Process and Application

National Institute of Fashion Technology Bhopal Guided By: Mr. Debojyoti Ganguly Assistant Professor Sub: Textile Chemical Processing

Submitted By: Abhijit Banik Textile Design, Semester V


This method of printing uses screens consisting of a very fine mesh. The part of the design to be printed in a specific colour requires its own screen. Photographic techniques are used to transfer the images on to the screens. In hand screen printing the fabric is stretched out on a long table. The screens are moved methodically along the fabric. When a screen is in position the dye paste is pressed through the open mesh with a squeegee blade. The screen is moved to each pattern area and the process repeated.



2.6 Printing 2. Bibliography 24 Page 3 23 .3.1 Material 2.9 Exposing Screen Squeeze 2.Literature Review 2.3.2 Variety of Screen Printing equipments Page No 04 05 05 07 09 09 09 09 10 10 11 12 13 15 15 16 17 18 21 22 2.3 Process 2.2 Screen Printing Ink 2.3.4 Print on fabric 2. No.3.7 Making Screen 2.8 Preparation of screen 2.10. Introduction 2.10 fundamentals of Viscosity 2.9 Printing Paste Requirement 2.5 Registration 2.1 Characteristics of printing paste 3.3. 3. 1.  CONTENT S. 4.3. Conclusion Hand and semi-automatic screen printing: 2.5 Some Information 2.4 Multi Colour Printing 2. Chapter 1.10 Recommended Exposure Chart 2.

Although many thousands of yards of fabrics are processed in solid colours. This process is known as printing. or other coloured substances may be effected by a variety of hand or machine processes. INTRODUCTION: Important decision in the creation of a textile product must be made when its design and/or its colour are chosen. Printing can be applied to warp yarns.  1.for example. The application of a pattern to fabric by the use of dyes. printing is a cheaper way of creating designs on fabric than weaving or knitting with different colour yarn. slogan or pictures on T-shirt. to fabrics. Furthermore. but hand printing is a timeconsuming procedure. it does not always result in a uniform repeat of a motif that is to be used more than once. pigments. (3) Page 4 . Over many centuries a variety of technique for printing designs has evolved. the same design can be repeated many times over simply by pressing the decorated surface against the fabric. If a design is transferred to a flat surface that can be coated with a dye and then stamped onto the fabric. or to apparel pieces. Freehand printing of designs on fabrics is probably the oldest technique for applying ornament. In general. thousands more yard of fabric have designs applied through printing.

Strong. are apt to sag when in contact with water-based print pastes. especially the latter. The squeegee (a flexible rubber blade used to spread the printing paste across the screen and force it through the open areas) was driven across the screen by a motor attached to the carriage. in which the screens are mounted one at a time. thus had far greater freedom to choose repeat sizes. Screen fabrics made from hydrophilic yarns. and the combination became known as a screen. Soon after. French printers introduced the use of a woven silk fabric to provide a continuous support for the paper stencil. such as silk. cotton. just as in hand-screen printing. The first development was the introduction of a movable carriage. especially in fashion houses. but the amount of colour paste applied could also be controlled. and textured surfaces are not crushed. the fabric being printed is stuck down on long tables and one colour is printed at a time. The introduction of hydrophobic synthetic fibres such as nylon and polyester. For the best results the support fabric was stretched across a frame. freed from the restrictions of copper rollers. thus improving the accuracy that could be attained. Their high tensile strength also allowed the fabric to be stretched more tightly over the screen frame. stable screens enabled the hand screen-printing process to be mechanised. From this time onwards the advantages of screen printing became increasingly appreciated. In this method. The designer. Accurate printing of 19 multicoloured designs requires stable screens. In addition. The development of screen printing to its modern. Page 5 . the pressure applied in screen printing is much lower than in roller printing with the result that surface prints with an improved ‘bloom’ or colour strength are obtained. Designs are relatively easy to transfer to screens and the frame size can be readily varied. LITERATURE REVIEW: In the mid-19th century. which is still in use. viscose rayon or cellulose diacetate. The development was important because in this way not only were ties automatically provided. Further improvement came with the introduction of metal screen frames to replace the wooden ones used hitherto.  2. the paper stencil was replaced by a durable paint on the screen fabric. made it possible to manufacture stable screens that maintained tension when wet. which tended to warp when subjected to a regime of continually alternating wetting and drying. highly productive form ran parallel with improvements in the screens themselves.

