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2010

Current Affairs
December 06

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. CPI leader D Raja. Pakistan judicial panel may be allowed to visit India The government may allow a Judicial Commission from Pakistan to record and verify the statements of judicial and investigating officers who had recorded the confessional statement of Ajmal Kasab. The Prevention of Torture Bill. Data compiled by the state Home Department upto November 2010 revealed that there were 131 hartals and 134 processions and demonstrations sponsored by separatists in the state this year. the data revealed. In 2009. while in 2008 there were 15 protest demonstrations and 33 hartals. according to statistics of the state's Home Department.Jammu. Kashmir and Ladakh.NATIONAL NEWS Resume composite dialogue with Pak: delegation A the 11-member 'fact-finding' delegation to Kashmir consisting of parliamentarians and civil society activists favoured resumption of composite dialogue with Pakistan and talks with separatist leaders in the Valley to resolve the Kashmir issue. Inhuman. there were only 45 such demonstrations and processions and 35 days of strike. was passed by the Lok Sabha in May but was referred to a Rajya Sabha Select Committee following concerns expressed over certain inadequacies in the draft legislation. that seeks to provide punishment for torture inflicted by public servants. Parliamentary panel recommends compensation for torture victims Victims of torture inflicted by public servants may be eligible to get compensation from their tormentors if the suggestions of a Parliamentary panel on the Prevention of Torture Bill are accepted and turned into law. Four-fold increase in separatist sponsored strikes in J&K There has been an almost four-fold increase this year in the strikes and protest demonstrations called by separatist organisations in Jammu and Kashmir. who is part of the delegation pressed for “a meaningful dialogue process in which all the issues should be dealt bilaterally” and also underscored the need for simultaneous comprehensive talks process with the leadership of Jammu and Kashmir including the separatists while taking into consideration the interests of the state's three regions -. the lone surviving terrorist of the Mumbai terror attacks. The Select Committee on the Bill has also fine-tuned the definition of the torture to bring it in line with the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel. and Degrading Treatment or Punishment.

the impeachment issue cannot be taken up in this session which is concluding on December 13. both Houses needed to dispose of the impeachment issue in the same session after the proceedings are initiated. India has sought clarifications on the law under which the commission will be set up and its composition. Even if some immediate rapprochement is arrived at between the government and the opposition over the issue of JPC on the 2G spectrum scam. The official website of the CBI was hacked by the 'Pakistani Cyber Army' on the intervening night of December 3 and 4. Delhi to have brain-mapping and narco-analysis units According to sources in Home ministry. The move will also reduce dependence on outside agencies. Pakistan wanted to send the commission because its laws do not allow for examination through video-conferencing. Officials said the government would then inform Pakistan of its decision. Hacking of CBI website raises question over safety The recent hacking of CBI's website by a group called 'Pakistani Cyber Army' has raised questions over the safety regulations of servers provided by National Informatics Centre. at least for the time being. With barely a week left for the winter session to conclude without transacting any substantive business. The reply is expected early this week. . the process of impeachment of Sen is now likely to begin only in the budget session. Pakistan had mooted that a commission be sent to India to strengthen the case against its nationals arrested for involvement in the Mumbai terror attacks. the Central Forensic Science Laboratory of the CBI has initiated the process of setting up brain-mapping and narco-analysis units in its laboratory to speed up criminal investigation and to cater to the needs of investigation agencies. The CBI had yesterday registered a case against unknown persons in this connection. sources in the security establishment say that the safety mechanism of the NIC was not up to the mark and several reminders were being sent to them for upgrading their hardware. While the NIC maintains a studied silence over the entire issue. It was also made clear that no crossexamination would take place.The government had written to the Bombay High Court seeking its opinion on this aspect. This was because as per the rules. nature and scope. Parliamentary deadlock delays Sen impeachment process The stalemate in Parliament has put the process of impeachment of Justice Soumitra Sen on the backburner. the organisation responsible for maintaining government servers.

