found in adhesives. fungicide. also known as dichloromethane.

gov/OCEPAterms/.5 . http://www.epa. A MSWLF unit also may receive other types of RCRA subtitle D wastes. It is now used industrially as a wood preservative for power line poles. Such a landfill may be publicly or privately owned. model code agencies. conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste and industrial solid waste. compatible liquids that act as internal lubricants. an existing MSWLF unit or a lateral expansion. Application of pentachlorophenol in the home as an herbicide and pesticide accounted for only 3% of its consumption. Municipal Solid Waste – Common garbage or trash generated industries. Non-friable asbestos – Nonfriable asbestos-containing material means any material containing more than 1 percent asbestos as determined using the method specified in appendix E. Pentachlorophenol – Pentachlorophenol is a man-made substance. CRC Press LLC." Source: "Terms of Environment.Appendix A Abbreviations. such as commercial solid waste." USEPA. Plasticizers must have low vapor pressure and a high boiling point in order to be retained within the compound Appendix A . institutions and homes.osbinfo. Waterproof and boil proof resin binders are combined with the strands to provide internal strength. surface impoundment. 257. cross arms." Source: ATSDR Toxicological Profiles. Sec. businesses. but pentachlorophenol does not.141. pentachlorophenol was as widely used as a wood preservative. Acronyms and Definitions MSW landfill – A discrete area of land or an excavation that receives household waste and that is not a land application unit. rigidity and moisture resistance. as a performance-based structural use panel. as those terms are defined under Sec. Subpart A—General. 258. pulverized.osbguide. section 1. that. Before use restrictions. elastomers with high glass transition temperatures (and correspondingly slow molecular motions) can be improved by adding lowtemperature plasticizers--i. injection well.2. These large mats are then subjected to heat and pressure to become a "master" panel and finally cut to size.osb. fence posts and the like.com/sba. it was one of the most widely used biocides in the United States. Copyright 1999. It is made by only one company in the United States.1. The sodium salt dissolves easily in water. layered mats made of strands. Exterior or surface layers consist of strands aligned in the long panel direction. CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS. or waste pile. 40 CFR part 763. subpart E. A MSWLF unit may be a new MSWLF unit. OSB.S. made from other chemicals and does not occur naturally in the environment. or reduced to powder by hand pressure. either in processing or later in use. Off-cuts – The pieces of lumber remaining after lumber is cut to size. when dry. Oriented Strand Board (OSB) – OSB panels are engineered. Now the purchase and use of pentachlorophenol are restricted to certified applicators. For example.html. Source: www. Plasticizer – Liquids added to elastomer mixes in order to soften and plasticize the compound. interweaving of the long strands or wafers and the degree of orientation of strands in the surface layers. OSB's strength comes mainly from the uninterrupted wood fiber.2 Definitions. Pentachlorophenol can be found in two forms: pentachlorophenol itself or as the sodium salt of pentachlorophenol. nonhazardous sludge. Polarized Light Microscopy.e.or randomly-aligned strands. is recognized by all the major U.. It is no longer available to the general public.info/sba. round wood logs and bonded with an exterior-type binder. Pure pentachlorophenol exists as colorless crystals. flakes or wafers sliced from small diameter." Source: Title 40 CFR 61. cannot be crumbled. Source: 40CFR Part 258. innerlayers consist of cross. At one time.

construction and demolition work. from land-use planning. Source: Encyclopedia Britannica. Users submit project scopes to the contractor by delivery orders. Phasing the time of pick-up activities reduces the transportation and storage costs and reduces storage space on site. It is one of 18 regional councils established in 1972 by the North Carolina General Assembly. Orange and Wake counties). Appendix A. Refer to A7761. renovation. These organizations use the installation Self-Help Store for planning projects and procuring materials and supplies. Time-phased pick-up – The pick-up of materials from the waste stream for salvage. Source: Title 40 CFR 761. or recycling at the time when those materials are being used at the construction site or removed from the demolition site." EPA Publication SW-846.24) at the concentration equal to or greater than the respective value given in that table. Phosphate plasticizers also confer a measure of flame resistance. reuse. Where the waste contains less than 0. The Self-Help Store (other names may be used) is a function within the Civil Engineer Squadron/Group that provides planning. The organization works to meet the region's needs in a wide range of areas. maintenance. an extract from a representative sample of the waste contains any of the contaminants listed in table 1 (40 CFR 261. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure – Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) is test Method 1311 in "Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste. For any purposes under this part. Source: Title 29 CFR 1900. reuse.1200.24. Durham. Self-Help Store projects – Construction and demolition projects accomplished by organizations working on installations. The contract includes negotiated labor rates. Johnston. Polychlorinated Biphenyls – PCB and PCBs means any chemical substance that is limited to the biphenyl molecule that has been chlorinated to varying degrees or any combination of substances which contains such substance. or recycling at the time when the separation of materials at the construction or demolition site has been completed. Physical/Chemical Methods. is considered to be the extract for the purpose ofthis section. Examples are aliphatic esters and phthalates. Phasing the time of separation activities reduces the labor costs.1(b) for applicable concentrations of PCBs. economic development and emergency Appendix A . the waste itself.3. Sensitizers – A chemical that causes a substantial proportion of exposed people or animals to develop an allergic reaction in normal tissue after repeated exposure to the chemical.6 . PCB and PCBs as contained in PCB items are defined in A7761. Time-phased separation – The separation of materials from the waste stream for salvage. Source: Title 40 CFR 261. Lee. "Health Hazard Definitions. Acronyms and Definitions over long periods of service.” Simplified Acquisition of Base Engineering and Repair – SABER is a delivery-order contract used normally by the Civil Engineer Squadron/Group to simplify accomplishing various types of repair.5 percent filterable solids. after filtering using the methodology outlined in Method 1311. materials and supplies for these projects.Appendix A Abbreviations.3. inadvertently generated non-Aroclor PCBs are defined as the total PCBs calculated following division of the quantity of monochlorinated biphenyls by 50 and dichlorinated biphenyls by 5. Triangle J Council of Governments – The Triangle J Council of Governments is a voluntary organization of municipal and county governments in North Carolina's Region J (Chatham.

WasteSpec – WasteSpec is a manual which provides architects and engineers with model specifications and background information addressing waste reduction. WasteSpec comes in a three-ring binder with a computer disk containing the model specifications in a generic format that can be electronically cut and pasted into a specifier's standard specifications." Source: Title 40 CFR 51.100(s). The 114-page manual includes model specifications tailored to all sixteen divisions of the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) system of specifications. Waste managers – The broad term used in this document when referring to all who may be involved with the management of C&D waste. specifically assigned waste management responsibilities for an installation. U-Fix-It Store projects – Construction and demolition projects accomplished by residents living in Military Family Housing. materials and supplies for these projects. Source: The Author. usually in the Civil Engineer Squadron/Group. These residents use the installation U-Fix-It Store for planning projects and procuring materials and supplies. The term is NOT meant to refer only to the individual. The U-Fix-It Store (other names may be used) is a function within the Civil Engineer Squadron/Group that provides planning. regardless of individual functional area. Acronyms and Definitions medical services support to environmental protection. The organization produced WasteSpec. Appendix A .7 . reuse and recycling before and during construction and demolition. which participates in atmospheric photochemical reactions. carbonic acid.Appendix A Abbreviations. metallic carbides or carbonates and ammonium carbonate. programs for the aging and information services. Volatile Organic Compound – Volatile organic compounds (VOC) means any compound of carbon. excluding carbon monoxide. carbon dioxide.

re-rod. 93. “Construction Materials Recycling Guidebook. etc Brick Crates and pallets Extruded polystyrene (rigid) insulation Kraft paper packaging Plastic sheeting and bags Electrical wire Overspray from fireproofing products Materials comprising 1% or less Carpet scrap. p. 4) Appendix B .” Mar. steel or pvc Plaster Iron Polystyrene foam packaging Plastic laminate Adhesive containers Silicone containers Sheet metal Vinyl tile 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1-8% 1-5% 1-5% 3% range 3% range 3% range 2% range 0-5% 20-30% 10-20% 5-10% 5-10% (Source: Innovative Waste Management.1 . Characterization of C&D Waste from Commercial New Construction (% of total waste volume) Rough Percentages Predominant Materials (10% or greater) Wood Concrete and block Drywall Cardboard Secondary Materials (less than 10%) Steel from decking. padding and backing Fiberglass (bat) insulation Excess mortar Particle board Solvent containers Caulking containers Epoxy containers Small bore pipe.Appendix B Characterization Tables for C&D Waste Table B1.