Heat for drying the printed fabric may be provided either under the blanket or by hot air fans above the table.  The fraction of open area in the screen fabric. The amount of print paste passing through the screen can be controlled in several ways.  2.  The hardness and cross-section of the squeegee blade.1 Hand and semi-automatic screen printing: The practice of hand screen printing is now mainly restricted in the UK to colleges of art. One screen is required for every colour in the design. Printing is carried out on a flat. Fabric movement or shrinkage must be avoided during printing in order to maintain registration of the pattern. The printing process consists of forcing a viscous print paste through the open areas of the screen with a flexible. rounded blade applies more paste and is suitable for blotches. synthetic rubber squeegee. which is contained in a wooden or metal support. whereas a soft. two operators may work together. using either a water-soluble adhesive or a semi-permanent adhesive. if the top of the table is firm a soft squeegee is probably necessary. generally a coarse mesh allows more paste to pass through than a fine one. whereas with a resilient table surface a harder squeegee is preferable. a hard rubber squeegee with a sharp cross-section is suitable for outlines. solid table covered with a layer of resilient felt and a washable blanket (usually coated with neoprene rubber). The rubber blade. Before a design can be printed. If the screen is too wide to allow one operator to reach all the way across it. Factors affecting this are:  The ‘mesh’ (threads per inch) or ‘raster’ (threads per cm) of the screen fabric. or when a third colour is produced by one colour falling on another. this depends not only on the mesh but also on the yarn diameter and the effect of subsequent treatments. as it is a craft rather than a productive method of printing. The pressures exerted by the two must be as similar as possible. except when the fabric is dyed to the background colour (known as the ground) before or after printing. Page  The hardness of the printing table. When the background colour is printed it is termed the ‘blotch’. is drawn steadily across the screen at a constant angle and pressure. such as calendaring. one on either side of the table. 6 . it must be reproduced on the screens in a suitable form. The fabric to be printed is laid on the table and stuck to the blanket directly. smallscale units and the high fashion industry. In the latter instance an absorbent fabric is stuck to the blanket and the fabric to be printed is pinned down on top of it.

in conjunction with the nature of the design. Before printing begins. within the constraint of the requirement for good definition. The screen is then washed and the second screen introduced to print the second colour. the screens must be carefully positioned on the fabric. If the design includes an outline this is printed first. Often registration marks are printed along the selvedge.2 Variety of Screen printing equipments: Page 7 Fig: 1 Wood frame printing Screens Fig: 2 Aluminium Frames . a slight overlap being preferable to a gap. When screen printing is carried out by hand. the viscosity can be varied. 2.  The speed of the squeegee stroke. to achieve maximum smartness and as an aid to accurate fitting. when printing the chosen fabric. from two to four strokes are usually applied. As a further aid.  The squeegee angle and pressure. alternate repeats are normally printed along the full length of the table and then the gaps are filled in. This allows time for the print paste to penetrate the fabric and partially dry before the frame falls on the next printed area. thinner pastes passing through the screen pores more readily than viscous ones. The area printed by a screen (screen repeat) must fit exactly alongside the adjacent one.   The viscosity of the print paste.  The number of squeegee strokes. repeat crosses known as ‘pitch marks’ may be incorporated at one or both sides of the screen and the positions of the following screens checked against the first pitch mark. All these variables should be taken into consideration.

3 Process: The following directions are can be visualize very clearly what the fundamental procedure to make a hand screen printing: 2.  Wash bath.  UV light.  Fabric to print.3.  Screen coater  Squeegee (flexible synthetic rubber on steel blade).  One square or rectangular frame.  A table to turn on.  Small door Hinges. Page Fig: 6 Screen Fig: 7 Ink Fig: 7 Squeegee 8 . size should be more than the selected design (wood or metal).  Photosynthetic polymer.1 Materials:  One design on transparent paper in dark colour.  Dark room.  Fig: 3 One colour T-Shirt Printer Fig: 4 Six colour T-Shirt Printer Fig: 5 Four colour T-Shirt Printer 2.  One screen (which is fitted on the frame evenly stretched).

