Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Purchasing Behaviour on Clothing: Comparison between China and the UK’s Consumers

By Kwok Keung Tam


A Dissertation presented in part consideration for the degree of “MSc International Business”

Table of Content
Page numbers Abstract i



Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 The importance of brand image on fashion clothing 1.2 Background information of China and the UK clothing markets 1.2.1 China clothing market Chinese spending habits Impediments to China’s clothing brand development 1.2.2 UK clothing market British spending habits Characteristics of the UK clothing market 1.3 Theoretical framework 1.4 Objectives of the dissertation 1.5 Outline of the dissertation

1 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 8

Chapter 2: Literature review 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The important roles of brand 2.2.1 The characteristics of successful brands 2.3 Brand equity 2.3.1 Brand awareness 2.3.2 Perceived quality 2.3.3 Brand loyalty 2.3.4 Brand association 2.4 Consumer buying behaviour

10 10 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 19

2.4.1 Models of consumer behaviour 2.5 Summary

20 23

Chapter 3: Methodology 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Theoretical backgrounds 3.2.1 Review of different research traditions 3.2.2 Quantitative versus qualitative analysis 3.2.3 Reliability and validity of data 3.3 Justification of research method 3.4 Sampling 3.5 Interview schedule 3.5.1 Stage one 3.5.2 Stage two 3.5.3 Stage three 3.6 Administration 3.7 Analysis strategy 3.7.1 Grounded theory and its relationship to qualitative data analysis 3.7.2 Within-case and cross-case analysis Within-case analysis Cross-case analysis 3.8 Summary

24 24 24 24 25 26 27 29 31 31 32 34 34 34 34

35 36 37 37

Chapter 4: Research findings and discussion 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Backgrounds of respondents 4.3 Effect of clothing brand image on consumer buying behaviour 4.3.1 Significance of clothing brands on consumer purchasing decisions 4.3.2 Brand awareness

38 38 38 40 40


3 Perceived quality 4.1 Significance of clothing brands on consumer purchasing decisions 5.3.6 Consumer buying behaviour 4.5 Brand association 5.2 Conclusions 5.2.5 Brand association 4.2 Brand awareness 5.3 Perceived quality 5.3.6 Consumer buying behaviour 5.4.4 Results 4.3.5 Recommendations for further research 58 58 58 58 59 59 60 60 61 61 62 64 References 66 Appendix 1: The 100 top brands 2006 79 Appendix 2: Interview questions 80 Appendix 3: Interview transcription 81 .3 Limitations 5.4 Brand loyalty 4.4 Brand loyalty 5.2.1 Introduction 5.5 Summary 46 50 53 54 56 57 Chapter 5: Conclusions Implications

This study examines the factors which contribute to brand equity in the clothing industry. In the UK. Semi-structured interviews have been conducted to solicit responses from interviewees for analysis. it is important that Chinese factory owners together with marketers should join hands to have better control over the clothes quality.Abstract Brand is a powerful tool to attract more consumers to buy particular products. more emphasis should be placed on the marketing strategies such as rewarding customer loyalty with a view to enhance the sustainable development of the clothing brands. however. brand loyalty and brand association. perceived quality. clothing brands are much better developed than its China counterparts. Having known that China has no influential clothing brands around the world. Some may even regarded it as equity as it can add values to the products. comparing the consumer behaviour between the British and Chinese respondents based on the four respects of brand equity. i . namely brand awareness. The findings suggested that Chinese tend to have negative perceptions towards the quality of clothes produced in their own country.

but also encouraged me to face the challenge ahead.Acknowledgements I would like to thank my advisor. in assisting me to finish the dissertation. Last but not least. This dissertation is dedicated to my family and I will try my best to do anything. Vicky Story. I would also acknowledge my school-mates for their help in the data collection process. She has given me support as well as valuable comments throughout the consultation period so that I can manage to handle one of the hardest subjects in my university life. especially my father Chun Shiu Tam who has devoted himself to the clothing industry for nearly half a century. I would like to extend my gratitude to my family members. ii . They have devoted their precious time for the interviews voluntarily and their wholehearted support contributes to the success of this dissertation. He has not only inspired me to do this dissertation. Dr. In addition.

namely pre-purchase. as a matter of fact. Several brands. read product information. under the influence of globalization and concerted efforts from media advertising.1 The importance of brand image on fashion clothing Clothing. Human beings cannot live without the protection from clothes in adverse conditions and this signifies how important clothing is for us. have become popular not only in their country of origin. 1 . choose the buying modes. consumers may need to recognize their personal needs. clothing can help represent our personal identity. in addition to the basic functions. is a kind of necessity that helps keep our bodies warm. Owing to the proliferation of brands in the clothing sector. determine whether to buy again from the same retailer. consumers need to take serious consideration during the buying processes. Each stage is of equal importance that can alter the consumer buying decision. decide which and where to buy. different genders and cultural backgrounds. which can tell how significant an individual is. Having a strong and remarkable brand image could help establish an identity in marketplace (Aaker. Nowadays. purchase and post-purchase. 1996). show satisfaction to the services or product quality and finally be loyal to the brand. the purchasing processes can be divided into three stages. These highlight the complication of buying processes and the potential impact a brand could impose in between them. but also in other markets with high potential. 2000). As mentioned by Rayport and Jaworski (2003). Shopping for clothes is one of the popular pastimes among people from all ages. Thus. express the status an individual has and what their personal image is like (O’Cass.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. Once consumers make a purchasing decision. clothes can also serve as fashion items.

Being an advanced developing country. 2000. 1.widen the profit margins. which would be illustrated in the following chapters. the UK has transformed from an industrial country to a well-developed country in the recent decades. 1996.2.1 China clothing market The clothing industry is one of the most important and hence heavily invested industry in China. managing brand image is of utmost importance. The importance of brand image has inspired many marketing scholars and practitioners to begin researching the concept of ‘brand equity’ (Aaker. brands are regarded as valuable assets which can help the companies generate lucrative revenues. marketers would develop retail brands with unique image so as to continue to gain popularity and market share (Abend.2 Background information of China and the UK clothing markets China and the UK are entirely different in their economic structures. In accordance with Delong et al. China tends to be more dependent on labour-intensive production activities rather than natural resource-based activities (Greenaway and Milner. (2004). This may probably explain why China is now becoming one of the most influential countries within the clothing sector. Ailawadi. 1993). 1. Under this concept. 2003). 1993. contributing to 74. Keller. 2005). consumers appear to rely on the brand image as long as they have little knowledge about the brand. In this way. 1991. the concept of brand equity would be utilized as a theoretical framework.16 billion US dollars in terms of export value and leading it to become the second largest clothing export market in 2 . encourage greater intermediary co-operation as well as increase the chance for further brand extension (Delgado-Ballester and Munuera-Aleman. In this paper. Corstjens and Lal. The differences in their economies have triggered the interest of my study towards their consumer buying behaviour in the clothing sector. In order to differentiate one brand from another. 1998. 2001. On the other hand. 2000).

It is shown that they would prefer buying middle-priced range clothes from Hong Kong and luxury brand-named clothes made in foreign countries. However. people spend 7. 1. It is undeniable that the entry of WTO would provide business opportunities for China. the development of clothing industry in China becomes even much faster. Chinese brands have competitive advantage in fitness and pricing (Delong et al. 1998) reveals that over two thirds of the consumers regard domestic brands as their first priority. On average. China plays a role as a producer. Nowadays. The HKTDC (2002) research also reports on the average annual spending on clothing. wielding the techniques and human resources to finish the orders placed by the foreign counterparts. 2004).2005 (WTO. Chinese customers show divergent opinions with respect to purchasing clothes. This points out the fact that a large majority of Chinese is still in favor of domestic brands in low-priced range. It is believed that China could make use of its competitive advantages. for instances low labour costs and large portions of usable land. however. pricing. With the accession of World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. Regarding the criteria for buying clothes. However. the Grey China Base Annual Consumer Study (Bates.1 Chinese spending habits According to a research conducted by the Hong Kong Trade Development Council (HKTDC) (2002). this would also engender intense competition since foreign firms are allowed to sell their products directly to China. quality and finally trendiness.2. respondents rank fitness as their prime concern.. followed by cutting. 2006). to further strengthen its position in the clothing sector.1.3% of their income on buying clothes with women professionals having the highest demand and students’ spending the minimal amount. This disparity is probably due to the fact that professionals have higher spending power than the students’. As stated by Cui (1997). China is known for the manufacture of basic goods in large volumes and foreign registered brands are often designed elsewhere and produced in China. 3 .

