Should we really care for the greatest actors of the past could we have them before us?

Should we find them too different from our accent of thought, of feeling, of speech, in a thousand minute particulars which are of the essence of all three? Dr. Doran's 5 long and interesting records of the triumphs of Garrick, and other less familiar, but in their day hardly less astonishing, players, do not relieve one of the doubt. Garrick himself, as sometimes happens with people who have been the subject of much anecdote and other conversation, here as elsewhere, bears no very distinct 10 figure. One hardly sees the wood for the trees. On the other hand, the account of Betterton, "perhaps the greatest of English actors," is delightfully fresh. That intimate friend of Dryden, Tillatson, Pope, who executed a copy of the actor's portrait by Kneller which is still extant, was worthy of their friendship; 15 his career brings out the best elements in stage life. The stage in these volumes presents itself indeed not merely as a mirror of life, but as an illustration of the utmost intensity of life, in the fortunes and characters of the players. Ups and downs, generosity, dark fates, the most delicate goodness, have nowhere 20 been more prominent than in the private existence of those devoted to the public mimicry of men and women. Contact with the stage, almost throughout its history, presents itself as a kind of touchstone, to bring out the bizarrerie, the theatrical tricks and contrasts, of the actual world. Adapted from an essay by W H Pater

1. In the expression “One hardly sees the wood for the trees”, the author apparently intends the word trees to be analogous to A. features of Doran’s language style B. details learned from oral sources C. personality of a famous actor D. detail’s of Garrick’s life E. stage triumphs of an astonishing player 2. The doubt referred to in line 7 concerns whether A. the stage personalities of the past would appeal on a personal level to people like the author B. their contemporaries would have understood famous actors

C. the acting of famous stage personalities would appeal to us today D. Garrick was as great as he is portrayed E. historical records can reveal personality

3. Information supplied in the passage is sufficient to answer which of the following questions? I Who did Doran think was probably the best English actor? II What did Doran think of Garrick? III Would the author give a definite answer to the first question posed in the passage? A. I only B. II only C. I and III only D. II and III only E. I, II and III
A sanctuary may be defined as a place where Man is passive and the rest of Nature active. Till quite recently Nature had her own sanctuaries, where man either did not go at all or only as a tool-using animal in comparatively small numbers. But now, in 5 this machinery age, there is no place left where man cannot go with overwhelming forces at his command. He can strangle to death all the nobler wild life in the world to-day. To-morrow he certainly will have done so, unless he exercises due foresight and self-control in the mean time. 10 There is not the slightest doubt that birds and mammals are now being killed off much faster than they can breed. And it is always the largest and noblest forms of life that suffer most. The whales and elephants, lions and eagles, go. The rats and flies, and all mean parasites, remain. This is inevitable 15 in certain cases. But it is wanton killing off that I am speaking of to-night. Civilized man begins by destroying the very forms of wild life he learns to appreciate most when he becomes still more civilized. The obvious remedy is to begin conservation at an earlier stage, when it is easier and better 20 in every way, by enforcing laws for close seasons, game preserves, the selective protection of certain species, and sanctuaries.

parasites have an important role to play in the regulation of populations B. these insects have been introduced to the area by human activities E. unhelpful D. But. part of a speech delivered to an educated audience . and by finding antidotes for diseases like the epidemic which periodically kills off the rabbits and thus starves many of the carnivora to death. somewhat idealistic C. part of an article in a scientific journal B. even when he tries to be an earthly Providence.I have just defined a sanctuary as a place where man is passive and the rest of Nature active. the pests themselves are part of the food chain D. The author’s argument that destroying bot-flies and mosquitoes would be a beneficial action is most weakened by all of the following except A. indefensible E. Then. The author implies that his first definition of a sanctuary is A. immutable 5. totally wrong B. extracted from the minutes of a nature club C. W Wood (1911) 4. But this general definition is too absolute for any special case. like bot-flies or mosquitoes. It can be inferred that the passage is A. he can be beneficially active by destroying pests and parasites. the less he upsets the balance of Nature the better. the elimination of any species can have unpredictable effects on the balance of nature C. The mere fact that man has to 25 protect a sanctuary does away with his purely passive attitude. Adapted from: Animal Sanctuaries in Labrador. elimination of these insects would require the use of insecticides that kill a wide range of insects 6. 30 except in cases where experiment has proved his intervention to be beneficial.

