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COLEGIO DE DAGUPAN

Arellano St., Dagupan City

UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH MANUAL


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Table of Contents

Page
Front Page ………………………………………………………………………... 1
Table of Contents ………………………………………………………………… 2
I STYLE REQUIREMENTS……………………………………………… 3
General Document Guidelines ……………………………………………. 3
Title Page …………………………………………………………………. 4
Approval Form ……………………………………………………………. 4
Abstract …………………………………………………………………… 4
Acknowledgment/Dedication …………………………………………….. 5
Table of Contents/ List of Tables/List of Figures/Plates …………………. 5
Body …………………………………………………………………….. 5
Definition of Terms ……………………………………………………… 5
Bibliography …………………………………………………………….. 6
Appendices ………………………………………………………………. 6
Tables ……………………………………………………………………... 6
Figures and Plates ……………………………………………………….. 7
II CONTENT REQUIREMENTS ……………………………………….. 8
Abstract ………………………………………………………………….. 8
Introduction ……………………………………………………………… 8
Review of Literature ……………………………………………………… 10
Methodology……………………………………………………………… 10
Discussion of Findings……………………………………………………. 11
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations ………………………….. 12
Bibliography ……………………………………………………………… 12
Text Citations ……………………………………………………………. 14
Quotations ………………………………………………………………… 16
III RESEARCH POLICIES AND GUIDELINES ……………………….. 17
Specific Functions ………………………………………………………… 17
Oral Examination Fee ……………………………………………………. 20
Remuneration of the Members of the Oral Examination Committee …… 20
Implementation of Research ……………………………………………… 20
Ethical Standards …………………………………………………………. 22
Research Evaluation ……………………………………………………… 24
Citation …………………………………………………………………… 24
IV UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FLOWCHARTS ……………… 26
V SAMPLE FORMATS AND FORMS ………………………………… 28
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I. STYLE REQUIREMENTS

General Document Guidelines

Margins One (1) inch on the bottom and right sides, and 1.5” on the
upper and left sides.

Font Size and Style Font style is Times New Roman with a font size of twelve
(12) points

Spacing Double-space throughout the paper except for title page,


approval sheet, abstract, table of contents, list of tables, list
of figures, list of plates, bibliography, appendices, and
curriculum vitae.

Alignment Flush Left (creating an uneven right margin).

Paragraph Indentation .5 inch from the margin or 1 tab.

Pagination The page number appears on the bottom of the page,


centered, .8 inch from the bottom of the paper. Page
numbers should not appear on prefatory pages (every first
page of every chapter). Small Roman numerals should be
used for paging the preliminaries, which contain title page
to list of figures and/or plates, while Arabic numerals for
the rest of the paper.

Manuscript Header CDD letterhead should be used for the Approval Form and
transmittal letters, while the header of the college/
department shall be used on the other parts of the
document, if available.

Active/Passive voice Active voice, third person must be used. For example,
use "The researchers predicted that ..."

Order of Pages Title Page, Approval Form, Abstract, Acknowledgement,


Dedication, Table of Contents, List of Tables, List of
Figures, List of Plates, Body, Bibliography (for more than
ten entries), Appendices, and Curriculum Vitae (with
picture).

Cover Page All capital letters and bold. This contains the title,
researchers, degree program, and the month and year.
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Arrange alphabetically the name of researchers based on


the surnames. The name of the leader should appear first.
The color of the hardbound should be: green for CON; blue for CASED; orange
for COE; grey for CICS; and yellow for CBA.

Side Label Title Case, bold letters. This contains the name of the
leader (for group) with “et al.”, title of research, and the
month and year of submission.

 Title Page

Description First part of the preliminaries.

Key Elements Paper title, researcher(s), name of the institution, degree


program, date. Equal spacing in between must be
observed.

Paper Title Title case, bold letters, centered, arranged as inverted


pyramid.

Researcher(s) Title case, bold letters, centered on the line following the
paper title, alphabetically arranged according to family
names, however, name of the leader should be written first.

Name of the Institution Title case, bold letters, centered.


and College

Degree Program Title case, bold letters, centered.

Date Includes month and year, written in title case, bold letters, centered.

 Approval Form
(see sample format)

Abstract

Description Third part of the preliminaries after the approval form.

Heading Abstract (centered on the first line below the margin).

Format The heading “Abstract” is written in title case and bold


letters. It should not exceed 200 words. All numbers
(except those beginning a sentence) should be typed as
digits rather than words.
 Acknowledgment/Dedication
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Description This begins on a new page following the “Abstract”.

Heading Acknowledgment/Dedication (centered on the first line


below the margin).
Format The heading “Acknowledgment/Dedication” is written in
title case and bold letters.

 Table of Contents/ List of Tables/List of Figures/Plates


(see sample format)

 Body

Description The body of the paper begins on a new page (after the
preliminaries). Subsections of the body of the paper do
not begin on new pages.

Title Chapter number is written in Arabic format (Chapter 1, Chapter 2…). The title is
written in title case and bold letters. The chapter heading,
for example INTRODUCTION for Chapter 1, is written in
uppercase and bold letters centered on the first line below
the manuscript header.

Headings Headings are used to organize the document and reflect the
relative importance of sections. Some sections may have
subsections/subheadings. The following formats shall be
used:

A. Main headings (e.g., Research Design, Tools for


Data Analysis under Chapter 3 should be written in
title case and bold letters aligned left)

B. Subheadings (when the paper has two levels of


subheadings) are written in title case and bold
letters indented from the left margin (1 tab).