Such findings provide insights to the future development of local brands in China. This is possibly owing to the fact that Chinese brands are confined to low. none of the Chinese brands can enter the 100 Top Brands in 2006 (see Appendix 1) in which Nike was ranked 31.2 Impediments to China’s clothing brand development China has competitive advantages in terms of production factors such as low labour costs and growing technology. However. the lack of globally influential brands is one of the main reasons why China lags behind in the clothing industry with respect to brand development (Delong et al. they often find Hong Kong and Taiwan brand names confusing. According to a report published by Business Week (2007). Besides. The originally advantageous factors. Also. 1. The lack of brand knowledge is probably attributed to the geographical and political differences.2. however.. Schmitt and Pan (1994) state that Chinese customers could not be able to differentiate between US and European apparel brands. When it comes to the case 4 . Lim and O’Cass (2001) explain that people in the west tend to have negative perception towards brands from emerging economies and hence the number of famous clothing brands in China is limited. however. become a major hindrance to the global brands’ development process. 2004). They tend to perceive US brands positively as US has a reputation in technological development and high fashion. followed by adidas in 71 and the Spain-found clothing company ZARA in 73. such confusion does not affect the overall perception towards brands in other countries. Cui (1997) points out that customers would only justify a brand through its image as long as they know little about it. China has been connoted with the reputation of low-cost products in the overseas markets for decades.people still tend to buy luxury clothes produced in the foreign markets.to middle-priced range market without fully penetrating to the luxurious level. This spells out the need for China to establish its own brands with good reputation.1.

According to a research reported by Hargrave-Silk (2005. pales in comparison with the development of the business sector and even has a sign of recession in the recent decades. March 25). just around one-third of female respondents and less than half of the male respondents express that they have the saving habits. females are more likely 5 . 1. Among the respondents.2.com. 2007). 2004). The image of China-produced products needs improvement in this sense. Regarding its GDP growth. The key motivation for doing so is to build up a global image so as to enhance the company’s international reputation and it is suggested that quality is the major determinant for the overseas customers to make their buying decisions. The manufacturing sector.com. the overall image of Chinese brands could become better in the future. In addition. This can be revealed by the gradual decline of employment rate within the UK clothing industry (Jones and Hayes. According to a research conducted by Weekes (2004). it is pursuing a stable rather than aggressive GDP growth rate. because of its mature economic structure. it is ironic that most respondents find that they are less authentic.2.2 UK clothing market The UK is a European country with population of around 60 million. which is 21 times less than that of China (Economist. With such impetus and the concerted effort from the industry members. 2007). regardless of their quality. 1. nearly two thirds of the companies in China would like to establish their own global brand.about the perception of China-produced foreign brands. including the clothing industry.2. contributing to nearly 30% of the total domestic products (Economist. the business services and finance sector are the most important source of gross domestic products.1 British spending habits Spending seems more welcome than saving among the British people.

1999). with nearly half of female respondents saying that they have at least one store card and nearly two-thirds of them own one or two loyalty cards. leaving alone the design centre with well-trained designers. In 6 . Such move can probably account for the significant drop in employment rate and amount of output in the clothing sector (Jones. 2003). 1999. short-life-cycle products. the market is characterized by products with small differentiation (Birtwhistle and Freathy. women may even shop for men’s clothing (Dholakia. However. As mentioned by Moore (1995). This may possibly explain why shopping is a gendered activity (Dholakia. the UK clothing industry has shifted its manufacturing section to other countries with low labour costs and skilled labour. strong competitive activities. Store cards and loyalty cards are common promotional tactics to solicit consumer’s loyalty. there is a trend for own brand development. and occasionally. 1995). this is found to hinder the development of British clothing design due to lack of manufacturing facilities (Dagworthy. However. 1994). This could be explained by the fact that store cards sometimes have much higher interest rates than that of the credit cards and personal loans (Mintel. as well as fluctuating consumer demand (Marciniak and Bruce. 2004). Moore. 1998. As far as the UK fashion retail sector is concerned. 1. Siddiqui et al. as cited in Carruthers. the same research shows that store cards may not be regularly used even though special offers are often given to the cardholders (Weekes.to spend on clothes than males. Although the UK is overwhelmed with fashion brands. 2002). fashion retailers tend to create product differentiation in which they can distinguish themselves from their potential competitors in terms of product features like design and price.2. South and Spitze.. concentrated markets.2. 2004). 2004. 2003). a polarized marketplace.2 Characteristics of the UK clothing market Like most of the developed economy.

2001. The clothing sector is particularly chosen in this research. Mintel. consumers would appear to be more likely to purchase the products in much higher prices. 2004).4 Objectives of the dissertation The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the effect of brand image on consumer purchasing behaviour in clothing. Compared with other retailed sector. clothing is a kind of public 7 . The theoretical framework adopted in this dissertation would be based on the concept of brand equity and the details of each element are to be discussed and analyzed later in chapter four. Marciniak and Bruce. 1. the retailing sector is fragmented. composing of independent. 1.addition. consumers would prefer buying brand-name products (Bello and Holbrook. with the comparison between the Chinese and British consumers. This phenomenon spells out the concept of brand equity.3 Theoretical framework With a well-known brand name. As stated by Bearden and Etzel (as cited in Hogg et al. As far as the same level of product quality is concerned. perceived brand equity and brand associations. 1998). brand equity is mainly derived from four elements. with the later one contributing to the largest proportion of market share (Easey. marketers and practitioners could devise strategies to increase the sales revenues. 1995). 2004. namely brand awareness. 2003). brand loyalty.. the fashion retailing sector is found to incorporate the largest number of indigenous chains such as Next plc (Marciniak and Bruce. Such phenomena have stimulated the emergence of brand name development in the competitive UK clothing market. Having found out the relationship between brand image and consumer purchasing behaviour. According to Aaker (1991). family-owed businesses and some large scale chain stores.

mainly concentrating on clothing industry and consumer buying behaviour. 1. Chinese and British consumers are going to be compared in this research since China and the UK have been targeted by many clothing retailers due to their enormous customer base. Famous clothing brands like H&M and ZARA have already obtained their footholds in these two markets that underlie their significant contribution to these companies (H&M. ZARA. the research objectives and the dissertation outline. Two assumptions are made throughout the dissertation. It is believed that this chapter could provide readers with general information like theories and issues in relation to consumer buying behaviour for clothes so as to make them more 8 . 2007. being an emerging country with high potential on clothing brands. In addition.necessity with weak reference group influence on the product category but strong reference group influence on the brand choice. The results of such comparison would offer meaningful insights for further brand development in both China and the UK. Chapter 2 will incorporate the review of previous studies. whereas the UK is a mature market in which consumers are more experienced in purchasing brand-name clothes.5 Outline of the dissertation The structure of the dissertation is shown as follows: Chapter 1 is the introductory section. containing the background information of China and the UK clothing industry. brand image should have an impact on the consumer buying behaviour of clothing and second. First. results obtained from the research on brand image could be more conspicuous. is on the lookout for extensions. 2007). there are differences in buying behaviour for consumers in China and the UK. In this way. China.