The purpose of the final paragraph is A. without trespassing on that of others? And how can they provide for the public needs. in order to will. it is necessary to be free. I am no . beginning with one's self: this distinction is always very difficult to make. that is to say. Look into the motives which have induced men. from a polemical article published in a magazine 7. of government whose object is the good of the people. and only the most sublime virtue can afford sufficient illumination for it. to sum up the main points of the author’s argument B. is therefore. to suggest that man should not intervene in natural environments The first and most important rule of legitimate or popular government. a difficulty no less great than the 10 former arises — that of preserving at once the public liberty and the authority of government. to propose a program E. it is certain that if any constraint can be laid on my will. without alienating the individual property of those who are forced to contribute to 20 them? With whatever sophistry all this may be covered over.D. life and liberty of each member by the protection of all. to urge a solution to an increasingly pressing problem C. a speech delivered in a court of law E. to unite themselves still more intimately by means of civil societies: you will find no other motive than that of 15 assuring the property. As. But to follow this will it is 5 necessary to know it. to follow in everything the general will. to qualify the author’s definition of an important term D. and above all to distinguish it from the particular will. once united by their common needs in a general society. But can men be forced to defend the liberty of any one among them. as I have observed.

the persons and 30 even the lives of all its members. By what inconceivable art has a means been found of making men free by making them subject. agrees to follow the rule of law even when it is against his best interests D. and not to behave inconsistently with himself. in civil right. It is this salutary organ of the will of all which establishes. It is with this voice alone that political rulers should speak when they command. and teaches him to act according to the rules of his own judgment. of confining their will by their own admission. in which obedience is prescribed solely by necessity. The paradox in line 28 is resolved according to the author when an individual A.longer free. belongs to a society which guarantees individual liberty at all times E. Adapted from: A Discourse on Political Economy. like the first. if any one else can lay a hand on it. Jean Jacques Rousseau (1755) 1. yet nobody take upon him to command. has been removed. the 40 natural equality between men. each loses no part of his liberty but what might be hurtful to that of another? These wonders are the work of law. which would have seemed insurmountable. follows the will of the majority 2. but be the more free. for no sooner does 45 one man. respect for its inalienable authority B. and forcing them to punish themselves. This difficulty. of using in the service of the State the properties. of overcoming their refusal by that consent. It is this celestial voice which dictates to each citizen the precepts of public reason. which teaches mankind to imitate here below the unchangeable decrees of the Deity. It is to law alone that men owe justice and liberty. or rather by a divine inspiration. and confronts him face to face in the pure state of nature. without constraining and without consulting them. claim to subject another to his private will. as. and that all 35 should serve. when they act against their own will? How can it be that all should obey. behaves according to the natural rights of man and not according to imposed rules C. and that I am no longer master of my own property. setting aside the law. than he departs from the state of civil society. in apparent subjection. and yet have no masters. The author’s attitude to law in this passage is best conveyed as A. by 25 the most sublime of all human institutions. extolling its importance as a human institution . submits to the rule of law and thus is at liberty to do anything that does not harm another person B.

The only human 15 characteristic of this jaw was the wear on the two molars. In other words the creature had the jaw of an ape and the skull of Homo sapiens. the shape of the jaw bone resembled that of an ape. a few stone tools. and some animal bones. resignation to the need for its imposition on the majority D. began in 1912. who had believed that humans and the apes could be connected . Piltdown Man fulfilled a prediction made by the pioneering evolutionist Charles Darwin. On December 18 that year Charles Dawson. Scientists now date it to between 5 million and 1. acceptance of its restrictions E. The author would agree with all of the following except A. and Arthur Smith Woodward. There was no sign of prominent brow ridges or other apelike features.C. as is frequently true of hominids who eat tough or abrasive foods. had unusually thick bones. perhaps the Early Pleistocene or even the Late Pliocene. such as seeds. (In 1912 experts thought the Pliocene lasted from 1 million to 600 000 years ago. the law recognizes that all men are capable of recognizing what is in the general interest The tale of Piltdown Man.) This date was also supported by some animal bones found with Piltdown Man. all of which had been discovered on a farm near Piltdown Common in Sussex. of 5 the British Museum of Natural History. political leaders should use the law as their guide to correct leadership E. the most infamous forgery in the contentious detective story of the origins of mankind. The remains comprised nine pieces of skull.7 million years ago. the brain case was large and rounded. 10 When pieced together the skull looked distinctly human. a broken jaw with two teeth in place. The primitive stone tools found with these remains suggested a 20 remote age for Piltdown Man. individual freedom is threatened in the absence of law C. as the hominid became known. However. which were ground down flat. government must maintain its authority without unduly compromising personal liberty B. praise for its divine origin 3. Although Piltdown Man. a well-known amateur British archaeologist. announced the discovery of some amazing human fossils. 25 To most scientists of the time. justice cannot be ensured in the absence of law D.

