Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Purchasing Behaviour on Clothing: Comparison between China and the UK’s Consumers

By Kwok Keung Tam

2007

A Dissertation presented in part consideration for the degree of “MSc International Business”

Table of Content
Page numbers Abstract i

Acknowledgements

ii

Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 The importance of brand image on fashion clothing 1.2 Background information of China and the UK clothing markets 1.2.1 China clothing market 1.2.1.1 Chinese spending habits 1.2.1.2 Impediments to China’s clothing brand development 1.2.2 UK clothing market 1.2.2.1 British spending habits 1.2.2.2 Characteristics of the UK clothing market 1.3 Theoretical framework 1.4 Objectives of the dissertation 1.5 Outline of the dissertation

1 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 8

Chapter 2: Literature review 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The important roles of brand 2.2.1 The characteristics of successful brands 2.3 Brand equity 2.3.1 Brand awareness 2.3.2 Perceived quality 2.3.3 Brand loyalty 2.3.4 Brand association 2.4 Consumer buying behaviour

10 10 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 19

2.4.1 Models of consumer behaviour 2.5 Summary

20 23

Chapter 3: Methodology 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Theoretical backgrounds 3.2.1 Review of different research traditions 3.2.2 Quantitative versus qualitative analysis 3.2.3 Reliability and validity of data 3.3 Justification of research method 3.4 Sampling 3.5 Interview schedule 3.5.1 Stage one 3.5.2 Stage two 3.5.3 Stage three 3.6 Administration 3.7 Analysis strategy 3.7.1 Grounded theory and its relationship to qualitative data analysis 3.7.2 Within-case and cross-case analysis 3.7.2.1 Within-case analysis 3.7.2.2 Cross-case analysis 3.8 Summary

24 24 24 24 25 26 27 29 31 31 32 34 34 34 34

35 36 37 37

Chapter 4: Research findings and discussion 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Backgrounds of respondents 4.3 Effect of clothing brand image on consumer buying behaviour 4.3.1 Significance of clothing brands on consumer purchasing decisions 4.3.2 Brand awareness

38 38 38 40 40

43

6 Consumer buying behaviour 5.4 Implications 5.4 Results 4.5 Brand association 4.1 Introduction 5.2 Brand awareness 5.3.3 Perceived quality 5.5 Brand association 5.2.2.3.1 Significance of clothing brands on consumer purchasing decisions 5.4 Brand loyalty 5.2.3 Perceived quality 4.4.3.3 Limitations 5.2.3.2 Conclusions 5.5 Recommendations for further research 58 58 58 58 59 59 60 60 61 61 62 64 References 66 Appendix 1: The 100 top brands 2006 79 Appendix 2: Interview questions 80 Appendix 3: Interview transcription 81 .6 Consumer buying behaviour 4.2.2.5 Summary 46 50 53 54 56 57 Chapter 5: Conclusions 5.4 Brand loyalty 4.

In the UK. clothing brands are much better developed than its China counterparts. Having known that China has no influential clothing brands around the world. however. The findings suggested that Chinese tend to have negative perceptions towards the quality of clothes produced in their own country. it is important that Chinese factory owners together with marketers should join hands to have better control over the clothes quality. more emphasis should be placed on the marketing strategies such as rewarding customer loyalty with a view to enhance the sustainable development of the clothing brands.Abstract Brand is a powerful tool to attract more consumers to buy particular products. Semi-structured interviews have been conducted to solicit responses from interviewees for analysis. namely brand awareness. i . Some may even regarded it as equity as it can add values to the products. This study examines the factors which contribute to brand equity in the clothing industry. perceived quality. brand loyalty and brand association. comparing the consumer behaviour between the British and Chinese respondents based on the four respects of brand equity.

He has not only inspired me to do this dissertation. especially my father Chun Shiu Tam who has devoted himself to the clothing industry for nearly half a century. Dr. in assisting me to finish the dissertation.Acknowledgements I would like to thank my advisor. but also encouraged me to face the challenge ahead. I would like to extend my gratitude to my family members. Last but not least. In addition. Vicky Story. She has given me support as well as valuable comments throughout the consultation period so that I can manage to handle one of the hardest subjects in my university life. ii . I would also acknowledge my school-mates for their help in the data collection process. This dissertation is dedicated to my family and I will try my best to do anything. They have devoted their precious time for the interviews voluntarily and their wholehearted support contributes to the success of this dissertation.

namely pre-purchase. choose the buying modes. 2000). These highlight the complication of buying processes and the potential impact a brand could impose in between them. have become popular not only in their country of origin. the purchasing processes can be divided into three stages. show satisfaction to the services or product quality and finally be loyal to the brand. as a matter of fact. purchase and post-purchase. read product information. As mentioned by Rayport and Jaworski (2003).1 The importance of brand image on fashion clothing Clothing. Thus. Once consumers make a purchasing decision. Nowadays. consumers may need to recognize their personal needs. different genders and cultural backgrounds. under the influence of globalization and concerted efforts from media advertising. 1 . clothing can help represent our personal identity. Several brands. determine whether to buy again from the same retailer. Having a strong and remarkable brand image could help establish an identity in marketplace (Aaker. Each stage is of equal importance that can alter the consumer buying decision.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. clothes can also serve as fashion items. express the status an individual has and what their personal image is like (O’Cass. Owing to the proliferation of brands in the clothing sector. 1996). Shopping for clothes is one of the popular pastimes among people from all ages. decide which and where to buy. which can tell how significant an individual is. is a kind of necessity that helps keep our bodies warm. consumers need to take serious consideration during the buying processes. Human beings cannot live without the protection from clothes in adverse conditions and this signifies how important clothing is for us. in addition to the basic functions. but also in other markets with high potential.

1998. 1993. encourage greater intermediary co-operation as well as increase the chance for further brand extension (Delgado-Ballester and Munuera-Aleman. contributing to 74.2. (2004). managing brand image is of utmost importance. 1. Ailawadi. On the other hand. 1996. This may probably explain why China is now becoming one of the most influential countries within the clothing sector. Keller. 2000). The differences in their economies have triggered the interest of my study towards their consumer buying behaviour in the clothing sector. 1991. the concept of brand equity would be utilized as a theoretical framework. The importance of brand image has inspired many marketing scholars and practitioners to begin researching the concept of ‘brand equity’ (Aaker. 1.1 China clothing market The clothing industry is one of the most important and hence heavily invested industry in China.widen the profit margins. 1993). 2003). In this paper. Being an advanced developing country. In accordance with Delong et al. 2000. In order to differentiate one brand from another. 2001. Corstjens and Lal. Under this concept. brands are regarded as valuable assets which can help the companies generate lucrative revenues. China tends to be more dependent on labour-intensive production activities rather than natural resource-based activities (Greenaway and Milner. marketers would develop retail brands with unique image so as to continue to gain popularity and market share (Abend. consumers appear to rely on the brand image as long as they have little knowledge about the brand. which would be illustrated in the following chapters. the UK has transformed from an industrial country to a well-developed country in the recent decades. In this way. 2005).16 billion US dollars in terms of export value and leading it to become the second largest clothing export market in 2 .2 Background information of China and the UK clothing markets China and the UK are entirely different in their economic structures.

for instances low labour costs and large portions of usable land. to further strengthen its position in the clothing sector. the development of clothing industry in China becomes even much faster. This disparity is probably due to the fact that professionals have higher spending power than the students’. This points out the fact that a large majority of Chinese is still in favor of domestic brands in low-priced range. this would also engender intense competition since foreign firms are allowed to sell their products directly to China. Chinese customers show divergent opinions with respect to purchasing clothes. On average. 2006). Nowadays. The HKTDC (2002) research also reports on the average annual spending on clothing. respondents rank fitness as their prime concern. Regarding the criteria for buying clothes.3% of their income on buying clothes with women professionals having the highest demand and students’ spending the minimal amount. It is undeniable that the entry of WTO would provide business opportunities for China. people spend 7. the Grey China Base Annual Consumer Study (Bates.1. 1998) reveals that over two thirds of the consumers regard domestic brands as their first priority. However. 3 . China plays a role as a producer.2. However. Chinese brands have competitive advantage in fitness and pricing (Delong et al. It is shown that they would prefer buying middle-priced range clothes from Hong Kong and luxury brand-named clothes made in foreign countries.1 Chinese spending habits According to a research conducted by the Hong Kong Trade Development Council (HKTDC) (2002). however. It is believed that China could make use of its competitive advantages. quality and finally trendiness. With the accession of World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. As stated by Cui (1997).2005 (WTO.. followed by cutting. wielding the techniques and human resources to finish the orders placed by the foreign counterparts. pricing. 1. China is known for the manufacture of basic goods in large volumes and foreign registered brands are often designed elsewhere and produced in China. 2004).

The originally advantageous factors. they often find Hong Kong and Taiwan brand names confusing. Schmitt and Pan (1994) state that Chinese customers could not be able to differentiate between US and European apparel brands. become a major hindrance to the global brands’ development process. 1. According to a report published by Business Week (2007).people still tend to buy luxury clothes produced in the foreign markets.. This spells out the need for China to establish its own brands with good reputation. Besides. They tend to perceive US brands positively as US has a reputation in technological development and high fashion. 2004).2. However. none of the Chinese brands can enter the 100 Top Brands in 2006 (see Appendix 1) in which Nike was ranked 31. China has been connoted with the reputation of low-cost products in the overseas markets for decades. Such findings provide insights to the future development of local brands in China.1. Also.to middle-priced range market without fully penetrating to the luxurious level. The lack of brand knowledge is probably attributed to the geographical and political differences. however.2 Impediments to China’s clothing brand development China has competitive advantages in terms of production factors such as low labour costs and growing technology. followed by adidas in 71 and the Spain-found clothing company ZARA in 73. Cui (1997) points out that customers would only justify a brand through its image as long as they know little about it. When it comes to the case 4 . however. This is possibly owing to the fact that Chinese brands are confined to low. such confusion does not affect the overall perception towards brands in other countries. Lim and O’Cass (2001) explain that people in the west tend to have negative perception towards brands from emerging economies and hence the number of famous clothing brands in China is limited. the lack of globally influential brands is one of the main reasons why China lags behind in the clothing industry with respect to brand development (Delong et al.

1. Regarding its GDP growth. The manufacturing sector. 2007). which is 21 times less than that of China (Economist. it is pursuing a stable rather than aggressive GDP growth rate. females are more likely 5 . contributing to nearly 30% of the total domestic products (Economist. just around one-third of female respondents and less than half of the male respondents express that they have the saving habits.1 British spending habits Spending seems more welcome than saving among the British people. According to a research reported by Hargrave-Silk (2005. regardless of their quality. With such impetus and the concerted effort from the industry members. March 25). Among the respondents. 2007). because of its mature economic structure. In addition. nearly two thirds of the companies in China would like to establish their own global brand. the business services and finance sector are the most important source of gross domestic products. The key motivation for doing so is to build up a global image so as to enhance the company’s international reputation and it is suggested that quality is the major determinant for the overseas customers to make their buying decisions. This can be revealed by the gradual decline of employment rate within the UK clothing industry (Jones and Hayes. 1.about the perception of China-produced foreign brands. including the clothing industry. it is ironic that most respondents find that they are less authentic. According to a research conducted by Weekes (2004).2 UK clothing market The UK is a European country with population of around 60 million. The image of China-produced products needs improvement in this sense.com. 2004). the overall image of Chinese brands could become better in the future. pales in comparison with the development of the business sector and even has a sign of recession in the recent decades.2.com.2.2.