Recommendations would be made with regard to the limitations so as to provide further directions in the future studies. Chapter 5 would draw conclusions on the findings from the previous chapters. 9 . Chapter 4 is the core of the dissertation in which research findings are presented and discussed. Implications towards the business environment and research limitations are also included. Chapter 3 delineates the research methodology.understandable in the forthcoming sections. Whether brand image would affect the consumer buying behaviour in the clothing sector is shown and also the similarities and differences regarding the circumstances in China and the UK are investigated. focusing on the description of research design and justification of data.

as well as its overall presentation (Murphy. 2001). Brand serves a pivotal role for distinguishing goods and services from those of the competitors (Aaker. packaging. 1998) and it is characterized by a noticeable name or symbol which can differentiate the goods and services from the rivals’ (Aaker. 2. there is a growing number of research conducted in the field of consumer buying behaviour. 1998). Owing to the proliferation of brands in the recent decades. Keller. the literatures concerning the roles of brand and brand equity are to be reviewed so as to provide a theoretical framework for the aforementioned analysis.. promotion.Chapter 2 Literature Review 2. Murphy. 1998). However. The emergence of brand equity underlies the importance of brand in marketing tactics and hence provides useful insights for managers and further research (Keller. brand is a guarantor of reliability and quality 10 .1 Introduction Consumer behaviour refers to the activities in which people acquire. 2003). a brand is also composed of products. 1991.2 The important roles of brand Brand is a name in every consumer’s mind (Mooij. most of them concentrate on a single country study. consume and dispose products and services (Blackwell et al. In addition to a specific brand name. From the consumers’ perspective. 1998). 1991. This dissertation is going to investigate the differences of British and Chinese in purchasing clothes under the influence of brand image. In this chapter. advertising. regardless of the importance of cross-country comparisons which will inspire innovative ideas for understanding the fast-changing consumer habits.

effective after-sales services and the like. Added to this. for instances well-priced products and consistent quality (Murphy. basic brand. which are developed in accordance with their perceptions towards the brand. According to a research conducted by Freeride Media LLC (1998) on shopping habits.1 The characteristics of successful brands A brand can be an everlasting and lucrative asset as long as it is maintained in a good manner that can continue satisfying consumers’ needs (Batchelor. on the other hand. Basic brand. 2006). consumers would like to buy and use brand-name products with a view to highlight their personality in different situational contexts (Aaker. Finally and most importantly. a potential brand is established through engendering customer 11 . consumers would have their preferences.. augmented brand and potential brand. 1999. The brand can be further augmented with the provision of credibility. 1999). nearly one-forth of the respondents are likely to impulse-buy clothes and accessories. When deciding which products to purchase. Nowadays. Although successful brands can be totally different in nature. Murphy. 1998). 1998. 2. considers the packaging of the tangible product so as to attract the attention from the potential customers. consumers have a wide range of choice to choose from when they enter a shopping mall.in consumer products (Roman et al. Tangible product refers to the commodity which meets the basic needs of the customers. It is found that consumers’ emotions are one of the major determinants which affect their buying behaviour (Berry. namely tangible product. 2000).2. they share something in common. 2005). As mentioned by Levitt (1983). Successful branding could make consumers aware of the presence of the brand and hence could increase the chance of buying the company’s products and services (Doyle. 1998). there are four elements for building a successful brand. Fennis and Pruyn.

For instance. 2002). It is not uncommon to find some familiar brands listed on the stock markets in which they could be bought or sold. Concerning the positive side of brand equity. 2007). 1991.. Yasin et al. This is supported by the fact that brand equity depends on the number of people with regular purchase (Aaker. In addition. not to mention the growth or declines of retail sales (Blackwell. 2. 1996). Added to this. Vodafone. designs as well as copyright. Keller (1998) points out that brand equity signifies the unique marketing effects imposed on the brand. the values of brands have been recognized to both the consumers and producers. brand is also a tradable product with measurable financial value (Murphy. giving rise to a reduction in sales volume. 1995). which could impose beneficial or detrimental effects on the values arising from the products or services (Aaker. 12 . it happens when consumers are willing to pay more for the same level of quality just because of the attractiveness of the name attached to the product (Bello and Holbrook. However. Brands like HSBC. In order to combat piracy. By doing so.preference and loyalty. including its name and symbol. 1998). One of the quintessential examples regarding brand as a kind of equity is the imposition of laws to protect intellectual property (Murphy. patents. many countries have set up laws to protect trade marks. 1998). Marks and Spencer. In countries with well-established legal system. the image of the brand could be well instilled in the customers’ mind. poor product quality and customer services could adversely affect the brand image. brand equity could be ruined if it is not properly managed. Sainsbury and Tesco are all listed on the FTSE 100 index (London Stock Exchange. 2007). It is found that the volatility of stock market could affect consumers’ purchasing mood.3 Brand equity The term ‘brand equity’ refers to a set of assets and liabilities associated with a brand.

consumers no longer focus on the short-term promotion but the brand on the whole. 2. As for the firm. For the consumers. It refers to the ability of a potential consumer to recall and recognize the brand. namely brand loyalty. the merger between adidas and Reebok in 2005 not only increased their market share so as to compete with Nike in the US sports apparel market. There is a high propensity for consumers with good perceptions to buy from the same shop again than those with poor perceptions. 1998). It is important for the potential consumers to be aware of a product so that it can become one of the purchasing choices. These four main areas are to be discussed in the coming sections. name awareness. perceived quality and brand associations (Aaker. Brand equity is a broad concept which can be further subdivided into four main areas. This is due to the fact that the product needs to enter the awareness set before it comes to the consideration 13 . 1991).The above examples highlight the values of brand equity for both consumers and the firm. 1991). but also attracted more people to invest in the bigger company with high potential (Business Week. brand equity could also be a source for the firm to generate cash flow. Besides. 1991). 1991.1 Brand awareness Brand awareness is one of major determinants of brand equity. brand equity could provide them with information about the brand which influences their confidence during the purchasing process. with brand recognition being the lowest level and the first named brand with unaided recall being the highest level. The level of brand awareness lies in a continuum. brand equity could also allow higher margins through premium pricing and reduced reliance upon promotional activities (Aaker. 2005).3. Keller. For instance. Past purchasing experiences and familiarity with the brand could be attributable to the perceptions generated from the consumers (Aaker. Owning to the positive image. linking the brand with its corresponding product class (Aaker.

its geographical location and politics could affect the consumer brand awareness level seriously..set (Blackwell et al. due to their political separations. has once been a colony of the UK. celebrities can disseminate messages to particular consumers and hence increase the brand awareness. In case of China. Several factors can alter the level of brand awareness.. 2007). In addition. This could probably explain why consumers tend to buy a recognizable brand rather than an unfamiliar one (Hoyer. 1986. Chinese consumers cannot distinguish US apparel brand names from the European ones. As mentioned by Keller (1998). Consumers are hence well-equipped with comparative elements to judge which product or service to purchase (Alvarez and Casielles. It is found that advertisement attitude is attributable to the influence on brand attitudes. 1990). Advertising and celebrity endorsement could be some useful tools for raising brand awareness. Tsai et al. As for source 14 . namely increasing brand name identity and associating it with the product class. Taiwan would like to become politically independent from China owing to their different political standpoint whereas Hong Kong.. celebrity endorsement can give rise to source credibility and source attractiveness. 2000). owing to geographical differences. 2005).. being a special administrative region since 1997. According to research conducted by Delong et al. two tasks are to be accomplished. 2001) and an increase in brand awareness is conducive to a higher chance of entering the later set (Nedungadi. In order to achieve brand awareness. Macdonald and Sharp. brand awareness can be enhanced through repeat exposure to the brand. Moreover. 1990. there is an increasing number of advertising campaigns around the world. (2004). affecting consumer’s intention to purchase (Mackenzie et al. 2007). brands from Taiwan and Hong Kong are sometimes confused. In recent decades. For long time. brands with higher level of awareness would be more likely to be purchased (Yasin et al. as pointed out by McGuire (1978). For source credibility. In this way.