Definition of Terms This is last part of the INTRODUCTION. The terms must
be written in title case and bold. A period follows after the
term. The definitions (with hanging indent) begin on the
line following its heading. Entries are organized
alphabetically.

This section is aligned left.

 Bibliography
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Description The bibliography begins on a new page.

Title / Heading Bibliography (centered on the first line below the


manuscript header/margin)

Format The heading “Bibliography” is written in title case and bold


letters. The references (with hanging indent) begin on the
line following the bibliography heading. Entries are
organized alphabetically by surnames of first authors.

This section is aligned left.

 Appendices

Description Each Appendix begins on a separate page.


Heading If there is only one appendix, Appendix is centered on the
first line below the manuscript header. If there is more than
one appendix, use Appendix A (or B or C, etc.) and type
the appendix title (centered written in title case letters).

 Tables
A common use of tables is to present quantitative data or the results of statistical
analyses. This is presented before the discussion of data.

Heading Table 1 (or 2 or 3, etc.) is aligned left just above the table
referred followed by the table title written in title case and
italics.

Size The font size may be reduced to 8 points when necessary.

Spacing Single Space

Numbering Continuous

Continuation The table may be continued to next page but should carry
the table number, the word “continued”, and an ellipsis in
its heading (Table 1 continued…)

 Figures/Plates
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A common use of Figures is to present graphs, photographs, or other illustrations


(other than tables). This is presented before the discussion of data.

Heading Figure/Plate 1 (or 2 or 3, etc.) is aligned left just below the


figure/plate referred followed by the figure/plate title
written in title case, bold letters.

Spacing Single Space

Numbering Continuous

II.CONTENT REQUIREMENTS
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Abstract

This part is a summary of the most important elements of the paper. This should
summarize the problem, methodology, results/findings and conclusions.

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

This part gives the readers an overview of what the research is all about,
describing the problem situation in light of global, national and local forces. It justifies
the existence of the problem situation by citing statistical data and authoritative sources.
This part should likewise include the reasons on why the researcher/s had selected the
research topic and explains its importance. At least, five (5) references should be used.
Further, a clinching statement that will relate the background of the research problem
should be included.

Theoretical Framework

This part discusses the theories and/or concepts which are useful in
conceptualizing the research. This part may be omitted if theories are not available.

Conceptual Framework

This part identifies and discusses the variables related to the problem. A
schematic diagram of the research is presented including the discussion of the
relationships of the different elements/variables involved in the study.

Statement of the Problem

This part presents the statement of the main problem usually in declarative form.
The main problem generally reflects the title of the research and its objectives. It should
be stated in a way that it is not answerable by yes or no and not indicative of when and
where. Rather, it should reflect relationships/differences between and among variables.

This part also includes the sub-problems or the research questions that are to be
answered specifically. These are stated as questions. The essential characteristic of a
research question is that there should be some information that can be collected in an
attempt to answer it. Moreover, the sub-problems should be arranged in a logical order
from actual to analytical following the flow in the research paradigm.

The characteristics of a good research question should be noted: it should be


feasible, clear, and significant (Fraenkel and Wallen, 2003).
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Hypotheses (optional)

The part states tentative answers to research questions. The hypothesis should be
measurable and desirable, expressing expected relationship between/among two or more
variables. It should be based on the theory and/or empirical evidence. It is a prediction of
some sort regarding the possible outcomes of a study.

A hypothesis in statistical form has the following characteristics:


• It is used when the tests of significance of relationships and differences of
measures are involved.
• The level of significance/confidence is stated.

Assumptions (optional)

The part is a statement of things that are presumed to be true during the conduct
of the study. It should be noted that these assumptions need not be proven unlike the
hypothesis. It should likewise be based on the general and specific problems and be
stated in simple, brief, generally accepted statement.

Significance of the Study

The part should clearly state the importance/ usefulness of the research to
different specific groups (community, school, respondents, college, department, students,
and researchers), education, research and practice.

Scope and Limitations

This part mentions the areas that will be included and excluded in the research, its
boundaries and constraints. It should indicate the principal variable, locale, timeframe
and justification.

Definition of Terms

This part defines the important terms taken from the title and statement of the
problem. The terms should be arranged alphabetically and defined in two common ways:
the dictionary-type definitions and the operational definitions. The latter is preferred. It
should define the terms according to how it was used in the study with hanging indent

The following format is adopted:


Term1. The definition of term1 stated in sentence format.
Term2. The definition of term2 stated in sentence format.
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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This includes the related literatures and studies from both foreign and local
sources. It is arranged and synthesized thematically to conform to the specific problems.
It synthesizes evidences from all the literatures reviewed to get an overall understanding
of the state of knowledge in the research problem. As much as possible, the reviewed
literatures are limited to those published within the last 10 years (with at least 10
references).

A clinching statement showing how the related literatures had assisted the
researchers in the present study should be written in the last part.

Chapter 3

METHODOLOGY

Research Design

This specifies, describes, and justifies the appropriateness of the research design
used in the study.

Sources of Data

This describes the locale of the study (place where the study was conducted) and
the rationale of its choice. It should likewise describe the research population and the
sampling methods or techniques used in determining the respondents or subjects of the
study.

Instrumentation and Data Collection

This part should describe the instrument, what it measured, how it was
interpreted, to whom it was administered, and if it is necessary, how it was administered.
A description of the instrument or parts of the instrument used is included.

Further, it mentions the type of instruments used in the study, such as the rating
scales, interview schedules, tally sheet, performance checklist, documents and others.

If the instrument used to gather data is made by the researcher, the test conducted
to ensure the instruments’ (usually the questionnaires) validity and reliability should be
stated. The level of reliability (probability) should be stated. At least five (5) experts on
the field being studied should have evaluated the instrument.