now attach the door hinge to the 2x4 and the wood screen using wood screws.4 Print on fabric: Now lets assume that the screen is all prepared and ready.3 Continuous Order: Coating of Screen with photosynthetic polymer in dark Drying at Room Temperature in dark Preparation of Design Exposing the screen in UV light with the design in between Hardening of the exposed area in light Washing of unexposed area (design) with cold water Drying 2. 2. By adding your thinner or not adding thinner you can control this. push the back up against the 2x4. We will need 2 hinges one for the top left side and one for the right top side.3. Press the ink through the image and screen onto the glass or paper. And it cannot be too thick where it will not go through the screen. 1st.3 Squeegee: Used to move the printing ink from the top of the inside screen to the bottom.  2. Now the screen can move up and down. Then take the wood screen and lay it flat on the table. Now to keep the screen up while we are registering the glass or whatever we will be printing on.3. we will need to add a kickleg (see drawing).2 Screen Printing Ink: Ink can be thick paint (oil base). Now lay down the screen on top of the glass. and move the glass around until the print image is right over top of it or is in the desired position. or special Screen printing ink. Now take some masking tape and tape 3 pieces onto the table right Page 9 .we attach the 2 x 4 to the table using nails or wood screws. Printing Ink cannot be too thin or it will run on the printed image.3.3. 2.

then remove glass then place paper all around pencil area on the outside so we will not overspray the hold down adhesive. Now spray the adhesive onto the table and let dry 5-10 minutes.  up to the glass. Fig: 7 Side View Fig: 8 Top view without Screen 2. 2.) Once we have completed registration pencil around the glass onto the table. This process will help hold down the glass to the table while we will print so the glass will not move and we will get a good print.3.6 Printing: Page 10 .5 Registration: To simplify registration we are showing the top view without the screen.3. this will be our registration marks which we can then after printing our first piece of glass or paper can place another in the same place and print it in the exact same spot. (Of course the screen should be there when registering our item that we are going to print.

. In step 4 printing are finished.  Fig: 9 Step 1 Fig: 10 Step 2 In step 3 starts to print holding squeegee with 2 hands press down with angle and come toward me. Fig: 11 Step 3 Fig: 12 Step 4 After step 4. if we have to continue printing. then flood screen again for next print in step 5 or In step 6 Remove object (Glass) that we have printed and let it air dry. Page 11 STOP.

Depending on what kind of ink or printing paste we use will determine what type of clean up solvent. The longer we wait the more chance we will have of our screen getting clogged up and we could mess up our screen forever. this will help keep the frame strong. Use paper towels and mineral spirits to clean up.3. start stapling one end only. Frame size is 19 1/2" x 23 1/2" (as per required design size). IT MUST STRETCH THE MATERIAL TIGHT STARTING FROM THE CENTER AND WORKING WAY OUTWARD. Cut screen mesh leaving about 4" hanging from all around the frame. Use wood glue and steel angle from a hardware store. Then trim up screen mesh all the way to Page 12 the outside frame. It is very important not to let ink dry in screen. Use 2" x 2" pieces of wood for our frame.  Fig: 13 Step 5 Fig: 14 Step 6 Once we have finished printing then we must clean up our screen. Now we have to purchase screen material from a art supply store or from a screen printing supply company or buy some from a screen printing shop. Screen should be tight enough to bounce a penny on it. now go to the opposite end and staple that while griping the screen mesh in right hand and stapling with the other hand. Now using a staple gun. 2. We can angle them together or square them together.7 Making Screen: It is very easy to build our own screen. . Now place your frame down flat on a table and place our screen mesh over top of it. For material we can refer yellow page phone book. Stretch Screen and staple down to wood frame.

it will not stick good in spots.3 .3. Use bleach cleaner to clean screen properly. Fig: 16 Screen Now take the screen and spray it on both sides with water. clean it very well. Each side should take about 2 . Bleach will take out exposed photo Page 13 THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT! Spray both sides of the screen.8 Preparation of Screen: Now prepare screen for the photo emulsion. the photo emulsion will have a hard time sticking to it. If the screen is not cleaned right. Now take a water hose and spray out all the bleach. If all of the bleach is not sprayed out then it will cause problems with the photo emulsion. (it does not take much) Now using a wet cotton rag or cloth scrub the screen on both sides.  Fig: 15 Screen 2. minutes per side to spray out. now while it is still wet apply the bleach on both sides.