Moore. 2002). 1998. fashion retailers tend to create product differentiation in which they can distinguish themselves from their potential competitors in terms of product features like design and price. However. However. This could be explained by the fact that store cards sometimes have much higher interest rates than that of the credit cards and personal loans (Mintel. 1999). This may possibly explain why shopping is a gendered activity (Dholakia. as well as fluctuating consumer demand (Marciniak and Bruce. South and Spitze. and occasionally.2. this is found to hinder the development of British clothing design due to lack of manufacturing facilities (Dagworthy. leaving alone the design centre with well-trained designers. Although the UK is overwhelmed with fashion brands. In 6 . 2003). Store cards and loyalty cards are common promotional tactics to solicit consumer’s loyalty. as cited in Carruthers. 1. the UK clothing industry has shifted its manufacturing section to other countries with low labour costs and skilled labour.2 Characteristics of the UK clothing market Like most of the developed economy. 2004). there is a trend for own brand development.to spend on clothes than males. a polarized marketplace. Such move can probably account for the significant drop in employment rate and amount of output in the clothing sector (Jones. 2003).. 2004. short-life-cycle products. 1999. the same research shows that store cards may not be regularly used even though special offers are often given to the cardholders (Weekes. the market is characterized by products with small differentiation (Birtwhistle and Freathy.2. As mentioned by Moore (1995). with nearly half of female respondents saying that they have at least one store card and nearly two-thirds of them own one or two loyalty cards. strong competitive activities. concentrated markets. Siddiqui et al. women may even shop for men’s clothing (Dholakia. 1995). 2004). As far as the UK fashion retail sector is concerned. 1994).

namely brand awareness. Having found out the relationship between brand image and consumer purchasing behaviour. the fashion retailing sector is found to incorporate the largest number of indigenous chains such as Next plc (Marciniak and Bruce. As stated by Bearden and Etzel (as cited in Hogg et al. 1998). brand equity is mainly derived from four elements.. Compared with other retailed sector. 2004. 1. clothing is a kind of public 7 .3 Theoretical framework With a well-known brand name. composing of independent. with the later one contributing to the largest proportion of market share (Easey. This phenomenon spells out the concept of brand equity. As far as the same level of product quality is concerned. Mintel. Marciniak and Bruce. Such phenomena have stimulated the emergence of brand name development in the competitive UK clothing market. with the comparison between the Chinese and British consumers. consumers would prefer buying brand-name products (Bello and Holbrook. family-owed businesses and some large scale chain stores.addition. 2004). perceived brand equity and brand associations. brand loyalty.4 Objectives of the dissertation The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the effect of brand image on consumer purchasing behaviour in clothing. 1. 2003). According to Aaker (1991). 2001. The theoretical framework adopted in this dissertation would be based on the concept of brand equity and the details of each element are to be discussed and analyzed later in chapter four. the retailing sector is fragmented. 1995). consumers would appear to be more likely to purchase the products in much higher prices. The clothing sector is particularly chosen in this research. marketers and practitioners could devise strategies to increase the sales revenues.

2007. is on the lookout for extensions. Famous clothing brands like H&M and ZARA have already obtained their footholds in these two markets that underlie their significant contribution to these companies (H&M. 1. China. The results of such comparison would offer meaningful insights for further brand development in both China and the UK. Chapter 2 will incorporate the review of previous studies. It is believed that this chapter could provide readers with general information like theories and issues in relation to consumer buying behaviour for clothes so as to make them more 8 .5 Outline of the dissertation The structure of the dissertation is shown as follows: Chapter 1 is the introductory section. results obtained from the research on brand image could be more conspicuous. mainly concentrating on clothing industry and consumer buying behaviour. First. Two assumptions are made throughout the dissertation. In this way.necessity with weak reference group influence on the product category but strong reference group influence on the brand choice. brand image should have an impact on the consumer buying behaviour of clothing and second. ZARA. In addition. being an emerging country with high potential on clothing brands. whereas the UK is a mature market in which consumers are more experienced in purchasing brand-name clothes. Chinese and British consumers are going to be compared in this research since China and the UK have been targeted by many clothing retailers due to their enormous customer base. the research objectives and the dissertation outline. 2007). containing the background information of China and the UK clothing industry. there are differences in buying behaviour for consumers in China and the UK.

Whether brand image would affect the consumer buying behaviour in the clothing sector is shown and also the similarities and differences regarding the circumstances in China and the UK are investigated. Chapter 5 would draw conclusions on the findings from the previous chapters. Recommendations would be made with regard to the limitations so as to provide further directions in the future studies.understandable in the forthcoming sections. Implications towards the business environment and research limitations are also included. 9 . focusing on the description of research design and justification of data. Chapter 3 delineates the research methodology. Chapter 4 is the core of the dissertation in which research findings are presented and discussed.

brand is a guarantor of reliability and quality 10 . However. regardless of the importance of cross-country comparisons which will inspire innovative ideas for understanding the fast-changing consumer habits. From the consumers’ perspective. The emergence of brand equity underlies the importance of brand in marketing tactics and hence provides useful insights for managers and further research (Keller. Owing to the proliferation of brands in the recent decades. most of them concentrate on a single country study. a brand is also composed of products. the literatures concerning the roles of brand and brand equity are to be reviewed so as to provide a theoretical framework for the aforementioned analysis.Chapter 2 Literature Review 2. packaging.1 Introduction Consumer behaviour refers to the activities in which people acquire. 1991. as well as its overall presentation (Murphy. 1991. 1998) and it is characterized by a noticeable name or symbol which can differentiate the goods and services from the rivals’ (Aaker. there is a growing number of research conducted in the field of consumer buying behaviour. This dissertation is going to investigate the differences of British and Chinese in purchasing clothes under the influence of brand image. 2001).. Murphy. In addition to a specific brand name. 2.2 The important roles of brand Brand is a name in every consumer’s mind (Mooij. consume and dispose products and services (Blackwell et al. Brand serves a pivotal role for distinguishing goods and services from those of the competitors (Aaker. In this chapter. 1998). 1998). advertising. 1998). promotion. Keller. 2003).

1998). Fennis and Pruyn.1 The characteristics of successful brands A brand can be an everlasting and lucrative asset as long as it is maintained in a good manner that can continue satisfying consumers’ needs (Batchelor. augmented brand and potential brand. As mentioned by Levitt (1983). 1999. Nowadays. considers the packaging of the tangible product so as to attract the attention from the potential customers.in consumer products (Roman et al. there are four elements for building a successful brand.2. Finally and most importantly. consumers would have their preferences. which are developed in accordance with their perceptions towards the brand. Murphy. 1998). basic brand. Tangible product refers to the commodity which meets the basic needs of the customers. a potential brand is established through engendering customer 11 . 2005).. 2. When deciding which products to purchase. on the other hand. effective after-sales services and the like. 2006). According to a research conducted by Freeride Media LLC (1998) on shopping habits. Added to this. It is found that consumers’ emotions are one of the major determinants which affect their buying behaviour (Berry. Although successful brands can be totally different in nature. 2000). they share something in common. for instances well-priced products and consistent quality (Murphy. 1998. 1999). Successful branding could make consumers aware of the presence of the brand and hence could increase the chance of buying the company’s products and services (Doyle. namely tangible product. consumers have a wide range of choice to choose from when they enter a shopping mall. Basic brand. The brand can be further augmented with the provision of credibility. nearly one-forth of the respondents are likely to impulse-buy clothes and accessories. consumers would like to buy and use brand-name products with a view to highlight their personality in different situational contexts (Aaker.

which could impose beneficial or detrimental effects on the values arising from the products or services (Aaker. 2002). 1991. However. brand is also a tradable product with measurable financial value (Murphy. Vodafone. Keller (1998) points out that brand equity signifies the unique marketing effects imposed on the brand. 12 . the image of the brand could be well instilled in the customers’ mind. Added to this. One of the quintessential examples regarding brand as a kind of equity is the imposition of laws to protect intellectual property (Murphy. 2007). it happens when consumers are willing to pay more for the same level of quality just because of the attractiveness of the name attached to the product (Bello and Holbrook. In addition. brand equity could be ruined if it is not properly managed.3 Brand equity The term ‘brand equity’ refers to a set of assets and liabilities associated with a brand. Marks and Spencer. By doing so. including its name and symbol. 1998). not to mention the growth or declines of retail sales (Blackwell. 2007). 1996). the values of brands have been recognized to both the consumers and producers. 1995). patents. In order to combat piracy. designs as well as copyright.. Concerning the positive side of brand equity. Yasin et al. poor product quality and customer services could adversely affect the brand image. For instance. Sainsbury and Tesco are all listed on the FTSE 100 index (London Stock Exchange.preference and loyalty. This is supported by the fact that brand equity depends on the number of people with regular purchase (Aaker. giving rise to a reduction in sales volume. Brands like HSBC. many countries have set up laws to protect trade marks. 1998). It is found that the volatility of stock market could affect consumers’ purchasing mood. It is not uncommon to find some familiar brands listed on the stock markets in which they could be bought or sold. In countries with well-established legal system. 2.

For instance. These four main areas are to be discussed in the coming sections. 1991). Past purchasing experiences and familiarity with the brand could be attributable to the perceptions generated from the consumers (Aaker. 1991). For the consumers.3. perceived quality and brand associations (Aaker. consumers no longer focus on the short-term promotion but the brand on the whole. brand equity could also allow higher margins through premium pricing and reduced reliance upon promotional activities (Aaker.1 Brand awareness Brand awareness is one of major determinants of brand equity. linking the brand with its corresponding product class (Aaker. name awareness. brand equity could provide them with information about the brand which influences their confidence during the purchasing process. There is a high propensity for consumers with good perceptions to buy from the same shop again than those with poor perceptions. with brand recognition being the lowest level and the first named brand with unaided recall being the highest level. Owning to the positive image. Besides. This is due to the fact that the product needs to enter the awareness set before it comes to the consideration 13 . namely brand loyalty. 1991. 2005). brand equity could also be a source for the firm to generate cash flow. It refers to the ability of a potential consumer to recall and recognize the brand. It is important for the potential consumers to be aware of a product so that it can become one of the purchasing choices.The above examples highlight the values of brand equity for both consumers and the firm. 1991). the merger between adidas and Reebok in 2005 not only increased their market share so as to compete with Nike in the US sports apparel market. Keller. but also attracted more people to invest in the bigger company with high potential (Business Week. As for the firm. Brand equity is a broad concept which can be further subdivided into four main areas. 1998). 2. The level of brand awareness lies in a continuum.

has once been a colony of the UK. 1986. Tsai et al.set (Blackwell et al. As for source 14 . celebrity endorsement can give rise to source credibility and source attractiveness. due to their political separations. As mentioned by Keller (1998). 2005). its geographical location and politics could affect the consumer brand awareness level seriously. namely increasing brand name identity and associating it with the product class. Chinese consumers cannot distinguish US apparel brand names from the European ones. brand awareness can be enhanced through repeat exposure to the brand. brands with higher level of awareness would be more likely to be purchased (Yasin et al. celebrities can disseminate messages to particular consumers and hence increase the brand awareness. 1990.. In addition. Several factors can alter the level of brand awareness. Advertising and celebrity endorsement could be some useful tools for raising brand awareness. In this way. affecting consumer’s intention to purchase (Mackenzie et al. as pointed out by McGuire (1978). 2007). 2007). being a special administrative region since 1997. Macdonald and Sharp. This could probably explain why consumers tend to buy a recognizable brand rather than an unfamiliar one (Hoyer. Consumers are hence well-equipped with comparative elements to judge which product or service to purchase (Alvarez and Casielles. two tasks are to be accomplished. Moreover. owing to geographical differences. 1990). (2004).. 2001) and an increase in brand awareness is conducive to a higher chance of entering the later set (Nedungadi. In recent decades. According to research conducted by Delong et al. 2000). Taiwan would like to become politically independent from China owing to their different political standpoint whereas Hong Kong. there is an increasing number of advertising campaigns around the world. In case of China. brands from Taiwan and Hong Kong are sometimes confused. For long time. It is found that advertisement attitude is attributable to the influence on brand attitudes.. For source credibility. In order to achieve brand awareness..