Describe the specific data gathering procedures employed.


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Tools for Data Analysis

This presents the statistical tools or treatment employed in the analysis and
interpretation of the collected data. The tools used for data analysis for each of the
problems should be described.

The numerical and descriptive values, if any, to interpret data should be


determined and justified. Depending on the statistical treatment used, the student-
researchers may consult a statistician for a more precise result.

Chapter 4

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

Data Presentation

This is presented based on the specific problems posited in the study. The data are
presented in tabular or graphical and textual form. The data should likewise be presented
from general to particular, macro to micro or vice versa.

Data Analysis

The data are analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively depending on the level of


measurement and the number of dimensions and variables of the study. The statistical
description is stated in declarative sentences

Table reading should be avoided in the analysis of the results presented in tabular
format.

For studies involving correlation


The presence of any correlation including whether positive or negative and the
level of significance is indicated. The acceptance or rejection of hypothesis is also stated.

For studies involving differences


The presence of any difference and the level of significance is indicated. The
acceptance or rejection of hypothesis is also stated.

Data Interpretation

The interconnection between and among data is established. Indicators whether


hypothesis is supported or not by the findings is checked. Moreover, present findings are
linked with previous literature. The student-researchers parallel observations with
contemporary events presented in the introduction. Further, implications from the results
must be drawn.
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Chapter 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary

This includes a brief statement of the research objectives, the research problems,
the research methodology and the major findings of the study.

The problems are stated in paragraph form. The major findings for each of the
problems raised are presented, excluding figures and implications. The result of the tested
hypothesis is also presented including the level of confidence or significance.

Conclusions

These are brief, generalized statements deduced from the findings to answer the
general and sub-problems. These contain generalizations applicable to the population.

These are clearly aligned to the research problem, briefly worded directly
answering, in sequential order the research problems, exclusively derived from the
significant findings, not merely restatement of the findings, and free from any misleading
impression, bias or unfair and incorrect generalizations.

Flexibility is considered in making of conclusions. It is not a must to state


conclusions on a one-to-one correspondence with the problems and the findings as all
variables can be subsumed in one paragraph. Conclusions must be used as generalizations
from a micro to a macro-level or vice versa (zoom lens approach).

Recommendations

These are worthy or acceptable and relevant suggestions that offer solution to the
problems or issues presented in the study, based on the conclusions.

Bibliography

This includes all materials used and reviewed by the researcher arranged
according to type, e.g. book, journal article, unpublished materials, and web documents.
Citation with reference to APA (American Psychological Association) format shall be
used.

All sources included in the Bibliography/Reference section must be cited in the


body of the paper (and all sources cited in the paper must be included in the
Bibliography/ References section). Most reference entries have three components:
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1. Authors: Authors are listed in the same order as specified in the source, using
surnames and initials. Commas separate all authors. When there are seven or more
authors, list the first six and then use "et al." for remaining authors. If no author is
identified, the title of the document begins the reference.

2. Year of Publication: In parentheses following authors, with a period following the


closing parenthesis. If no publication date is identified, use "n.d." in parentheses
following the authors.

3. Source Reference: Includes title, journal, volume, pages (for journal article) or
title, city of publication, publisher (for book). Italicize titles of books, titles of
periodicals, and periodical volume numbers.

 Examples of sources
1. Journal article
Murzynski, J., & Degelman, D. (1996). Body language of women and judgments
of vulnerability to sexual assault. Journal of Applied Social Psychology,
26, 1617-1626.
2. Book
Paloutzian, R. F. (1996). Invitation to the psychology of religion (2nd ed.).
Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
3. Web document on university program or department Web site
Degelman, D., & Harris, M. L. (2000). APA style essentials. Retrieved May 18,
2000, from Vanguard University, Department of Psychology
Website:http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/index.aspx?
doc_id=796
4. Stand-alone Web document (no date)
Nielsen, M.E. (n.d.). Notable people in psychology of religion. Retrieved August
3, 2001, from http://www.psywww.com/psyrelig/psyrelpr.htm
5. Stand-alone Web document (no author, no date)
Gender and society. (n.d.). Retrieved December 3, 2001, from
http://www.trinity.edu/~mkearl/gender.html
6. Journal article from database
Hien, D., & Honeyman, T. (2000). A closer look at the drug abuse-maternal
aggression link. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15, 503-522. Retrieved
May 20, 2000, from ProQuest database.
7. Abstract from secondary database
Garrity, K., & Degelman, D. (1990). Effect of server introduction on restaurant
tipping. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 168-172. Abstract
retrieved July 23, 2001, from PsycINFO database.
8. Journal article, Internet-only journal
Bergen, D. (2002, Spring). The role of pretend play in children's cognitive
development. Early Childhood Research & Practice, 4(1). Retrieved
February 1, 2004, from http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v4n1/bergen.html
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9. Article or chapter in an edited book


Shea, J. D. (1992). Religion and sexual adjustment. In J. F. Schumaker
(Ed.), Religion and mental health (pp. 70-84). New York: Oxford
University Press.
10. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of
mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.

Appendices

This contains the following: letters and other forms of communication;


instruments used; sample computations; and additional tables and figures.

Text Citations

Source material must be documented in the body of the paper by citing the
author(s) and date(s) of the sources. The underlying principle is that ideas and words of
others must be formally acknowledged. The reader can obtain the full source citation
from the list of references that follows the body of the paper.