which leaves different marks than does a stone flake or axe. as well as the animal bones. Most significantly. while in South Africa the australopithecines were being discovered. Once the forgery was exposed by modem scientific analysis the mystery was no longer where Piltdown Man came in human evolution but who was responsible for the hoax. In 1953 all the Piltdown material was tested for its authenticity. All these fossils had human-like jaws and teeth and relatively small brains in contrast to Piltdown Man's large cranium and apelike jaw. however. At this time there was little fossil evidence to contradict the idea that the brain was among the first of the human features to evolve. it was half-human in precisely the feature 30 that was then accepted as the most important difference between humans and the apes . By 1948 40 scientists knew that bones buried in the earth gradually absorb fluorine. The large brain simply did not fit with the rest of the fossil evidence.the brain. The tools. Not only was the recent age of the jaw and skull confirmed. When the Piltdown materials were tested for fluorine.genetically through a still undiscovered creature. had been 55 taken from different archaeological sites. Scientists were now very suspicious. A bone tool found with the remains had been made in recent times with a steel knife. As time went on. The older a bone. the discoverer of most of the Piltdown 60 material. there is no definite proof and the question is far from settled. the skull and jaw fragments turned out to be much younger than the Early Pleistocene animal bones with which the skull 45 had been found. Homo erectus fossils were found in 35 Java and China. II only C. the more fluorine it contains. is frequently singled out as the person responsible for this practical joke. 4. I only B. The Piltdown skull seemed distinctly human because it had I large brain II thick bones III brow ridges A. But the forger had not stopped there. with the teeth filed down 50 in a quite obvious manner to imitate wear on human teeth. but the jaw proved to be that of a modern orangutan. III only . and why? Although Dawson.

I. followed the ideas of Darwin in the face of counterevidence D. unconnected with the human remains D. the bones were not subjected to close scrutiny until considerable contradictory evidence accumulated D. I and III only E. The scientists of the time made which of the following mistakes A. The animal bones found buried with the Piltdown Man were all of the following except A. It can be inferred that it took so long to expose the forgery because A. similar fossils from other archeological sites had proved to be genuine . II and III 5. the forger was exceptionally clever making it difficult to detect the alterations B. not originally from the Piltdown site 7. incorrectly judged the size of the brain E. deliberately planted at the site E. the scientists had no reason to doubt the credibility of the team who made the discovery E. more recent than first thought C. believed that fossil discoveries would reveal much about human origins B. shown to be genuinely Pleistocene B. had preconceived ideas about what features an early hominid should have C. failed to examine other fossil evidence available at the time 6.D. reliable techniques for dating rocks did not exist until recently C.