93. padding and insulation Kraft paper Sheathing Aluminum siding Vinyl siding Concrete block Copper wire Other wire PVC pipe Core cardboard Plastic buckets Earth and rock from excavation Aluminum duct-work Foam packaging Plastic sheeting or bags Steel banding Lunch garbage. “Construction Materials Recycling Guidebook.” Mar. including pop cans Plastic pails Paint cans Flooring scrap 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less Materials comprising less than 1%.Appendix B Characterization Tables for C&D Waste Table B2: Characterization of C&D Waste from Residential New Construction (% of total waste volume) Rough Percentages Predominant Materials (10% or greater) Wood Drywall Corrugated Cardboard Secondary Materials . p. including frozen or damaged (cans/ pails) Driveway sealant (pails) Caulk (tubes) Tile adhesive (cans) 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1% or less 1-8% 1-8% 1-8% 20-35% 10-20% 5-15% (Source: Innovative Waste Management. but notable because they may be considered problem materials Paint.2 . 4-5) Appendix B .(less than 10%) Shingles Concrete Fiberboard Materials comprising 1% or less Fiberglass insulation Carpet scrap.

siding. caulking. ductwork. adhesives. feeder cables. Asbestos: Various possible materials Asphalt Asphalt: Paving Asphalt: Shingles Batteries Brass Brick Bronze Cabinets Cable: Various Cardboard Carpet.Appendix C C&D Waste Materials Checklist Demolition Materials Comments and Concerns The following checklist will be useful when planning to salvage. reuse and recycle demolition materials Air conditioning equipment Air conditioning: Computer room packages Air conditioning: Mini central systems Air conditioning: Window units Aluminum: Handrails. other Appliances. rails Fabric Fiberglass Fire suppression equipment Fixtures & fittings: Plumbing CFC CFC CFC CFC Testing. other Clay tile blocks Compressors Computer equipment Computers. machinery. removal CFC Non-rated PCB Appendix C . floor and wall coverings. Metal Ductwork Earth Electric switchgear. taping and spackling compounds. monitors Concrete Concrete masonry units Decking: Wood Door frames: Wood. padding and backing Cast iron: Radiators. conduit Electrical equipment Electrical: Cable Elevator cabs. metal Doors: Elevator vintage Doors: Heavy vault Doors: Thin panel and various Doors: Wood. wall board. shaft equipment.1 . pipes. putties. floor and ceiling tile. white goods Asbestos Containing Materials: Insulation. roofing felt and shingles.

Appendix C C&D Waste Materials Checklist Demolition Materials Fixtures: Electrical Flooring: Carpet Flooring: Vinyl Flooring: Wood Fuel storage tanks Furniture: Metal Furniture: Metal shelving Furniture: Reusable Furniture: System Furniture: Wood Glass: Interior and exterior Glass: Plate Glass: Wired. demountable panels Partitions: Aluminum tracks. cables Petroleum products Comments and Concerns Can be remanufactured Testing ACBM Mercury retrieval Testing. conduit.2 . laminated Glazing compound: Asbestos. lead possible Gutters and flashing Gypsum blocks Gypsum board Hardwood Hazardous materials Heavy timbers Insulation Interior air handlers and controls Kraft paper Lamps: Fluorescent Lead: Paint Lead: Roofing Lead: Flashing Lead: Piping Light bulbs Light fixtures: Decorative Light fixtures: Fluorescent and utility fixtures Light fixtures: Vintage fluorescent. incandescent Marble: Toilet partitions Marble: Walls Metal: Brass Metal: Bronze Metal: Cable Metal: Cast iron Metal: Conduit Metal: Copper Metal: Galvanized Steel Metal: Miscellaneous Metal: Steel Mirrors Paper Partitions. removal PCB Ballasts Appendix C . misc framing PBX/telephone equipment.

Appendix C C&D Waste Materials Checklist Demolition Materials Photocopy machine Piping Plaster Plastic: ABS Plastic: Polyethylene Plastic: Polystyrene Plastic: PVC Plumbing fittings.3 .” Jul 95. floppy disks Stainless steel Standpipe Steel Steel: Heavy Steel: Reinforcement Steel: Sheet Steel: Stairs. etc Possible lead waste pipes Pressure treated wood Pre-cast concrete Pumps Radioactive materials Raised access flooring Rock Roofing: Asphalt and stone Roofing: Membrane. “WasteSpec. various Roofing: Metal Rubber Sand Sheathing Sheet metal: Miscellaneous Software. cast iron weights Wiring Wood Comments and Concerns Disks recyclable PCB (Source: Triangle J Council of Governments. page C1-3) Appendix C . faucets. handrails Steel: Structural Steel: Studs and misc framing Stone Telecommunications equipment Terrazo Textiles Toxic materials Transformers Treated lumber Trees Vinyl Water fountains Windows: Steel frames Windows: Wood frames.

The prime contractor hired a separate waste manager to implement the WMP with subcontractors. metal. This encouragement was emphasized at the pre-demolition meeting.000 square feet new Tidyman’s Grocery Store. Appendix D . Washington. Case Study #2 – New Non-residential Construction Private sector contractors in Spokane. Texas. and sealants.Appendix D Case Studies RECYCLING. solvents. Wisconsin. paints.000 square feet new corporate headquarters for Erickson’s. discussed waste diversion problems and goals with subcontractors at weekly safety meetings. Case Study #4 – Non-residential Demolition Public sector contractors in Issaquah. CAVEAT: A NUMBER OF THE CASE STUDIES COUNT INCINERATION OF WASTE AS A BOILER FUEL AS THIS TYPE OF INCINERATION DOES NOT COUNT AS RECYCLING IN CALCULATING THE AF MOM. The contract specifications simply encouraged alternatives to land disposal and reuse and recycling as proved practical. demolished a police station and adjoining post office. plastic. and trees and branches.000 square feet and local landfill tipping fees were $75/ton. Creative salvage achievements included reusing bullet-proof glass in the manufacturing of fish tanks. Washington.1 . The waste manager positioned recycling containers on the site. constructed a 70. CASE STUDY #1 – NEW NON-RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION Private sector contractors in Hudson. Results: The bids for this project were the same as those expected had traditional disposal methods been allowed. Results: Overall. The project size was 22. The bid specifications required contractors commit to sustainable architecture by following the City of Austin’s Green Builder Program and recycle the following items: lumber. The waste manager and subcontractors set a diversion goal of 75 percent and met this goal using the following techniques: • • • • Held weekly site meetings among principal players Provided all site employees with written updates Used recycled materials Required suppliers to use pallets instead of boxes Results: The contractors complied with the C&D waste specifications with no increase in project costs and they recycled 75 percent of the projects C&D waste. cardboard. the contractor recycled or reused 83 percent of the demolition waste at no additional cost to the contract. and periodically posted diversion results. The total project was 35. This cost was subtracted from the winning bid before contract award and an independent C&D waste manager was hired to handle recycling and disposal. Results: Contractors recycled 48 tons of construction waste (2 lbs/sf) and reduced disposal costs by 56 percent.000 square feet and landfill tipping fees were only $18/ton. contractors were required to include a specific line item for disposal costs. During bidding. Case Study #3 – Bids on Non-residential Renovation and Construction Private sector contractors in Austin. bid on the renovation of two health clinics and construction of a third. Local landfill tipping fees were $63/ton. constructed a 47. The contract specified the successful bidder submit a draft and use a final C&D waste management plan (WMP) for the project. bricks and block. stains. Local landfill tipping fees were $57/ton.

so a salvage and recycling specialty firm was hired and lowered the demolition bid by $7. Case Study #7 – Residential Construction A general contractor constructed 60 new homes for the Klahanie housing development in Issaquah.2 . Washington. bricks. • Roof framing and cedar shake shingles. • Exotic hardwood shelves. Each house construction site used wire-mesh corrals for segregating wood. The developer used sustainable design and construction techniques and managed construction waste. paneling.Appendix D Case Studies Case Study #5 – Non-residential Renovation Private sector contractors in Seattle. Washington. Case Study #6 – Residential Deconstruction and Demolition New homeowners in Mercer Island. Washington decided to demolish their 5. Local landfill tipping fees were $110/ton. Results: These subtler techniques kept 240 tons of waste material out of landfills and saved $9. renovated 48. cardboard and copper construction waste.000 square feet. • Wiring and heating ductwork. Results: The house was deconstructed and the 170-ton foundation was demolished and recycled.726.000. Contract specifications required draft and final WMPs and recycling of clean dimensional lumber.000.300 square-foot 1940s colonial and rebuild. Appendix D . The corrals were dismantled and contents emptied into trucks for recycling. concrete. drywall. • Most plumbing fixtures and 18 tons of dimensional lumber.5 pounds Results: Waste management diverted nearly 133 tons of construction waste or 55% of C&D waste was recycled and this saved $245 per house for a total project savings of $14. The following hand-crafted home details totaled 45 tons and were salvaged: • Entire library interior. The contractor was able to comply with the specifications and recycle drywall. lighting fixtures. and marble mantle. Results: Contractor efforts reduced project costs by 25 to 50 percent.200 pounds • Cardboard – 17 pounds • Copper – 7. The total size of the project was 120. and all fluorescent light bulbs. and box-beam ceiling. The builder avoided the rental cost of waste dumpsters by using the corrals. and wood interior siding and trim. • Six sets of french doors. Site constraints prohibited the use of large vehicles for conventional mechanical demolition.000 square feet of classrooms and office space in a university’s adult education center. The following construction materials totaled 26 tons and were recycled: • Oak strip flooring. Eighty percent of the home was either salvaged or recycled. stairwell. The following estimated material amounts were recycled from each house: • Wood – 2. acoustical ceiling tiles. • All doors and windows and 1 ton of exterior siding and trim.200 pounds • Drywall – 2. concrete blocks and metal.