A. When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the
sentence, the year of publication appears in parentheses following the
identification of the authors. Consider the following example:
Wirth and Mitchell (1994) found that although there was a reduction in
insulin dosage over a period of two weeks in the treatment condition
compared to the control condition, the difference was not statistically
significant. [Note: “and” should be used when multiple authors are
identified as part of the formal structure of the sentence. Compare this to the
example in the following section.]

B. When the authors of a source are not part of the formal structure of the sentence,
both the authors and year of publication appear in parentheses. Consider the
following example:
Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some
types of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and
mental health (Gartner, Larson, & Allen, 1991; Koenig, 1990; Levin &
Vanderpool, 1991; Maton & Pargament, 1987; Paloma & Pendleton, 1991;
Payne, Bergin, Bielema, & Jenkins, 1991). [Note: “&” should be used
when multiple authors are identified in parenthetical material. Note also that
when several sources are cited parenthetically, they are ordered
alphabetically by first authors' surnames and separated by semicolons.]

C. When a source that has two authors is cited, both authors should be included
every time the source is cited.
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D. When a source that has three, four, or five authors is cited, all authors are included
the first time the source is cited. When that source is cited again, the first author's
surname and "et al." should be used. Consider the following example:
Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some
types of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and
mental health (Payne, Bergin, Bielema, & Jenkins, 1991).
Payne et al. (1991) showed that...

E. When a source that has six or more authors is cited, the first author's surname and
"et al." should be used every time the source is cited (including the first time).

F. Every effort should be made to cite only sources that have been actually read.
When it is necessary to cite a source that have not read ("Grayson" in the
following example) that is cited in a source that have read ("Murzynski &
Degelman" in the following example), use the following format for the text
citation and list only the source have read in the References list:
Grayson (as cited in Murzynski & Degelman, 1996) identified four
components of body language that were related to judgments of
vulnerability.

G. To cite a personal communication (including letters, emails, and telephone


interviews), include initials, surname, and as exact a date as possible. Because a
personal communication is not "recoverable" information, it is not included in the
References section. For the text citation, use the following format:
B. F. Skinner (personal communication, February 12, 1978) claimed...

H. To cite a Web document, use the author-date format. If no author is identified, use
the first few words of the title in place of the author. If no date is provided, use
"n.d." in place of the date. Consider the following examples:
Degelman and Harris (2000) provide guidelines for the use of APA writing
style. Changes in Americans' views of gender status differences have been
documented (Gender and Society, n.d.).

I. To cite the Bible, provide the book, chapter, and verse. The first time the Bible is
cited in the text, identify the version used. Consider the following example:
"You are forgiving and good, O Lord, abounding in love to all who call to
you" (Psalm 86:5, New International Version). [Note: No entry in the
References list is needed for the Bible.]
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Quotations

When a direct quotation is used, always include the author, year, and page number
as part of the citation.

A. A quotation of fewer than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation marks


and should be incorporated into the formal structure of the sentence. Example:
Patients receiving prayer had "less congestive heart failure, required less
diuretic and antibiotic therapy, had fewer episodes of pneumonia, had fewer
cardiac arrests, and were less frequently incubated and ventilated" (Byrd,
1988, p. 829).

B. A lengthier quotation of 40 or more words should appear (without quotation


marks) apart from the surrounding text, in block format, with each line indented
five spaces from the left margin.
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III.RESEARCH POLICIES AND GUIDELINES

1. Specific Functions

The research work shall be undertaken individually or in a group of 2-5 students.


The grouping should be done in the onset of the semester. This arrangement shall
establish the partnership of the student-researcher/s to pursue their desired topic related to
their field of specialization.

1.1 Research Instructor/Adviser

The research instructor/adviser must be a faculty member of the student-


researcher/s’ department/college. Within the time frame for the research completion, the
research instructor/adviser should be able to:

1.1.1 provide student-researchers with information necessary in carrying


out the research;

1.1.2 ensure that research titles submitted by student-researcher/s are


related to their degree program;

1.1.3 approve the research title of the student-researcher/s;

1.1.4 ensure no duplication of research works in specific degree


program;

1.1.5 help student-researcher/s in the development of the research


problem, which should be clearly defined to the students,
instructor/adviser and to those who shall approve it;

1.1.6 ensure that the research to be undertaken is feasible as to content,


finances and time;

1.1.7 set definite time frames and deadlines for the construction of
different parts of the research manuscript;

1.1.8 monitor the completion of the research;

1.1.9 recommend published or unpublished references, and people in


authority for a thorough understanding of the research;

1.1.10 supervise the writing of the research manuscript;

1.1.11 ensure that sources of information are acknowledged;


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1.1.12 ascertain that research manuscript is ready for presentation before


recommending student research for oral examination;

1.1.13 ascertain that final copies of the research manuscript are in


conformity with the content and style requirements found in this manual;

1.1.14 endorse student-research/es for oral examination to the Dean; and

1.1.15 compute the final grade of the student-researchers (average of the


evaluation rating given by the oral examination committee).

1.2 Student-Researcher/s

Within the time allotted for the completion of the research work, the student-
researcher/s should be able to:

1.2.1 submit research titles for approval of the research


instructor/adviser and for preliminary evaluation of the research adviser;

1.2.2 work closely with the research instructor and adviser for approval
of the research proposal;

1.2.3 choose a research adviser, other than the research instructor, from
the college or department’s pool of advisers;

1.2.4 consult the research adviser at scheduled times;

1.2.5 provide oral or written updates of the research to the research


adviser;

1.2.6 coordinate with the research unit for oral examination scheduling;

1.2.7 document and receive comments and suggestions from the Oral
Examination Committee;

1.2.8 revise final manuscript based on the comments and suggestions


from the Oral Examination Committee; and

1.2.9 submit three (3) copies of the hardbound research manuscript, (two
(2) for the Library, and one (1) for the department/college, and a soft copy
(CD) of the manuscript and an abstract (printed in the Colegio de Dagupan
letterhead) to the Research Unit.
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1.3 Research Unit

The unit coordinates with the student-researcher/s, research instructors/advisers,


dean/department head and library to facilitate the conduct of research in the school.