features. there are seven dimensions which affect the consumers’ perception. competence. 2. perceived quality can further be classified into product quality and service quality. Yasin.2 Perceived quality Another important attribute to brand equity is perceived quality. serviceability as well as fit and finish.3. Service quality. It is defined as the customer’s perception of the overall quality or superiority of a product or service (Aaker.attractiveness. durability. 2007). charging premium price. the country-of-origin of a product is found to affect its perceived quality (Khachaturian and Morganosky. reliability. 1992). 1989). In addition. it is becoming more difficult to obtain satisfactory level of perceived quality owing to the fact that fast and continuous product advancement has already strengthened consumers’ expectations on product quality (Sherman. is judged by its corresponding tangibles. successful endorsement can associate the culture of the celebrity world with the endorsed product (McCracken. reliability. differentiating the position of a brand. 1991. Since it is a kind of intangible. it is subjective in nature and hence the knowledge of actual detailed product specifications could have little correlation with the perceived quality. motivating channel members to perform well and also introducing extensions into new brand categories (Aaker. 1991). Nevertheless. To be more specific. In addition to the aforementioned dimensions.. namely performance. conformance with specifications. Keller. Similar to brand awareness. 1990) and also the perceptions towards the 15 . on the other hand. This association can raise the public awareness towards the brand. overall feeling towards a brand. responsiveness and empathy (Aaker. perceived quality is determined by a number of factors. Regarding product quality. it is found that perceived quality is of utmost importance in determining brand loyalty as well as repeat purchase (Delong et al. 2004). 1991). Perceived quality of a brand could help generate values by providing a pivotal reason-to-buy. 1998.

regardless of the superior features. consumers could have their preferences for products made from one country over another (Papadopoulos et al. 2005). Keller (1998). Moreover. 1991). In this case. This is typically true when the product concerned is somewhat risky. it can help reduce the marketing costs of doing business (Aaker. 1993).3 Brand loyalty Brand loyalty is one of the core components of brand equity and also positively and directly affected brand equity (Atilgan et al. consumers are assured to buy the product if they have some friends or relatives who 16 . Second..purchased value (Ahmed and d’Astou. 1991).3. consumers continue to buy the brand. having loyal customers is a kind of blessing. challenges that such measure may not be totally accurate. loyalty to a brand can enhance trade leverage. the less vulnerable the customer base would be. Loyal customers confer to a higher possibility of repeat purchases and it is less costly to keep customers than to get new ones. Brand loyalty is regarded as valuable asset under different circumstances. 1991).. price is one of the important cues to evaluate perceived quality (Aaker. 2. 1991). however. Based on the practice that repeat buying is one of the indicators for brand loyalty. consumers are inclined to develop stereotypical beliefs about the products from particular countries. It is found that price is more relevant in judging the perceived quality of a product given that a person lacks the ability to evaluate the quality of a product. prices and convenience owned by its competitors (Aaker. This is due to the fact that some consumers make habitual purchase towards a particular brand just because of its prominence in stock and effective promotions. First. loyal customers could influence the others to purchase the brand. Third. The more loyal the consumers are towards the brand. Under the influence of brand loyalty. Hence. For many companies. As mentioned by Srikatanyoo and Gnoth (2002). Some consumers with strong affiliation to one brand would switch to the shop in which a designated brand is sold.

It is defined as the specific linkage between the memory and the brand (Aaker. According to Aaker (1991). Bansal and Voyer. as well as personal communication sources in making purchasing decision rather than more formal and organizational advertising campaigns (Bansal and Voyer. Keller (1998) and Yasin et al. Marney. which contribute to a specific brand image. 17 .4 Brand association The last dimension for brand equity is brand association. 2000). Finally. Due to the values obtained from brand loyalty. 1995. Hence.. (2007) further note that equity of a brand is largely supported by consumers’ associations towards the brand. Moreover. Customers can also be rewarded for their loyalty towards the firms so that they will continue to buy the products. many firms would devise different strategies to maintain and enhance the loyalty from customers. In addition to the tangible products. examples. for instances innovativeness and distinctiveness are also taken into account as brand associations. it is important to treat the customer with respect in order to keep them loyal. 1998. 1991). several airlines like Cathay Pacific. 2. brand loyalty can help provide ample time for the firm to response to competitors’ newly launched products. and facts that create a brand knowledge network (Yoo et al. 1997. episodes. 2000). consisting of multiple ideas. the intangible qualities.recommend the same model of product. For instance.3. KLM and chain stores such as TOPMAN provide club-cards or loyalty cards to reward their customers with discounts and other benefits. This suggests why word-of-mouth communication is one of the most powerful tools in the marketplace (Henricks. customer satisfaction level needs to be properly managed through conducting consumer research. the firm could make good use of the time lapse to develop more superior products in order to compete with its rivals. 2000). Brand association is such a complicated concept that connects to one another. Silverman. Consumers usually depend on informal.

It is about brand positioning that a well-positioned brand will find it hard to be attacked by its competitors due to its uniqueness. experimental and symbolic. they are related to consumers’ emotional feelings. Such kind of associations can provide bases for them to make purchase decisions and even become loyal to the brand (Aaker. 1998). Consumers are attracted by the signal when they purchase a product in a particular brand. packaging. attitudes are regarded as the consumers’ overall assessments towards a brand. on the other hand. refer to the signal effect that a brand may impose on the consumers. Signal effect is determined by the image of consumers and also the personality of the brand. namely attributes. benefits and attitudes. They can be classified into functional. As for non-product related attributes. user imagery as well as usage imagery are to be considered. Associations towards a brand can create value for the firm and so its customers in a number of ways. They incorporate summary evaluations of information which represent how consumers feel in a long run. Attributes can be further categorized into product-related attributes as well as non-product related attributes. This can make the brand 18 . 1991). Attributes refer to the specific characteristics a product has.Keller (1993. For experimental benefits. Benefits are another category in brand associations. Customers are sometimes forgetful and associations towards a brand serve as a brief summary for the customers to make their purchasing decision. brand associations can differentiate one brand from another. Function benefits signify the physical or basic advantages a brand may have. price information. For product-related attributes. Different brands have different associations to their prospective customers. lying in a continuum from positive to negative (Gabbott and Hogg. First of all. Associations can also be used to trigger the customers to recall their past experiences. the overall features of the product or service are concerned. 1998) further divides brand associations into three categories. making the customers remember the brand by heart. 1998). Finally. Second. they help the customers to process or retrieve information (Keller. Symbolic benefits.

First of all. buy. Owing to the proliferation of products in the market. contributing to its higher premium price. 2006). For examples.4 Consumer buying behaviour Many people do consume a wide range of products every day. the specific brand image attached on a product may differentiate itself from the others.unbeatable but it is quite difficult to achieve since consumer taste changes quite rapidly. (2006) further provide a holistic view that defines consumer behaviour as the activities and the processes in which individuals or groups choose.. services. Consumers would have their preferences in purchasing products from specific retailers and hence the remaining retailers 19 . Forth. 2. Once brand associations are constructed in a meaningful way. consumer behaviour can influence the economic health of a nation (Blackwell et al. consumer behaviour is about how people make their decisions on personal or household products with the use of their available resources such as time. Brand image possibly affects how consumers perceive the brand and hence their purchasing behaviour. some associations can engender positive feelings. from basic necessities to high-valued collectables. Madonna appearance in H&M’s collection advertisement can stimulate customers their positive feelings about the products. such phenomenon is one of the most interesting and hence heavily investigated topics in the marketing field. money and effort. a vivid brand image is established. use or dispose the products. adidas slogan ‘Impossible is nothing’. The study of consumer buying behaviour is of utmost importance in a number of aspects. brand associations may include some product attributes or consumer benefits which encourage the consumers to purchase the brand. Gabbott and Hogg (1998) and Blackwell et al. Third. There may be products on the market with similar quality and design. ideas or experiences. As mentioned by Schiffman and Kanuk (2000). however.