24-inch composite floor truss spacing. Results: One thousand board feet of dimensional lumber were saved when compared to traditional house design and construction. Oregon. Oregon.000 square-foot office for $61. Oregon.120 square-foot three-bedroom home using sustainable design and construction techniques to reduce construction waste. Case Study #11 – Non-residential Demolition & Construction Commercial joint venture contractors demolished three facilities and constructed a 1. and triple composite trusses to replace beams. Case Study #9 –Residential Construction A private citizen constructed a 220 square feet deck on his home in West Linn. posts. Only 400 pounds of C&D waste were disposed and the total materials recycled were: • • • Drywall Wood Metals 10.800 tons of concrete and asphalt rubble were used for clean fill and road surfacing.Appendix D Case Studies Case Study #8 –Residential Construction The Portland. These techniques included using a standard 2-foot house design module.700 in Portland. A total of 845 tons of materials were recycled: • • • Metals Drywall Cardboard 301 tons 538 tons 6 tons Appendix D . Salvaged materials included concrete piers. Sustainable techniques saved material. box vice solid headers. Twenty-five hundred tons of soil were used as clean fill and 25. Case Study #10 – Non-residential Renovation A commercial contractor gutted and remodeled a 6. Contractors used material reuse and recycling extensively. labor. A C&D waste diversion rate of 98% was achieved. Night operations allowed the recycler time to haul small loads out without the expense of a waste chute and on-street drop boxes. A recycling contractor was hired and required to haul materials at night to prevent any project slowdown. Habitat used small pieces of lumber for blocking and had suppliers deliver pre-cut lumber to fit the modular design.7 million square-foot sports entertainment complex for $262 million in northeast Portland. Oregon.200 pounds 300 pounds Results: The savings from recycling instead of land disposal were $310. and disposal costs. The contractors removed a car wash manufacturing facility. and a road. screws. (C&D waste management results were only available at the 25% complete stage of this).000 pounds 7. The home owner saved $280 in material costs by visiting various construction sites and asking permission to salvage materials identified as waste. the exhibit space in an existing coliseum. Results: Using salvaged materials saved 24% of project cost. This case study provides an example to construction contractors of how easy it can be to divert waste by allowing on-site salvage. The contract required recycling. and wood protective finish. ladder blocking at partitions. paint. Habitat for Humanity constructed a new 1. Sustainable construction techniques nearly eliminated all waste wood. 2x6s on 24 vice 16 inch centers for wall framing. These practices left little scrap wood for disposal. decking. joists.3 .

000 and the C&D waste diversion rate was 98%. transportation. The demolition subcontractor completely gutted the existing building down to the reinforced concrete frame. Case Study #12 – Non-residential Demolition A commercial contractor demolished a 60. Results: Recycling savings totaled $81. and diverted 1.1 million in northeast Portland.850 for fees and earned $19. The contractor was recycling for the first time. The added cost of labor for on-site separation of recyclables was offset by the sale of metals and lumber.500 square-foot department store into a new office headquarters for $14. This difference was $16. Case Study #15 – Non-residential Demolition and Renovation A commercial contractor renovated a 198. The costs for hauling waste for disposal or recycling were very nearly equal. Case Study #13 – Non-residential Demolition A salvage contractor and a commercial trucking and excavating contractor demolished an 86.600 from the sale of metal. Oregon. The savings from recycling were primarily a result of the difference between tipping fees for traditional landfilling and recycling fees when charged. so it was decided to recycle only wood and gypsum wallboard for this phase of the project.400 square-foot warehouse for $265.4 .300 just for landfill tipping fees. Oregon.500 and the C&D waste diversion rate was 98%. Oregon. The gypsum wallboard scraps went to a drywall manufacturer to be used in making new drywall. Contractor and subcontractor crews separated these material into on-site containers and achieved a high rate of diversion of clean materials. Results: Savings from recycling totaled $9. multifamily complex.Appendix D Case Studies Traditional C&D waste disposal would have cost $69.000 at the Port of Vancouver.442 and the C&D waste diversion rate was 70%.000 square-foot institutional facility in 60 days in Portland. and processing fees for recycling. Results: A total of 686 tons of wood and drywall were recycled and the estimated savings was the difference between the cost of traditional disposal fees and the cost of labor. Solid and composite wood scraps were ground by a local material recovery facility. One hundred and twenty eight tons of miscellaneous metals were recycled locally and 2x and 3x lumber was salvaged for eventual resale. The contractor voluntarily used material reuse and recycling. Drywall scraps were used to manufacture new gypsum Appendix D .537 tons of materials as follows: 570 tons • Recycled Wood 678 tons • Salvaged Lumber 201 tons • Recycled Metals 88 tons • Concrete Only 29.000. Seventy-one tons of wood and organic debris were recycled at a local material recovery facility. Case Study #14 – Residential Construction A private-sector contractor constructed 205 apartment units for $9 million as Phase I of a Sunnyside. Washington.4 tons of mixed waste had to be landfilled and it was comprised primarily of asbestos roofing.605 tons of concrete were used as fill for new road construction. 3. Only 499 tons of mixed waste was disposed. Recycling cost $7. Results: Recycling saved $134. then sent to a manufacturer of particle board. The contractors were very successful in using material reuse and recycling. Finally.

Oregon. Case Study #16 – Non-residential Construction A private contractor constructed two adjacent office buildings of 3. cleaned and sorted materials for recycling or reuse using this approach. and the C&D waste diversion rate was 37%. siding. Deconstruction took two weeks.000.780 square feet in Tigard. Remaining wood scraps were recycled as boiler fuel and scrap metals were sold.600 pounds Hardware 300 pounds Doors 200 pounds Appendix D .Appendix D Case Studies wallboard.0 tons SALVAGE Wood 17.300. and the C&D waste diversion rate was 76%. and mixed metals and cardboard were recycled locally. Over two tons of wood were recycled using these simple methods. The estimated market value of these reusable materials was estimated at $5.5 tons of materials were diverted for reuse or recycling as follows: RECYCLE Wood Metal 9. Drywall was not recycled. Local residents were invited to salvage any solid or composite wood scraps before the remainder was process for boiler fuel.5 . A total of 22. Oregon. Results: Recycling saved $35. A specialty contractor was hired to divert waste.280 square-foot 1920s house in southeast Portland. wood was processed for use as boiler fuel. for $5. The cost of traditional waste disposal was estimated at $1.5 tons 2. A total of 3. doors. Case Study #17 – Residential Deconstruction A private contractor deconstructed a 1. but the actual cost to recycle was only $700.000 pounds Brick 4. Lumber. A total of 725 tons of materials were recycled as follows: • • • • Drywall Metal Wood Cardboard 111 tons 406 tons 203 tons 5 tons A total of 155 tons of materials were salvaged as follows: • • • • Wood 124 tons Flooring 20 tons Carpet 9 tons Doors & Fixtures 2 tons Remaining rubble was used as clean fill at a number of area sites.673 and 3. hardware.400. and other building materials were sorted for resale and reuse.100. Results: Recycling saved $600.75 tons of mixed waste and drywall were disposed in landfills. Only 265 tons of mixed waste was disposed in landfills. but additional savings of $60 were possible had it been. although this amount was not used in calculating the recycling savings. Hand labor was used instead of mechanical demolition and the contractor carefully disassembled.

5 tons of mixed waste for landfills. then the following comparisons can be made: • • • • Deconstruction 10 days $2. If time to complete the job is critical. Oregon.000 pounds • Wood and Shakes • Concrete and Asphalt 10. These avoided costs were more than offset by the added cost for hand labor to deconstruct. Case Study #18 – Residential Demolition (Mechanized) A private-sector contractor demolished in one day a 750 square-foot home in Hillsboro. Results: Recycling saved $825 and the C&D waste diversion rate was 76%.402 23. The contractor would have saved an additional $30 had the drywall been recycled.Appendix D Case Studies The bid range for conventional demolition was $8.6 . including added labor for source separation of materials and hauling them to recycling processors. Otherwise.000. Traditional waste hauling and disposal in landfills was estimated at $3. The client specifically requested construction waste be recycled and a waste audit was performed to precisely track waste quantities and their disposition. The contractor avoided demolition equipment costs and tipping fees.5 tons 77% vs.125. was $2. using a track hoe and bucket. Results: It is interesting to compare the results of deconstructing a house in this case study to the conventional demolition of a similar home in the next. the greater savings can be achieved with deconstruction.000 to $10. Oregon.800 square-foot home for $275. Fifteen tons of concrete rubble were used off site as clean fill.000 in southwest Portland. The savings occurred primarily from recycling the wood and shake roofing.8 tons 76% Time Recycling Savings Tons Diverted Diversion Rate In this example deconstruction has the advantage of producing a 30% greater savings but at the expense of taking five times as long to complete the job. The owner salvaged wood doors and fixtures before demolition.000. Appendix D .000 pounds One and a half tons of mixed waste and drywall were disposed in landfills. The contractor shipped wood and shake roofing for recycling into boiler fuel and sent the broken concrete foundation and asphalt driveway to a material recovery facility for reuse as clean fill later. Demolition 2 days $1. The cost to recycle. The contractor diverted a total of 14 tons of demolition waste for recycling or reuse as follows: 18. then conventional demolition with recycling may be the best option.600 22. Since both employed waste recycling. what might be the distinguishing factors for choosing one method over the other? If you normalize appropriate data because of the difference in square footage. leaving a total of 10. Case Study #19 – Residential Construction A private-sector contractor constructed a new 2.

and concrete was used as clean fill. cardboard was recycled into new cardboard.5 tons of mixed waste.806 pounds Concrete 1.4 tons of material and disposed only 0. Drywall scraps were recycled into new gypsum wall board. Appendix D .7 .698 pounds Cardboard 280 pounds Metal 138 pounds The cost to recycle. The budgeted cost for waste hauling and landfill tipping fees was $1.Appendix D Case Studies The contractor successfully recycled 6. The breakout by characteristics and quantity of the recycled waste was as follows: • • • • • Wood 6. solid and composite wood scraps were recycled into boiler fuel and building materials.000. including additional labor for job-site separation and self-hauling. was $600.945 pounds Drywall 3. Results: Recycling saved the client $400 and the C&D waste diversion rate was 93%.