Within the time allotted for the completion of the research work, the research unit
should be able to:

1.3.1 orient student-researcher/s on the content of this handbook;

1.3.2 issue forms to student-researcher/s necessary in the conduct of research;

1.3.3 schedule student-researcher/s for oral examination;

1.3.4 ensure that comments and suggestions are documented and received by
the research adviser and student-researchers, respectively;

1.3.5 check the integration of corrections to the research manuscript based on


the school’s guidelines;

1.3.6 facilitate the distribution of hardbound research copies to the concerned


offices;

1.3.7 coordinate the conduct of research paper presentation, conference or


forum; and

1.3.8 perform other functions as the need arises.

1.4 Dean/Department Head

Within the time allotted for the completion of the research work, the
dean/department head should be able to:

1.4.1 examine and endorse student-researcher/s to the research unit for oral
examination schedule;

1.4.2 approve final research manuscripts after corrections have been integrated
by the student-researcher/s; and

1.4.3 receive hardbound copies of all completed student-researches in his/her


college.
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1.5 Oral Examination Committee

The committee members should have at least earned master degrees.

The committee shall be composed of the Dean /Department Head, technical panel
and research unit representative.

The members of the committee will have the following functions:

1.5.1 the Dean/Department Head acts as the chairman of the committee,


but may assign other faculty members in his/her behalf;

1.5.2 the technical panel representative, who is a faculty member of the


student- researcher/s’ College or Department, evaluates the theoretical and
content integrity of the research and suggests other materials to improve
the manuscript;

1.5.3 the research unit representative checks the research as to the


content and style requirements found in this manual; and

1.5.4 the research instructor/adviser acts as a moderator in the oral


examination.

2. Oral Examination Fee

An institutionalized oral examination fee (research defense fee) of five-hundred


pesos (PHP 500.00) shall be paid to the cashier by each student-researcher/s before the
final defense only. The policy “No Receipt, No Defense” shall be implemented strictly.
The receipts shall be submitted to the research instructor/adviser and a photocopy be
presented to the research unit for record purposes.

3. Remuneration of the Members of the Oral Examination Committee

The oral examination fee shall be appropriated for the remuneration of the oral
examination committee members and for the development of the research and extension
services. The Dean/Department Head shall process the appropriation and distribution of
the remuneration with the Finance Office.

4. Implementation of Research

4.1 Choosing a Title


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The choice of a good title is a demanding but challenging search for a field of
inquiry closely related to the student-researcher/s’ expertise and interest.

The title should be reflective of the general problem that must be concise,
preferably not more than 10 substantive words or two lines using the inverted pyramid
format. Further, starter phrases such as “a study of …,” “an evaluation of …,” or “an
assessment of …,” should be avoided.
The chosen research problem should be Specific, Measurable, Achievable,
Realistic and Time-bound (SMART) that it can be adequately and feasibly undertaken
within the time frame of the research.

4.2 Developing the Research Proposal

Upon the approval of the title by the research instructor/adviser, the student-
researcher/s shall commence structuring a research proposal containing the first three
chapters of the research, including a sample of the instruments to be employed.

The research proposal shall then be evaluated by the oral examination committee
in terms of mechanics, organization and content.

4.3 Executing the Research

After the evaluation and approval of the revised research proposal by the oral
examination committee, as evidenced by a duly signed approval form, the student-
researcher/s shall then proceed to the research execution.

4.4 Constructing the Research Manuscript

The student-researcher/s shall include all information based on the content and
style provided in this manual. It should be submitted to the research instructor/adviser for
the evaluation of mechanics, organization and contents.

4.5 Defending the Research

The research adviser shall endorse the research manuscript to the dean, who will
thereafter endorse it to the research unit using an endorsement form. The student-
researcher/s will then be scheduled for oral examination upon presentation of the
endorsement form signed by the dean. The research will be examined using the
evaluation form. Comments and suggestions of the oral examination committee members
shall be documented and received by the research adviser and student-researcher/s,
respectively.

Research defense should be held at the Defense Room beside the Research Unit
and Graduate School Library located at the ground floor, Library Building, if available.
Reservations should be made with the research unit three (3) working days prior to the
defense.
22

4.6 Submitting the Final Research Manuscript

A copy of the final research manuscript shall be evaluated by the oral examination
committee. Upon its approval, it shall then be replicated and hardbound. The student-
researcher/s shall submit three (3) copies of the hardbound research manuscript to the
following: (two (2) for the Library; and one (1) for the department/college, and a soft
copy (CD) of the manuscript and an abstract (printed in the Colegio de Dagupan
letterhead) to the Research Unit.

5. Ethical Standards

5.1 Offenses

5.1.1 Plagiarism
The practice of plagiarism is a form of academic high treason undermining the
entire scholarly enterprise. Academic plagiarism is the deliberate attempt to deceive the
reader through the appropriation and representation as one's own the works and words of
others. This happens when a writer repeatedly uses more than four words from a printed
source without the use of quotation marks and a precise reference to the original source.
Some of these plagiarism are:

Straight Plagiarism is committed when only capitalization and sentence


structures are changed and the odd word is added or deleted. But, the original authors are
not acknowledged nor are quotation marks used.