Solomon writes: “Antidepressants are effective [against major depression] about 50 percent of the time. ECT seems to have some 25 significant impact between 75 and 90 percent of the time. quote statistics without context. especially in a country like India with its poor health infrastructure. Davar’s presentation of her position and Ms.. and it is used in pregnant women. from Andrew Solomon’s widely read. Ms. and the elderly. While this is not the place to dispute..The article “Shock therapy for mental patients will be reviewed” continues the ignorant tradition of demonizing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the media (the very use of the anachronistic and misleading phrase “shock therapy” is unwarranted) without 5 presenting the compelling reasons for its continued use. Most of the facts and quotations in the article. and ignore outright the empirically proven benefits (often 15 life-saving) of ECT in many categories of mentally-ill patients. problems with the administration of ECT.” There are. Jain. The continued use of “direct” ECT (without the use of an anesthetic) is certainly a matter of concern – and a concerted effort to implement national . and by extension Ms. What Ms. without questioning whether Davar’s presentation of 10 the issue is an unbiased and scientifically accurate one. because it does not have the systemic side effects or drug-interaction 35 problems of most medications. It would be foolish to deny that the practice is subject to abuse (as Solomon and numerous 40 Indian writers report). slow process of medication response. intensively researched. point-by-point.Davar. Jain’s repetition of it. Many patients feel substantially better within a few days of having an ECT treatment – a boon particularly striking in contrast to the long. perhaps a bit more. has done is simply cite authorities who agree with her point of view. to counter their negative 20 emphasis. highly respected book. This is shabby and irresponsible medical journalism. are simply taken from an article by Davar in “Issues in Medical Ethics”. The Noonday Demon: An Anatomy of Depression. use an abundance of negative adjectives. the sick. ECT is particularly appropriate for the severely suicidal – 30 for patients who repeatedly injure themselves and whose situation is therefore mortally urgent – because of its rapid action and high response rate. including the gratuitous final paragraph about pigs in an abattoir. indeed. I would like to quote.

criticizing the mindset of medical journalists . offering a particular authority as a counterview B. laudatory justification 3. indeed barbaric practice. determined neutrality B. qualified approval E. attacking one author’s lack of social responsibility C. The author’s makes his point primarily by A.I and III only D. Adapted from an article written by Jay Vithalani (used with permission of the author) 1. But we can 45 all do without more pieces of journalism which perpetuate the myth that ECT is a medically unjustified. wholehearted approbation D. It can be inferred that the author believes that the author of the article mentioned in the first line I fails to question her source material rigorously II includes unwarranted matter III uses an excess of pejorative terms A. III only E. The author’s attitude towards ECT is best described as a A. I and II only C. tantamount to torture. This ignorant view. mild criticism C. I only B.guidelines making “modified” ECT (using an anesthetic) mandatory is as necessary as it is laudatory. II and III 2. equally prevalent in the West as it is in India. has more to do with movies like One Flew Over The Cuckoo’s Nest than 50 with scientific fact. I.

If a man is indolent. If he is drunken. and to 20 effect a further apparent prevention by making them conceal it very anxiously. The net result suggested by the police statistics is that we inflict atrocious injuries on the 30 burglars we catch in order to make the rest take effectual precautions against detection. If he chooses to spend his wages on his beer . 35 But the thoughtless wickedness with which we scatter sentences of imprisonment is as nothing compared to the stupid levity with which we tolerate poverty as if it were either a wholesome tonic for lazy people or else a virtue to be embraced as St. my survivors hang him. but if I were to declare 15 that we must either submit to it or else repress it by seizing everyone who suffers from it and punishing them by inoculation with smallpox. It is useless to argue that even if this were true. followed by an explanation that the outrage is punishment or justice or something else that is all right. let him be poor. the alternative to adding crimes of our own to the crimes from which we suffer is not helpless submission. let him be poor. offering an objective evaluation It is exceedingly difficult to make people realize that an evil is an evil. I should be laughed at. so that instead of saving our diamonds from burglary we only greatly decrease our chances of ever getting them back. let him be poor. One would not suppose that it needed any exceptional clearness of wit to 5 recognize in this an act of diabolical cruelty. and increase our chances of being shot by the robber. If he is addicted to the fine arts or to pure science instead of to trade and finance. we seize a man and deliberately do him a malicious injury: say. a reasoned discussion of the merits and demerits of a therapy E. For instance. imprison him for years. 40 let him be poor. which it is not. Yet in the precisely parallel case of a 25 man breaking into my house and stealing my diamonds I am expected as a matter of course to steal ten years of his life. If he is not a gentleman. yet people would have sense enough to see that the deliberate propagation of smallpox was a creation of evil. or perhaps by a heated attempt to argue that we should all be robbed and murdered in our beds 10 if such senseless villainies as sentences of imprisonment were not committed daily. and must therefore be ruled out in favor of purely humane and hygienic measures. for though nobody could deny that the result would be to prevent chickenpox to some extent by making people avoid it much more carefully. Francis embraced it. Chickenpox is an evil.D. If he tries to defeat that monstrous retaliation by shooting me. But in England such a recognition provokes a stare of surprise.