Sellers post their sell listings in the exchange while Buyers enter into the system their buy parameters for the commodities they are interested in. All priced to sell. Unregistered users can click the “Preview” key or Learn more about how it works to see how the system works. and 6`` x 12`` longer than 6 ft. 2`` x 6``.greenguide. active on the market at any given time.gov/CalMAX . Users can register on-line by clicking on the “Subscribe” key or Register now online and following instructions. Users should click on Search Listings and follow instructions to obtain listings like the following sample search request for wood: S4S YELLOW/WHITE PINE (Available) 15 -yr old! 35. full sheets. OK . CalMAX helps businesses. www. Robbie Wood . copies of all the matching sell listings as they are posted.ca. CalMAX is a free service designed to help businesses find markets for materials they have traditionally discarded.ciwmb. Users should click on “Search The Listings” and follow instructions to obtain listings like the following sample request: Item. Extensive information on materials such as: definitions. Plywood or any thickness. Please note that the telephone number is in Mexico.000 pieces available (1'' x 8'' to 1'' x 9'' wide. This exchange is a free service. 60/63).This is the homepage for the California Material Exchange (CalMAX). and institutions save resources and money.This is the homepage of the Chicago Board of Trades (CBOT) Recyclables Exchange. and the system automatically delivers to them by e-mail. www. Status: salvaged wood. Mexico.Ensenada.1 . Liz Bieter Location: Duluth. Lou Hernandez .com . for sale Company. United States Appendix F . half sheets are acceptable.011-526-177-4987 Region: 'Out of State' Listing ID: 10651-3 Users should click on Create Listings and follow instructions if they desire to post a listing.Park Hill. Contact: Duluth Timber Company.918-458-5303 RWOODY@FULLNET. specifications and sampling or test methods is freely available in the CBOT Recyclables Exchange for your convenience. CBOT’s goal is to allow easy and immediate contact between Buyers and Sellers of recyclable commodities. 4`` x 4``. . within minutes.NET Region: 'Out of State' Listing ID: 22205-1 WOOD (Wanted) 2`` x 4``.com/exchange . 4`` x 10``.This is the Salvaged Building Materials Listing page within the Green Building Resource Guide homepage. industries.Appendix F Websites for Material Exchanges and Related C&D Waste Information Part 1 – Material Exchanges http://cbot-recycle. There is a $ 10 one-time registration fee and a small charge for posting listings on a pay-as-you-go basis. The CBOT Recyclables Exchange is dedicated to the trade of recyclable goods and is open to all Registered Users worldwide. Minnesota 55816.

This is the Industrial Materials Exchange (IMEX)) page within the Metro. . not given not given Location: not given. Contact: D.gov/hazwaste/imex .290 thickness 5 ply x 6" wide x 12' to 24' lengths. 10" wide 5 ply ACX. custom millwork. mantels. Tacoma Area. dtc@computerpro. Email: not given.com Users should click on Online Listing Form and follow the instructions to enter a listing. douglas fir. www. redwood decking. Available 4 times/year. Packaged by steel banding. waste generators can be matched with waste users. Maran Const.2 . Also. I am interested in "2 by anything" and "1 by anything" lumber. King County. or surplus materials with businesses that need them.Appendix F Websites for Material Exchanges and Related C&D Waste Information Phone Number. Email: 218-727-2145. full of nails. cypress. paneling. United States Phone Number. then click on either the appropriate item under Wanted or Available to obtain listings like the following samples: W0904106 . IMEX is a free service designed to match businesses that produce wastes.This is the homepage of the Reusable Building Materials Exchange (RBME). trim. Probably 300 sheets of each available. Can be used for siding applications. www. standard sash and jamb. CONTACT: Gary Bugbey.com Description: reclaimed timbers. 1/2" by 8' and 1/2" x 10'. You can post listings of materials you wish to get rid of or browse for materials currently available in your area. Not in US or Canada 94025. Wood can be wet. 'as is'.com Description: need one fixed single light wood window. resawn beams. No plywood. Status: wood window. fascias.rbme. The bimonthly print catalog lists wanted or available materials. Phone:(509)534-1509 E-Mail: stinmfg@aol. By utilizing IMEX. WA local waste management homepage. limited quantities of other species. flooring. etc.com .metrokc.LUMBER Wanted in Greater Seattle. looking to buy Company. Appendix F . Item. RBME is a convenient way to easily exchange small or large quantities of used or surplus building materials. The actual exchange transactions are carried out directly between the interested parties. CONTACT: Tor Clausen. drewd@aol. Stinson Manufacturing Co. southern yellow pine.net A0900083 . fencing. or old and weathered. Phone: E-Mail: torlissa@olywa. WA : 200-300 pieces of ABX plywood. Each listing contains a description of the materials along with a name and telephone number and any cost or delivery information. Users should click on Add a Listing and follow instructions for adding a new record. : I will haul your unwanted lumber away anytime.. industrial by-products.PLYWOOD Available in Spokane. Users should click on the bimonthly IMEX Catalog key. Users may click on How to Use the Catalog for general IMEX instructions.

recycle. expires 01/07/2000) Type: Lumber Description: plywood. click List/Edit Materials. expires 01/13/2000) Type: Lumber Description: Glulam Beam(new in wrap) 5-1/8"x18"x14' $125/OBO (cost $230) Contact: Greg Brown Cost? Y City: Bellevue Will deliver or ship? Y Phone: 425-649-8207 Delivery or shipping cost? Y Email: Gbrown1754@aol.6X'S ETC Description: I HAVE SEVERAL BARNS TO BEEN TORN DOWN THAT HAS THOUSANDS OF BOARD FT OF 2X'S 4X'S 6X'S ETC. for example: Used/Reusable Lumber & Wood. for example: Used Building Materials Section. users should select a county. 6x6. Recycler's World is a world wide trading site for information related to secondary or recyclable commodities. or View Wanted & Available Listings [91]. Selecting “View” provides listings like the following samples: WANTED .com Users desiring to add a listing must click Register and follow the instructions. Add a Free Listing. respectively: Post #488 (posted 10/15/1999. Appendix F . The user is then offered three choices: Recycler's Exchange Policies & Procedures.net/recycle . used & surplus items or materials. ALSO 3FT UP TO 12 WIDE. Selecting one of these numbers will provide the following sample listings for available and sought materials. Once registered. then follow the instructions after clicking available material or sought material. byproducts. Just click and follow instructions. JUST A HAIR BELOW 6 FT LONG. log in. Selecting “add” allows the user to Add or View listings in the area of choice.Appendix F Websites for Material Exchanges and Related C&D Waste Information Users should click on one of six participating State of Washington counties and then click on Browse Materials to obtain a summary of material type from which to choose. any treated wood suitable for outdoor buildings Contact: Debbie Gaebler City: Kent Phone: 253-630-9936 Call: varies Email: gaebler@nwlink. WILL TO SELL AT BEST OFFER. www. The number of entries for Available and Sought materials follows each type.com Post #230 (posted 10/09/1999.4X..3 . Users should select one of the listed Secondary Commodity Sections.This is the homepage for Recycler’s World. Next the user should select one of the categories offered.Used/Reusable Lumber and Wood -Used/Reusable Barn Board Item ID#: LW079424 Name: 5TH WHEEL LOADS OF 2X. 4x4.

amcity. training materials.com/albany/stories/1997/10/13/story1. South Africa. and remaining issues. NO BUG DAMMAGE. and waste/waste handling databases. The site provides access to case studies.cdwaste. The page provides a summary of C&D waste. reusing.epages.html . The information provided may be used as reference material. 20 to 26 ft LONG. a Province service directory.This is the homepage for the California Integrated Waste Management Board (CIWMB). 9x9 to 10x11.Used/Reusable Lumber and Wood -Used/Reusable Barn Board Item ID#: LA079709 Name: HAND HEWN WHITE PINE BEAMS Description: BEAUTIFUL 2/4 SIDED HAND HEWN BARN BEAMS. important calendar events.ciwmb.This site contains the Construction & Demolition Waste page of the Durban Solid Waste (DSW) homepage for Durban. The article highlights the problem of shrinking landfill space and opposition to creating construction and demolition landfills and may be used as reference material. 1997 edition. Moderately Useful Appendix F . The information provided may be used as reference material. The site provides access to publications. and the California Materials Exchange.ca. Slightly Useful www. [Quantity: 40pcs.4 .] [] [US. Highly Useful www. waste management possibilities. USA] Part 2 – Related C&D Waste Information www. and related links. limiting factors.gov . WOULD MAKE NICE LOGS FOR A CABIN OR A HOUSE. This site is being developed as a repository of information for Canadian construction and demolition waste management and options for reducing.htm . Slightly Useful www.com . and recycling waste.” from the Capital District Business Review.Appendix F Websites for Material Exchanges and Related C&D Waste Information [Quantity: TRAILER LOADS] [TONS] [WEEKLY] [Price: BEST OFFER] [TONS] [USA DOLLARS] [Shipping Point: LOST CREEK W. The Board is helping California divert 50 percent of its waste from landfills by 2000.This site contains an article titled. PA.] [TONS] [EVERY WEEK] [Price: $3 a ft. reference documents.This is the C&D Waste Web for Canada. valuable links. week of October 13. “Landfill Expansion Proposed. The CIWMB is responsible for managing California's solid waste stream. DOLLAR] [Shipping Point: MERCERSBURG.net/dsw/disposal/constr. Buy Recycled Programs. The site provides access to related programs like: Construction/Demolition Debris Recycling.VA] AVAILABLE . ALSO WE GET LOTS OF BARN WOOD IN WEEKLY.

