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org/wiki/WMFJA1/en?utm_medium=sitenotice&utm_campaig n=weekendtesting&utm_source=2010_JA1_Banner3_button_EN1&country_code=IN> Close <#> Theory X and theory Y From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation <#mw-head>, search <#p-search> *Theory X and Theory Y* are theories of human motivation created and developed by Douglas McGregor <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Douglas_McGregor> at the MIT Sloan School of Management <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIT_Sloan_School_of_Management> in the 1960s that have been used in human resource management <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_resource_management>, organizational behavior <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_behavior>, organizational communication <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_communication> and organizational development <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_development>. They describe two very different attitudes toward workforce motivation. McGregor felt that companies followed either one or the other approach. He also thought that the key to connecting self-actualization with work is determined by the managerial trust of subordinates. Contents [hide <#>] * * * * * * * 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Theory X <#Theory_X> Theory Y <#Theory_Y> Theory X and Theory Y combined <#Theory_X_and_Theory_Y_combined> McGregor and Maslow's hierarchy <#McGregor_and_Maslow.27s_hierarchy> Criticisms <#Criticisms> See also <#See_also> References <#References>

[edit <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Theory_X_and_theory_Y&action=edit &section=1>] Theory X In this theory, which has been proven counter-effective in most modern practice, management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can and that they inherently dislike work. As a result of this, management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed. A hierarchical structure is needed with narrow span of control <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Span_of_control> at each and every level.

Usually these managers feel the sole purpose of the employee <http://en. This theory is a positive view to the employees. Papa (Ph. Many people interpret Theory Y as a positive set of beliefs about workers. and a punitive atmosphere.org/w/index. St. This would include managers communicating openly with subordinates. but their talents are underused in most organizations. According to Michael J. highly restrictive supervision. to them work is as natural as play^[1] <#cite_note-0> .php?title=Theory_X_and_theory_Y&action=edit &section=2>] Theory Y In this theory. or lack of training that deserves the blame.wikipedia. given the right conditions. Beliefs of this theory lead to mistrust.org/wiki/Employee> s interest in the job is money.. minimizing the difference between superior-subordinate relationships.php?title=Theory_X_and_theory_Y&action=edit &section=3>] Theory X and Theory Y combined For McGregor. They believe that the satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation. creating a comfortable environment in which subordinates can develop and use their abilities. [edit <http://en. A Theory Y manager believes that. theory X managers rely heavily on threat and coercion to gain their employee s compliance. Theory X and Y are not different ends of the same         .wikipedia. employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can. They will blame the person first in most situations. Given the proper conditions.org/wiki/Diseconomies_of_Scale> in large businesses. Temple University. This climate would include the sharing of decision making so that subordinates have say in decisions that influence them. Central Michigan University. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. M. John’s University). without questioning whether it may be the system. He thinks that Theory Y managers are more likely than Theory X managers to develop the climate of trust with employees that is required for human resource development. One major flaw of this management style is it is much more likely to cause Diseconomies of Scale <http://en. policy. that they would rather avoid responsibility and that it is the manager s job to structure the work and energize the employee. theory Y managers believe that employees will learn to seek out and accept responsibility and to exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed. most people will want to do well at work. [edit <http://en. management assumes employees /may be/ ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control.According to this theory. He or she thinks all prospective employees are only out for themselves. They possess the ability for creative problem solving. meaning that the employer is under a lot less pressure than some one who is influenced by a theory X management style. The Theory X manager tends to believe that everything must end in blaming someone.wikipedia.A. if the organizational goals are to be met.D.A.wikipedia. A close reading of The Human Side of Enterprise reveals that McGregor simply argues for managers to be open to a more positive view of workers and the possibilities that this creates. A Theory X manager believes that his or her employees do not really want to work.. It s here through human resource development that is a crucial aspect of any organization. According to Papa.org/w/index.. B.