somewhat inconsistently -. Let nothing be done for "the undeserving": let him be poor. censure imprisonment as a punitive measure C. if criminals were not strongly punished for their misdeeds there would be no law and order in society E. a burglar who commits murder in self defense would not be hanged 7. chicken pox and burglary are not analogous evils C. The passage is most probably intended to A. analyze the possible repercussions of social evils D. The author apparently believes that people at the time he wrote the passage were . sentences of imprisonment are given increasingly rarely E. The author’s argument about imprisonment would be most weakened by showing that A. tolerating poverty is at least as bad as inflicting punishments on criminals 6. imprisonment is not widely regarded as an act of cruelty B. continue a prior discussion of strong measures against social evils E. let 45 him be poor. make people recognize social evils in the face of deliberate obfuscation 5. imprisonment does not cause malicious injury D. serve as an introduction to a more detailed discussion of poverty B. it would be ridiculous to inoculate people suffering from chicken pox with small pox D.and his family instead of saving it up for his old age. sentences of imprisonment have little success in reducing the crime rate in society C. G B Shaw (1907) 4. most people don’t realize that by punishing offenders they are surrendering themselves to the vicious cycle of crime and punishment B. Serve him right! Also -. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would agree with all the following except A.blessed are the poor! Adapted from the introduction to Major Barbara.

. in favor of unusually harsh punishment of all offenders Evolutionary psychology takes as its starting point the uncontroversial assertion that the anatomical and physiological features of the human brain have arisen as a result of adaptations to the demands of the 5 environment over the millennia.A. anxious to take the right steps to ensure an orderly society C. inclined to consider poverty a social evil B. inconsistent in their attitude to poverty E. these psychologists make unreasonable extrapolations. However. from this reasonable point of departure. They claim that the behavior of contemporary man (in almost all its aspects) is a reflection of features of the brain that acquired their 10 present characteristics during those earliest days of our species when early man struggled to survive and multiply. too ready to judge other people unfairly D.

pseudo scientists who are the logical antecedents of evolutionary psychologists B. and 20 anything for which we need a readymade excuse. a group with inherent appeal to the followers of evolutionary psychologists C. highlight an apparently erroneous tendency in an area of social science E. Such insistence on a genetic basis for behavior negates the cultural influences and the social realities that separate us from our ancestors. evaluate a particular theory of human behavior in all its ramifications 2. The author’s primary purpose in the passage is to A. and the idea that Stone Age man is alive in our genome and dictating aspects of our behavior has gained ground in the popular imagination. The difficulty with pseudo science of this nature is just 25 this popular appeal. The author apparently believes that the journalists writing for the tabloids . but their genes would seem to be thriving. to suggestions that modern sexual behavior is dictated by realities of Pleistocene life. argue for the superiority of a particular viewpoint B. repression. The author mentions phrenologists as A. scientists with whom evolutionary psychologists share common assumptions E. These suggestions have a 15 ready audience. for example. People are eager to accept what is printed as incontrovertible. that anything printed has bona fide antecedents.This unwarranted assumption leads. assuming quite without foundation. The tabloids repeatedly run articles about “discoveries” relating to “genes” for aggression. depression. a warning against blind acceptance of ideas D. The phrenologists are no more. 1. ridicule a particular branch of science D. behavioral scientists who have spawned a variety of wrong ideas 3. attack the popular press C. We would do well to remember that the phrenologists of the nineteenth century held sway for a considerable time in the absence of 30 any evidence that behavioral tendencies could be deduced from the shape of the skull.