Perceived quality of a brand could help generate values by providing a pivotal reason-to-buy.3. Similar to brand awareness. differentiating the position of a brand. on the other hand. It is defined as the customer’s perception of the overall quality or superiority of a product or service (Aaker. Regarding product quality. 2. motivating channel members to perform well and also introducing extensions into new brand categories (Aaker. Since it is a kind of intangible. the country-of-origin of a product is found to affect its perceived quality (Khachaturian and Morganosky. there are seven dimensions which affect the consumers’ perception. In addition to the aforementioned dimensions. Service quality. features. 2004). 1989). is judged by its corresponding tangibles. To be more specific. it is becoming more difficult to obtain satisfactory level of perceived quality owing to the fact that fast and continuous product advancement has already strengthened consumers’ expectations on product quality (Sherman. In addition. 2007). This association can raise the public awareness towards the brand. 1990) and also the perceptions towards the 15 . reliability. perceived quality is determined by a number of factors. conformance with specifications. it is found that perceived quality is of utmost importance in determining brand loyalty as well as repeat purchase (Delong et al.2 Perceived quality Another important attribute to brand equity is perceived quality.. Keller. Nevertheless. overall feeling towards a brand. charging premium price. successful endorsement can associate the culture of the celebrity world with the endorsed product (McCracken.attractiveness. 1998. 1992). perceived quality can further be classified into product quality and service quality. competence. reliability. durability. Yasin. namely performance. 1991). responsiveness and empathy (Aaker. 1991). it is subjective in nature and hence the knowledge of actual detailed product specifications could have little correlation with the perceived quality. serviceability as well as fit and finish. 1991.

loyalty to a brand can enhance trade leverage. 1993). having loyal customers is a kind of blessing. loyal customers could influence the others to purchase the brand. price is one of the important cues to evaluate perceived quality (Aaker. Based on the practice that repeat buying is one of the indicators for brand loyalty. For many companies. challenges that such measure may not be totally accurate. however.. It is found that price is more relevant in judging the perceived quality of a product given that a person lacks the ability to evaluate the quality of a product. Under the influence of brand loyalty.. Third. Keller (1998). 1991). regardless of the superior features. In this case. Loyal customers confer to a higher possibility of repeat purchases and it is less costly to keep customers than to get new ones. This is due to the fact that some consumers make habitual purchase towards a particular brand just because of its prominence in stock and effective promotions.purchased value (Ahmed and d’Astou. Hence. consumers continue to buy the brand. The more loyal the consumers are towards the brand. 2005). First. 2. This is typically true when the product concerned is somewhat risky. prices and convenience owned by its competitors (Aaker. 1991). 1991). it can help reduce the marketing costs of doing business (Aaker.3. consumers are assured to buy the product if they have some friends or relatives who 16 . Brand loyalty is regarded as valuable asset under different circumstances. As mentioned by Srikatanyoo and Gnoth (2002). consumers are inclined to develop stereotypical beliefs about the products from particular countries.3 Brand loyalty Brand loyalty is one of the core components of brand equity and also positively and directly affected brand equity (Atilgan et al. Some consumers with strong affiliation to one brand would switch to the shop in which a designated brand is sold. Moreover. 1991). the less vulnerable the customer base would be. Second. consumers could have their preferences for products made from one country over another (Papadopoulos et al.

consisting of multiple ideas. several airlines like Cathay Pacific. Hence.3. 1991). which contribute to a specific brand image. (2007) further note that equity of a brand is largely supported by consumers’ associations towards the brand. 2000). customer satisfaction level needs to be properly managed through conducting consumer research.4 Brand association The last dimension for brand equity is brand association. 2000).recommend the same model of product. 2. 1995. In addition to the tangible products. Bansal and Voyer.. This suggests why word-of-mouth communication is one of the most powerful tools in the marketplace (Henricks. Brand association is such a complicated concept that connects to one another. the intangible qualities. it is important to treat the customer with respect in order to keep them loyal. 2000). brand loyalty can help provide ample time for the firm to response to competitors’ newly launched products. Marney. 1997. episodes. It is defined as the specific linkage between the memory and the brand (Aaker. According to Aaker (1991). 1998. Finally. as well as personal communication sources in making purchasing decision rather than more formal and organizational advertising campaigns (Bansal and Voyer. Silverman. examples. Moreover. the firm could make good use of the time lapse to develop more superior products in order to compete with its rivals. KLM and chain stores such as TOPMAN provide club-cards or loyalty cards to reward their customers with discounts and other benefits. and facts that create a brand knowledge network (Yoo et al. many firms would devise different strategies to maintain and enhance the loyalty from customers. Consumers usually depend on informal. Customers can also be rewarded for their loyalty towards the firms so that they will continue to buy the products. 17 . Due to the values obtained from brand loyalty. Keller (1998) and Yasin et al. for instances innovativeness and distinctiveness are also taken into account as brand associations. For instance.

As for non-product related attributes. they are related to consumers’ emotional feelings. Associations towards a brand can create value for the firm and so its customers in a number of ways. Consumers are attracted by the signal when they purchase a product in a particular brand. Symbolic benefits. Finally. Associations can also be used to trigger the customers to recall their past experiences. making the customers remember the brand by heart. First of all. Such kind of associations can provide bases for them to make purchase decisions and even become loyal to the brand (Aaker. benefits and attitudes. Second. They can be classified into functional. Attributes refer to the specific characteristics a product has. attitudes are regarded as the consumers’ overall assessments towards a brand. experimental and symbolic. It is about brand positioning that a well-positioned brand will find it hard to be attacked by its competitors due to its uniqueness. Different brands have different associations to their prospective customers. Signal effect is determined by the image of consumers and also the personality of the brand. 1991). They incorporate summary evaluations of information which represent how consumers feel in a long run. on the other hand. namely attributes. they help the customers to process or retrieve information (Keller. price information. Function benefits signify the physical or basic advantages a brand may have. Attributes can be further categorized into product-related attributes as well as non-product related attributes. refer to the signal effect that a brand may impose on the consumers. 1998). user imagery as well as usage imagery are to be considered. This can make the brand 18 . 1998). Benefits are another category in brand associations. 1998) further divides brand associations into three categories. For product-related attributes. lying in a continuum from positive to negative (Gabbott and Hogg. the overall features of the product or service are concerned.Keller (1993. For experimental benefits. packaging. brand associations can differentiate one brand from another. Customers are sometimes forgetful and associations towards a brand serve as a brief summary for the customers to make their purchasing decision.

some associations can engender positive feelings. such phenomenon is one of the most interesting and hence heavily investigated topics in the marketing field. As mentioned by Schiffman and Kanuk (2000). contributing to its higher premium price. Brand image possibly affects how consumers perceive the brand and hence their purchasing behaviour.unbeatable but it is quite difficult to achieve since consumer taste changes quite rapidly. however. ideas or experiences.4 Consumer buying behaviour Many people do consume a wide range of products every day. Third. 2006). First of all. the specific brand image attached on a product may differentiate itself from the others. services. a vivid brand image is established. buy. For examples. consumer behaviour is about how people make their decisions on personal or household products with the use of their available resources such as time. Consumers would have their preferences in purchasing products from specific retailers and hence the remaining retailers 19 . There may be products on the market with similar quality and design. 2. from basic necessities to high-valued collectables. Forth.. Gabbott and Hogg (1998) and Blackwell et al. Madonna appearance in H&M’s collection advertisement can stimulate customers their positive feelings about the products. adidas slogan ‘Impossible is nothing’. Owing to the proliferation of products in the market. money and effort. use or dispose the products. (2006) further provide a holistic view that defines consumer behaviour as the activities and the processes in which individuals or groups choose. brand associations may include some product attributes or consumer benefits which encourage the consumers to purchase the brand. Once brand associations are constructed in a meaningful way. consumer behaviour can influence the economic health of a nation (Blackwell et al. The study of consumer buying behaviour is of utmost importance in a number of aspects.

Rayport and Jaworski. present consumer behaviour studies regard consumers as important determinants of organizational success and it is found that the most successful organizations are customer-centric (Blackwell et al. These seven steps include need recognition. 2006). For instance. comprising acquisition of goods and services. 2006). consumption. purchase and post-purchase (Hoyer and Maclnnis. The notion ‘the consumer is king’ should be deep-rooted in every business people’s mind that they should try to please these kings using their innovative methods. Although they vary in form of presentation. Based on this loophole. evaluation.1 Models of consumer behaviour Several models are developed with a view to provide explanations for the consumer buying behaviours. through understanding the reasons for consumers to buy the products and their buying habits. which companies to succeed. search for information. such definition falls short of the continuity of the processes.. 20 post-consumption evaluation and . (2001) define consumer behaviour as a summation of acquisition. consumers’ decisions can provide a clue for which industry to survive. and also which products to excel.are selected using the rule of ‘survival of the fittest’. Moreover. 2. As far as the consumer decision process model is concerned. consumption and disposal of products or services. most of them are composed of stages such as pre-purchase. Arnoud et al. Blackwell et al. However. purchase. the firms can make use of such information to devise corresponding marketing strategies in response to the consumers’ needs (Blackwell et al. (2004) further propose the circle of consumption that recognize purchasing processes as a loop. as well as disposal of used goods. 1998). 2003)..4. consumers need to go through seven steps before reaching their final decisions. Therefore. consumption. 2001. tailor-made products can be made to enhance customer value and thus facilitate repeat purchase (Gabbott and Hogg. pre-purchase. Second.

past experiences. consumers pay particular attention to the attributes which are most relevant to their needs (Kolter et al. 2006). Any changes in 21 . Blackwell et al. Pre-purchase search is initiated when consumers recognize a need and hence look for more information from the marketplace. The buying process is initiated when people recognize their unsatisfied need (Levy and Weitz. Customers pursuing this kind of search would like to obtain the most updated information about the designated brand. 1992)... namely functional needs and psychological needs. income. as well as customer satisfaction. is more likely to be based on personal interest on a particular brand. As mentioned by Solomon et al. social class.. Functional needs are related to the performance of the product whereas psychological needs are intrinsically obtained when customers feel contented with shopping or owning a product which they long for. quality and price are commonly used to judge a brand by customers. (2006). search of information can further be divided into pre-purchase search and ongoing search. There are two kinds of needs.. Ongoing search.divestment (Blackwell et al. Stage three comes to the pre-purchase evaluation that consumers compare between different products and brands to make a purchasing decision. Stage one is need recognition which occurs when an individual is aware of a difference between their perception and the actual satisfaction level (Solomon et al. 2005). Stage two is the search of information. In this stage. 1997). 2006). Rayport and Jaworski (2003) propose a similar model with slight differences regarding the terms used. (2006) add that most consumer research would primarily base on these seven stages and how different elements affect each stage of consumers’ decisions. The length and depth of search vary for different customers and depend on variables like personality. prior brand perceptions (Moorthy et al. regardless of the different terms and consolidation of stages. size of purchase. on the other hand. size. Attributes like quantity.

Stage five.. customers begin consuming the products whereas in stage six. In addition to in-store purchase. The firms need to think about the possibility of remarketing. This gives rise to satisfaction when consumers’ expectations are higher than the perceived performance and vice versa (Blackwell et al. as well as point-of-purchase advertising. stage six and stage seven are under the category of the post-purchase stage. This stage is crucial since customers could be possible to make repeat purchases provided that they are satisfied with the aforementioned stages (Rayport and Jaworski. In stage five. 22 . this new kind of non-shop retailing format has begun replacing the fairly established catalogue and TV shopping and its development is rapid albeit it is more recently found in comparison with the existing non-shop retailing modes. (2006). firms can create value by providing lower price or unique offers to the customers so as to excel their competitive advantages over the others. According to Porter (2004). in which consumers dispose or recycle the products and at the same time. Rayport and Jaworski (2003) further point out the significant impact of internet on consumer purchasing decision. visual displays inside the shops. As pointed out by Dholakia and Uusitalo (2002). Retailer selection is made by judging which retailers to buy after investigating the attributes from the previous stage whereas in-store selection is affected by the selling skills of salesperson. Stage four refers to the purchase decisions made by the consumers after evaluating the offers from different retailers. 2006). customers evaluate the consumption process. 2003).these attributes can affect consumer decisions on brand or product choices (Blackwell et al. including retailer and in-store selection. there are two phases contributing to the decision making processes. As stated by Blackwell et al. 2006). stage seven comes to divestment.. Last but not least.

Brand equity can be divided into four dimensions. and at the same time. including brand awareness. 23 . All of them have significant contribution to the brand as equity to the firm. consumers seem to be more aware of the products they buy. Only by understanding the consumer behaviour can the products or brands be developed in a right way.5 Summary This chapter provides a review about the major research and theories regarding the consumer purchasing behaviour. brand loyalty and brand associations. Nowadays. perceived quality. perceived quality. Brands are so important that they are regarded as the equity to a firm. products are developed in an unprecedented way. whether the brand image would affect the consumers to purchase clothes is to be investigated. In this dissertation.2. brand loyalty and brand association with the consumer purchasing behaviour that will provide useful insights for the development of the clothing sector. It is hoped that by finding out the relationships of brand awareness.