Plagiarism using a citation is committed when although the real author is


acknowledged plagiarism takes place because the original text is reproduced with only
minor changes without using either quotation marks or footnotes.

Simple plagiarism using a footnote is committed when a reference is provided


but quotation marks are still not used when academic rules for citation demand their use
and some words are slightly changed to make the passage appear to be different from the
original.

Complex plagiarism using a footnote is committed when various changes and


paraphrases, from more than one page, are used with a footnote but without appropriate
quotation marks. Thus a reference is given, although it may not be to exactly the correct
page, and many words and phrases are taken from the original text.

Plagiarism with hanging quotations is committed when the plagiarist begins by


using a quotation but continues to quote after closing the quotation marks.
23

Paraphrasing as plagiarism is committed when a researcher paraphrases without


reference to the original source, even when the source is mentioned, without the addition
of material that seriously interacts with the paraphrased passages or adds significant new
information. Legitimate paraphrasing takes place only where the source is acknowledged
and where the paraphrasing is limited to material that is then discussed, explained, and
argued about.

Self-plagiarism is committed when students submit essentially the same research


for credit in different courses. This happens when no indication is given that the research
is being recycled or when an effort is made to disguise the original text. Disguising a text
occurs when student-researchers make cosmetic changes that cause the same research to
look different when in reality it actually remains unchanged in its central argument.

Thus, quotation marks must be used for any passage copied from another work
containing five or more words. To know how to cite works and use quotations correctly,
please see the page regarding it on this manual.

5.1.2 Falsification of Data

Falsification of data is the selective alteration of data collected in the conduct of


scientific investigation or the "misrepresentation of uncertainty" during statistical analysis
of the data. Falsification also includes the selective omission/deletion/suppression of
conflicting data without scientific or statistical justification. http://www.research.edu.

Data collected from observations, experiments, surveys, questionnaires,


interviews, and polls are often used in reports. It is academically dishonest to
report anything other than the results obtained using the stated method of data
collection. In particular, the student-researcher/s must not:

• Change or manipulate the method of data collection before the end of the
data collection period, unless a full account is provided in the final report
• Change or omit data that have been collected
• Add data collected outside the data collection period
• Add fictitious data
• Or otherwise misrepresent the true results of the data collected.

5.2 Procedures for Dealing with These Offenses

Complaints on plagiarism and falsification of data are to be made with the


Research Unit. The Unit in coordination with the concerned Deans/Department Head will
conduct a preliminary investigation of any allegation of research offense. Such
preliminary investigation will make provision for a written statement of any allegations to
be provided to the person(s) against whom such allegations are directed, and for a written
response from that person to be received and considered. A preliminary investigation
24

will be limited to determining whether a case exists, that a research offense may have
occurred.
If the preliminary investigation finds that a case exists, there will be a formal
investigation, which shall follow the school’s procedures for dealing with cases of
personnel and student misconduct.
5.3 Consequences

Attempts to plagiarize and make data fit a particular theory or preferred outcome
contravene the basic principles of academic integrity, hence, severe penalties will be
given to research instructors/advisers and student-researchers.

5.3.1 Student-Researchers

If found guilty of either plagiarism or falsification of data, the student-researcher/s


shall be advised to re-enroll the course.

5.3.2 Research Instructor/Adviser

If found guilty of either plagiarism or falsification of data, the research


instructor/adviser shall be pulled out from the list of the College’s pool of advisers.

6. Research Evaluation

The research is evaluated based on the manuscript and oral examination.

6.1 Research Manuscript

The research manuscript is evaluated on its mechanics, organization and quality


of research content. (see sample format)

6.2 Oral Examination

The candidates’ ability to defend the research is based on their mastery of the
research content, knowledge of the problem area, clarity and comprehensiveness of
presentation ability to orally communicate answers to questions, ability to keep
discussions on the main issues and ability to demonstrate a professional attitude towards
suggestions and revisions. (see sample format)

7. Citation

7.1 Award

In pursuit of academic excellence, particularly in the field of research, the college


shall recognize exemplary outputs of student-researcher/s by giving “Exemplary
Research Award”. Every college or department shall recommend researches for
25

evaluation. The recommended researches shall be presented in the College Research


Conference and evaluated by the Research Unit and the Vice-President for Research and
Planning. The researches that qualify for the award will be recommended for approval of
the President.

7.2 Publication

The college shall recognize exemplary research outputs through its publication.
The exemplary researches approved by the president will be published in the school’s
research journal.
26

IV. UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FLOWCHARTS


Proposal
1. ENDORSEMENT BY THE ADVISER
The research adviser endorses the research proposal to the dean/department head for comments and
suggestions.

2. ENDORSEMENT BY THE DEAN/DEPARTMENT HEAD


the dean/department head endorses the research proposal to the research unit through an
endorsement form.

3. SCHEDULING OF RESEARCH PROPOSAL EXAMINATION


The research unit issues a schedule form to the student-researcher/s for proposal examination upon
presentation of the endorsement form.

4. SUBMISSION OF RESEARCH PROPOSAL


The student-researcher/s provides a copy of the research proposal to all oral examination committee
members three (3) working days before the oral examination.

5. RESEARCH PROPOSAL EXAMINATION


The research unit representative, technical panel representative and the dean/department head as
chairman compose the oral examination committee, which examines the research using the
evaluation form. Comments and suggestions of the oral examination committee members are
documented and received by the research adviser and student-researcher/s, respectively.

6. COMPLETION OF APPROVAL FORM FOR REVISED


RESEARCH PROPOSAL
The research adviser endorses the revised proposal to the committee members for review. The
student-researcher/s consults and seeks the approval of the oral examination committee members for
the research proposal.