this is what the old timers used to clean out the photo emulsion after they were done screen printing with the screen. Now set the screen aside and let air dry or use a fan to dry it with. It will need a very low light area. now angle it so the emulsion will start to slowly run out.small bottle of photo emulsion (Follow the instructions on the bottle. Now we are done. place the screen coater onto the screen. (Put screen in a place where not allot of dust is located.) Once screen is dry we are ready for the photo emulsion. Page Fig: 17 Photo Emulsion coated Screen Fig: 18 Photo Emulsion coated Screen drying 14 . wait 70 seconds. Now flip screen over to the other side and coat it the same way. Starting from the bottom. Now take the photo emulsion and pour it into the screen coating spreader.  emulsion. ) and 1. 1. Now take the screen coater with hand while holding the small screen with the other. It should now have a nice smooth thin coat of photo emulsion on both sides of screen. Make sure the photo emulsion is very well mixed before each use. Now take the screen and lay it flat away from the floor and apply a fan.plastic or metal screen coater. and now coat just the back side of screen one more time. Now slowly move up and over the screen coating the back side with one coat. Place the coater on a flat table and take a small square piece of card board and smooth out the build ups that were made by the edge of the coater.

3.  2. Now you can spray the back of your film positive with spray adhesive. 2. Clear Incandescent Screen Size 150W Bulb Height 8” x 10” 10” x 14” 12” x 18” 16” x 20” 18” x 20” 250-Watt Bulb Screen Size 8” x 10” 10” x 14” 12” x 18” 16” x 20” 18” x 20” 12 inches 12 inches 15 inches 17 inches 17 inches Exposure time 45 minutes 45 minutes 1 hr. Now let the spray dry for 5 minutes.dark area and take a water hose with a sprayer attached and start spraying it lightly with a spray of water not a strong stream. Now stick it to the back side of the photo screen. Now hold screen up to a light to see if you got all of it out.2 hrs.9 Exposing Screen: Now once screen has dried.3. 14 minutes 1 hr. 32 minutes 1 hr.10 Recommended Exposure Chart 150-Watt Bulb. take your film positive. 32 minutes Lamp Height 12 inches 12 inches 15 inches 17 inches 17 inches Exposure time 10 minutes 10 minutes 16 minutes 20 minutes 20 minutes Page 15 . Now lay it flat on the dry ground out in the full sun light or UV light for about 5-10 minutes. Take an image in black on clear plastic. Now screen is ready. After that time take off the film and take screen into a semi. now spray the other side of screen lightly. Now set the screen back up in front of the fan and let it dry for about 1 . you will see it start to come out in about 1 or 2 minutes. spray out the unexposed photo emulsion.

4 Multi Colour Printing:-COLOR PRINTING Making multi-colour prints of detailed artwork requires the making of a screen for each colour to be printed.  Fig: 18 Screen on exposing Fig: 19 Screen and its equipments 2.) One way is to have these screens prepared before you start to print. Page 16 . (Some books on the subject are listed later. Another way is to remake or revise the original screen for each colour to be printed.

they all must reach a common end. pushed through their stencils onto the garment. When a design is in this type of program. . Although there are many separation programs and drawing programs with separation options.6 Computer Screen Separations: Computer separations usually are rendered from art created in a computer graphics program. most typically. Fine art or photographs can be separated by computer provided the artist has access to a largeformat scanner. 2. by mail order or through any number of different outlets. For every colour in the design different screen and another position on printing press are required. Registration guides are very important when printing with more than one colour. After all the colours have been printed on the garment.  One interesting effect can be made by having two colour prints on overlapping areas. simply divide the mesh count by four. a drum scanner. The result 17 producing spot plates. A piece of art created in a vector program is separated easily because the colour usage is controlled during the creation of the art. like PhotoShop. if we're printing a design composed of four colours. we'll require a four-color press with four screens. or curing unit. a quantity of finished garments is printed with a design. in one or more of several kinds of ink. in turn. Each with a separate squeegee. corel draw. to make the design impervious to normal washing and drying as well as normal wear and tear. at wholesale. CAD).5 Some Information: Garment screen printing is a mass-production-manufacturing method by which. preferably a program that can manipulate full-colour scanned images. will equal the highest line count that should be used. Other art can be separated with the use of a computer. it can then be introduced into the design program (in this case. 2. The artist must have an understanding of Page To calculate line counts for halftone screens. the ink colours are. or a digital camera. it is typically run through a dryer. These “overlaps” can add a third (darker). or mechanically on an automatic press. or areas of colour can be selected to create individual channels for each colour. the image should be scanned at about 300 DPI in an RGB mode and saved as a TIFF file. The decorated garments are then sold at retail. it can render process separations. For best results. Once the piece of art is converted digitally. which cures the ink. but first it must be scanned or converted digitally before it can be manipulated in a graphics program. In other words. This is done by hand on a manual press. The program will render separations per colour and will print out exactly what the artist needs.