The site may provide help in minimizing new housing construction waste. Slightly Useful www. and waste reduction. The information provided may be used as reference material. The site contains access to information on the Nova Scotia Solid Waste-Resource Strategy.mi. Highly Useful www.org . low-cost. The information provided may be used as reference material. and other resources.This is the homepage for the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management. The Research Center keeps U. Slightly Useful www.S. and other related resources.This site is the homepage for the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) Research Center. disposal.co.nahbrc. “Building for the Future: Strategies to Reduce Construction and Demolition Waste in Municipal Projects.gov. and Glass pages containing a summary of actions and issues for reusing and recycling these wastes. whollyowned.This site is the Waste Resource Management page of the Nova Scotia Department of the Environment homepage. and transfer research results to the public and private sectors for practical solutions to Florida's waste management problems.This site is the Waste Reduction and Recycling Opportunities for Construction and Demolition Debris page of the Washtenaw County.washtenaw.tourism.5 .informinc. The information provided may be used as reference material.gov.” by Bette K. The Center's research program meets two major objectives: develop and test innovative.org . waste reduction fact sheets. The site provides access to conference Appendix F .This site contains the following construction and demolition waste report. recycling and reuse. MI homepage. pollution prevention. and demolition phases of municipal building projects. Principal areas of related research include: construction and demolition debris.html . It contains a summary of actions being recommended for waste minimization. The NAHB Research Center is a separately incorporated. The site also has links to Solid Materials. Their programs include testing and certification of building products. hazardous waste management. The site provides a useful primer for implementing C&D waste management at the local level and may be used as reference material. not-for-profit subsidiary of the NAHB. homebuilders in tune with new technology and changing needs. composting.floridacenter. The site has a Green Building Activities page that provides access to “The Green Builder Guide. Building for the Future identifies strategies that have been used successfully around the country to reduce C&D waste during the design.htm .Appendix F Websites for Material Exchanges and Related C&D Waste Information www.html . Newspaper and Cardboard. The Center provides leadership in the field of waste management research and supports the Florida Department of Environmental Protection mission to preserve and protect the state's natural resources. and environmentally sound methods and strategies for managing Florida's solid and hazardous wastes. recycling and composting. construction.us/DEPTS/EIS/constfs. information on the 2000 National Green Building Conference.ca/envi/wasteman/index.org/cdreport.au/publications/BPE/BuildingMaterials. 100 pp.” construction waste management publications. Fishbein. Slightly Useful www. June 1998. Slightly Useful www. The Research Center links the research and product development communities with the practitioners who put methods into practice and products into use.htm . waste diversion accomplishments as reported by The Resource Recovery Fund Board. and C&D sites in Nova Scotia.This site is the Building Materials page of the Australian Office of Tourism homepage.ns.

of the Greening Federal Facilities guide.eren. regional. The page provides information on how to begin recycling programs.smartgrowth. improving the working environment of the facilities they manage. enterprise development. This chapter provides an excellent summary of managing construction waste.3. and recycling with the economic development goals of job creation/retention. reuse. The site contains descriptions of MFF's granting programs. Greening Initiatives. Construction Waste Management. related links. training. and technical assistance to start up and operate reuse programs. references. The site has a Smart Buildings page that leads to information on deconstruction. Moderately Useful www.6 . ReDo provides education.materials4future.This is the homepage for the Smart Growth Network (SGN).org .3 million residents in the 3 counties and 24 cities comprising the Portland. related publications. research publications and projects and helpful links. and local coalitions to encourage metropolitan development that is: environmentally.org . Moderately Useful www. fiscally.doe. website links.Appendix F Websites for Material Exchanges and Related C&D Waste Information information. MFF is a nonprofit organization founded in 1992 by a group of San Francisco Bay Area financers and recycling advocates.This is the Construction Site Recycling page from the Metro homepage. and contacts. and local empowerment. and publications.This is the homepage for the Center for Resourceful Building Technology (CRBT). current MFF projects on deconstruction and profiles of 50 small business opportunities using recovered materials. how to salvage and recycle on new construction and demolition projects. and reducing the environmental impacts of their operations.guidelines and current MFF grant recipients. located within the homepage of the Federal Energy Management Program.This is the homepage for the Materials for the Future (MFF). identifies some model programs. and links to other recycling and community economic development organizations. socially beneficial. Moderately Useful www.montana. Slightly Useful www.or. The CBRT is a non-profit corporation dedicated to promoting Appendix F . and provides a useful reuse fact sheet. brochures and bulletins. and case studies. The site contains access to reuse expertise in a variety of areas. and economically and socially smart. 501(c) (3) non-profit organization dedicated to promoting reuse as an environmentally sound. SGN helps create national. and accessing and using the International Material Exchange.0/5_3_construct_waste_manage.This page is Chapter 5.This is the homepage for the Reuse Development Organization (ReDO).htm .com/CRBT .gov/femp/greenfed/5. This is a resource guide for Federal facility managers to assist them in reducing energy consumption and costs. Moderately Useful www. Oregon metropolitan area. ReDO is working to create a national reuse network and infrastructure.org . deconstruction resources. and economical means for managing surplus and discarded materials. Moderately Useful www.html . Metro provides transportation and land-use planning services and oversees regional garbage disposal and recycling waste reduction programs. ReDO is a national and international tax-exempt. Metro is an elected regional government serving more than 1.redo.lib. MFF supports community-based initiatives that integrate the environmental goals of resource conservation through waste prevention.us/metro/rem/rwp/constrcy.multnomah. current news.

cwc. education. Highly Useful www. CWC has worked in partnership with business. an independent research organization that examines the effects of business practices on the environment and on human health.. education. Its mission is to serve as both catalyst and facilitator in encouraging building technologies which realize a sustainable and efficient use of resources. CWC develops markets for recycled materials.7 . and environmental leaders Appendix F . The page is provided as a tool to the program's students and as a means of information dissemination.htm .” The Guide is a database of over 600 green building materials and products selected specifically for their usefulness to the design and building professions.enveng. Highly Useful www. Highly Useful www.This is the homepage for INFORM. Model Specifications for Construction Waste Reduction.html .org . Reuse. Inc.com .Appendix F Websites for Material Exchanges and Related C&D Waste Information environmentally responsible practices in construction. Durham. The goal of INFORM is to identify ways of doing business that ensure environmentally sustainable economic growth. Product Marketing. Moderately Useful www. The site summarizes WasteSpec and provides the capability of ordering it. and Recycling.” WasteSpec is a manual which provides architects and engineers with both model specifications and background information addressing waste reduction. and demonstration.state.htm . CRBT promotes resource efficiency in building design. and related publications and links. and links to related sites. Government.nc.informinc. The site provides phone contact for the following services: Business Development. industry. Orange and Wake counties). Johnston. TJCOG produced “WasteSpec. provides access to publications covering research projects.rbme. materials selection and construction practices.com . The Triangle J Council of Governments is a voluntary organization of municipal and county governments in North Carolina's Region J (Chatham. CWC is a notfor-profit organization within the Pacific Northwest Economic Region (PNWER). industry.This is the homepage for the “Green Building Resource Guide. PNWER is a regional economic development and public policymaking entity based in Seattle. and recycling before and during construction and demolition. The organization works to meet the region's needs in a wide range of areas including support to environmental protection programs. and local government to increase the manufacturing capacity for materials recovered from the waste stream. RBME is a convenient way to easily exchange small or large quantities of used or surplus building materials for participating counties in WA.edu/homepp/townsend/default.us/TJCOG/cdwaste. and demonstration projects.This is the homepage for the Clean Washington Center (CWC). The site lists related courses. and Policy Research & Analysis. Slightly Useful www.This is the Construction and Demolition waste programs page of the Triangle J Council of Governments (TJCOG) homepage.This is the homepage for the Reusable Building Materials Exchange (RBME).org/cdreport. The site also provides access to the Salvaged Building Materials Exchange. The site uses the International Material Exchange (IMEX). Recycling Technology.ufl. It also provides Internet access to the Chicago Board of Trades Recyclables Exchange.greenguide. Through research.This is the Solid and Hazardous Research and Education page within the homepage for the Department of Environmental Engineering Science at the University of Florida. reuse. Slightly Useful www. Lee. The site contains pages on current research.

” Highly Useful Appendix F . INFORM publishes its research in books. articles. conserve energy.8 . protect land and water resources. They have published more than 100 reports on how to avoid unsafe uses of toxic chemicals. Source for “Building for the Future: Strategies to Reduce Construction and Demolition Waste in Municipal Projects.Appendix F Websites for Material Exchanges and Related C&D Waste Information around the world use INFORM reports. and on the Internet. newsletters. and safeguard public health.