7. SUBMISSION OF APPROVED RESEARCH PROPOSAL


The student-researcher/s submits the approved research proposal to the research unit within three
(3) weeks after the proposal oral examination. An approval form to conduct the research will be
issued.
27

Final Research
1. ENDORSEMENT BY THE ADVISER
The research adviser endorses the completed research to the dean/department head for comments
and suggestions.

2. ENDORSEMENT BY THE DEAN


The dean/department head endorses the completed research to the research unit through an
endorsement form

3. SCHEDULING OF DEFENSE
The research unit issues a schedule form to the student-researcher for final oral examination upon
presentation of the endorsement form.

4. SUBMISSION OF COMPLETED RESEARCH


The student-researcher/s provides a copy of his/her completed research to all oral examination
committee members five (5) working days before the defense.

5. FINAL ORAL EXAMINATION


The research unit representative, technical panel representative and the dean/department head as
chairman compose the oral examination committee, which examines the research using the
evaluation form. Comments and suggestions of the oral examination committee members are
documented and received by the research adviser and student-researcher/s, respectively.

6. COMPLETION OF THE RESEARCH MANUSCRIPT


The research adviser endorses the defended research to the committee members for final review.
The student-researcher/s consults and seeks the approval of the committee members of the
completed research manuscript within two (2) weeks after the final oral examination.

7. SUBMISSION OF COMPLETED RESEARCH MANUSCRIPT


The student-researcher/s submits three (3) hardbound copies, one (1) for the Dean/Department
Head and two (2) for the Library; a soft copy (CD) of the manuscript and an abstract (printed in
the Colegio de Dagupan letterhead) to the Research Unit. The completed research manuscript
should be hardbound after the approval form has been duly signed by all committee members.

8. COMPLETION OF ACKNOWLEDGEMENT FORM


The research unit issues an acknowledgement form to the student-researcher/s that shall be signed
by the Library Head and Dean/Department Head to ensure that hardbound research manuscripts
were submitted to their offices.
28

SAMPLE FORMATS AND FORMS


Cover Page
TRAINING PRACTICES OF SELECTED REGIONAL AND NATIONAL
BUSINESSES WITH OPERATIONS IN DAGUPAN CITY
(All capital and bold letters, centered, inverted pyramid))

BAYANI, KENETH G.
MUNAR, EMELY A.
VERGONIA, MARIVIC C.
(All capital and bold letters, centered)
(Alphabetically arranged accdg to Family Names)

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN <Course>


(All capital and bold letters, centered)

OCTOBER 2008
(All capital and bold letters, centered)
29

Title Page
Training Practices of Selected Regional and National Businesses
with Operations in Dagupan City
(Title case, bold letters, centered, inverted pyramid)

Bayani, Keneth G.
Munar, Emely A.
Vergonia, Marivic C.
(Title case, bold letters, centered, and alphabetically arranged
according to Family Names)

College of <NAME OF COLLEGE>


Colegio de Dagupan
Arellano St., Dagupan City
(Title case, bold letters, centered)

Bachelor of Science in <COURSE>


(Title case, bold letters, centered)

October 2008
Title case, bold letters, centered)
30

Proposal
Approval Form
(3 spaces)

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of


________________________________ the research proposal entitled, ______________
_______________________________________________________________________
_____prepared and submitted by _____________________________________________
is hereby endorsed for approval.

________________________________
Research Adviser

This is to certify that the research proposal mentioned above submitted by


____________________________________ has been examined and approved on
________________________ by the Oral Examination Committee.

________________________________
Chairman

____________________________ ___________________________
Member Member

Noted:

_______________________________
Dean
31

Completed
Approval Form
(3 spaces)

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of


________________________________ the completed research entitled, _____________
_______________________________________________________________________
_prepared and submitted by _________________________________________________
is hereby endorsed for approval and acceptance.

_________________________
Research Adviser

This is to certify that the completed research mentioned above submitted by


____________________________________ has been examined and approved on
________________________ by the Oral Examination Committee.

________________________________
Chairman

___________________________ ___________________________
Member Member

APPROVED and ACCEPTED as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for


the degree of ____________________________________ on _____________________
with a grade of ___________________.

________________________________
Dean
32

Abstract
(3 spaces)

<Name of Researchers>, “<Paper Title>,” Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant


Management, College of Business and Accountancy, Colegio de Dagupan, Arellano
Street, Dagupan City, Pangasinan, Philippines, October 2008.

Adviser: <Name of Adviser>

Training is an essential strategy to match human capital to current customer


demands, however, determining why, what and how to carry out these trainings is a
crucial decision. The study profiled the companies’ business, department, number of
employees, job, in-house training programs, training department structure, changes
anticipated, training skills sets, and instructional delivery methods; and described the
skills sets and criteria for these methods. It involved 63 managers of regional and national
companies in Dagupan City engaged in retailing products and providing services. Data
were gathered through questionnaires substantiated by interview and were analyzed using
frequency counts and mean. Consequently, most of these businesses were relatively small
retailers with no separate training departments, but provide in-house training programs
and anticipate increased of these programs on customer service, management and sales.
Self-study, classroom-based instruction, and computer software were the training
methods employed with much consideration on their flexibility and cost.
33

Acknowledgment
(3 spaces)

The researchers wish to express their profound gratitude to the following who in
one way or the other have contributed to the success of this study.

To the almighty God for His eternal love, blessings and guidance, and the
wisdom He has given us;

To (mention the persons whom you wish to thank).