In accordance with Gephart (2004). data are gathered. The details of the sampling would also be discussed. the research traditions.. which are determined on the kinds of data being collected. there are three research traditions. theories. namely qualitative and quantitative research. as well as justifying the most suitable approach for the research topic. research theories can be classified into different types. 24 . namely positivism. 3. In general. whereas methodology is acknowledged to be the science of finding out (Babbie.2 Theoretical backgrounds In this section. recorded and analyzed in a systematic and objective manner so as to apprehend and foresee how consumers feel. 2004). and also the validity and reliability of data are discussed in order to provide a general view about how the research is carried out and which factors influence the justification of research method.2. there are two types of research methods. In terms of the science of knowledge acquisition. epistemology is about the science of knowing. research is required. Each of them encompasses a variety of approaches. think and behave (Arnould et al.1 Introduction With a view to finding out the underlying principles of certain phenomenon.1 Review of different research traditions Based on the methodology used. 2004). 3. interpretive research and critical postmodernism.Chapter 3 Methodology 3. During the course of consumer behaviour research. This chapter aims at discussing different theories and research methods.

events and mechanisms. While positivism stresses on objectivity. mechanisms are the roots of events which are regarded as the deepest level among the three. the majority of positivist research incorporates the comparison of qualitative case studies to analyze if there are any connections between variables.. Finally. As for critical postmodernism.2 Quantitative versus qualitative analysis Generally. qualitative research is sometimes regarded as a relatively minor methodology than its quantitative counterpart and there are some assumptions that only experimental data. it underlines the assumption of symbolic reality. interpretative research focuses on subjective interpretations to describe meanings and understand reality. Events are concerned about what has happened in the world by our experiences to them. 1993).2. 3. 2002). including experiences. random sampling 25 . feelings and motivations of people (Babbie. quantitative research focuses on analyzing numerical data whereas qualitative research deals with meanings. Added to this. In accordance to Fisher (2004). which is shaped by values and crystallizes over time.Positivism makes use of the stance of realism in which the objective reality can be understood by mirror of science. research methods can be classified in a dichotomy between quantitative and qualitative research. together with the structures and processes within it. Fisher (2004) further reveals that critical postmodernism is a kind of realism which comprises three levels of reality. Fisher (2004) notes that the linkage between interpretations are dialogic and hence interpretive research aims at soliciting people’s accounts of how they find the world. Dey. it assumes that a social world exists externally that should be measured objectively (Easterby-Smith et al. 2004. In the field of research. official statistics. examining the attitudes. As far as the description and explanation of phenomena are concerned. Experiences are our perceptions and encounters of the world.

1956. 2000). however. Unlike quantitative research. 1975). suffers from the problem of ‘anecdotalism’ in which it just narrates some examples of phenomenon without taking less clear data into account (Silverman. Qualitative analysis. In this way. having a complete set of categorization for the events or activities described (Silverman. research needs a partnership and it could be beneficial to collaborate rather than compete between the different kinds of research methods. 2000). 1989). Silverman. it is more likely to look into people’s in-depth feelings. for example. Both the quantitative research and qualitative research have their own advantages and disadvantages. As for qualitative research. 1964. qualitative research tends to focus on describing the process of how we define and measure variables in everyday life (Silverman.and quantified data can lead to valid or generalizable social facts. 2000). numeric data. Quantitative research surpasses qualitative in a sense that it can analyze data based on representative samples from a large population (Proctor.2. 2000). 3. (2002). That is why it is suggested that qualitative research should be used more often at the early or exploratory stage of a study (Silverman. Cicourel. the reliability of tape-recorded and transcribed data is argued by some to be weakened owing to the possibility of missing some trivial but crucial pauses and overlaps (Silverman. which uses ad hoc procedures to define and measure variables (Blumer. 1986). Nevertheless. Besides. both of them are not perfect in a sense that they need to serve as a complement to each other.3 Reliability and validity of data The reliability and validity of the data and findings are of pivotal importance to the whole research. As suggested by Easterby-Smith et al. attitude (Kirk and Miller. 2000). quantitative analysis is stronger than qualitative analysis in that it can persuade readers with large-scale. These determine whether the research can engender 26 .

This may affect the reliability of the research findings. These underlie the importance of ensuring reliable methods and making valid conclusions in the research process. qualitative research is more suitable in terms of soliciting the consumers’ in-depth responses. the research cannot be claimed valid so long as there are only few exemplary instances reported. (2003). which are judged by different observers or by the same observer on different occasions (Hammersley. As pointed out by Davis and Bremner (2006). Reliability connotes to the consistency on the research results. opinions and attitudes towards brand image are investigated. validity concerns about the truth (Silverman. there are as much as forty types of qualitative research in three main orientations. the findings of qualitative research are not necessarily repeatable since they reflect reality at the time of data collection. namely language-orientated approach.useful findings or not. 27 . However.3 Justification of research method Different research methods should be adopted based on the nature of research. Besides. 2000). This dissertation makes use of the qualitative research method and there have been some discussions on qualitative research regarding its reliability and validity. This dissertation aims at finding out consumer purchasing behaviour on clothing in which their beliefs. to justify reliability. As mentioned by Saunders et al. 1992). and the original form of the materials is unavailable (Silverman. one can replicate the same research to see whether the same outcomes are obtained on subsequent occasions. 3. 2000). While reliability is correlated to consistency. giving an accurate account to the social phenomena (Hammersley. 2006). it is found that having reliable research results is not always attributable to valid outcomes (Davis and Bremner. Hence. As mentioned by Tesch (1990). 1992).

in a room to engage in a guided discussion on a common topic (Babbie. During the course of interviews. Proctor (2000) notes that the usefulness of qualitative research depends heavily on the researchers’ skills. However. the thorough description and interpretation of social phenomena are the central focus. say 12-15 people. In case of interviews. 28 . 2004). For instance. focus group can also be a useful kind of research method that brings together some interviewees. ranging from the initial stage for identifying areas to more detailed exploration. Thus. Language-oriented approach concerns the use of language and meaning of words. 2006).descriptive/ interpretative approach. theory-building approach tries to examine the connections between social phenomena. interviewers may need to probe each answer and make use of the replies for further questioning (Proctor. In descriptive/ interpretative approach. Finally. researchers may find it difficult to assemble a large group of people and the control over the interviewees is minimal (Gamson. as well as theory-building approach. The structure of interviews lies in a continuum in which fully-structured and unstructured interviews are the two extreme poles (Breakwell. 2004). researchers should show their ability to ask further in-depth questions based on the answers obtained. interviews are chosen as the data collection methods. Breakwell (2006) points out that interviews are flexible in that they can be used at any stage in the research process. 1992). One may argue why interviews but not the other types of qualitative research methods are chosen in this research. Added to this. Although focus groups are much more effective and cheaper than interviews as one may see. Based on the descriptive and interpretive nature in this research. interviews are more controllable than focus groups in this regard. Qualitative interviews refer to the interaction between an interviewer and interviewee on a topic which needs not to follow particular order and words in questioning and answering (Babbie. 2000).

underlying the importance human-to-human relationship of interviews (Fontana and Fry. 3. non-probability sampling is used 29 . interviews depend on respondents’ accurate and complete responses. with the use of a semi-structured format. Among different structures of interviews. leaving more room for the interviewees to respond. This gives rise to the possibility of unreliable and invalid data. Interviewees may find these kind of interviews constrained as they are not free to provide information which is important in their mind. This can enrich the data collected from the interviewing process (Smith and Eatough. It is suggested that interviews could be complemented with other types of data such as observation and diary techniques so that the data obtained can be more valid. These can help solicit consistent responses and hence the reliability of data can be much enhanced. 2000). it is important to develop a systematic set of questions and help the interviewees to understand the questions. When it comes to the process of data collection. In addition. Being reliable does not necessarily attribute to validity but it is found that inconsistent responses may lead to certain inaccuracy (Davis and Bremner. As pointed out by Smith and Osborn (2003). semi-structured interviews are chosen in this research.Structured interviews are characterized by their fixed nature and sequence of questions or the fixed nature of answers allowed. unstructured interviews do not have specific formats. Such format can enhance the sensitive and empathic facets of the findings. researchers can follow up some unexpected. interesting responses emerged during the interviews. 2006). Moreover. 2000). it is suggested that interviewers be trained for a specific study if necessary since their manner in questioning could impose an effect on how reliable and valid the data will be (Proctor. researchers tend to regard people as experiential experts on a specific topic under investigation. 2006). Unlike structured interviews. In accordance with Breakwell (2006). like other self-report methods.4 Sampling As far as the sampling method is concerned.

Student samples are used in this research because they can enhance homogeneity and it is much easier to control error during theory testing (Goldsmith.as the tool for this research. findings reveal that homogeneous respondents can help reduce the possibility of measurement model error (Assael and Keon. Unlike probability sampling which select samples randomly in a pool of population. 30 . though a homogeneous sample has lesser degree of external validity. this can be sacrificed for a greater degree of internal validity (Carpenter and Fairhurst. researchers deliberately look for participants so that they are of equal distribution for comparison whereas in convenience sampling. 2003). As mentioned by Proctor (2000). 9 of them are master students and the remaining one is a PhD student. non-probability sampling looks for participants on purpose (Babbie. They should have lived in China or the UK for long enough time than in other places that they are regarded as Chinese or British. Hence. In this research. as comparisons of British and Chinese buying behaviour for clothes are investigated. 1982). The criteria for judging whether they are Chinese or British customers are based on the passports they are holding together with the number of years they have lived in their home country. 2002. All of them are students aged between 22 and 28. Among the 10 samples. Malhotra and King. 2005). researchers tend to choose interviewees which are easier to be looked for. in quota sampling method. 10 Nottingham University students were chosen to have face-to-face interviews. This is a combination of quota sampling and convenience sampling under the non-probability sampling classifications. Moreover. The male to female ratio of Chinese and British samples is 1 to 1 (see Table 1 for details). 2004). equal proportions of British and Chinese were interviewed.

Open-ended questions are preferred since they allow the interviewees to answer as little or as much as they choose. Questions 1 31 . There are two types of questions. with the former one being dominant in the interview (see Appendix 2). the main theme of the interview was introduced with the provision of general ideas about what the interviewees were expected to answer. 2006). so they were not covered here. The issues relating to confidentiality and record permission were already mentioned at the time when the appointment was made. As suggested by Smith and Eatough (2006).5 Interview schedule The interview is composed of three stages. was mentioned. The questions may not follow the order as set in the interview schedule as the respondents will react to them differently. 3. a successful interview incorporates both general and specific questions which will move between each other fairly seamlessly.Table 1: Distribution of samples in terms of gender and nationality Nationality Sample particulars Gender Number of respondents Chinese Male 2 Female 3 Male 3 British Female 2 3. namely open-ended questions and closed-ended questions.1 Stage one In this stage. it is better to have mental prompts rather than constantly referring to the interview questions in the course of the interview. The approximate length of the interview. After the introduction. say 30 minutes. the interview began with some general questions regarding consumer spending habits on clothing. which are discussed in the following sections.5. leaving more room for them to think of the issue (Breakwell. the questions were learnt by heart before the interviews. As mentioned by Smith and Eatough (2006). Also.

The questions in this stage are as follows. including brand and brand equity. brand equity is regarded as the summation of brand awareness. Moreover. Mooij. these can help understand their spending styles.to 3 attempt to serve as ice-breaking as the interviewees may not be prepared to answer in-depth questions at the very beginning of the interview. 1999. 32 . In order to explore more information from interviewees’ responses. As mentioned in the literatures. further probing questions would be asked if the respondents mention something related to brand and brand equity. Main issues covered in the literatures in chapter 2. It also intends to investigate whether brand is an important criterion for consumers to choose particular products to purchase as mentioned in the literature (Doyle. How much do you spend on clothing each month? 3.5. There are three questions in this stage and they are listed as follows: 1. 4.2 Stage two This stage covers in-depth questions about their views to clothing brand image. probing questions were asked if needed. Since this research is about the effect of brand image on consumer purchasing behaviour. were discussed. Question 4 attempts to find out the criteria of clothes selection in which the interviewees consider. Which categories of clothes do you usually buy? 3. How often do you buy clothes? 2. 1998). What is it about particular clothes that make you buy them? Questions 5 to 10 are brand equity-related questions.