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Already three such meetings have taken place on issues related to adolescents.Planning Commission seeks inputs from NGOs. • • • • . Similarly. by asking them to identify the challenges and areas that require special focus. children. Muslims and disabled. After the consultations. women's issues and migrants/displaced people in Chennai. suggestions and experiences. which would be utilised in the drafting of the new Plan. for preparing its approach paper for the 12th Five Year Plan that will cover the duration of 2012-17. conflict. a report would be submitted to the Planning Commission incorporating all the inputs. and on urban poor in Nagpur. The Planning Commission had also asked civil society groups to hold 15 consultations across India on various social issues and issues relating to marginalised groups. the elderly in Mumbai. Delhi will hold meetings on issues related to youth. Dalits. More such consultations are expected to follow this month. on tribal issues at Tilda in Raipur (Chhattisgarh). These include issues related to North-East at Shillong. this is the first time that the Planning Commission has sought engagement of the civil society. so that the Plan document will be more holistic in nature. social groups for 12th Plan • The Planning Commission has invited leading non-governmental organisations and civic society. to share their inputs. and transgenders. Though NGOs were involved in previous Five Year Plans.

” However. I think India along with Pakistan.INTERNATIONAL NEWS IAEA agrees to create international nuclear fuel bank. I request the knowledgeable members to throw light on the usage of the term. According to the plan passed at the IAEA board meeting. France. the United Kingdom. the agency (IAEA) will be the owner of the LEU in the bank. The fuel bank plan was adopted last week by the IAEA governing body. Russia. the plan has met opposition from Nonaligned countries such as Brazil. India voted for the resolution. which will be located in one or more Member States that is prepared to act as a host state. The latest IAEA resolution. • • • • • • • • . North Korea.where it is prepared to supplement international efforts for sustainable growth of nuclear energy while addressing proliferation concerns. visualizes a role of a supplier nation . North Korea and Israel are called SWN (States with Nuclear Weapons) vis-à-vis NWS (Nuclear Weapon States) which include United States. and is unable to secure supply from the commercial market. This means India. India made it clear in its explanation of vote at Vienna that “the right of any member state to carry out research and development on nuclear fuel cycles for peaceful purposes should not be affected by these arrangements. They worry that a nuclear fuel bank could undermine their right to acquire their own nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. does not require recipient countries to abjure enrichment activities of their own. Egypt and South Africa. unlike 2009 Russian proposal on fuel bank. will be ineligible to draw on the bank.S. Some countries are also concerned with the possibility of fuel supply being controlled by western powers and used for political purposes. The plan says LEU from the IAEA LEU bank will be supplied to Member States that experience a nuclear fuel supply disruption due to exceptional circumstances. presumably. which is intended to provide fuel to countries accepting full scope safeguards — international inspections — on all their nuclear activities. India with well established high-level capabilities over the entire fuel cycle and a sizeable pool of highly qualified and trained manpower. So will Pakistan and Israel and. Nevertheless. along with the five “official” nuclear weapons states as defined by the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty. India visualizes a supplier role • The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approved on Friday an U. of which India is a member. and China. until it reverses its withdrawal from the NPT. proposal on the establishment of a Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Bank run by the agency.

France. South Africa. Taiwan. United Kingdom. or were believed to have had. Meena Raman of the Third World Network said that key issues such as mitigation targets were being discussed in these informal sessions. then to achieve the same results later will mean much higher costs. Libya. Israel. "If we delay mitigation action. though he remained optimistic about "significant progress" at the ongoing meet. IPCC chief warns against delaying mitigation action As the slow-moving talks on combating climate change enter their final stretch at Cancun. Russia. NGOs suspicious of ''green room'' diplomacy at climate talks Non-governmental organisations have expressed concern over "green room" talks on mitigation related issues here at the climate change meeting among a select group of countries like the US. Brazil. "It doesn't make economic or social sense to delay action. and Pakistan: These states are not members of the NPT and possess nuclear weapons. active nuclear weapons programs. top UN scientist R K Pachauri has warned governments against delaying mitigation action. a UN scientific body underlined that negotiators had to keep science at the forefront and warned that delaying climate action would keep ratcheting up the costs.Nuclear Weapon States • Nuclear Weapons States China. China and Japan. North Korea: These states have taken steps in the recent past to acquire nuclear weapons. while more technical aspects . and United States: These states have declared their nuclear weapons program and are recognized under the NPT as a nuclear weapons state. Belarus. • States of Concern Iran. India. R K Pachuari who heads the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). These states went on to renounce-some voluntarily and some through force-such activities. • Non-NPT Nuclear Weapons States India." he said. • States that Have Renounced Nuclear Weapons Argentina. Kazakhstan. and Ukraine: The states in this category had. Iraq. South Korea.