1 .Appendix G List of Potential Asbestos Containing Building Materials • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Acoustical Plaster Adhesives Asphalt Floor Tile Base Flashing Blown-in Insulation Boiler Insulation Breaching Insulation Caulking/Putties Ceiling Tiles and Lay-in Panels Cement Pipes Cement Siding Cement Wallboard Chalkboards Construction Mastics/Adhesives Decorative Plaster Ductwork Electric Wiring Insulation Electric Cloth Electric Panel Partitions Elevator Brake Shoes Elevator Equipment Panels Fire Blankets Fire Curtains • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Fire Doors Fireproofing Materials Flexible Fabric Connections Flooring Backing Heating and Electrical Ducts High Temperature Gaskets HVAC Duct Insulation Joint Compounds Laboratory gloves Laboratory Hoods/Table Tops Packing Materials Pipe Insulation Roofing Felt Roofing Shingles Spackling Compounds Spray-Applied Insulation Taping Compounds (Thermal) Textured Paints/Coatings Thermal Paper Products Vinyl Floor Tile Vinyl Sheet Flooring Cooling Towers Vinyl Wall Coverings Wallboard Appendix G .

CONSTRUCTION FACILITIES AND TEMPORARY CONTROLS and 01700.EXECUTION. biodegradable. REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS. ordinances. water soluble. sealers and finishes necessary to comply with the requirements of this section”. PART 1 – GENERAL. ARCHITECTURAL WOODWORK. “Cleaning materials. PART 1 – GENERAL. non-flammable. WASTE MANAGEMENT: “Use the least toxic [EDIT TO SUIT SECTION] lubricants. SITEWORK.WasteSpec References for Managing Hazardous Waste • In specification DIVISION 1. Specification DIVISIONS 7. coatings and fluids with low VOC content. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS: “In the selection of products and materials of this section preference will be given to those with the following characteristics [EDIT TO SUIT SECTION AND PROJECT]: water based. or recycled content materials for…] SECTION 01060. SUBSTITUTIONS. but not limited to. these sections include the following [notes] or “language” to specifiers: • SECTION 01010. low VOC content. 9 through 12 and 14 through 16 all include applicable portions of the following language under PART 2 – PRODUCTS. [This is an appropriate location for additional language pertaining to environmental issues beyond the scope of WasteSpec. such as requests for Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for alternative environmental products or materials. water clean-up. TERMITE CONTROL. such as requirements for non-chemical termite control using an anti-termite sand barrier…] Specification DIVISIONS 2 through 10 and 13 through 16 all include applicable portions of the following language under PART 3 . ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS. Use cleaning materials that are non-hazardous. [This is an appropriate location for additional language pertaining to environmental issues beyond the scope of WasteSpec. WOOD AND PLASTICS. such as requirements to provide environmentally benign. CONTRACT CLOSE-OUT. SUMMARY OF WORK. adhesives. including. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emissions data for proposed materials…] SECTIONS 01500. or regulations relevant to … waste reduction…] SECTIONS 01300. PART 3 – EXECUTION. manufactured without compounds which contribute to smog in the lower atmosphere.EXECUTION includes the following language under SECTION 06400. [This is an appropriate location for additional language pertaining to environmental issues beyond the scope of WasteSpec. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. “Use the least toxic treatment methods and materials for rodent. CUTTING AND PATCHING. cleaners.” • • • • Specification DIVISION 2. termite and vegetation control. PART 3 . manufactured without compounds which contribute to ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere. primers. SUBMITTALS and 01630. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS: “All substrate materials to be manufactured without the use of urea formaldehyde additives or permanently sealed to prevent outgassing”. includes the following language and note in SECTION 02282.Appendix H Part 1 . non-hazardous. PART 1 – GENERAL. sealants. Specification DIVISIONS 6. installation of physical controls” and. [Incorporate…any statutes. CLEANING and FINAL CLEANING. does not contain methylene • • • Appendix H-1 .

preference is to be given to coatings which are water based and require water clean-up. preference is to be given to the following characteristics [EDIT TO SUIT PROJECT]: low or no formaldehyde emissions…” Appendix H-2 . “Where choices exist. “A. INSULATION.” SECTION 07200. Where choices exist in the provision of glass fiber insulation. • Specification DIVISION 7. The use of insulation products manufactured with CFCs as blowing agents is prohibited. WATERPROFFING. factory applied coatings”. B. does not contain or generate hazardous or toxic waste. does not contain chlorinated hydrocarbons. THERMAL AND MOISTURE PROTECTION includes the following language for specifiers: • • SECTION 07100.Appendix H Part 1 .WasteSpec References for Managing Hazardous Waste chloride.

DEPENDING ON THE SIZE AND COMPLEXITY OF THE PROJECT. Waste Management Plan. C. LIST ALL RELATED SECTIONS.] A.CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT. RELATED SECTIONS [EDIT LIST BELOW TO SUIT PROJECT.WasteSpec References for Construction Waste Management SECTION 01505 CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT THIS SECTION HAS BEEN INTRODUCED TO DEAL SPECIFICALLY WITH CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE MANAGEMENT. Waste Management Goals. EDIT TO SUIT PROJECT AND LOCATION. DELETE OR EDIT REFERENCES TO WASTE DISPOSAL IN OTHER SECTIONS THAT CONFLICT WITH THE PROVISIONS OF THIS SECTION. Special Programs.Appendix H Part 2 . Management Plan Implementation.GENERAL REQUIREMENTS INCLUDED IN THIS SECTION [EDIT LIST BELOW TO SUIT PROJECT. **OR** YOU MAY DISTRIBUTE CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION AND REQUIREMENTS THROUGHOUT RELATED DOCUMENTS AND SECTIONS OF THE PROJECT MANUAL FOLLOWING THE EXAMPLE USED IN THIS WASTESPEC. THE DRAFT WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN OUTLINED IN THIS SECTION SHOULD BE USED TO ESTIMATE THE COST OF RECYCLING. YOU MAY DELETE REQUIREMENTS IN THIS SECTION FOR THE CONTRACTOR TO DEVELOP A DRAFT WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN. STAND ALONE SECTION. PART 1 .] Appendix H-3 . YOU MAY INCORPORATE ALL CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION AND REQUIREMENTS INTO A SINGLE. B. D. IF YOU DID NOT SPECIFY AN ALTERNATE IN ORDER TO DETERMINE RECYCLING COST INFORMATION. IF YOU SPECIFIED THE USE OF AN ALTERNATE IN SECTION 01031 IN ORDER TO OBTAIN COST INFORMATION RELATED TO JOB SITE RECYCLING. SECTION 01505 .

[EDIT STATEMENTS ABOVE ACCORDING TO WHETHER THIS SECTION (01505) IS INTEGRATED INTO THE SPECIFICATION OR WHETHER IT IS USED AS A STAND-ALONE SECTION.] [FOR PURPOSES OF THIS SECTION.Contract Close-out. J. Section 01010 . or other factors shall be employed. Section 01600 .Project Meetings. The Owner has established that this Project shall generate the least amount of waste possible and that processes that ensure the generation of as little waste as possible due to error. Section 01300 . THE FOLLOWING DEFINITIONS APPLY: REUSE. contamination. for the Architect’s review.Submittals. RECYCLE. Waste disposal in landfills shall be minimized. Document 00800 . Section 01630 . Section 01030 .Construction Facilities and Temporary Controls. With regard to these goals the Contractor shall develop.Supplementary General Conditions. WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN A. salvaged. B.Quality Control. as many of the waste materials as economically feasible shall be reused. Draft Waste Management Plan: Within [SPECIFY TIME FRAME] [10 CALENDAR DAYS] after receipt of Notice of Award of Bid. [REFER TO SECTION 01094 .Regulatory Requirements. a Waste Management Plan for this Project. I.Waste Management / Recycling Alternates. or Section 01031 .Construction Waste Management. Section 01094 . Section 01060 . Section 01700 . C. Appendix H-4 . F. mishandling. Section 01500 .Substitutions. WASTE MANAGEMENT GOALS A.Alternates. K.Summary of the Work. E. Document 00120-Supplementary Instructions to Bidders-Resource Efficiency. M. L. N. G. or recycled. D.Materials and Equipment. or prior to any waste removal.] B.WasteSpec References for Construction Waste Management A.DEFINITIONS FOR TERMS USED IN THIS SECTION. poor planning.Definitions. C. breakage. RETURN. Of the inevitable waste that is generated.Appendix H Part 2 . Section 01200 . H. Section 01400 . Section 01505 . SALVAGE.

the following materials: 2. Beverage containers. ASPHALT ROOFING SHINGLES. the proposed local market for each material. Alternatives to Landfilling: A list of each material proposed to be salvaged. c. [SEE APPENDIX D FOR A SAMPLE WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN WHICH CAN BE APPENDED TO PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS. VINYL SIDING. The list of these materials is to include. and the projected cost of disposing of all Project waste in the landfill(s). or recycled during the course of the Project. PLASTIC SHEETING. PAINT. CARPET AND CARPET PAD TRIM. Concrete Masonry Units (CMU). Concrete. including types and quantities.] The Draft Plan shall contain the following: 1. e. Clean dimensional wood. ADD OTHER MATERIALS RELEVANT TO LOCAL AREA.] a. Cardboard. reused. and the estimated net cost savings or additional costs resulting from separating and recycling (versus landfilling) each material. [LIST BELOW MATERIALS APPLICABLE TO PROJECT AND LOCATION. AND RIGID FOAM INSULATION. 3. Landfill options: The name of the landfill(s) where trash will be disposed of. b. d. the Contractor shall submit to the Owner and Architect a Draft Waste Management Plan. f. Land clearing debris.Appendix H Part 2 . “Net” means that the following have been subtracted from the cost of separating and recycling: (a) revenue from the sale of recycled or salvaged materials and (b) landfill tipping fees saved due to diversion of materials from the landfill. EXAMPLES MAY INCLUDE DRYWALL. PLASTIC BUCKETS. Analysis of the proposed jobsite waste to be generated. g.WasteSpec References for Construction Waste Management whichever occurs sooner. Bricks. at minimum. the applicable landfill tipping fee(s). THE LIST OF MATERIALS SHOULD INCLUDE AT MINIMUM THE MATERIALS LISTED IN (a) THROUGH (i) BELOW. Appendix H-5 .