Do you recommend brands? 9. including pre-purchase. these two questions try to figure out their purchase and post-purchase behaviour. Keller. After finding out what the interviewees would do before making their purchasing decisions from the aforementioned questions. Why do you like this brand? Question 11 asks for the interviewees’ opinions about the new emerging online shopping mode whereas question 12 is about their post-purchase actions they took towards the clothes they had purchased.. purchase and post-purchase (Blackwell et al. Rayport and Jaworski. 11. 5. As mentioned in some consumer behaviour models. In what ways do you usually learn about clothing brands? 6. What would you do if you are satisfied or dissatisfied about the clothes you purchase? 33 . 1991. there are three stages for purchasing products or services. 2006. Do you regularly buy the same brand of clothes? 8. Do you shop online for clothes? 12. brand loyalty and brand association (Aaker.perceived quality. These questions are to find out whether brand equity is as important as what has been noted in the literatures. 2003). Can you describe the image of your favorite brand? 10. How do you judge the quality of the clothes? 7. 1993).

6 Administration The interviews were conducted in the places such as rooms in the student accommodations or common areas in the university where the interviewees felt comfortable to answer the questions.1 Grounded theory and its relationship to qualitative data analysis Grounded theory is one of the important concepts suggesting how researcher conducts their research. After the interviewees have finished writing the sentence. 3.3 Stage three In the last stage of the interview. 2004). They lasted for approximately 20 to 30 minutes. 3. This serves as a summary of how interviewees perceive brands by providing their own definitions which may be similar or different from what is said in the literature. 3. the interviewees were asked to write a sentence which starts with the words ‘Brand is’. depending on the interviewees’ familiarity to the questions and their willingness to provide more fruitful responses. and common categories from observational data (Babbie. 1984). The processes were recorded with the use of MP3 player with the approval from the interviewees so as to facilitate the subsequent analysis. they would be thanked for providing their valuable time to attend the interview.7. possibly attributing to important research findings (Atkinson and Heritage. Originated from two socialists Glaser and Strauss (1967).7 Analysis strategy This section introduces the concept of grounded theory and the use of within-case and cross-case analysis as the strategies for analyzing the research data. The production and the use of transcripts are essential research activities that they involve close. themes.5. repeated listening to the records which often reveal some unnoted recurring features. it attempts to derive theories based on the analysis of patterns. It focuses on 34 . The interviews were then transcribed.3.

namely within-case and cross-case 35 . They include periodically stepping back and asking. The importance of research procedures is heightened in the grounded theory. it demonstrates some main strategies of qualitative inquiry that contain creative interplay of theories and methods during the integrated process of social research (Henwood and Pidgeon. interviews can be analyzed in two distinctive but interrelated ways. reflection. 2002). maintaining an attitude of skepticism. (2002). Besides. Hence. As mentioned by Strauss and Corbin (1990). based on grounded theory. qualitative data as well as interpretative thematic analysis of the qualitative data. Grounded theory does have some impact on the qualitative research. There are seven stages for grounded analysis in total. cataloguing concepts. these could explain why grounded theory has gained much popularity in recent decades (Henwood and Pidgeon. leading to further analysis of themes. as well as following the research procedures. including familiarization. provided that they follow three rules. especially the use of systemic coding. These imply the seriousness of such theory in interpreting data and provide the basis for analyzing the ten interviews conducted. linking and finally re-evaluation (Easterby-Smith et al. 2004). re-coding.different ways to code data (Dey. 2006). methodology skills can be developed in a number of areas such as handling and analyzing of large volumes of ill-structured. According to Easterby-Smith et al. 3. 1993).7. 2006).2 Within-case and cross-case analysis As mentioned by Miles and Huberman (1994). In addition. patterns and categories. researchers could be both scientific and creative at the same time under this theory. one of the benefits of grounded analysis is that qualitative research structure has first been derived from the data. conceptualization. which can enhance the validity and reliability of the data (Babbie..

analysis. In this dissertation, the interviews conducted were investigated based on these two approaches. The summary of these two approaches is shown in Figure 1.

Within-case analysis

Listening to tape and producing a transcript

Coding the transcript

Analyzing data with tables in codes and quotes

Looking for patterns from similar and different responses

Creating tables based on responses from interviewees

Cross-case analysis

Figure 1: Overview of analysis

3.7.2.1 Within-case analysis During the interviews, notes were first jotted down and then the summary of each individual interview was made after listening to the MP3 recorder for the sake of keeping the fresh memory of the interview content. A full transcription of each interview (see Appendix 3) was made after the completion of the whole interview process. After finishing the transcription, the main ideas of the interviews were summarized and presented in form of tables with codes like ‘+’ standing for interviewee who has mentioned this idea, whilst ‘-‘ connoting to a negative response to the question. Some quotes from the answers would be

36

illustrated for explanation if necessary.

3.7.2.2 Cross-case analysis Cross-case analysis aims at looking for convergences and divergences in the data, recognizing ways to account for the similarities and differences of the respondents (Smith and Eatough, 2006; Smith and Osborn, 2003). Each interview was analyzed in the same way as mentioned in the within-case analysis. Then the patterns emerged were analyzed based the several tables in different themes.

3.8 Summary In this chapter, the methodology used in this dissertation has been justified and explained. Qualitative semi-structured interviews have been chosen as a mean to collect data since they are found to be more appropriate for soliciting responses in relation to attitudes, opinions and feelings. Besides, the sampling method was covered. In the course of data collection, the combination of convenience and quota sampling was being used. In addition, the schedule of interview was discussed with a view to providing some general ideas about the underlying reasons for asking such questions. The data collected would be analyzed using the methods of within-case and cross-case analysis. The research findings will be presented and discussed in the next chapter.

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Chapter 4 Research Findings and Discussion
4.1 Introduction This chapter aims at presenting and discussing findings obtained from the interviews concerning the effect of clothing brand image on consumer purchasing behaviour. As mentioned in chapter 3, 10 people, including 5 British and 5 Chinese were interviewed. Each interview was recorded and transcribed for the purpose of analysis in this chapter.

As far as the analysis is concerned, it will be based on the most pertinent quotes, which reveal the viewpoints from the British and Chinese respondents respectively. According to Easterby-Smith et al. (2002), qualitative researchers need to communicate the findings in an honest and systematic manner, disseminating the richness of the findings and hence the experience of the researchers. In addition, the analysis should be open to verification as far as possible so that the others are free to repeat what has been done and check the conclusions (Breakwell, 2006).

The chapter consists of three sections in which the respondents’ backgrounds, the effect of brand image on them and also their opinions of brand are presented and compared.

4.2 Backgrounds of respondents All respondents are students from the University of Nottingham, with nine of them being master students and one of them being a PhD student. Their ages range from 22 to 27 and the male to female ratio is 1 to 1.

The first three questions try to solicit the interviewees’ response about their clothing spending habits, asking about their shopping frequency, money spent
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” Hannah. One of them was slightly different in that she indicated that she is an impulsive buyer and hence she would buy clothes based on her moods and feelings at the time of purchase. I will buy clothes if there are discounts. maybe 3 times a year. normally I buy clothes 4 times a year (for each season). many respondents revealed that they buy clothes at a regular interval. British. quite rare. 23. British. One of the respondents revealed that he preferred buying clothes at special occasions like seasonal discounts so that the prices can be much more affordable.” Kevin. buy every 4 to 5 months. 23. “I’m a sort of impulsive buyer…’Oh gosh! I really need to buy some clothes now. Male “In China. In England. ranging from every week to three or four times a year. 24. 2002). This could probably be explained by the findings mentioned in chapter 2 that consumers’ emotion is one of the determining factors for buying clothes (Berry. But before that. 2000). These are in line with the literature that students spend less than the other groups like working class as far as clothes purchasing is concerned (HKTDC. British.on clothes and also the types of clothes they purchased. so I’ll buy them when I need them…probably. maybe one item every couple of month.” Narinder. 27. Male 39 . Because I have been poor. Female Besides. Chinese. some of them pointed out that their financial status would have an impact on their frequency of buying clothes. “…This year…not at all (buying clothes).” Mark. let’s go’. Female “…Maybe not often recently because I have not got a lot of income for clothes. Generally.

“Probably. 1994). More male than female respondents manifested that they would buy clothes in medium or above price ranges.When asking about the price range of clothes. 1998) and hence it could have a beneficial or detrimental effect on customers’ buying decisions (Yasin et al. It could be as simple as they are cheap and good looking or they are brand-named. Male The above quotes illustrate that clothes purchasing behaviour varies from time to time and from person to person. retailers. it does not really mean that males have less spending power. 1999. It really gets a large variation. In the coming section. as well as consumers (Aaker. 24. Whether brand is a determining factor is 40 . the reasons why people buy them vary. 4. One of the male respondents revealed that he would spend about 50 to 250 pounds for clothes each time. it varies anywhere between 50 to 250 pounds. whether brand image would affect clothes purchasing behaviour is investigated. however.1 Significance of clothing brands on consumer purchasing decisions As mentioned previously in chapter 2.3 Effect of clothing brand image on consumer buying behaviour 4. Although it is mentioned in the literature that more females would like shopping than males (Dholakia. 1993). brand is important for product development in that it can be instilled in consumers’ minds (Mooij.3. more than half of them were fond of buying clothes in the medium or high price ranges. South and Spitze. with more emphasis being placed on the comparisons between British and Chinese consumers so as to provide new insights for further development of brands in the clothing sector. 2007). Sometimes. brand names can add tremendous value to the products. There could be two identical clothes in the world. I buy lots of clothes and it lasts me for half a year…” Neil.. 1991. As mentioned in chapter 2. targeting to buy clothes in medium to high price ranges. British. Keller.

examined in question 4. +/. The columns named ‘country of origin’ and ‘advert’ would be discussed in later sections. in which the respondents were asked about the reasons of buying particular clothes. Non-label Non-advert Hannah Smith Mark Morrison Neil Bowley Narinder Sandhu Michael Kosciukiewicz + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Functional use (Sports) Personal need Table 3: Determining factors for clothes purchasing (Chinese respondents) Reason Name Brand Country of origin Advert Quality Style Price Others Comfortable.or words in black: Initial response without prompt. Suitable Jovi Chong Vivian Li Vanessa Fang Alick Wong Kevin Fang Key + + + + + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Pleasant. Table 2: Determining factors for clothes purchasing (British respondents) Reason Name Brand Country of origin Advert Quality Style Price Others Comfortable.or words in blue: Response with prompt 41 . The results from both British and Chinese respondents are illustrated in Tables 2 and 3 accordingly. Intuition +/.

I wouldn’t specifically buy it because it’s from there. Male “Never. all respondents from both nations regard quality. the British and Chinese interviewees showed some divergent viewpoints. In this regard. If I have good experiences with something. Because I know it a little bit good quality or that it’s going to be last well or perform well. style and price as some of the determining factors for buying clothes.” Neil. 1991). British. 24. Moreover. 2002) seem also applicable to the UK respondents. I wouldn’t buy something because it’s from H&M or because it’s from ZARA. When it comes to the effect of brand on buying clothes. I mean I will buy clothes from a shop. Female 42 . I bought it (she points at her top) yesterday from NEXT. the findings from literature that Chinese find these three as important criteria for buying clothes (HKTDC. 23. They are probably the shops I like. in which one of them highlighted the importance of past shopping experiences as mentioned in the literature (Aaker. However. but I do not particularly look for brand names.As observed from Tables 2 and 3. “Yes. Well. Male “Well.” Hannah. Actually. British. British. nine out of ten respondents had not provided immediate answer to question 4 regarding this issue until prompt was given. two UK interviewees stated that brand names do not initiate them to buy during their shopping.” Mark. 24. Some of the UK respondents revealed that they look for brand names in buying clothes. I probably buy again.