said "Text based negotiations are not happening and you have other kinds of forums that are taking place" referring to the negotiating texts that delegates are supposed to follow. NGOs. said that there was nothing wrong in holding informal consultations with their counterparts as it was easier to flesh out differences and speak freely in smaller settings and clarified that no secret draft was being prepared at these "green room" meetings. Bichnakandi. the second leg would comprise central government representatives. with regular reports back to the full membership. which are not listed in the daily programme of work available to the public. extra efforts are made to ensure that the process is handled correctly. So. and can be called by the minister chairing the conference as well as the director-general. It is used to refer to meetings of 20–40 delegations. The decision for the joint verification is expected to resolve the nagging disputes over the border areas like Dibir haor. While the initial phase of the verification would be carried out by Meghalaya government officials. Joint survey of disputed Indo-Bangla border from tomorrow • A joint survey of the disputed Indo-Bangladesh border in Meghalaya will begin on December 7 and is expected to pave the way for fencing of certain patches of the boundary. Sonarhat. however. beginning at the Sylhet-Meghalaya border. usually at the level of heads of delegations. Sripur. will be conducted by the Land Records departments of Bangladesh and Meghalaya in at least 31 patches. Tamabil. In the past delegations have sometimes felt that Green Room meetings could lead to compromises being struck behind their backs. What is “Green Room”? Tippani explains The “Green Room” is a phrase taken from the informal name of the director-general’s conference room. Delegates here. Protappur and Lalakhal in Sylhet with the Indian state of Meghalaya. These meetings can take place elsewhere. such as at Ministerial Conferences.such as a "Monitoring Reporting and Verification" were being left for the official channels. Raman questioning the non-transparency. insist that even the existence of such a group is reminiscent of backdoor dealings that were detrimental to negotiations during Copenhagen. The verification. • • . however.

Myanmar pro-junta party thanks voters Myanmar's main military-backed political party has thanked citizens for voting overwhelmingly in its favor in last month's elections. Official final results have yet to be released. France to sign pact on two nuclear reactors The agreement between the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. . NKorea lambasts SKorea's new defense chief North Korea lambasted South Korea's new defense chief today for threatening to launch air strikes against the North and accused the South of causing "uncontrollable. only 248 km has been completed. Areva. "Bangladesh government has been objecting to the fencing in these patches as the proposed alignment of the fencing is within 150 yards from zero line. Work is in progress in another 123 km. (NPCIL) and the French nuclear vendor. such as the US government. and instead manipulated to ensure that the military's allies would win. The Union Solidarity and Development Party.650-MWe French nuclear reactors at Jaitapur in Maharashtra With the final negotiating obstacles having been crossed. The Indian side impressed upon their Bangladeshi counterparts that a "single channel" fence would be erected instead of the double barbed fence and that too not close to the zero line. Opponents as well as outside critics of the junta. The fencing cannot be erected at 150 yards due to terrain constraints. So far. will be signed here today for the construction of two 1. in a half-page advertisement in the state-run Myanma Ahlin newspaper yesterday. said the vote was neither free nor fair." a BSF official said. said it had won 882 of a total 1154 seats at stake in the Nov 7 polls. But there have been objections either from Meghalaya or from Bangladesh in the remaining stretches. leading to fleeing of locals. the first in two decades.• Border guards of both the countries have been locked in gun battles time and again on those frontiers over possession of the stretches. India and France will sign a framework agreement today in the presence of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and French President Nicolas Sarkozy. extreme" tension on the peninsula. out of the 571 km of the sanctioned fencing work on the Bangladesh border of Assam and Meghalaya. • • • India.