(2001) define consumer behaviour as a summation of acquisition. These seven steps include need recognition. tailor-made products can be made to enhance customer value and thus facilitate repeat purchase (Gabbott and Hogg. through understanding the reasons for consumers to buy the products and their buying habits. pre-purchase.4.1 Models of consumer behaviour Several models are developed with a view to provide explanations for the consumer buying behaviours. consumers’ decisions can provide a clue for which industry to survive. purchase and post-purchase (Hoyer and Maclnnis. Blackwell et al. present consumer behaviour studies regard consumers as important determinants of organizational success and it is found that the most successful organizations are customer-centric (Blackwell et al. consumption and disposal of products or services. The notion ‘the consumer is king’ should be deep-rooted in every business people’s mind that they should try to please these kings using their innovative methods. As far as the consumer decision process model is concerned. Rayport and Jaworski. Although they vary in form of presentation. 1998).. purchase. search for information.. consumption. 20 post-consumption evaluation and . Moreover. comprising acquisition of goods and services. However. which companies to succeed. (2004) further propose the circle of consumption that recognize purchasing processes as a loop. evaluation. the firms can make use of such information to devise corresponding marketing strategies in response to the consumers’ needs (Blackwell et al. 2006). Second. such definition falls short of the continuity of the processes.are selected using the rule of ‘survival of the fittest’. Therefore. Based on this loophole. consumers need to go through seven steps before reaching their final decisions. 2003). consumption. 2. 2006). For instance. Arnoud et al. most of them are composed of stages such as pre-purchase. as well as disposal of used goods. 2001. and also which products to excel.

is more likely to be based on personal interest on a particular brand. Stage three comes to the pre-purchase evaluation that consumers compare between different products and brands to make a purchasing decision.. income. As mentioned by Solomon et al. Blackwell et al. Pre-purchase search is initiated when consumers recognize a need and hence look for more information from the marketplace. 2006). regardless of the different terms and consolidation of stages. size. There are two kinds of needs. 1992). Stage one is need recognition which occurs when an individual is aware of a difference between their perception and the actual satisfaction level (Solomon et al. as well as customer satisfaction. search of information can further be divided into pre-purchase search and ongoing search. Functional needs are related to the performance of the product whereas psychological needs are intrinsically obtained when customers feel contented with shopping or owning a product which they long for. namely functional needs and psychological needs. quality and price are commonly used to judge a brand by customers. (2006) add that most consumer research would primarily base on these seven stages and how different elements affect each stage of consumers’ decisions. Ongoing search. In this stage. Customers pursuing this kind of search would like to obtain the most updated information about the designated brand. 1997).. size of purchase. consumers pay particular attention to the attributes which are most relevant to their needs (Kolter et al.divestment (Blackwell et al.. 2006). Any changes in 21 . (2006). on the other hand. Rayport and Jaworski (2003) propose a similar model with slight differences regarding the terms used. past experiences. The length and depth of search vary for different customers and depend on variables like personality. prior brand perceptions (Moorthy et al.. Stage two is the search of information. Attributes like quantity. 2005). social class. The buying process is initiated when people recognize their unsatisfied need (Levy and Weitz.

stage seven comes to divestment. Rayport and Jaworski (2003) further point out the significant impact of internet on consumer purchasing decision. According to Porter (2004). In addition to in-store purchase.. 2006). 2003). visual displays inside the shops. Last but not least. 22 . This stage is crucial since customers could be possible to make repeat purchases provided that they are satisfied with the aforementioned stages (Rayport and Jaworski. this new kind of non-shop retailing format has begun replacing the fairly established catalogue and TV shopping and its development is rapid albeit it is more recently found in comparison with the existing non-shop retailing modes. As stated by Blackwell et al. Stage four refers to the purchase decisions made by the consumers after evaluating the offers from different retailers. This gives rise to satisfaction when consumers’ expectations are higher than the perceived performance and vice versa (Blackwell et al. As pointed out by Dholakia and Uusitalo (2002). customers evaluate the consumption process. The firms need to think about the possibility of remarketing. customers begin consuming the products whereas in stage six. in which consumers dispose or recycle the products and at the same time. (2006). 2006).. Stage five. as well as point-of-purchase advertising. there are two phases contributing to the decision making processes. stage six and stage seven are under the category of the post-purchase stage. Retailer selection is made by judging which retailers to buy after investigating the attributes from the previous stage whereas in-store selection is affected by the selling skills of salesperson. In stage five. firms can create value by providing lower price or unique offers to the customers so as to excel their competitive advantages over the others. including retailer and in-store selection.these attributes can affect consumer decisions on brand or product choices (Blackwell et al.

In this dissertation. Brand equity can be divided into four dimensions. perceived quality. and at the same time. whether the brand image would affect the consumers to purchase clothes is to be investigated.2.5 Summary This chapter provides a review about the major research and theories regarding the consumer purchasing behaviour. brand loyalty and brand associations. Brands are so important that they are regarded as the equity to a firm. perceived quality. products are developed in an unprecedented way. It is hoped that by finding out the relationships of brand awareness. consumers seem to be more aware of the products they buy. Only by understanding the consumer behaviour can the products or brands be developed in a right way. Nowadays. brand loyalty and brand association with the consumer purchasing behaviour that will provide useful insights for the development of the clothing sector. including brand awareness. 23 . All of them have significant contribution to the brand as equity to the firm.

and also the validity and reliability of data are discussed in order to provide a general view about how the research is carried out and which factors influence the justification of research method. recorded and analyzed in a systematic and objective manner so as to apprehend and foresee how consumers feel. data are gathered. In terms of the science of knowledge acquisition. In general. which are determined on the kinds of data being collected. research theories can be classified into different types. interpretive research and critical postmodernism. The details of the sampling would also be discussed. there are two types of research methods. whereas methodology is acknowledged to be the science of finding out (Babbie.Chapter 3 Methodology 3.1 Introduction With a view to finding out the underlying principles of certain phenomenon. 2004). namely positivism. there are three research traditions.2. In accordance with Gephart (2004). the research traditions. theories. epistemology is about the science of knowing. Each of them encompasses a variety of approaches. 2004). 24 . 3. During the course of consumer behaviour research.2 Theoretical backgrounds In this section. 3..1 Review of different research traditions Based on the methodology used. namely qualitative and quantitative research. This chapter aims at discussing different theories and research methods. think and behave (Arnould et al. research is required. as well as justifying the most suitable approach for the research topic.

Fisher (2004) notes that the linkage between interpretations are dialogic and hence interpretive research aims at soliciting people’s accounts of how they find the world. qualitative research is sometimes regarded as a relatively minor methodology than its quantitative counterpart and there are some assumptions that only experimental data. Added to this.2 Quantitative versus qualitative analysis Generally. official statistics. research methods can be classified in a dichotomy between quantitative and qualitative research. Fisher (2004) further reveals that critical postmodernism is a kind of realism which comprises three levels of reality.2. interpretative research focuses on subjective interpretations to describe meanings and understand reality. it underlines the assumption of symbolic reality. quantitative research focuses on analyzing numerical data whereas qualitative research deals with meanings. In accordance to Fisher (2004). Events are concerned about what has happened in the world by our experiences to them.. together with the structures and processes within it. it assumes that a social world exists externally that should be measured objectively (Easterby-Smith et al. As far as the description and explanation of phenomena are concerned. In the field of research. Dey. events and mechanisms. random sampling 25 . While positivism stresses on objectivity. including experiences. which is shaped by values and crystallizes over time. 2004. feelings and motivations of people (Babbie. mechanisms are the roots of events which are regarded as the deepest level among the three. 1993). Experiences are our perceptions and encounters of the world.Positivism makes use of the stance of realism in which the objective reality can be understood by mirror of science. examining the attitudes. As for critical postmodernism. 3. Finally. the majority of positivist research incorporates the comparison of qualitative case studies to analyze if there are any connections between variables. 2002).