I bought some big brands like designer labels. Female “Yes. and buy more clothes to change. So. This issue was examined through asking the question ‘In what ways do you usually learn about clothing brands?’ There are mainly four ways for the respondents to learn about the brands. like medium. 2006). One of them mentioned that reputable brands in medium to high price ranges connote to better quality and cutting. including 43 . For some T-shirts. brand can make potential consumers aware of the products (Aaker.3.” Vanessa. if I buy cheap ones. Chinese. Chinese. which is coherent with the literature that brands are used to highlight personality under different circumstances (Aaker. I can use less money.to high-priced brands. I changed my purchasing habits to some cheap stuff like Primark. H&M and Dorothy Perkins…It’s quick for me to dislike the clothes that I bought. Fennis and Pruyn. This is consistent with the literature that brand-named products can be served as a guarantor of reliability.” Jovi. 2005). as well as quality (Roman et al. 1999. one of them pointed out that brands can help change her personal style.. “I do think most of the brands. 4. it costs me too much. Female Based on the above findings. if I buy too many big brands. it seems that brands are more likely to have an impact on Chinese than British interviewees.All Chinese respondents found that brand is one of the key factors for them to consider when buying clothes. I think they mostly get better cutting and better quality. In addition.2 Brand awareness As mentioned in the literature. do have better quality than cheaper brands. The UK respondents tend to buy clothes they like but not merely because of the brands. 1991). 26. It can be in consistent with my changing look and just lower the cost. But recently. 24. so I have more faith in those brands for their clothes.

internet and shops. with the number of Chinese respondents outweighing British. The results are shown in Tables 4 and 5.or words in blue: Response with prompt Advert Peers Others Internet + + + + + + + Internet Internet From shops Advertisement is a powerful tool for raising brand awareness (Mackenzie et al. Table 4: Ways to learn about clothing brands (British respondents) Name Hannah Smith Mark Morrison Neil Bowley Narinda Sandhu Michael Kosciukiewicz Advert Peers Others + - + + + From shops From shops. Among these respondents.or words in black: Initial response without prompt. peers. Internet From shops From shops Table 5: Ways to learn about clothing brands (Chinese respondents) Name Jovi Chong Vivian Li Vanessa Fang Alick Wong Kevin Fang Key +/. Some of the UK and Chinese respondents did regard it as one of the methods to know the brands.. 1986.. 2007). Tsai et al. two of them 44 . +/.advertisement.

1989). 23. 1978) and enhance attractiveness (McCracken. Chinese.” “The adidas ‘impossible is nothing’ advert with leading sportsmen like Michael Jordan. which confirms with the literature that celebrity endorsement can lead to product credibility (McGuire. During the game break. on the street…they (advertisers) put posters in the public areas.” Kevin. Marketing people may affect me someway.mentioned that they became more aware of the brands through the celebrities in the advertisements. advertisements in the shopping mall. Like Coby Bryrant. and it’s easy to make connections. Zidane (is very memorable)…because I know them through their sports achievement. British. you know. he was the representative of adidas previously…” Vivian. Male As far as peers influence on clothes purchasing is concerned. 23. “It (Advertising) is important because the brand image is built up so that you will choose (to buy them). David Beckham. they (basketball players) will show up. Lance Armstrong. they are familiar faces. so they associate themselves with brands. 45 . similar number of Chinese and the UK respondents agreed that it does have impact on their purchasing decisions.” “I used to play basketball and so I used to watch NBA games. 24.” Neil. Male “I guess it does (have an effect) on subliminal basis. Chinese. Female “TV.

in which interviewees were asked. 23.” Kevin.” Neil. while 4 Chinese interviewees got their brand information via internet surfing. I will ask them what the brand is…my brother bought a Helly Hansen sportswear. they are nice to put them on. 24. Male Other sources for raising brand awareness like internet surfing and shop visiting are also prevalent among Chinese and British respondents.3. So. British. when I go shopping next time. Male “If I am training and I see a friend wearing a new T-shirt or something.3 Perceived quality The issue of perceived quality was investigated through question 6. “How do you judge the quality of the clothes?” Their attitudes towards country-of-origins of clothes were also solicited from the follow-up questions. and from my mind. 4. 4 British interviewees revealed that they became familiar with the brands through shop visiting. The findings are illustrated in Tables 6 and 7. Chinese.“Maybe they (my friends) buy very nice clothes. that’s cool. 46 . I will consider them.

Table 6: Criteria for judging clothes quality (British respondents) Criteria Name Materials Style Colour Durability Country of origin Others Hannah Smith Mark Morrison Neil Bowley Narinder Sandhu Michael Kosciukiewicz + + + + + + + Performance Price + - Table 7: Criteria for judging clothes quality (Chinese respondents) Criteria Name Materials Style Colour Durability Country of origin Others Jovi Chong Vivian Li Vanessa Fang Alick Wong Kevin Fang Key + + + + + + + + + + + + + - +/. durability.or words in blue: Response with prompt As shown in Tables 6 and 7. +/. in which these criteria are important for consumers in judging product quality (Aaker. nine out of ten respondents regard materials as one of the criteria for judging clothes quality. Most of them could mention these judging criteria at once. followed by style. There are no significance differences between British 47 .or words in black: Initial response without prompt. price and performance. colour. 1991).

I expect Puma quality basically. France Italy.” Michael. Male When further question was asked about the issue ‘Which country’s clothes do you think they’re of highest/ lowest quality?’ British and Chinese respondents showed divergent views. 3 Chinese respondents found that it would have an effect on the clothes perceived quality. The results are listed in Tables 8 and 9. they represent better quality. France No comment No comment No comment Countries with lowest quality No comment No comment No comment No comment No comment 48 . France or Italy. Two Chinese interviewees pointed out that country of origin is correlated with quality. Chinese. Regarding country of origin. 22. Contradictory to the literature. Female “It should all be good quality if they have a brand name on it because it’s what the brand name stands for. country of origin seems not to have an impact to the UK respondents on perceived quality. For buying Puma shoes.” Jovi. so the countries don’t really affect it.and Chinese respondents. “In some of the countries like Japan. 24. British. Table 8: Perception towards countries which produce clothes with highest and lowest quality (British respondents) Countries Name Hannah Smith Mark Morrison Neil Bowley Narinder Sandhu Michael Kosciukiewicz Countries with highest quality Italy.

British. Italy Countries with lowest quality China. Italy China. France. from Thailand. British. Malaysia. “I don’t have some preconception about it. 3 of the Chinese respondents could mention that some less developed countries. you can buy good or bad clothes. Italy No comment Korea. If Puma gets its stuff from China. US. 2004).. some South American countries Vivian Li UK. they should meet the required quality.” Michael. 22. However. India.” Neil. many of them mentioned that France and Italy can produce clothes in high quality. Because I know from every country. Denmark Less developed countries No comment China As shown in Table 8. These findings can be explained by the literatures in that China does not have influential brands with phenomenal quality (Delong et al.Table 9: Perception towards countries which produce clothes with highest and lowest quality (Chinese respondents) Countries Name Jovi Chong Countries with highest quality Japan. Thailand. they show up the same quality standard in all countries. just a few British respondents try to provide the names of specific countries. Male For those who can tell the names of specific countries. including China. Male “They suppose to all be the same. 24. produce poor quality clothes. 49 . only Chinese respondents made comments on countries which make clothes in the lowest quality. South Africa Vanessa Fang Alick Wong Kevin Fang France.

” Vivian. Actually. 8 and 12 in which the respondents were asked whether they buy the same brands regularly and also if they recommend brands to the others. China don’t have very famous brands. 23. Chinese. If it’s about big brands. one Chinese interviewee specifically pointed out different countries should have their competitive advantage in either production or design. Chinese.” Vanessa. Female Nevertheless. 26. Female 4. I will prefer France or Italy ones. “China is good at manufacturing and Italy and France are good at design. This is in line with what has mentioned in the literature that China is proficient in production and hence many foreign investors would like to produce their already-designed products there (Cui. 1997). 50 . if I consider some basic ones. maybe it’s the reason. I think those made-in-China are something good. Lowest (quality) maybe China.4 Brand loyalty The issue regarding brand loyalty was investigated through questions 7. Italy as well.3. or some of the developing countries.“I think the UK and US have top brands. The results are illustrated in Tables 10 and 11.

Table 10: Clothes purchasing habit (British respondents) Name Hannah Smith Mark Morrison Neil Bowley Narinder Sandhu Michael Kosciukiewicz Regular buyer Recommend brands Club card owner + + - + - - Table 11: Clothes purchasing habit (Chinese respondents) Name Jovi Chong Vivian Li Vanessa Fang Alick Wong Kevin Fang Regular buyer Recommend brands Club card owner + + + + + + + - + + + + As observed from Tables 10 and 11. whereas the others think they need to take other factors like price and style into consideration and hence they do not buy the same brands regularly. they pointed out that they are quite satisfied with the clothes they had purchased. For those who buy regularly from the same brands. and also hold the club cards of their favourite stores than the UK interviewees. recommend brands to friends or relatives. The quotes of regular buyers are shown as follow: 51 . more Chinese respondents tend to buy the same brands.

Female “I just like it.. They have quite a lot of varieties of different design for me to choose from.. Male Surprisingly.“I do have a few brands that I prefer. British. The Diesel jeans fit me well. none of the UK respondents have any clothing club cards even though the shops take this chance to reward their loyalty in terms of discounts 52 . CEU and Vertical Club.” Neil. Female “If it is excellent performance and if someone asks me. so I will buy them more often. 24. 27. 24. There are casual wears good for everyday dress and they are of reasonable prices.the certain shops that I sort of rely upon…. Male “(I like buying from) Diesel for jeans. there are quite many.” Mark. Chinese. four respondents cited that they would recommend brands as long as they are good. British. 26. Female As far as brand recommendation is concerned. British. Female “I reckon the design fits me and these brands have high quality which is what I’m looking for.” Jovi. 23. Topshop’s price is affordable and also I like the style from All Saints” Narinder. Topshop and All Saints. Chinese. In Hong Kong. I like Fred Perry. I will tell my friends.’” Vanessa.” Vivian. I will tell them. “I will if I visit some shops and they have good stuff. for examples. say ‘Go ahead! They are really good. Chinese. 23. In the UK.

Some of them did mention the drawbacks of applying these cards. 24.” Narinder. These findings confirm what has mentioned in the literature that associated brand images can help enhance the value of brands (Yasin. Both the British and Chinese respondents managed to recall some positive connotations of their favourite brands. Chinese. store cards try to get more money from me when I don’t have more. Store cards are dangerous. 1991). Chinese.5 Brand association Regarding brand association. 26. Chinese. they always make them like credit cards and I don’t want to have one more credit card. Female 53 . The price is acceptable. we need not apply for the loyalty cards. it takes time to apply for it and maybe I will not spend much money on the same shops…I tried to apply House of Fraser and M&S (loyalty cards). Female “Because we have student cards and we can enjoy the offer.” Vanessa. 23. Vivian. 2007).as cited in the literature (Aaker. it is examined through questions 9 and 10 in which interviewees were asked about their favourite brand images. “I like something that is simple and good for casual and everyday wear. Female “I think it’s casual and good quality. Sometimes. Female 4. 27. not so complicated design” Jovi. The quotes for some non-club card owners are shown below: “No. It fits my age and my occupation as students.3. That’s why I don’t apply for it. It’s not stylish but it is well made. British.