who is ranked fifth in the Chinese Communist Party politburo." Google hacking ordered by a top Chinese leader The "politically-inspired" hacking of the US-based Google that forced it to withdraw from China earlier this year was orchestrated by a top leader of the ruling Communist party after he found internet search results critical of him. said yesterday that the toll of conflict and natural disasters requires continued aid to Afghanistan in 2011.The South's Defense Minister Kim Kwan-jin told a confirmation hearing last week that jets would bomb the North if it stages another attack like the shelling on a front-line island that killed four South Koreans. the UN's Deputy Emergency Relief Coordinator. UN appeals for USD 678 million aid for Afghanistan The UN is appealing for USD 678 million for humanitarian aid to Afghanistan in 2011.. The latest round of WikiLeaks disclosures published by the UK's 'Guardian' newspaper claimed that Li Changchun. Catherine Bragg.. according to leaked American cables. . are rapidly driving the situation on the Korean peninsula to an uncontrollable extreme phase. The North's official Korean Central News Agency statement said "The frantic provocations . became hostile to Google after he searched his own name and found articles criticising him.

It hoped all sides will reach a political settlement that will eliminate fears and doubts on the nature of the dossier and bring about peace and stability in the region while guaranteeing the right of the countries of the region to use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes within the framework of international agreements under the International Atomic Energy Agency procedures.Gulf Cooperation Council summit opens today The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) summit is all set to begin at Abu Dhabi today to take a collective view on political. security. Iranian Foreign Minister has also endorsed the establishment of a fully monitored international fuel bank that could provide enriched uranium for atomic power plants. This called for the establishment of the international CGPCS to enhance the co-ordination of information. On Iran’s nuclear efforts. The contact group established four working groups focusing on areas including: • • • operational coordination and regional capability development judicial frameworks industry self-protection . he said. security and social issues of the sixmember States. Iran was not developing atomic weapons and in principle stood opposed to all forms of weapons of mass destruction. military and other issues to the Supreme Council. Qatar. The ministers also discussed the draft of the final statement and decided to submit it to the Supreme Council for the leaders' approval. Founded in 1981. Oman. the Council hailed the international efforts aimed at solving Iranian nuclear crisis through diplomatic means. The six states together hold around 45 percent of the global oil reserves and contribute 16 million barrels of crude oil daily. Saudi Arabia and the UAE. International response to Pirate attacks and Maritime Security Tippani Backgrounder CGPCS (Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia) The UK supported UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1851 adopted by the Security Council on 16 December 2008. The Summit is being hosted by the United Arab Emirates under its President Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan and the Foreign Ministers' 117th ministerial meet on Sunday night is expected to have submitted their recommendations relevant to political. the GCC groups Bahrain. In his remarks at the annual security conference in Bahrain. nearly three decades after it came into being. economic. economic. Kuwait.

Japan and India amongst others. However. narcotics and smuggling operations.• effective communications to the Somali and regional populations (including the Somali diaspora) The UK chairs Working Group 1 on operational coordination and regional capacity development. working closely with EUNAVFOR. CMF established a specific counter piracy mission. The CGPCS supports regional counter-piracy capability development (including within Somalia as security permits. EU. Russia. ensuring multi-national deconfliction of activity and cooperation. complementing immediate military action against pirates. The UK supported an enhanced role for NATO in counter piracy operations off the Horn of Africa. International Maritime Organisation and the US. . NATO. SHADE (Shared Awareness and Deconfliction) The EU and CMF co-chair the military coordination mechanism known as SHADE (Shared Awareness and Deconfliction) which brings together EU. The UK led assessment work involving international partners such as the UN. CMF and other national contributions. Combined Task Force 151. due to the rise in piracy attacks. CMF (Combined Maritime Forces) The CMF is a 23 nation coalition established originally to conduct Counter Terrorism. working towards shared taskings in the near future. assessing the requirements of regional partners. and CMF with China. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) NATO has contributed a Standing NATO Maritime Group (SNMG) to the counter-piracy effort off Somalia though Operation Allied Provider and Operation Allied Protector. where most of the pirates are based) as the medium/long-term solution. in this case Standing NATO Maritime Groups. notably in the region of Puntland. NATO's contribution is complementary to the efforts of international actors in the region and that forces for NATO's counter piracy activity is drawn from existing resources.