B. B. Asphalt.WasteSpec References for Construction Waste Management h. C. galvanized sheet steel. AND D OF THIS WASTESPEC FOR RESOURCES YOU CAN USE TO DEVELOP RECYCLING WORKSHEETS AND LIST OF LOCAL MARKETS SPECIFIC TO YOUR PROJECT. the applicable landfill tipping fee(s). contact the [STATE] [COUNTY] [RECYCLING DEPARTMENT] [LISTED IN APPENDIX _____] [AT PHONE NUMBER _________. Resources for Development of Waste Management Plan: The following sources may be useful in developing the Draft Waste Management Plan: [EDIT LIST OF RECYCLING RESOURCES BELOW TO SUIT PROJECT. [SEE APPENDIX D FOR A SAMPLE WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN WHICH CAN BE APPENDED TO PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS. i. zinc. steel. aluminum. brass. Metals from banding. Appendix H-6 . Analysis of the proposed jobsite waste to be generated. and bronze. stainless steel. other trim. lead. within [SPECIFY TIME FRAME] [10 CALENDAR DAYS] a Final Waste Management Plan. Landfill options: The name of the landfill(s) where trash will be disposed of. Recycling Haulers and Markets: [APPENDIX _____] [THE ATTACHED LIST] contains local haulers and markets for recyclable materials. and the projected cost of disposing of all Project 2. other haulers and markets are acceptable. the Contractor shall submit. ductwork.Appendix H Part 2 . This list is provided for information only and is not necessarily comprehensive. 2.] 1. rebar. including types and quantities. piping.] The Final Waste Management Plan shall contain the following: 1. copper.] Recycling Economics Information: [APPENDIX ___] [THE ATTACHED FORMS] contain information that may be useful in estimating the costs or savings or recycling options. For more information. stud trim. roofing. iron. C. REFER TO APPENDICES A. Final Waste Management Plan: Once the Owner has determined which of the recycling options addressed in the draft Waste Management Plan are acceptable.

or recycling. YOU MAY EITHER DESIGNATE A FULL TIME CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGER OR ASSIGN RESPONSIBILITY TO THE JOB SUPERVISOR OR APPROPRIATE PERSONNEL. Materials Handling Procedures: A description of the means by which any waste materials identified in item (3) above will be protected from contamination.] B. Manager: The Contractor shall designate an on-site party (or parties) responsible for instructing workers and overseeing and documenting results of the Waste Management Plan for the Project. or whether mixed materials will be collected by a waste hauler and removed from the site) and destination of materials. 3. and a description of the means to be employed in recycling the above materials consistent with requirements for acceptance by designated facilities. D. 5. 6. Meetings: A description of the regular meetings to be held to address waste management. and the Architect. and return methods to be used by all parties at the appropriate stages of the Project. WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN IMPLEMENTATION A. Instruction: The Contractor shall provide on-site instruction of appropriate separation. Refer to Section 01200 . the Owner.Appendix H Part 2 . 4.Project Meetings. salvage. Separation facilities: The Contractor shall lay C.WasteSpec References for Construction Waste Management waste in the landfill(s). handling. salvage. Transportation: A description of the means of transportation of the recyclable materials (whether materials will be site-separated and self-hauled to designated centers. Distribution: The Contractor shall distribute copies of the Waste Management Plan to the Job Site Foreman. reuse. [DEPENDING ON THE SIZE AND COMPLEXITY OF THE PROJECT. each Subcontractor. Alternatives to Landfilling: A list of the waste materials from the Project that will be separated for reuse. Appendix H-7 . and recycling.

receipt. Recycling and waste bin areas are to be kept neat and clean and clearly marked in order to avoid contamination of materials. and the total disposal cost. reused. weight tickets. Hazardous wastes: Hazardous wastes shall be separated. Applicable programs are the following: [LIST APPLICABLE PROGRAMS HERE. weight tickets. The Contractor shall be responsible for final implementation of programs involving tax credits or rebates or similar incentives related to recycling. the receiving party. and return. the date removed from the jobsite. and invoices. F. or salvaged from the Project. salvage.Appendix H Part 2 . Attach manifests. For each material recycled. reuse. 1. the amount of any money paid or received for the recycled or salvaged material. the amount (in tons or cubic yards). Failure to submit this information shall render the Application for Payment incomplete and shall delay Progress Payment. stored. and disposed of according to local regulations. E. 2. Revenues or other savings obtained for recycling or returns shall accrue to the [CONTRACTOR] [OWNER]. Application for Progress Payments: The Contractor shall submit with each Application for Progress Payment a Summary of Waste Generated by the Project.] Appendix H-8 . the total amount of tipping fees paid at the landfill. receipts. the identity of the landfill. and invoices. and the net total cost or savings of salvage or recycling each material. The Summary shall be submitted on a form acceptable to the Owner [SEE APPENDIX ____] and shall contain the following information: 1. SPECIAL PROGRAMS A. if applicable to the Project. The amount (in tons or cubic yards) of material landfilled from the Project. Include manifests. the transportation cost.WasteSpec References for Construction Waste Management out and label a specific area to facilitate separation of materials for potential recycling.

rebates.WasteSpec References for Construction Waste Management 2. 3. The Contractor is responsible for obtaining information packets relevant to all of the above-listed programs prior to starting work on the Project. PART 2 PRODUCTS Not Used.[LIST OTHER] that qualify for tax credits. END OF SECTION Appendix H-9 . The Contractor shall document work methods. and other savings under each of the above-listed programs. PART 3 EXECUTION Not Used.Appendix H Part 2 . recycled materials.

This includes the installation Self-Help and family housing UFix-It Stores. Monitor the successful implementation of Affirmative Procurement. Reduced contract and in-house costs from material salvage. The Air Force measure of merit for diverting non-hazardous solid waste is 40% by FY 2004. Extended landfill life. concrete. In order to achieve this goal.Appendix I Part 1 – Sample C&D Waste Management Strategy INSTALLATION C&D WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY The government employees and residents of installation are committed to sustaining an economic mission. reusable architectural building components and drywall and identify new unused diversion markets for future use. healthy environment and vibrant economy. Require all project designs to use a model specification like WasteSpec for reducing. Require all in-house construction work forces to prepare and implement generic C&D waste management plans. Conduct one pilot project for deconstruction and compare it with conventional demolition for costs. Identify and use partnerships to maximize additional C&D waste diversion resources. there has been a fundamental shift in the way we view C&D waste. metals. Appendix I-1 . o o o o o o The C&D Waste Resource Management Strategy for the installation will include these benefits: o o o o Sustained mission through lower operating expenses for waste disposal. reusing and recycling C&D waste. The achievement of the strategic objective and goals will be monitored and assessed at the periodic Environmental Safety and Occupational Health Committee meetings. the Installation has developed a forward-looking strategy. Sustained natural resources through reduced material and energy consumption. This includes installation and family housing maintenance contractors. The C&D Waste Resource Management Strategy for installation includes the following goals: o Require all contractors to analyze C&D waste diversion potential and submit C&D Waste Management Plans for specific projects. generate revenues and create jobs through cost effective and environmentally responsible management. The installation is committed to achieving an overall objective of 50% C&D waste diversion by the year 200X. Consistent with this commitment. reuse and recycling. Exploit existing markets for diverting wood. revenues and time. The Air Force has promulgated a waste diversion policy that recognizes C&D waste is a resource that can save costs.

Reused as Fill Recycled. or separated for recycling to the extent that is economically feasible. following all proper storage and handling procedures to reduce broken and damaged materials. The Waste Management Chart identifies the waste materials expected to be generated on this project. 2. the disposal method for each material. All containers will be clearly labeled and lists of accepted/unaccepted materials will be posted throughout the site.Appendix I Part 2 – Sample C&D Waste Management Plan Project Title: Project Type: Northwest Bank Construction Demolition and New Construction Location: Kent. 8 tons Disposal Method Ground on-site. Waste Management Chart Material Qty. WA Waste Management Coordinators: Waste Management Plan Guidelines: 1. 100 tons 6 tons 300 bd. 3. and reusing materials wherever possible. on pallets for pick up. Each contractor and subcontractor will receive this WMP and be provided a tour of the job site. Waste materials generated shall be salvaged for donation or resale. Remaining wastes Appendix I-2 . ft. and any handling requirements. Work forces shall generate the least amount of waste possible by planning and ordering carefully. Each subcontractor will be expected to make sure all work crews comply with the WMP. This project shall target a C&D waste diversion rate of 75%. Waste diversion activities will be discussed at each safety meeting. store on-site.Wood Recycling NW Salvaged-Timber Frame Salvaging Garbage-Sound Disposal Handling Procedure Demolition Asphalt from parking lot Wood framing Decorative wood beams Separate clean wood into “clean wood” dumpsters. Remove by hand.