numeric data. the reliability of tape-recorded and transcribed data is argued by some to be weakened owing to the possibility of missing some trivial but crucial pauses and overlaps (Silverman. Silverman. 2000). (2002). 1989). 1956. Besides. suffers from the problem of ‘anecdotalism’ in which it just narrates some examples of phenomenon without taking less clear data into account (Silverman. however. 1964. qualitative research tends to focus on describing the process of how we define and measure variables in everyday life (Silverman. it is more likely to look into people’s in-depth feelings. Nevertheless. 3. 2000).and quantified data can lead to valid or generalizable social facts. quantitative analysis is stronger than qualitative analysis in that it can persuade readers with large-scale. 1975). That is why it is suggested that qualitative research should be used more often at the early or exploratory stage of a study (Silverman.2.3 Reliability and validity of data The reliability and validity of the data and findings are of pivotal importance to the whole research. which uses ad hoc procedures to define and measure variables (Blumer. Unlike quantitative research. both of them are not perfect in a sense that they need to serve as a complement to each other. As for qualitative research. attitude (Kirk and Miller. Quantitative research surpasses qualitative in a sense that it can analyze data based on representative samples from a large population (Proctor. 1986). Qualitative analysis. These determine whether the research can engender 26 . 2000). having a complete set of categorization for the events or activities described (Silverman. As suggested by Easterby-Smith et al. 2000). research needs a partnership and it could be beneficial to collaborate rather than compete between the different kinds of research methods. 2000). Both the quantitative research and qualitative research have their own advantages and disadvantages. for example. Cicourel. In this way.

(2003). 1992). giving an accurate account to the social phenomena (Hammersley.useful findings or not. qualitative research is more suitable in terms of soliciting the consumers’ in-depth responses. This dissertation aims at finding out consumer purchasing behaviour on clothing in which their beliefs. 2006).3 Justification of research method Different research methods should be adopted based on the nature of research. validity concerns about the truth (Silverman. and the original form of the materials is unavailable (Silverman. As mentioned by Saunders et al. Hence. one can replicate the same research to see whether the same outcomes are obtained on subsequent occasions. As pointed out by Davis and Bremner (2006). 3. However. This may affect the reliability of the research findings. 2000). Besides. there are as much as forty types of qualitative research in three main orientations. 27 . to justify reliability. it is found that having reliable research results is not always attributable to valid outcomes (Davis and Bremner. Reliability connotes to the consistency on the research results. 1992). This dissertation makes use of the qualitative research method and there have been some discussions on qualitative research regarding its reliability and validity. These underlie the importance of ensuring reliable methods and making valid conclusions in the research process. the findings of qualitative research are not necessarily repeatable since they reflect reality at the time of data collection. namely language-orientated approach. opinions and attitudes towards brand image are investigated. As mentioned by Tesch (1990). 2000). which are judged by different observers or by the same observer on different occasions (Hammersley. While reliability is correlated to consistency. the research cannot be claimed valid so long as there are only few exemplary instances reported.

2004). Although focus groups are much more effective and cheaper than interviews as one may see. say 12-15 people. researchers should show their ability to ask further in-depth questions based on the answers obtained. researchers may find it difficult to assemble a large group of people and the control over the interviewees is minimal (Gamson. Added to this. Language-oriented approach concerns the use of language and meaning of words. In descriptive/ interpretative approach. During the course of interviews. interviewers may need to probe each answer and make use of the replies for further questioning (Proctor. Breakwell (2006) points out that interviews are flexible in that they can be used at any stage in the research process. Finally. One may argue why interviews but not the other types of qualitative research methods are chosen in this research. theory-building approach tries to examine the connections between social phenomena. Proctor (2000) notes that the usefulness of qualitative research depends heavily on the researchers’ skills. Based on the descriptive and interpretive nature in this research. in a room to engage in a guided discussion on a common topic (Babbie. interviews are more controllable than focus groups in this regard. interviews are chosen as the data collection methods. The structure of interviews lies in a continuum in which fully-structured and unstructured interviews are the two extreme poles (Breakwell. However. 2004). 1992). For instance. Thus. 2006). as well as theory-building approach. ranging from the initial stage for identifying areas to more detailed exploration.descriptive/ interpretative approach. 28 . focus group can also be a useful kind of research method that brings together some interviewees. In case of interviews. the thorough description and interpretation of social phenomena are the central focus. Qualitative interviews refer to the interaction between an interviewer and interviewee on a topic which needs not to follow particular order and words in questioning and answering (Babbie. 2000).

Moreover. interviews depend on respondents’ accurate and complete responses. Unlike structured interviews. Being reliable does not necessarily attribute to validity but it is found that inconsistent responses may lead to certain inaccuracy (Davis and Bremner. 3. In addition. researchers can follow up some unexpected. leaving more room for the interviewees to respond. Such format can enhance the sensitive and empathic facets of the findings. unstructured interviews do not have specific formats. Interviewees may find these kind of interviews constrained as they are not free to provide information which is important in their mind. like other self-report methods. Among different structures of interviews. underlying the importance human-to-human relationship of interviews (Fontana and Fry.4 Sampling As far as the sampling method is concerned. 2000).Structured interviews are characterized by their fixed nature and sequence of questions or the fixed nature of answers allowed. As pointed out by Smith and Osborn (2003). non-probability sampling is used 29 . This can enrich the data collected from the interviewing process (Smith and Eatough. 2000). semi-structured interviews are chosen in this research. interesting responses emerged during the interviews. These can help solicit consistent responses and hence the reliability of data can be much enhanced. It is suggested that interviews could be complemented with other types of data such as observation and diary techniques so that the data obtained can be more valid. it is suggested that interviewers be trained for a specific study if necessary since their manner in questioning could impose an effect on how reliable and valid the data will be (Proctor. it is important to develop a systematic set of questions and help the interviewees to understand the questions. 2006). researchers tend to regard people as experiential experts on a specific topic under investigation. 2006). When it comes to the process of data collection. In accordance with Breakwell (2006). with the use of a semi-structured format. This gives rise to the possibility of unreliable and invalid data.

as the tool for this research. researchers deliberately look for participants so that they are of equal distribution for comparison whereas in convenience sampling. in quota sampling method. In this research. as comparisons of British and Chinese buying behaviour for clothes are investigated. non-probability sampling looks for participants on purpose (Babbie. Among the 10 samples. All of them are students aged between 22 and 28. 9 of them are master students and the remaining one is a PhD student. Malhotra and King. 1982). equal proportions of British and Chinese were interviewed. 2005). The male to female ratio of Chinese and British samples is 1 to 1 (see Table 1 for details). Moreover. 2002. The criteria for judging whether they are Chinese or British customers are based on the passports they are holding together with the number of years they have lived in their home country. Student samples are used in this research because they can enhance homogeneity and it is much easier to control error during theory testing (Goldsmith. 10 Nottingham University students were chosen to have face-to-face interviews. This is a combination of quota sampling and convenience sampling under the non-probability sampling classifications. findings reveal that homogeneous respondents can help reduce the possibility of measurement model error (Assael and Keon. 2003). though a homogeneous sample has lesser degree of external validity. Hence. 2004). They should have lived in China or the UK for long enough time than in other places that they are regarded as Chinese or British. this can be sacrificed for a greater degree of internal validity (Carpenter and Fairhurst. 30 . researchers tend to choose interviewees which are easier to be looked for. Unlike probability sampling which select samples randomly in a pool of population. As mentioned by Proctor (2000).