org/w/index.org/wiki/Organizational_culture>. Today. He grouped Maslow s hierarchy into "lower order" (Theory X) needs and "higher order" (Theory Y) needs. He suggested that management could use either set of needs to motivate employees.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_Z> .Another                 .wikipedia.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow%27s_hierarchy_of_needs>. Recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model. Most employees (and managers) fall somewhere in between these poles."^[2] <#cite_note-1> [edit <http://en.php?title=Theory_X_and_theory_Y&action=edit &section=4>] McGregor and Maslow s hierarchy McGregor s work was based on Maslow s hierarchy of needs <http://en.a later work/organizational motivation theory which is likely derivative of Theory Y * Scientific management <http://en. his Theory Y principle influences the design of personnel policies.org/w/index. that does not preclude them from being a part of Theory X & Y." Taken too literally any such dichotomy including Theory X and Y seem to represent unrealistic extremes. Naturally. If organizational goals and individual needs could be integrated so that people would acquire self-esteem and. to organizational development <http://en.continuum. McGregor was well aware of the heuristic as opposed to literal way in which such distinctions are useful.php?title=Theory_X_and_theory_Y&action=edit &section=5>] Criticisms Today the theories are seldom used explicitly. ultimately.wikipedia. workplaces are described as "hard" versus "soft. "The idea that people are assets was unheard of before McGregor. More commonly. [edit <http://en. they soon realized the possibility of connecting higher level needs to worker motivation.org/wiki/Scientific_management> .wikipedia. affects the way companies conduct performance reviews.org/wiki/Organizational_development>. According to the /Douglas McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y/ article.wikipedia. largely because the insights they provided have influenced and been incorporated by further generations of management theorists and practitioners. but McGregor s X-Y Theory remains a guiding principle of positive approaches to management. Rather they are two different continua in themselves. Theory X and Theory Y are still important terms in the field of management and motivation. if a manager needs to apply Theory Y principles. and to improving organizational culture <http://en. self-actualization through work.php?title=Theory_X_and_theory_Y&action=edit &section=6>] See also * Theory Z <http://en. [edit <http://en. and shapes the idea of pay for performance.wikipedia.org/w/index. "He is the reason we use the term human resources instead of personnel department" says Brzezinski. As management theorists became familiar with Maslow s work. then motivation would be self-sustaining. Thus.wikipedia.

.businessballs.org/w/index.1/4p.pdf> A free diagram of the Theory X and Theory Y [edit <http://en.org/w/index.org/w/index.1 bw.D.org/wiki/Category:Motivational_theories> Organizational Communication <http://en.php?title=Theory_X_and_theory_Y&action=ed it> * View history <http://en.php?title=Theory_X_and_theory_Y&action=hi story> .wikipedia.J.org/w/index. Jan2002.wikipedia. B. M.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_X_and_theory_Y> * Edit <http://en. 2. T.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Theory_X_and_theory_Y> Variants<#> Views * Read <http://en.php?title=Special:UserLogin&returnto=Theo ry_X_and_theory_Y> Namespaces * Article <http://en.org/w/index.wikipedia. (2008).php?title=Category:Organizational_Communication &action=edit&redlink=1> Project management <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_X_and_theory_Y> * Discussion <http://en.org/wiki/Special:Categories>: Management <http://en.org/wiki/Category:Project_management> Personal tools * New features <http://en.management theory * [1] <http://www. *^ <#cite_ref-0>* Papa.wikipedia. p32.com/mcgregorxytheorydiagram. Daniels.org/wiki/Theory_X_and_theory_Y" Categories <http://en.org/wiki/Category:Organizational_studies_and_human_resource _management> Motivational theories <http://en. Organizational communication: Perspectives and trends. 81 Issue 1.wikipedia.php?title=Theory_X_and_theory_Y&action=edit &section=7>] References 1.wikipedia..wikipedia. *^ <#cite_ref-1>* /Douglas McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y/. Thousand Oaks.org/w/index.wikipedia. Vol.wikipedia. Workforce.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Management> Organizational studies and human resource management <http://en.wikipedia. CA: Sage.wikipedia.php?title=Special:UsabilityInitiativePref Switch&from=Theory_X_and_theory_Y> * Log in / create account <http://en.K. & Spiker. Retrieved from "http://en.

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