Either provide container or collect in vehicle for recycling. 2 tons Disposal Method Recycled-Puget Sound Concrete Handling Procedure Break up any wastes or mistakes and put in “concrete” dumpster. Stack next to supply of new form boards for reuse. fire-breaks etc.Appendix I Part 2 – Sample C&D Waste Management Plan Material Qty. Deposit all metals in “metal” Dumpster. Rebar OK. Dispose in “trash” dumpster. Separate unusable clean wood into “clean wood” recycling dumpsters. Recycle clean unusable forms in “clean wood” recycling dumpsters. Recycled-Wood Recycling NW Recycled-Seattle Metals Subcontractor will recycle and submit reports to waste coordinator Subcontractor will recycle and submit reports to waste coordinator Garbage-Sound Disposal Scrap metal Drywall Electric/plumbing subcontractors’ metal and other recyclables All other waste 5 tons 10 tons 14 tons Appendix I-3 . then recycled-Wood Recycling NW Clean wood scrap 12 tons Scraps reused for form work. New Construction Concrete Forming boards Reuse as many times as possible. Either provide container or collect in vehicle for recycling. Stack reusable pieces next to dumpster for reuse.

Missoula. Kincaid. Center for Resourceful Building Technology. Howard Washburn and Debbi Palermini. U. Judith E. “Construction Industry Recycling Project. St. OR.” Metro. Materials for the Future Foundation and National Economic Development and Law Center. “Case Study of the Naval Air Station Alameda Deconstruction Project.S. 1993. Reuse and Recycling. Jan 26. Huelman. OR. 1993. Metro. OR. 1995. Research Triangle Park.” Good Cents Magazine (Summer). “Final Draft – Environmental Contract Specification Guidebook. Paul.” Educational Clearinghouse. Geller. Goddard. CH2MHill. CA. Mark.” Metro.” Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance.Appendix J Bibliography Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance.” The East Bay Conversion and Reinvestment Commission. Pierquet.S. 1999. “Improving Your Bottom Line with Construction Waste Management. 1998. “Cost-Effective Demolition Waste Management. O’brien & Associates and Palermini & Associates. June 1993. MN.” Triangle J Council of Governments.” December 18. “Management and Disposal of Lead-Based Paint Debris: Proposed Rule. Teresa R. Portland. “Draft Final – Environmental Quality Contractor Evaluation checklists. McGregor. U. “Non-Hazardous Solid Waste Diversion Rate Measure of Merit (MoM). Portland. “Reducing Construction and Demolition Waste.” Construction Specifications Institute Technical Meeting . Environmental Protection Agency. April 1997. Appendix J-1 . July. 1995. 1998.. Tracy. Joan Holtzman and Chris Thomas. “FINAL REPORT-Characterization of Construction Site Waste. Pentagon. “Building Deconstruction on Closing Military Bases. 1993. Cheryl Walker and Greg Flynn. HQ USAF/ILEV Memorandum for ALMAJCOM/CEV. Washington DC. “Residential Remodeling Waste Reduction Demonstration Project. Portland. Jim. “WasteSpec-Model Specifications for Construction Waste Reduction.” U. MT. July. Proposed Rule. “Construction Materials Recycling Guidebook.. Air Force Academy. 1999. Oakland. Mumma. “Waste Reduction Specifications. Palermini & Associates. 30. Portland. 1993. Center for Economic Conversion. Pohlman.” Metro. Oakland.” April 1997. 30. Lisa. 1997. NC.S. OR. Air Force Academy.” The East Bay Conversion and Reinvestment Commission. 1996.” National Center for Appropriate Technology.” and “Temporary Suspension of Toxicity Characteristic Rule for Specified Lead-Based Paint Debris. Federal Register Part II Environmental Protection Agency.September 15. and Patrick H. CA. 1993. Patrick L.

Jim. Carl. undated.lib. January 1999. Metro.Appendix J Bibliography Lehman.state. Technical Inquiry #16487. 1999. Goddard. Brooks AFB. “Implementation of the Construction/Demolition and Land Clearing Debris Recovery System. “Contractors’ Guide to Preventing Waste and Recycling-1998/99. WA. “Generator Waste Analysis for the Building Industry. OR.or. “Lead-Based Paint Processes and Practices. FL.us/metro/rem/rwp/constrcy.” Portland. “Building for the Future: Strategies to Reduce Construction and Demolition Waste in Municipal Projects. NC. Recycling.” Resource. or call TJCOG at 1-919-549-0551. undated. Triangle J Council of Governments (TJCOG). TX. Metro. Department of the Air Force. TX.” Seattle. “Waste Management. OR. Bette K. Fishbein.html. HQ AFCEE. Call Metro Recycling Information at 1-206234-3000.” HQ AFCEE. 1999. August 19. Metropolitan Service District. PRO-ACT Fact Sheet. DRAFT Air Force Instruction 32-7042. Brooks AFB. HQ USAF/ILEV Memorandum for ALMAJCOM/CEV et al. February 1. Appendix J-2 .” HQ AFCEE. OR. Washington DC. OR. Job Site Recycling Fact Sheets [Case Studies]. Brooks AFB. December 1995. 1996. “Policy and Guidance on Lead-Based Paint (LBP) Final Disclosure Rule. Tyndall AFB. Ken Kinjo. Portland. April 28. June 1998. “Promoting Building Industry Recycling: A How-To Guide. July 15. Jim.htm.” Metro Regional Services. Washington DC. Comes with WasteSpec. Case Studies #1-#10. Business and Industry Recycling Venture and King County Solid Waste Division.html. PRO-ACT Fact Sheet.” HQ AFCESA. “Facility Lead-Based Paint Hazard Management. 1999. INFORM Inc.1998. January 1998. or visit www.nc. Metro. TX. Research Triangle Park. “Developing a construction and Demolition Debris Recycling System for Disaster Debris Management. Untitled Technical Inquiry #19430 on Lead-Based Paint.” Pentagon.us/TJCOG/cdwaste. April 1. DRAFT Air Force Manual 32-1141.. Washington DC. “A List of Recycled Building and Construction Product Directories.” Portland. July 1991. Goddard. 1999.” Metro. Department of the Air Force. “Lead-Based Paint.informinc. DRAFT Air Force Instruction 32-1041. January 1994..” Pentagon. Pentagon. PRO-ACT Letter to Mr. “PRO-ACT Technical Inquiry #19871 – LBP & ACBM in Building Demolition. Department of the Air Force. NY June 1998.multnomah. undated. Department of the Air Force.” www.org/cdreport. Portland. or visit www.

Leonard T. Undated. “Public Health concerns About Environmental Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).html. OR.org/publications/reposts/pcupdate2.” www. Leroux. 1999.gov/es_and_h/guidelines/pcb/pcb. Timothy G. CA. Academic Press.” www. Technical Inquiry #19430. “Management of PCB Demolition Debris.” Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management.ufl. “Test Information Sheet Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Test Code: 3370..com/TRIFacts/92.” www. Washington. Undated.” Institute for Local Self-Reliance.” HQ AFCEE. Brooks AFB.pdf. Undated. FL. Flynn.ufl. “Guidelines for Polychlorinated Biphenyls. May 1989.” Unknown Publishing Source. “Asbestos. 1997.. “Resource Efficient Building-Reducing Materials Use.acsh.enveng. J.edu/homepp/townsend/Research/DemoHW/Guide/Dmgdintr. PRO-ACT Fact Sheet. Department of the Air Force.multnomah. “Handbook on the 1998 Amended PCB Disposal Regulations. “Removal of Hazardous Building Components from Demolition Waste-An Information Sheet for Government Building Officials. Townsend.” http://mail. Portland. “Background Information and Health Effects [PCBs].” HQ AFCEE. MN. Paul. “The Management and Environmental Impacts of Construction and Demolition Waste in Florida.us/metro/rem/rwp/constrcy. and Cindy F. Townsend. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. Undated. “Deconstruction: Salvaging Yesterday’s Buildings for Tomorrow’s Sustainable Communities.or.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Appendix J Bibliography Metro. Undated. PRO-ACT Fact Sheet. DC. “Construction Site Recycling. TX..edu/homepp/townsend/Research/DemoHW/Guide/DHWFSBOF. undated. Undated. March 1995. 1-5. Overview of Demolition Waste Management and Location of Hazardous Building Components. Toxicity and Waste in Design.edu/homepp/townsend/Research/DemoHW/Guide/DHWFSDCT. Brooks AFB. and Charles Kibert. Timothy G. J. American Council on Science and Health.htm.enveng. January 1999.ufl. “DRAFT Demolition Waste Management Guide.lib. “Introduction. National Medical Services.html. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. VA.html#RTFToC2 . TX. Gainesville.odsnet.” www.llnl. Timothy G.pdf.” www. Undated. Timothy G.enveng. Hoyt. Technical Inquiry #19400.” Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance. St.” Command Naval Base. June 1998. LHB Engineers and Architects and Center for Resourceful Building Technology.gov/opptintr/pcb/. Livermore.” www. Townsend.” www.. WRITAR. Appendix J-3 . March 1999.html. “Removal of Hazardous Building Components from Demolition Waste-An Information Sheet for Government Building Officials. Kivi and Neil Seldman. Norfolk. Kleiman. U. Townsend.epa.

“Characterization of Building-Related Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States. Washington DC.S.” U. June 1998. Appendix J-4 . Environmental Protection Agency.Appendix J Bibliography Franklin Associates.

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