2. Most programs offer these options on the separation screen. cross linking agents 4.  mesh counts and their effect on the press. giving the artist the option to go back and change a colour individually if the print performance is not satisfactory. 2. the colorant system used and. to some extent. An artist may choose to print out directly on vellum. 2.) possible. Best method for low yardage. 3. Dispersing agents. Image output refers to the method in which a computer prints art or separations. Binders. but some programs require the artist to incorporate the colour names and registration marks with his or her designs. For instance. However. exclusive. Slow production uneconomical for large production yardages. 2. In addition to laser jet printers. it may be printed directly from the program. or may split the channels to create individual files to be printed later. When the design is ready to be separated. One way of printing separations is on a laser jet printer. Ingredients used include: 1. the artist may be tempted to put it in a high mesh. It is important to label each colour and to make sure that each piece of film is complete with registration marks. This equipment enables the artist to print out his or her art directly onto film (and can totally replace a darkroom). Acceptable to all woven and knitted constructions. The program creates individual files for each colour. Rapid preparation of screen and pattern change over is possible. the printer will require a mesh in a lower count. 3. 4.9 The Printing Paste Requirements: Types of specific formulation used depend on the fibre. Thickeners 3. samples. an image setter may be used to output separations.surfactants Page 18 . which exposes well. 5. limited quantity designs. 2. Lengthwise stripe designs not possible. if that same colour also consists of large. Large repeat sizes (upto120 in. Half tone designs not possible. when a fade is needed in a design. or on paper. open print areas. The artist must type each colour name in its own colour and colour the registration marks with the "registration" colour option.8 Disability or disadvantages: 1. which is then shot by a camera to render the films. Ability to print cut garment parts and small items. Dyes or pigments 2.7 Important Features and advantages: 1. the type of printing machine.

Catalysts 9. in which the colorant is carried. but is mainly determined by the need to keep the print ‘smart’. having a sharp printed mark. Defoamers 8. of a print paste. so that at high speeds the time is often too short for total transfer to occur. These are questions that. as high-speed drying is necessary. and the incorporation of viscosity-increasing protective colloids helps in this respect. It affects the amounts of paste applied as well as the spread of paste. in the past. The lower limit also depends on the process . Highly viscous pastes flow slowly. Even at low speeds. The appearance of the print will be unsatisfactory if only the high spots of the fabric surface are coloured and those parts of the yarn surfaces that are visible. but which lie at a lower level. There are two essential reasons for the importance of the viscosity. and only in exceptional cases has it been possible to print dry colorant. No separation of insoluble components must occur. have been answered on the basis of experience rather than of scientific understanding. Finally. and hence the flow. In practice. more rapidly evaporated no aqueous solvents have been used. and the spaces between fibres – Page 19 surface and the conditions of the printing process. dispersing and fixing agents. the liquid is usually aqueous but in paper printing. experience alone is inadequate and understanding is required. The use of pressure helps in this respect. Hand modifiers All the different methods of printing normally require a liquid vehicle. therefore. in addition to the colorants. on the surface of the textile material and into its structure. appropriate amounts of thickening agents must be used. how it can be measured and how to achieve the required viscous properties. All textile substrates are assemblies of fibres. Adhesion promoters 7. the paste in an engraved roller is completely transferred to the fabric pressed against the roller only if there is time for it to flow into the fabric structure. If only a small volume of viscous paste is applied it may not spread to cover all the fibres of the threedimensional fabric surface. and may be soluble or insoluble. as the viscosity of the print paste must be suitable for the method to be employed and the substrate to be printed. The components of the liquid printing paste must include all necessary wetting. transfer is viscosity-dependent.  5. but the amount of pressure must be controlled for other reasons. For example. are left uncoloured. Water-retaining agents (humectants) 6. that is. In textile printing. the upper limit of the viscosity is determined by the flatness of the fabric conditions. but with the availability of new materials and the need for improved productivity and reproducibility. ‘Viscosity’ is a key word in this chapter and we have to consider why it is important.