The Researcher(s)
34

Table of Contents
(3 spaces)

Page
Title Page…………………………………………………………………..……… i
Approval Form…………………………………………………………………… ii
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………...... iii
Acknowledgment……………...…………………………………………………. iv
Dedication (optional)……………………………………………………………… v
Table of Contents…………………………………………….…………………… vi
List of Tables……………………………………………………………..………. viii
List of Figures…………………………………………………………………….. ix
Chapter
1 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………….. 1
Background of the Study…………………………………………………... 1
Theoretical Framework …………………………………………………… 6
Conceptual Framework…………………………………………………..... 8
Statement of the Problem…………………………………………………. 13
Hypothesis/es……………………………………………………………… 15
Assumptions (Optional)…………………………………………………… 15
Significance of the Study…………………………………………………. 16
Scope and Limitations……………………………………………………. 16
Definition of Terms……………………………………………………….. 17
2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES ….………………….. 20
3 METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………….. 91
Research Design……………………………....…………………………. 91
Sources of Data………………………………………………………….. 91
Instrumentation and Data Collection……....……………………………. 93
Tools for Data Analysis ……………………….….……………………… 94
4 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS…………………………………………. 96
5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS…….. 171
Summary …………………………………………………………………. 171
Conclusions…………………………………….………………………….. 173
Recommendations……………………….…………………....................... 174
Bibliography …………………………………………………………………….. 175
Appendices ……………………………………………………………………….. 178
A Transmittal Letters ……………………………………………………….. 178
B Letter to the Respondents ………………………………………………… 179
C Sample Computations ……………………………………………………. 180
Curriculum Vitae ……………………………………………………………… 185
35

List of Tables
(3 spaces)

Table Title Page


1 <Title of Table 1> 92
2 <Title of Table 2> 97
3 <Title of Table 3> 100
36

List of Figures
(3 spaces)

Figure Title Page


1 <Title of Table 1> 7
2 <Title of Table 2> 15
3 <Title of Table 3> 98
37

Proposal

ENDORSEMENT FOR ORAL EXAMINATION

This certifies that the research proposal


ENDORSEMENT FORentitled
ORAL __________________________________
EXAMINATION
_______________________________________________________________________________
prepared and submitted by _______________________________________________________ in
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of ______________________________ has
been examined and is endorsed for Oral Examination.

_____________________________
Research Adviser
Approved:

_______________________________
Dean

Completed
ENDORSEMENT FOR ORAL EXAMINATION

This certifies that the completed research entitled ________________________________


_______________________________________________________________________________
prepared and submitted by _______________________________________________________ in
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of ______________________________ has
been examined and is endorsed for Oral Examination.

_____________________________
Research Adviser
Approved:

_______________________________
Dean
38

Proposal
ORAL EXAMINATION SCHEDULE FORM

Please be informed that the research proposal entitled _____________________________


_______________________________________________________________________________
prepared and submitted by _________________________________________________________
will be evaluated by the Oral Examination Committee on the schedule presented below.

Date Time Venue

________________________________
Signature over Printed Name

Completed
ORAL EXAMINATION SCHEDULE FORM

Please be informed that the completed research entitled ____________________________


_______________________________________________________________________________
prepared and submitted by ________________________________________________________
will be evaluated by the Oral Examination Committee on the schedule presented below.

Date Time Venue

______________
_________________
Signature over Printed Name
39

EVALUATION FORM
Name of Researcher/s : ____________________________________________________
Degree Program : ____________________________________________________
Date of Defense : ____________________________________________________
Research Title : ____________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Directions: Please check (/) the number that corresponds to your rating in the
number/line for each item; 1 being the lowest and 5 being the highest.
CRITERIA 1 2 3 4 5
1. Mechanics (5%)
a. General Appearance, including encoding
b. Sentence Structure
c. Semantics/ Rhetoric
d. Referencing/Bibliographic Entries/Appendices
2. Organization (15%)
a. Coherence and consistency (unity of ideas)
b. Clarity (clearness of expression)
c. Emphasis
d. Unity of Structure
(from presentation, interpretation to conclusion)
e. Logical Presentation of the Research
3. Quality of Research Content (30%)
a. Originality
b. Appropriateness of the Presentation Media Used
c. Relevance of the Study
d. Appropriateness of Statistical Treatment
e. Soundness and depth of Findings’ Interpretation
f. Relevance of Conclusions and Recommendations
g. Objectivity in Presentation
4. Researcher’s Ability to Defend the Research (50%)
a. Mastery on the Research Content (10%)
b. Knowledge of the Problem Area and Allied Fields (5%)
c. Clarity and Comprehensiveness of Presentation (10%)
d. Ability to Orally Communicate Answers to Questions (10%)
e. Ability to Keep Discussions on the Main Issues (5%)
e. Ability to Demonstrate a Professional Attitude towards
suggestions and revisions (10%)
TOTAL
______________
N.B. The researcher has to achieve 75% to pass the oral examination.

Evaluated by: ____________________________________________________________


40
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT FORM

This is to acknowledge that copies of the research entitled__________________________


_______________________________________________________________________________
have been submitted by ___________________________________________________________
to the following:

Signature Date
DEAN - one (1) hardbound copy

LIBRARY - two (2) hardbound copies


RESEARCH UNIT - one (1) CD and
abstract printed in the CDD letterhead

LETTERHEAD REQUEST FORM

________________
_
Date
To the Cashier

Please allow Mr./Ms. __________________________________________ of the College of


___________________________________ to buy _____ pieces of the school’s letterhead for the
completion of his/her research.

_________________________
Signature over Printed Name