As suggested by Smith and Eatough (2006). There are two types of questions. leaving more room for them to think of the issue (Breakwell. Also. it is better to have mental prompts rather than constantly referring to the interview questions in the course of the interview.Table 1: Distribution of samples in terms of gender and nationality Nationality Sample particulars Gender Number of respondents Chinese Male 2 Female 3 Male 3 British Female 2 3. was mentioned. The issues relating to confidentiality and record permission were already mentioned at the time when the appointment was made.5. so they were not covered here. which are discussed in the following sections. namely open-ended questions and closed-ended questions. say 30 minutes. the interview began with some general questions regarding consumer spending habits on clothing. The questions may not follow the order as set in the interview schedule as the respondents will react to them differently.1 Stage one In this stage. 3. Open-ended questions are preferred since they allow the interviewees to answer as little or as much as they choose.5 Interview schedule The interview is composed of three stages. a successful interview incorporates both general and specific questions which will move between each other fairly seamlessly. the main theme of the interview was introduced with the provision of general ideas about what the interviewees were expected to answer. 2006). After the introduction. As mentioned by Smith and Eatough (2006). with the former one being dominant in the interview (see Appendix 2). Questions 1 31 . the questions were learnt by heart before the interviews. The approximate length of the interview.

including brand and brand equity. brand equity is regarded as the summation of brand awareness. 1998). were discussed. Moreover. There are three questions in this stage and they are listed as follows: 1.5.to 3 attempt to serve as ice-breaking as the interviewees may not be prepared to answer in-depth questions at the very beginning of the interview. these can help understand their spending styles. The questions in this stage are as follows. What is it about particular clothes that make you buy them? Questions 5 to 10 are brand equity-related questions. further probing questions would be asked if the respondents mention something related to brand and brand equity.2 Stage two This stage covers in-depth questions about their views to clothing brand image. How often do you buy clothes? 2. Question 4 attempts to find out the criteria of clothes selection in which the interviewees consider. 1999. 4. As mentioned in the literatures. 32 . probing questions were asked if needed. Main issues covered in the literatures in chapter 2. In order to explore more information from interviewees’ responses. Mooij. How much do you spend on clothing each month? 3. Since this research is about the effect of brand image on consumer purchasing behaviour. Which categories of clothes do you usually buy? 3. It also intends to investigate whether brand is an important criterion for consumers to choose particular products to purchase as mentioned in the literature (Doyle.

Keller. Do you regularly buy the same brand of clothes? 8. Can you describe the image of your favorite brand? 10. 2006. In what ways do you usually learn about clothing brands? 6. 2003). Do you shop online for clothes? 12. Do you recommend brands? 9. there are three stages for purchasing products or services. As mentioned in some consumer behaviour models. 1993). 5. including pre-purchase. 11. These questions are to find out whether brand equity is as important as what has been noted in the literatures. 1991. Why do you like this brand? Question 11 asks for the interviewees’ opinions about the new emerging online shopping mode whereas question 12 is about their post-purchase actions they took towards the clothes they had purchased. What would you do if you are satisfied or dissatisfied about the clothes you purchase? 33 . Rayport and Jaworski. brand loyalty and brand association (Aaker. How do you judge the quality of the clothes? 7.. After finding out what the interviewees would do before making their purchasing decisions from the aforementioned questions. purchase and post-purchase (Blackwell et al. these two questions try to figure out their purchase and post-purchase behaviour.perceived quality.

repeated listening to the records which often reveal some unnoted recurring features. depending on the interviewees’ familiarity to the questions and their willingness to provide more fruitful responses. themes. 3. After the interviewees have finished writing the sentence. it attempts to derive theories based on the analysis of patterns. They lasted for approximately 20 to 30 minutes.3 Stage three In the last stage of the interview. they would be thanked for providing their valuable time to attend the interview.1 Grounded theory and its relationship to qualitative data analysis Grounded theory is one of the important concepts suggesting how researcher conducts their research. and common categories from observational data (Babbie.7 Analysis strategy This section introduces the concept of grounded theory and the use of within-case and cross-case analysis as the strategies for analyzing the research data. The processes were recorded with the use of MP3 player with the approval from the interviewees so as to facilitate the subsequent analysis.5. The interviews were then transcribed. 1984).6 Administration The interviews were conducted in the places such as rooms in the student accommodations or common areas in the university where the interviewees felt comfortable to answer the questions. 2004). It focuses on 34 .7. 3.3. 3. This serves as a summary of how interviewees perceive brands by providing their own definitions which may be similar or different from what is said in the literature. the interviewees were asked to write a sentence which starts with the words ‘Brand is’. Originated from two socialists Glaser and Strauss (1967). possibly attributing to important research findings (Atkinson and Heritage. The production and the use of transcripts are essential research activities that they involve close.

one of the benefits of grounded analysis is that qualitative research structure has first been derived from the data. linking and finally re-evaluation (Easterby-Smith et al. especially the use of systemic coding. patterns and categories. interviews can be analyzed in two distinctive but interrelated ways. these could explain why grounded theory has gained much popularity in recent decades (Henwood and Pidgeon. reflection. As mentioned by Strauss and Corbin (1990). it demonstrates some main strategies of qualitative inquiry that contain creative interplay of theories and methods during the integrated process of social research (Henwood and Pidgeon. as well as following the research procedures.2 Within-case and cross-case analysis As mentioned by Miles and Huberman (1994). which can enhance the validity and reliability of the data (Babbie. They include periodically stepping back and asking. These imply the seriousness of such theory in interpreting data and provide the basis for analyzing the ten interviews conducted.. including familiarization. Besides. re-coding. researchers could be both scientific and creative at the same time under this theory. In addition. The importance of research procedures is heightened in the grounded theory. 2002). 2004). qualitative data as well as interpretative thematic analysis of the qualitative data. According to Easterby-Smith et al. 1993). leading to further analysis of themes.different ways to code data (Dey. 2006).7. There are seven stages for grounded analysis in total. 3. based on grounded theory. Hence. maintaining an attitude of skepticism. provided that they follow three rules. Grounded theory does have some impact on the qualitative research. methodology skills can be developed in a number of areas such as handling and analyzing of large volumes of ill-structured. namely within-case and cross-case 35 . cataloguing concepts. (2002). 2006). conceptualization.

analysis. In this dissertation, the interviews conducted were investigated based on these two approaches. The summary of these two approaches is shown in Figure 1.

Within-case analysis

Listening to tape and producing a transcript

Coding the transcript

Analyzing data with tables in codes and quotes

Looking for patterns from similar and different responses

Creating tables based on responses from interviewees

Cross-case analysis

Figure 1: Overview of analysis Within-case analysis During the interviews, notes were first jotted down and then the summary of each individual interview was made after listening to the MP3 recorder for the sake of keeping the fresh memory of the interview content. A full transcription of each interview (see Appendix 3) was made after the completion of the whole interview process. After finishing the transcription, the main ideas of the interviews were summarized and presented in form of tables with codes like ‘+’ standing for interviewee who has mentioned this idea, whilst ‘-‘ connoting to a negative response to the question. Some quotes from the answers would be


illustrated for explanation if necessary. Cross-case analysis Cross-case analysis aims at looking for convergences and divergences in the data, recognizing ways to account for the similarities and differences of the respondents (Smith and Eatough, 2006; Smith and Osborn, 2003). Each interview was analyzed in the same way as mentioned in the within-case analysis. Then the patterns emerged were analyzed based the several tables in different themes.

3.8 Summary In this chapter, the methodology used in this dissertation has been justified and explained. Qualitative semi-structured interviews have been chosen as a mean to collect data since they are found to be more appropriate for soliciting responses in relation to attitudes, opinions and feelings. Besides, the sampling method was covered. In the course of data collection, the combination of convenience and quota sampling was being used. In addition, the schedule of interview was discussed with a view to providing some general ideas about the underlying reasons for asking such questions. The data collected would be analyzed using the methods of within-case and cross-case analysis. The research findings will be presented and discussed in the next chapter.


Chapter 4 Research Findings and Discussion
4.1 Introduction This chapter aims at presenting and discussing findings obtained from the interviews concerning the effect of clothing brand image on consumer purchasing behaviour. As mentioned in chapter 3, 10 people, including 5 British and 5 Chinese were interviewed. Each interview was recorded and transcribed for the purpose of analysis in this chapter.