Branched chain polymers require higher concentrations to give the required viscosity but are less sensitive to shear. The types of thickening agents used are: (1) Naturally occurring carbohydrates such as guar and locust bean gum. A colloidal Page 20 and acrylic esters disperse in water but remain insoluble. These dissolve or disperse in water to give viscous pastes. This may then stand for some time before gradually heating.1 Thickeners Chemicals used as thickeners Viscous pastes used for textile printing usually consist of either solutions of high molecular weight polymers or emulsions of immiscible liquids. It is clear.9. cellulose and starch derivatives and alginates from seaweed. Slightly cross linked copolymers of acrylic acid derivatives ammonia. The negative charges of the anionic emulsifier molecules adsorbed on the surfaces of the droplets prevent their coalescence. Before considering in more detail the flow requirements of ideal pastes. the carboxylic acid groups dissociate forming the carboxylate anion and the hydrophobic polymer chains uncoil because of the repulsion of the negative charges. and indeed desirable. On addition of an alkali such as . The powdered carbohydrate is rapidly dispersed in water before any significant swelling of the particles can occur. if required. Their preparation from the solid carbohydrate requires considerable care. a typical emulsion thickener has about 70% white spirit (petroleum distillate boiling at 150–200 °C) in water. it is important to recognise that the choice of materials for the production of viscous pastes will affect not only paste flow but also colour yield. therefore. (3) Solutions of synthetic polymers. because of their physical and chemical properties. Liquids that wet the fibres are drawn by capillarity along these spaces. (2) Emulsions of oil in water. As a precaution. 2. and the smartness of the print is lost if the viscosity is not high enough to control the spread. Unbranched polymers give viscous solutions at low concentrations but the viscosity falls with increasing shear.  especially where three fibres are parallel and in contact – have the dimensions and properties of capillaries. In textile printing. but that the extent must be controlled. the final paste is often strained. Some knowledge of these properties is therefore desirable. These emulsions consist of small droplets of oil dispersed in water. that some spread of print paste is inevitable. Both components are volatile and leave no residue after drying. This avoids the formation of gummy lumps in the paste. The chemicals used belong to various chemical classes.

aided by the capillary forces drawing the paste between and into the fibres.9. The ammonia is lost during drying. The film of natural thickener left after drying ensures that the printed dyes do not rub off before fixation. Mixtures of different thickening agents are often used to give printing pastes with the desired characteristics. drying is faster and the lower amount of natural thickener results in a higher colour yield. In addition. Its compatibility with such dyes is greater in the presence of other types of thickeners that do not precipitate with polyvalent metal ions. Emulsion thickeners are often mixed with carbohydrate pastes to give so-called ‘half emulsions’. the paste viscosity. it must promote transfer of an adequate volume of paste onto the fabric.3 Surface Active Agent Surface active agents enable the emulsification of the thickener with the hydrocarbon to form a printing paste of uniform consistency. The polymer does not dissolve completely because of the cross links between the polymer chains. 2. This is due to the absence of primary hydroxyl groups and to the repulsion of dye anions by the ionised carboxyl groups of the polymer under alkaline conditions. Many suppliers provide pre-prepared paste components. The hydrodynamic pressure developed must be sufficient to fill the screen holes with paste and. the screen hole size and the screen speed.2 Alginates: Sodium alginates have become very important for print paste thickening because of their ready solubility. The resistance to flow is a consequence of the size of the polymer molecules and the large numbers of water molecules held on their surface solvating the carboxylate groups. even after high-temperature fixation treatments. There must be no passage of paste through the screen before or after the actual printing transfer. The flow of the paste through the open holes in the screen onto the fabric relaxes this pressure. The hydrodynamic pressure developed is a function of the squeegee blade angle. polyacrylic acid is sensitive to high concentrations of metal ions often found in many dyes.  solution results with a substantial increase in viscosity.9. Surface active agent reduces surface tension. less white spirit is needed. the squeegee compresses the paste between the blade and the screen developing a hydrodynamic pressure. The final paste invariably contains a considerable number of chemicals. The final print paste is usually a blend of two pre-prepared components.10 Fundamentals of viscosity In screen printing. They are especially important for pastes of reactive dyes because the extent of interaction is very small. 2. 2. Page 21 . the dyes having been mixed into one of them. rather than the pressure applied to the squeegee. For example.