and has almost managed to make the understanding of chemical reactions as dull 10 and as dogmatic an affair as the reading of Virgil's Aeneid. believe that human behavior has a genetic basis C. too. and at the same time teaches him how to think logically and inductively by studying scientific method. that is. the whole thing is palpably 25 a farce. the best we can expect is the production of a . The professional schoolmaster was a match for both of them. A certain limited success has been reached in the first of these aims. it is necessary that the pupils not only do not learn scientific method but learn precisely the reverse. are more concerned with popular appeal than with authenticity B. whether it seems nonsense to them or 30 not. So. Those privileged members of the community who have been through a secondary or public school 20 education may be expected to know something about the elementary physics and chemistry of a hundred years ago. but they were gravely disappointed. in 5 their time had the humanists thought that the study of the classical authors in the original would banish at once the dull pedantry and superstition of mediaeval scholasticism. artificiality. but they probably know hardly more than any bright boy can pick up from an interest in wireless or scientific hobbies out of school hours. Actually. The chief claim for the use of science in education is that it teaches a child something about the actual universe in which he is living. for the convenience of teachers and the requirements of the examination system. The only way of learning the 35 method of science is the long and bitter way of personal experience. in making him acquainted with the results of scientific 15 discovery. but practically none at all in the second.A. are highly irresponsible in their efforts to pander to the public The pioneers of the teaching of science imagined that its introduction into education would remove the conventionality. not to say more dangerous ones such as racial theories or currency myths. are victims of the human desire to excuse inexcusable behavior E. to believe exactly what they are told and to reproduce it when asked. shows that fifty years of education in the method of science in Britain or Germany has produced no visible effect whatever. and backward-lookingness which were characteristic. run the same articles over and over again D. The way in which educated people respond to such quackeries as spiritualism or astrology. As to the learning of scientific method. and. of classical studies. until the educational or social systems are altered to make this possible.

a stimulus to critical thinking E. Do they respect their teachers? 7. John D Bernal (1939) 4. Do students know more about the world about them? B.minority of people who are able to acquire some of the techniques of science and a still smaller minority who are able to use and 40 develop them. The author implies that the ‘professional schoolmaster’ (line 7) has A. Can students apply their knowledge logically? D. grossly incompetent D. Have textbooks improved? E. All of the following can be inferred from the text except . no interest in teaching science B. aided true learning D. deliberately obscurantist 6. he would probably be most interested in the answer to which of the following questions? A. been a pioneer in both science and humanities. thwarted attempts to enliven education C. severely limited in its benefits B. Adapted from: The Social Function of Science. Do students spend more time in laboratories? C. worse than that in the classics C. The author’s apparently believes that secondary and public school education in the sciences is A. If the author were to study current education in science to see how things have changed since he wrote the piece. supported the humanists E. 5.

But even in Rome there was nothing like the non-stop distraction now provided by newspapers and magazines. but they resemble one another in being most decidedly "not of this world.the development of a vast mass communications industry. concerned in the main neither with the true nor the false. They did not foresee what in fact has happened. were somewhat monotonous. above all in our 5 Western capitalist democracies .from poetical dramas to gladiatorial fights. not all children received a secondary school education B. it is relatively easy to learn scientific method In regard to propaganda the early advocates of universal literacy and a free press envisaged only two possibilities: the propaganda might be true. or it might be false. from recitations of Virgil to all-out boxing. They might long for distractions. the author finds chemical reactions interesting C. For conditions even remotely comparable to those now prevailing we must return to imperial Rome. at the time of writing. gratuitous doses of many kinds of 20 entertainment . but the distractions were not provided. but with the unreal. centrifugal bumblepuppy) are deliberately used as instruments of policy. where the populace was kept in good humor by frequent. orgy-porgy. the author believes that many teachers are authoritarian E. Christmas came but once a year. In Brave New World non-stop distractions of the most fascinating nature (the feelies. though infrequent. if lived in too continuously. by radio." Both are distractions and. where the performances. feasts were "solemn and rare. 10 In the past most people never got a chance of fully satisfying this appetite. from concerts to military reviews and public executions.A. the more or less totally irrelevant. In a word. The other world of religion is different from the other world of entertainment. and the nearest approach 15 to a neighborhood movie theater was the parish church. for the purpose of preventing people from paying too much attention to the realities of the social and political 30 situation. television and the 25 cinema." there were few readers and very little to read. both . they failed to take into account man's almost infinite appetite for distractions. science teaching has imparted some knowledge of facts to some children D.