REGIONAL NEWS Over 400 structures identified as heritage in Goa The Rajiv Yaduvanshi Committee. officials said. who had been going through one crisis after another in his two years in power. who recently emerged triumphant after BJP leadership decided to allow him to continue after toying with the idea of directing him to step down in the wake of charges of nepotism in land denotifications. The chief minister. Currently. Yeddyurappa. performed 'Sathru Samhara Yagam' to ward off troubles from detractors at the Lord Subramanyaswamy temple in Tiruchendur in Tuticorin district yesterday. including 107 Catholic churches and 17 temples. temples. both state-run district hospitals. constructed during the Portuguese regime. The list also includes Azilo and Hospicio hospital buildings. BSY seeks divine help to ward off detractors Facing opposition onslaught over alleged land scams. Goa has 51 notified structures under state Archaeology Department and 22 under Archaeological Survey of India. who sought divine blessings by taking part in a yagna at a Tamil Nadu temple. temple sources said. . told reporters that he performed the yagna "for the welfare of people. asserted that he will complete his tenure. constituted by Govt of Goa has recommended that as many as 434 structures. an island. The list includes churches. water springs. be added to the list of heritage monuments in the state. hospital buildings. Karnataka Chief Minister B S Yeddyurappa. caves and other monuments recommended for preservation after classifying them under three different categories.

10 lakh employment opportunities. The gems and jewellery produced 0. The quarterly surveys were carried immediately after the onset of recession in October 2008. LIC Managing Director .400 crore by churning its portfolio. between September last year and September this year. which the airline is seeking from US aircraft maker Boeing for the inordinate delay in the delivery of Boeing 787 Dreamliners.000 crore.37 lakh jobs while the automobiles sector generated 1. country's largest insurer Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) plans to pump in about Rs 61. According to a survey conducted by the Labour Bureau. Air India had placed orders for 111 aircraft at an investment of over 13-billion with Airbus and Boeing in 2006 to replace its ageing fleet and leased planes. This was followed by the metals sector which created 1.BUSINESS/FINANCE/ECONOMICS LIC to invest 61.Thomas Mathew AI finalises USD 840mn compensation from Boeing State-run Air India is finalising a USD 840-million compensation package.96 lakh during the last one year with the IT/BPO sector generating maximum employment opportunities.93 lakh jobs. but Boeing failed to supply those planes by the scheduled time.000 crore in the equity market during this fiscal.91 lakh people had lost their jobs in its aftermath. which had said about 4. according to sources. This year till mid-October it has earned Rs 12. Air India Chairman and Managing Director . Air India had ordered 27 Dreamliners. IT/BPO top list The overall employment figure in the country rose by 12. ISI ties up with London School of Economics .52 lakh jobs being created during this period. Increase in exposure to equity market secondary or primary market would depend on market conditions.Arvind Jadhav 13 lakh new jobs created in 2009. under Ministry of Labour. The Compensation package would be a mix of both discount in services and cash.54 lakh employment opportunities while the textiles sector generated the second highest employment opportunity at 1. LIC had garnered a total profit of Rs 9. Last year.000 crore in equity market this fiscal Unfazed by controversy surrounding its housing finance arm. the IT/BPO sector generated 8.

has promised an additional capital infusion of . on its part. respectively. What is worse. Some enterprising Indians are already leasing land in Africa and South America for growing pulses and exporting it back to India. silver. India is likely to harvest a record 16. rather than decreasing. rather than financial. Today. The RBI has been tweaking liquidity periodically by offering additional support under its liquidity adjustment facility. Chairman of ISI Council and finance minister Pranab Mukherjee said. faster growth in credit (22% year-on-year) relative to deposits (15%) has led to a severe resource crunch for banks. Government to facilitate land buying abroad for growing pulses In order to meet the domestic demand. the country has about 23 million hectares of land under pulses cultivation that produces about 14-15 million tonnes of pulses annually. But it holds 54% of its savings in relatively unproductive physical form — land. assets. Yet the RBI governor was drawing attention to increasing the savings rate and channelling savings to investment? The reason is that a substantial share of domestic savings is held in the form of physical. Mythili Bhusnurmath’s case for deregulating savings bank interest rates Few excerpts • • • Indian households save more than other emerging markets like China (15%) or Brazil (5%) and 2% for Britain and 1% for the US. whereby entities can share resources and software on-demand through the internet.5 million tonne pulses this year. the government will act as a facilitator for private industry to buy land abroad to grow pulses if the private players show interest in this. according to research group Gartner. The shortage of about 23 million tonnes is met through imports. Food and Agriculture Minister Sharad Pawar said yesterday at 6th Agriwatch the Global Pulses Summit in New Delhi. The collaboration's central objective is to produce demand driven research outputs relevant to India's long term growth and to strengthen the capacity of India's policy think tanks. this ratio seems to be increasing. over the years. The household sector is the main contributor to our high savings rate. gold. Global cloud computing market to be worth USD30bn The global market for the 'transformational' cloud computing technology is expected to be worth over USD 30 billion (around Rs 1. At present.Country’s premier statistical and economic research boday Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) has entered into an agreement with London School of Economics for promoting research on economic growth. Cloud computing refers to the technology. Government. (accounting for as much as 70% of gross domestic savings at the end of March 2008-09).35 lakh crore) in the next four years.