Male “For Topshop. British. the respondents were asked if they had shopped online for clothes in question 11. Female “It’s just sort of reasonably well-priced and sort of good quality. fits my age. alternative sports. crickets but skiing and snowboarding and surfing…” Michael.” Kevin. I prefer some simple image. I prefer very colourful image. usually cotton…” Hannah. 24. 26. 2002). 27. British. In order to investigate this issue. Male “60s hippie. British. 23. Male “Simple. khaki style…quality is good. and they look good. Female “Basically. I prefer blue jeans. British. For jeans. 27. 22. Chinese. All Saints is a bit more innovative. Male 4.” Narinder. 54 .” Alick. For T-shirt. 24. Chinese. not like football. Male “They are practical. British. they work well.“They do something stylish and good quality…sometimes good offer. Chinese. it’s a kind of like casual clothing.” Neil.” Mark. Female “’Simply Me’. like grid shirts.3.6 Consumer buying behaviour It is found in the literature that internet shopping is gaining its popularity among consumers (Dholakia and Uusitalo. 23.” Vanessa. For shirts. coloured fabrics…it’s a sort of a bit unusual.

nine out of ten interviewees expressed that they had not bought clothes via the internet due to several reasons. The clothes online are cheap.Surprisingly. not right colour. Female Even though some of the interviewees do not shop online for clothes. 24. just like the clothes from the markets. One of them mentioned the poor internet security while the others revealed that they could not try the clothes before paying for it. 22. including the varieties of choices.” Michael. British. Female “I like fitting. To be honest. some of them can point out the positive aspects of internet shopping. I can see how it looks like…so I never buy clothes online. but I don’t buy online. try on to see if it is fit probably. Female “Not really. you can buy it online. 23. Chinese. British. right size as well” Vivian. “No. Male “I don’t buy online. 23.” Narinder. no. but I know many people do.” Kevin. I’ll have a look and compare prices. “For clothes. 27. lower prices and informative websites. I am a little bit fat and if I put on it. I will consider maybe it is not safe to shopping online. Because I can’t try the clothes to see if they are suitable or not” Jovi. If you can’t find (suitable clothes) in the markets or in the shops. Male 55 . Chinese. Chinese. These signify the fact that online shopping for clothes is not impossible but something need to be done to improve it as far as the problems of fitting before purchasing and online security are concerned.

a way for companies to keep consumers back to spend their money. Chinese. Female “Brand is an important but not decisive indicator for my choice of shopping. Male “Brand is just like the name of people. The quotes below show their perceptions towards what brand is in their mind. 24.“(Shop online) Sometimes. Chinese. 26. British. 27.4 Results In the last question. It may not be the spirit of clothes. Female 4. but it represents the taste and quality of them. Chinese. almost everything is quite good. 24. and I’m not fond of popular ones!” Hannah. good quality and good prices.” Alick. 26. Female “Brand is something difficult to understand. The only thing is that sometimes the delivery fee is not that cheap. “Brand is something that adds value to clothing but not a must” Jovi. Chinese. maybe one or twice a month. Male “Brand is a way for people to identify each other. These are what internet offers. respondents were asked to provide their comments on brand. Female “Brand is not a paper bag.” Vivian. Chinese. It is good. Female 56 . 23. Chinese.) Vanessa.” Kevin. 23.” (It means brands are not easy to be broken up.” Vanessa.

” Neil.” Michael. Then it came to the analysis and discussion of interviews’ findings to look for any similarities and differences between British and Chinese respondents.” Narinda. British. manufacturer. British. 57 .“Brand is not something I would follow because of the name. British. however. mainly focusing on the four dimensions of brand equity. respondents’ backgrounds were introduced to provide some thorough understandings on their clothes purchasing habits. British.” Mark. rather than the designer. Female “Brand is the identity of a product or service.5 Summary This chapter presented the findings from the interviews of both British and Chinese respondents. 27. 23. 24. At the beginning of the chapter. My clothes purchased tend to be based on the individual garment. Male 4. Some of the responses from interviewees were quoted and analyzed so as to highlight the important findings for further brand image development. Male “Brand is the label a company use to market/ advertise them with. that a brand can be a powerful draw for many shoppers. I realized. Male “Brand is not unimportant to my decision making when buying clothes. 22.

they cited that what they liked is more important. 58 . In addition. Our findings suggested that all British and Chinese respondents regard quality. It is then followed by the research limitations and recommendations for further research.Chapter 5 Conclusions 5. However.2 Conclusions The findings in chapter 4 do have some implications for the development of brand image. The comparisons were made between the British and Chinese respondents’ purchasing behaviour throughout the last chapter. providing insights for comprehending consumer purchasing behaviour and further investigations.1 Introduction Based on the research findings in chapter 4. style and price as their most important criteria for choosing clothes. 5.2. more Chinese than UK respondents expressed that brand is important for them to choose particular clothes to buy. It was found that there are slight differences between the Chinese and British consumers in terms of their attitudes towards brand equity. 5.1 Significance of clothing brands on consumer purchasing decisions The determining factors for clothes purchasing have been examined. this chapter draws conclusions on what has been analyzed and discussed. with the inclusions of similarities and differences between the British and Chinese consumers. For those British respondents who did not look for brands when purchasing clothes. They are presented under each sub-section as shown below. brand is one of their considerations. This chapter will provide an overview of the research findings.

for example. brand can have a value-adding function in that some respondents are fond of particular brands. That is to say. More Chinese respondents expressed that they had been influenced by advertisements and internet than British interviewees. There are no significant differences between British and Chinese respondents regarding these issues.As revealed from the above findings. In terms of advertisements. From the findings. the brands need to become more aware among the consumers.3 Perceived quality The findings suggested that most respondents tend to judge the clothes quality by looking at the materials. In general. durability. respondents tend to know the brands through advertisements.2. consumers think of the other criteria as well. colour. price and performance. famous sportsmen can be attributable to good sportswear performance. these methods for spreading the brand image are commonly employed by both British and Chinese respondents. when it comes to the country of origin of clothes. internet and shops. many Chinese respondents had the preconception that China and 59 . 5. some respondents from both nations cited that they had been affected by celebrity advertising in which they could associate the brand image with the celebrities’ images.2 Brand awareness To increase the publicity. followed by style. whereas British respondents tended to know the brands through on-the-spot purchase in the shops. it could enhance the chance for consumers to buy the clothes. In addition.2. 5. Nevertheless. if brand-named clothes can incorporate the other criteria the consumers are looking for. peers. However. none of the UK respondents thought it would affect their perception of clothes quality whereas some Chinese respondents had cited that some countries connoted to better quality.

however.4 Brand loyalty This aspect of brand equity is important for the development of customer base and encouraging repeat purchase. However. This brings out an important issue that Chinese brands should get rid of their poor image on perceived quality at least to the Chinese themselves. by working on the brand development. 5. This coincides with the findings by Keller (1993) that consumers are attracted by the signal when they consider buying particular product.2.. Some characteristics of the brands in which they are fond of were mentioned. However. none of the UK respondents cited that they had had some loyalty cards from clothing shops. Also. regardless of the nations the respondents belong to. it is good at manufacturing (Cui.5 Brand association The association between brand and memory of respondents was investigated. the British respondents did not have strong feelings about where the clothes come from. 1991). styles. prices. All respondents could recall some positive aspects of their favourite brands at once. while most of the Chinese respondents had. including the product features. 2004). functions etc. China does not have influential global clothing brands (Delong et al.2. whereas they did think that clothes from Italy and France normally confer to better quality. From the findings. such perceptions may be attributable to their loyalty towards the brands (Aaker. there would still be chances for China to produce well-perceived quality clothes. 5. Such discrepancies may be because the UK respondents tend to buy clothes from more independent stores which are less likely to offer loyalty cards. 60 . As brand can provide guarantee of quality to consumers. some respondents did reveal that they are frequent buyers of the same brands and also recommend brands to their friends and relatives.other developing countries produce clothes in poor quality. 1997).

Added to this. However.6 Consumer buying behaviour Consumers can shop for clothes via different channels. several limitations were found to hinder the overall accuracy of the findings. whereas the shoppers need to be aware of the login procedures. There are three limitations regarding the sampling method. various choices and cheaper prices. In order to make it more prevalent for clothes shopping. 5. Internet shopping is gaining its popularity (Dholakia and Uusitalo. For online securities. something should be done on the aforementioned drawbacks. One of the obstacles for online clothes purchasing is that the consumers can not try on the clothes to see if they are fit or not. Most of the interviewees expressed that they had not bought clothes through the internet. not to divulge personal information to unknown third parties. time and also interpreting skills. online security is also a matter of concern. 2002) but the findings suggested that buying clothes online was not that common among the respondents.3 Limitations During the course of research. As far as sampling method is concerned. some respondents cited that online shopping is good for its informative websites. and whether online shopping for clothes is popular among the respondents from both nations was examined. the details of the size and materials should be listed on the website to reduce the chances of buying wrong clothes. qualitative research can not provide representative samples from the target population even though they can detect 61 . 5. the retailers should be more vigilant in the design of verification system.2. In terms of fitting.The establishment of such positive images can help enhance the brand values and there are no significant differences between the British and Chinese respondents in this regard.

2000). Finally.minor problems that are not obvious in a quantitative study (Proctor. The dissertation was confined to finish within the summer term which lasted for 3 months. interviewers’ questioning skill is also one of the determinants for answer accuracy. gender and age. This is the author’s second time to do the dissertation and the aspects like nervousness and lack of experiences can also be regarded as some of the limitations for this dissertation. 2000). As long as more time is allowed. Students were used as the subjects for investigation and they tend to be more susceptible to the views. In selecting the students. the characteristics of the interviewers. the combination of quota and convenience samples was used. will have an effect on the interviewees’ willingness to participate and their nature of answers. the responses from the in-depth interviews can be subjected to researcher’s effects. for instances accent. the number of samples interviewed is limited. including the skills of handling follow-up and probing questions (Proctor. whether the brand is influential or not depends on how it is perceived. There are numerous brands around the world. more samples could be gathered so that it could enhance the overall conclusiveness of the interviews. 1992) and data obtained are influenced by the interviewers’ manner. In terms of time. During the interviews. ideas and products of other cultures than older people (Netemeyer et al. In addition. 62 . since in-depth interviews were chosen to be the method of data collection. however. 1991).. Interviewers may ask leading questions that distort respondents’ answers (Levy and Weitz. having a propensity of getting deviated results. Such discretion of choosing samples may introduce a source of bias since there is a possibility to omit some types of people. 2000). especially for those who are difficult to contact (Proctor. 5.4 Implications This dissertation attempts to find out the effect of brand image on consumer purchasing behaviour.

From the findings. This dissertation highlights the comparisons between British and Chinese. owing to the fact that consumers will buy clothes after they have known them well. colour. marketers should make use good of the traditional channels like advertisements and word-of-mouth and devise new methods to communicate with customers. Through understanding how customers behave in these four aspects.Therefore. brand loyalty and brand association. the study of brand can provide an insight for further brand development. As far as perceived quality is concerned. To reward loyal customers. perceived quality. namely brand awareness. Such positive connotations are achieved through working closely on brand awareness. aiming at finding out their similarities and differences in the consumer purchasing behaviour on clothes. it is of utmost importance to keep the customers’ positive perceptions towards the brands so that the chances for repeat purchase would be increased. having mentioned that customers judge the quality mostly based on the factors like materials. Chinese brand developers should put more efforts on quality control 63 . perceived quality and brand loyalty. In addition. manufacturers together with retailers need to join hands to produce better clothes for the customers to choose from. four different areas were investigated. some Chinese respondents have negative perceptions towards clothes quality produced from China and other developing countries whereas their British counterparts do not have such strong feelings. In terms of brand awareness. price and performance. Under the premise that brand is regarded as equity for marketers. the investment in brand loyalty could enhance the chance of repeat purchase and broaden the customer base. marketers can think of relevant strategies. durability. marketers can devise different reward methods in different forms such as discounts. style. This provides an important insight that Chinese customers should get rid of their negative perceptions towards the clothes quality. As for brand association.

since famous clothing brands are not uncommon in such developed country. For the UK. Further research could also be done on comparisons between some other countries’ consumers in which they are found to have significant impact on consumer behaviour. for instance working class. could 64 . Marketers could consider the feasibility of getting this idea widespread in the clothes retailing industry as other retail sectors. other kinds of research methods such as focus group and even some quantitative research methods could be used so as to provide findings from different perspectives. there are several limitations as mentioned in the previous section. It is hoped that Chinese can have some influential global clothing brands by doing so. More samples should be interviewed as long as time and money are not constraints. it should be more aware of the marketing strategies to enhance the overall brand equity. This may change the buying attitude that Chinese are now confined to buy luxury clothes produced in the foreign markets (HKTDC. Other sampling groups. like supermarkets. 2002). For instances. It is important to make improvement in the further research to provide more fruitful and representative findings. have done. 5.5 Recommendations for further research Although the findings from this research are interesting and useful as one may think. More interviewers could be hired and trained to collect as much data as they can. This could provide much more conclusive results. in addition to semi-structured interviews. it could think of making online clothes purchasing more popular and also introducing varieties of benefits to reward loyal customers. Besides. The use of club cards was found to be more common among Chinese than the UK respondents for buying clothes.with a view to establish some strong national clothing brands among themselves.