not here and now and in the calculable future. needs constant vigilance to avoid 2. is concerned mainly with the irrelevant C. but somewhere else. can serve a vital function in democracy B. of mythology and metaphysical fantasy. will find it hard to resist the encroachments of those who would manipulate and control it. the arousal and rationalization of passions which may be 50 used in the interests of the Party or the State. "the opium of the people" 35 and so a threat to freedom. is universally recognized as a danger E. 45 In their propaganda today's dictators rely for the most part on repetition. suppression and rationalization . As the art and science of manipulation come to be better understood. Only the vigilant can maintain their liberties. is now combined with entertainment D.can become. the dictators of the future will doubtless learn to combine these techniques with the non-stop distractions which. A society. The “early advocates of universal literacy” (line 1) are mentioned as A. A Huxley (1931) 1. in the irrelevant other worlds of sport and soap opera. The author would be most likely to agree that propaganda A. and only those who are constantly and intelligently on the spot can hope to govern themselves effectively by democratic procedures.the repetition of catchwords which they wish to be accepted as true. opponents of an idea that the author thinks is correct C. in the West. the suppression of facts which they wish to be ignored. not on the 40 spot. are now threatening to drown in a sea of 55 irrelevance the rational propaganda essential to the maintenance of individual liberty and the survival of democratic institutions. proponents of an idea that the author wishes to counter . Adapted from the introduction to Brave New World. advocates of propaganda B. in Marx's phrase. most of whose members spend a great part of their time.

people are totally unaware of political realities C. and the homogeneity of 10 primitive times into the infinite variety of the present. and precisely at the proper place in which all the conditions of life to which they were adapted occurred: the humming-birds at the same time as the flowers. entertainment is used to keep people from full awareness of social realities D.D. for he regarded a solution of it as not to be hoped for. the riddle which animate nature presents to our intelligence at every turn. alert to the dangers of propaganda B. conscious of political and social realities E. entertainment resembles religion in its effects on the masses E. non-stop entertainment is provided as it was in Rome 4. the bark-coloured moth at the same time as the oak. we should still be unable to infer from this alone how each of the numberless forms adapted to particular conditions of life should have appeared precisely at the right moment in the history of the earth to which their adaptations were 15 appropriate. non-stop distractions are the main instrument of government policy B. even if we were to assume an evolutionary force that is continually transforming the most primitive and the simplest forms of life into ever higher forms. social commentators unaware of man’s appetite for distractions 3. and the wasp-like moth at the . in a particular society at a particular time C. By “intelligently on the spot” (line 37) the author apparently means A. the trichina at the same time as the pig. people who made wrong predictions about freedom of the press E. For. deeply aware of current trends The principle of selection solved the riddle as to how what was purposive could conceivably be brought about without the intervention of a directing power. The author refers to “Brave New World” as a fictional example of a society in which A. and in 5 face of which the mind of a Kant could find no way out. in a specific time and place D.

suggest that a particular theory explains otherwise puzzling phenomena B. prove that selection is the only possible way of looking at evolutionary biology 7. justify a particularly controversial model of the origins of life D. persuade the reader that Empedocles was right E. since the conditions of life cannot be determined by the animal itself. an alternative that might still be valid 6. and can persist under these conditions alone. It can be inferred that the author believes that the “Leibnitzian model” (line 22) is A. Adapted from an essay by A Weismann (1889) 5.20 same time as the wasp which protects it. There must therefore be an intrinsic connection between the conditions and the structural adaptations of the organism. 30 and. ingenious and worthy of serious consideration B. but the purposive alone survives. The author’s primary purpose in this extract is to A. while the non-purposive perishes in the very act of arising.19 are intended to . describe the details of the selection theory for a lay audience C. unworthy of further consideration E. This is the old wisdom taught long ago by Empedocles. untenable by all rational people C. since it enables us to understand that there is a continual production of what is non-purposive as well 35 as of what is purposive. by means of which the clock of the evolution of organisms is so regulated as to strike in exact synchronism with that 25 of the history of the earth! All forms of life are strictly adapted to the conditions of their life. the adaptations must be called forth by the conditions. Without processes of selection we should be obliged to assume a "pre-established harmony" after the famous Leibnitzian model. an acceptable solution to Kant’s dilemma D. The examples in lines 17 . The selection theory teaches us how this is conceivable.

A. reinforce the author’s point that is difficult to explain adaptation B. demonstrate that intelligent design is needed for purposive evolution . show organisms that have evolved synchronously in a predestined manner E. show that adaptations must take place only at specific times and in specific places C. give specific illustration of organisms that are particularly well-adapted to their conditions D.

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