The cost of the thickener and the costs associated with its removal from the fabric should be as low as possible. (3) The colour yield of the printed area. Dye diffusion into the fibres is easier from thin synthetic polymer films with low solids content. During fixation. the film of residual thickening agent is usually washed from the fabric. the dyes should have little or no substantivity for the polymeric thickening agent used. Many print pastes contain naturally occurring thickening agents that provide nutrients for bacterial growth. They are therefore excluded. The hydroxyl groups in most carbohydrate gums react with reactive dyes. (5) The cost of the thickening agent. A film of reasonable flexibility and adhesion ensures that it can withstand the mechanical handling required for drying and steaming without flaking off the fabric. .10. the film must be completely transparent and not cause undue stiffness of the fabric. anionic polymers are rarely compatible with and readily coagulate in the presence of cationic dyes or multivalent metal ions from hard water or added chemicals. (2) The adhesion and flexibility of the printed paste film. This process depends on the thickener. Thus. Compatibility of thickeners with respect to the added dyes and chemicals is critical. This is partly determined by the paste viscosity. particularly on storage. the dye must diffuse into the fibres from the film of paste that has swollen in the steam. In those cases where the thickener or binder remains on the printed fabric. Obviously.  2. The colour yield also depends on the extent of penetration of the print paste into the fabric structure. (4) The ease of removal of the residual film of paste remaining on the fabric after fixation. The film of paste must not mark off onto a screen or roller printing another colour. These include: (1) The print paste stability. After printing. Page 22 (6) The environmental impact of thickeners in the effluent leaving the print works.1 Characteristics of print pastes The choice of thickener in a print paste determines not only the paste viscosity but also a number of other essential factors. Addition of some anti-bacterial preservative avoids bacterial contamination.

cloth. plastic. etc. paper.  3. Most screen printing today is performed by semi or fully automatic screen press machines at rates of up to 5. The ink is then forced through the screen by the squeegee pushing the ink in front of it. CONCLUSION Screen printing. also known as serigraphy. No other printing process is as versatile as screen printing. Machines for screen printing use the inside of the screen frame to act as the ink storage area. wood. It can print on almost any surface. Ink is applied to the screen and pushed through the open mesh areas with a rubber or plastic squeegee to produce an image.000 or more prints per hour. is a method of applying ink to a surface through a stencil supported on a fine mesh of synthetic fibres or metal threads stretched tightly over a frame. glass. Page 23 . including: metal. Manual screen printing machines are used for some work such as limited runs or when printing very thin or very thick pieces. The stencil provides a means to determine where the ink will be allowed to pass through the mesh to create an image on the surface to be printed.

800. Seventh Edition by J. By A. www.com • 1. QC. 6. Queens College Billie J. Textile Printing. All rights reserved.basantkothari .speedballart. AKIRA IWATA and INES V.898. Fifth Edition. J1K 2R1. Screen Printing Booklet by free news. Faculté de génie. la. Textile Science by E. J.com 10.7224 Speedball® 9. DAVID REID. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. Sherbrooke. 3. UK 4. Vilensky 11. Manchester. Department of Textiles.G. Collier. Printing by Basant Kothari. Hall. 7.  4. Pizzuto’s Page 24 . Basic Principles of Textile Coloration Author: Arthur D Broadbent Professor. Screen Printing Instruction Booklet www. BIBLIOGRAPHIES 1. Understanding Textiles. Tortora. Printing of Mercerized Cloth with Reactive Dyes By J. . 5.New Orleans. copyrighted 2003 by Creative Science #SCR7 8. Fabric Science. L. University of Manchester.P. Département de génie chimique. Author: Phyllis G. The Standard Handbook of Textiles. Gohl. Lovisiana State University.J. Revised Second Edition Edited by Leslie W C Miles Formerly Lecturer in Textile Chemistry. deGRUY Southern Regional Research Laboratory. Institute of Science and Technology.D. Université de Sherbrooke. 8th Edition. Canada (Page No: 493) 2.

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