65 .also be investigated since they may provide entirely different results as what have been obtained from the student samples. exploring the research to a higher stratum as far as brand development is concerned. By taking the above recommendations. researchers could be able to get more representative and deeper findings from different perspectives.

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S.S.S.S. Germany Japan U.S. U.Korea Britain Japan Britain U. U. U.S. Japan Britain S. Japan U.S. Germany Switzerland Spain Germany S. U.S.S. U.S.S.S. Germany U.S. Switzerland U. U. Rank 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 Gap L’Oreal Heinz Yahoo! Volkswagen Xerox Colgate Wrigley KFC Chanel Avon Nestle Kleenex Amazon. France U.S. France U. (Data adopted from Business Week (2007)) 79 .S. U. U. U.S.S. U. Netherlands Bermuda U.S. U. U. U.S.S.S. U. U. Switzerland U.S. U.S.S.S. Italy U. Sweden Switzerland Switzerland Germany U. France U. Britain Japan U.S. Hennessy Duracell ING Cartier Moet & Chandon Johnson & Johnson Shell Nissen Starbucks Lexus Smirnoff LG Bulgari Prada Armani Burberry Nivea Levi Name Nintendo Country Japan U. U.S.S.S. Germany U. U.S.S.Korea U.S. U.S. Finland Japan U. U. Netherlands France France U. France U.S. U. U.S. U.S.S.S.S.S.S.S.S.S.S.S.com Pizza Hut Danone Caterpillar Motorola Kodak adidas Rolex Zara Audi Hyundai BP Panasonic Reuters Kraft Porsche Hermes Tiffany & Co. France U. Germany U.Appendix 1: The 100 Top Brands 2006 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Microsoft IBM GE Intel Nokia Toyota Disney McDonald Mercedes-Benz Citi Marlboro Hewlett-Packard American Express BMW Gillette Louis Vuitton Cisco Honda Samsung Merrill Lynch Pepsi Nescafe Google Dell Sony Budweiser HSBC Oracle Ford Nike UPS JPMorgan SAP Canon Morgan Stanley Goldman Sachs Pfizer Apple Kellogg Ikea UBS Novartis Siemens Harley-Davidson Gucci eBay Philips Accenture MTV Name Coca-Cola Country U. Germany France U. Japan S.S.S. U.S. U.S. Britain U.S.Korea Italy Italy Italy Britain Germany U. U.

Do you recommend brands? 9. How much do you spend on clothing each month? 3. Do you regularly buy the same brand of clothes? 8.Appendix 2: Interview Questions Name: Course: Nationality: Age: Year of study: Year of living in your home country: 1. Can you describe the image of your favorite brand? 10. Why do you like this brand? 11. What is it about particular clothes that make you buy them? 5. Can you comment on what brand is to you? (Note: Further probing questions would be asked after each of the above question if necessary) 80 . Which categories of clothes do you usually buy? 4. How often do you buy clothes? 2. What would you do if you are satisfied or dissatisfied about the clothes you purchase? 13. In what ways do you usually learn about clothing brands? 6. How do you judge the quality of the clothes? 7. Do you shop online for clothes? 12.

around 20 to 30 pounds each time. since clothes are more expensive than those in China. In England. I will buy clothes if there are discounts. so normally I spent 30 pounds more or less each time when I went shopping. It would talk about 30 minutes. it would be like 40 to 50 pounds. I was the company. Chris: Which categories of clothes do you usually buy? I mean high-priced. Kevin. normally I buy clothes 4 times a year (for each season).Appendix 3: Interview Transcription Name: Kevin Fang Age: 23 Gender: Male Nationality: Chinese Chris: Hi. Summer clothes are cheaper than winter clothes. Chris: So you buy clothes less frequently in the UK. so in winter. Kevin: Yes. 81 . Chris: How much do you spend on clothing each month? In case of China and also the UK? Kevin: In China. I had a girlfriend who likes shopping. In England. maybe 3 times a year. Chris: Why? Kevin: Because in China. How often do you buy clothes? Kevin: In China. I would like to ask you about your purchasing behaviour on clothes.

medium-priced or low-priced?

Kevin: Medium-priced. I don’t buy very cheap clothes. I prefer higher quality, good taste, so these clothes are more expensive.

Chris: What about the kinds of clothes you buy? Sports apparel, casual wear, formal wear or others?

Kevin: The first two. I buy casual wear more frequently than sports apparels. Sports apparels are just for doing some exercises, and I won’t wear sports apparels on streets. But I buy trainers.

Chris: You really seldom buy formal wear.

Kevin: There are not many chances for me to wear. I have one, just one.

Chris: What is it about particular clothes that make you buy them?

Kevin: I prefer quality as I said, and good taste…I prefer some grand clothes…I like Jack and Jones, and Levi’s. For shoes, I like adidas and Reeboks.

Chris: You have mentioned something about price before, so do you think price is one of your considerations?

Kevin: Yes of course. My girlfriend likes to go to some markets where she can find many cheap clothes. Some of them are on discount and some of them are out of season, she is pursuing that kind of clothes.

Chris: What about you?

82

Kevin: I like buying shoes in a very good ground. I don’t like bargain with the prices. Some clothes have the absolute prices.

Chris: So when you went to the market with your girlfriend, did you buy them? Because normally we need to bargain in the market.

Kevin: If you go to some small shops, these clothes do not have ground, you can bargain with the shop assistants. But in some shopping malls, some clothes have ground, you cannot bargain with them. Because they are of fixed prices and the quality is good.

Chris: Which one do you prefer? Shops or Market?

Kevin: Shops.

Chris: What about brand?

Kevin: Yea, Jack and Jones.

Chris: What about country of origin?

Kevin: Um…I’m not sure which countries these clothes come from because some are made in China, maybe the designers are from other countries. Most of them I think they are from Europe.

Chris: So you have no special preferences?

Kevin: No.

Chris: If I divide the question into 2, maybe do you have any preference for the country of manufacture?
83

Kevin: As I said, most of them are made in China.

Chris: What about the country of design?

Kevin: Europe.

Chris: Do you have special preferences for the clothes made in Europe?

Kevin: Actually, we can’t find the clothes made in Europe, but in China.

Chris: What about advertising?

Kevin: Advertising is important. Sometimes, I go shopping for clothes just up to the advertising…and maybe there are reputations.

Chris: Do you have any advertisement series come to your mind?

Kevin: Levi’s…their advertisement for jeans is very impressive…so are the one from Jack and Jones.

Chris: What is the advertisement about? For Levi’s, why can it make you so memorable?

Kevin: Because people who wear the clothes look very nice, look very handsome with the clothes.

Chris: You mentioned some people appearing in this advertisement. Are these people celebrities?

Kevin: No, just models. Some of them are Chinese and some of them are foreigners.
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For summer clothes.Chris: If some advertisements feature the celebrities. but the prices for these kinds of clothes are high. 85 . Chris: In what way do you usually learn about clothing brands? Kevin: TV. For winter clothes. would it have an impact on you to buy the clothes? Kevin: Yes. Chris: How do you judge the quality of clothes? Kevin: It depends. so maybe next time I go shopping. it will. I can’t afford it. I only wear them for one to two year. Chris: But you maybe affected by them. How can they affect you? Kevin: Maybe they buy very nice clothes. Chris: What about peer influence? Do you know some brands from your friends? Kevin: Yes. and from my mind. they put posters in the public areas. Chris: Do you talk about buying clothes with your friends frequently? Kevin: No. of course. from my perspective. advertisements in the shopping mall. it may be longer. So it needs to keep the quality for that period. not frequently. on the streets. I will consider them. they are nice to put them on.

by the feeling of texture and whether it will fade or not. I never compare which clothes come from which countries. some brands have their own manufacturing (plants) in China.Chris: So if it’s durable. by the colour. Chris: So you think these two countries produce the highest quality clothes? Kevin: I consider brands more than the countries. you know. and Demank (Jack and Jones). Chris: So you judge the quality in terms of durability. then it’s of high quality. I think their quality is good. Would country of origin affect your perceptions towards clothes quality? Kevin: As I said most of them are made in China. 86 . these clothes are from very good brands and they quality is conceivable. Chris: What about lowest quality? Kevin: China…maybe. Kevin: As long as it can. Chris: Do you have some ideas that which countries’ clothes you think they are of highest or lowest quality? Kevin: Korea (for E-land). keep the quality until out-of-date. Chris: Any others to judge the quality? Kevin: Colour…the feeling…whether or not it becomes fade after washing it.

but it doesn’t have any brands in casual wear category. it’s high Chris: Do you recommend brands to your friends or someone else? 87 . I think quality is not a problem for these brands. Chris: So you believe quality goes with prices? Kevin: Actually for young people. I only bought E-land once… I also buy clothes from Kuhle. Chris: You mean China usually sells cheap clothes? Kevin: Yea. the appearance is more important…the quality. maybe cheaper than from other countries. Chris: So you mean maybe China has some famous brands in sport apparels. you go to that shop again to buy clothes? Kevin: Ah.Chris: Why do you have such feelings? Kevin: I think quality goes high as prices go high. I will go to those places…not E-land. it just likes Jack and Jones. we may buy some sport apparels like LiNing. Chris: So because of the quality and the appearance. Chris: Do you regularly buy the same brand of clothes? Kevin: Every time I go shopping. famous among young people. Kevin: No. of course. not many. but for casual wear. we prefer clothes from other countries.

For shirts. For T-shirt. So. I prefer some simple image. maybe they will ignore it. I will buy it. I prefer very colorful image. I never buy clothes online. Chris: Why not? Kevin: I think every one has their own place. Chris: Do you shop online for clothes? Kevin: No. Maybe girls can find more suitable size than guys do. Chris: Does such image come from advertising and packaging? Kevin: Yea. The clothes online are cheap. For jeans. I don’t know. you can buy it online. Chris: So you mentioned something about colour and simplicity. if it is fit to me. maybe they will keep in mind. I can see how it looks like. Chris: Can you describe the image of your favorite brand? Kevin: I prefer very simple image. advertising is the first impression and packaging is on-the-spot influence. how does such image come from? Kevin: I think its appearance. I know many girls do that. but I know many people do. After I put it on. I prefer blue jeans. 88 . like the clothes from the markets.Kevin: No. I am a little bit fat and if I put on it. If you can’t find in the market or in the shops. like grid shirts. To be honest. if I recommend my preference to him or her.

Chris: If the shops do offer you some loyalty cards. it maybe the advantage of buying clothes online. I will not go to the see any clothes within a short interval. maybe after one or two month. that’s the main advantage.Chris: So. Chris: If you are satisfied. if I buy clothes more than 40 or 50 pounds once. I will go there again to see some new clothes…new arrival…But I will not go to the same shops very frequently. Chris: What are the bad things of buying clothes online? Kevin: As I said. maybe they are there. of course I will wear it. maybe take it as my pajamas. would you go to the same shops to have a look again? Kevin: Maybe I will go there next season when I go shopping. You can find some clothes which you can’t buy in the shops or markets. Kevin: Yea. I can get some gifts from the accumulated credits. but less frequently. would you apply for it? Kevin: Yea. at least once a week. they will give me 5 to 10 percent discount or some credits. I will wear it very regularly. As long as l finish shopping. the size may not fit and the quality as well… Chris: What would you do if you are satisfied or dissatisfied about the clothes you purchased? Kevin: If I am satisfied with the clothes I bought. just after finish shopping. 89 . Normally. I have one from Kuhle and one from Jack and Jones. they will give me a VIP card. But if I’m not satisfied with it. So next time I go to these shops to buy clothes.

Thanks very much. It may not the spirit of the clothes. belts. I would like you to help me finish a sentence starting with ‘Brand is’. sunglasses. glasses. wallet. but it represents the taste and quality of them. something like that. 90 . Chris: That’s all for the interview.like some accessories. Chris: So you said ‘Brand is just like the name of people.

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