Competition does not necessarily mean higher interest rates as rates are a function of market conditions. banks will get stable funds at a far lower cost than in the case of fixed deposits. A longer-term solution to the resource crunch would be increase the flow of household savings into banks by deregulating the interest rate.000 crore into government banks. more funds. But these are at best temporary sops. How would this help? For one.• • • • • Rs. 6. It could be a win-win for both banks and customers. Fears that deregulation would inevitably push up interest costs for banks and thereby affect bank profitability adversely are unfounded. Customers will have more choice and banks. increased competition among banks would lead to product innovation and make the humble savings bank deposit a far more sought-after investment avenue for households. banks could design separate products for customers who want to have savings (with liquidity and ease of operations) as opposed to those who are looking mainly at ease of transactions. For instance. it would still be lower than in the case of fixed deposit funds so overall banks will benefit. Thus. therefore. Read full article here . In effect. Even if the cost does go up marginally. However. there would be better price discovery and as a result. possibly even resulting in more financial inclusion as banks tailor savings bank deposit accounts to customers’ needs. deregulation of interest rates on savings bank deposits will lead to deposit growth and product innovation. greater incentive for households to park their surpluses in savings bank deposits. Experience has shown the core nonvolatile portion of saving bank deposits is very high.

Harika held by Kruttika Top seed Koneru Humpy started off with an easy victory in the women's world championship opener but second highest Indian D Harika was held to a draw by compatriot Kruttika Nadig in the first game of the opening round here. where she won the gold medal. After a high at the Commonwealth Games. with the IPL Governing Council accepting the team's new ownership pattern at a crucial meeting held in Mumbai on Sunday. Saina suffered a quarterfinal loss at the Asian Games. The fourth season of the IPL gets under way on April 8.SPORTS Saina eyes Hong Kong Open The Asian Games loss did not shatter her confidence and ace shuttler Saina Nehwal said she would look to end the season on a high when she opens her campaign against local player Tsz Ka Chan in the Hong Kong Super Series in Wanchai today. 2011. Women’s World Championship Venue – Hatay. Chess: Humpy beats Melissa Greeff. . Turkey Kochi to be a part of 2001 IPL The Kochi franchisee will be part of the fourth edition of the Indian Premier League (IPL).

. Synonyms .uh-MEEL-yuh-rayt 1. remedy. 2. awkwardness. . or interference: a manuscript deemed sacrosanct. To make better. measure.VOCAB BUILDER ameliorate pronounced . 3. a tendency to think favorably of something in particular. better. an act. that is socially graceless. or tactless. To grow better. lack of social grace. preference: a predilection for capitalism. 2. 1. crudeness. partiality.pronounced ef-i-key-shuhs capable of having the desired result or effect.amend. predilection . sensitivity. Sacrosanct .pronounced goh-shuh-REE 1. above or beyond criticism. extremely sacred or inviolable: a sacrosanct chamber in the temple. tactlessness.pronounced pred-l-ek-shuhn. awkward. etc. movement. not to be entered or trespassed upon: She considered her home office sacrosanct. gaucherie . Antonyms . or acuteness. change. effective as a means. 2.pronounced sak-roh-sangkt 1. etc. efficacious .: The medicine is efficacious in stopping a cough. to improve.worsen.