As far as the analysis is concerned, it will be based on the most pertinent quotes, which reveal the viewpoints from the British and Chinese respondents respectively. According to Easterby-Smith et al. (2002), qualitative researchers need to communicate the findings in an honest and systematic manner, disseminating the richness of the findings and hence the experience of the researchers. In addition, the analysis should be open to verification as far as possible so that the others are free to repeat what has been done and check the conclusions (Breakwell, 2006).

The chapter consists of three sections in which the respondents’ backgrounds, the effect of brand image on them and also their opinions of brand are presented and compared.

4.2 Backgrounds of respondents All respondents are students from the University of Nottingham, with nine of them being master students and one of them being a PhD student. Their ages range from 22 to 27 and the male to female ratio is 1 to 1.

The first three questions try to solicit the interviewees’ response about their clothing spending habits, asking about their shopping frequency, money spent

British. Male “In China.” Hannah. 23.” Narinder. 23. maybe 3 times a year. ranging from every week to three or four times a year. These are in line with the literature that students spend less than the other groups like working class as far as clothes purchasing is concerned (HKTDC. “I’m a sort of impulsive buyer…’Oh gosh! I really need to buy some clothes now. “…This year…not at all (buying clothes). Chinese. buy every 4 to 5 months. This could probably be explained by the findings mentioned in chapter 2 that consumers’ emotion is one of the determining factors for buying clothes (Berry. 2002).on clothes and also the types of clothes they purchased. 27. British. Male 39 . Because I have been poor.” Kevin. some of them pointed out that their financial status would have an impact on their frequency of buying clothes. Generally. I will buy clothes if there are discounts.” Mark. But before that. 24. many respondents revealed that they buy clothes at a regular interval. let’s go’. 2000). One of them was slightly different in that she indicated that she is an impulsive buyer and hence she would buy clothes based on her moods and feelings at the time of purchase. Female “…Maybe not often recently because I have not got a lot of income for clothes. One of the respondents revealed that he preferred buying clothes at special occasions like seasonal discounts so that the prices can be much more affordable. normally I buy clothes 4 times a year (for each season). Female Besides. In England. quite rare. maybe one item every couple of month. British. so I’ll buy them when I need them…probably.

retailers. 2007). It really gets a large variation. it varies anywhere between 50 to 250 pounds. South and Spitze. brand is important for product development in that it can be instilled in consumers’ minds (Mooij. More male than female respondents manifested that they would buy clothes in medium or above price ranges. It could be as simple as they are cheap and good looking or they are brand-named. In the coming section. One of the male respondents revealed that he would spend about 50 to 250 pounds for clothes each time. 24. 1993). British. Male The above quotes illustrate that clothes purchasing behaviour varies from time to time and from person to person. it does not really mean that males have less spending power. the reasons why people buy them vary. brand names can add tremendous value to the products. more than half of them were fond of buying clothes in the medium or high price ranges.When asking about the price range of clothes. with more emphasis being placed on the comparisons between British and Chinese consumers so as to provide new insights for further development of brands in the clothing sector. 1994).3 Effect of clothing brand image on consumer buying behaviour 4. I buy lots of clothes and it lasts me for half a year…” Neil. 1999. targeting to buy clothes in medium to high price ranges. as well as consumers (Aaker. 1991. Sometimes. There could be two identical clothes in the world. 1998) and hence it could have a beneficial or detrimental effect on customers’ buying decisions (Yasin et al. Whether brand is a determining factor is 40 .3.. Although it is mentioned in the literature that more females would like shopping than males (Dholakia. whether brand image would affect clothes purchasing behaviour is investigated. As mentioned in chapter 2.1 Significance of clothing brands on consumer purchasing decisions As mentioned previously in chapter 2. however. 4. “Probably. Keller.

The results from both British and Chinese respondents are illustrated in Tables 2 and 3 accordingly.examined in question 4. Suitable Jovi Chong Vivian Li Vanessa Fang Alick Wong Kevin Fang Key + + + + + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Pleasant. in which the respondents were asked about the reasons of buying particular clothes.or words in black: Initial response without prompt. Non-label Non-advert Hannah Smith Mark Morrison Neil Bowley Narinder Sandhu Michael Kosciukiewicz + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Functional use (Sports) Personal need Table 3: Determining factors for clothes purchasing (Chinese respondents) Reason Name Brand Country of origin Advert Quality Style Price Others Comfortable. The columns named ‘country of origin’ and ‘advert’ would be discussed in later sections.or words in blue: Response with prompt 41 . Intuition +/. +/. Table 2: Determining factors for clothes purchasing (British respondents) Reason Name Brand Country of origin Advert Quality Style Price Others Comfortable.

Actually. Because I know it a little bit good quality or that it’s going to be last well or perform well.” Hannah.As observed from Tables 2 and 3. In this regard. nine out of ten respondents had not provided immediate answer to question 4 regarding this issue until prompt was given. I wouldn’t specifically buy it because it’s from there. I wouldn’t buy something because it’s from H&M or because it’s from ZARA. 1991). all respondents from both nations regard quality. However. 24. in which one of them highlighted the importance of past shopping experiences as mentioned in the literature (Aaker. the findings from literature that Chinese find these three as important criteria for buying clothes (HKTDC. Moreover. I bought it (she points at her top) yesterday from NEXT. Male “Well. If I have good experiences with something. 24. They are probably the shops I like. but I do not particularly look for brand names. I probably buy again. style and price as some of the determining factors for buying clothes. British. Female 42 . I mean I will buy clothes from a shop. Well.” Mark. 23. two UK interviewees stated that brand names do not initiate them to buy during their shopping. Male “Never. the British and Chinese interviewees showed some divergent viewpoints. 2002) seem also applicable to the UK respondents.” Neil. British. Some of the UK respondents revealed that they look for brand names in buying clothes. “Yes. When it comes to the effect of brand on buying clothes. British.

2005). H&M and Dorothy Perkins…It’s quick for me to dislike the clothes that I bought. it seems that brands are more likely to have an impact on Chinese than British interviewees. In addition.” Vanessa. Chinese. 26. so I have more faith in those brands for their clothes. 1991). Female “Yes. I changed my purchasing habits to some cheap stuff like Primark. if I buy too many big brands. I can use less money.2 Brand awareness As mentioned in the literature. For some T-shirts. Female Based on the above findings.” Jovi. I bought some big brands like designer labels. So. brand can make potential consumers aware of the products (Aaker. Chinese. 24. and buy more clothes to change. It can be in consistent with my changing look and just lower the cost. I think they mostly get better cutting and better quality.to high-priced brands. Fennis and Pruyn. it costs me too much. One of them mentioned that reputable brands in medium to high price ranges connote to better quality and cutting. do have better quality than cheaper brands. This issue was examined through asking the question ‘In what ways do you usually learn about clothing brands?’ There are mainly four ways for the respondents to learn about the brands. The UK respondents tend to buy clothes they like but not merely because of the brands. 1999.. like medium. “I do think most of the brands.All Chinese respondents found that brand is one of the key factors for them to consider when buying clothes. 2006).3. This is consistent with the literature that brand-named products can be served as a guarantor of reliability. 4. as well as quality (Roman et al. which is coherent with the literature that brands are used to highlight personality under different circumstances (Aaker. But recently. including 43 . one of them pointed out that brands can help change her personal style. if I buy cheap ones.

advertisement. +/. 1986. two of them 44 .or words in blue: Response with prompt Advert Peers Others Internet + + + + + + + Internet Internet From shops Advertisement is a powerful tool for raising brand awareness (Mackenzie et al.or words in black: Initial response without prompt. with the number of Chinese respondents outweighing British. Some of the UK and Chinese respondents did regard it as one of the methods to know the brands. Among these respondents.. 2007). Table 4: Ways to learn about clothing brands (British respondents) Name Hannah Smith Mark Morrison Neil Bowley Narinda Sandhu Michael Kosciukiewicz Advert Peers Others + - + + + From shops From shops.. Internet From shops From shops Table 5: Ways to learn about clothing brands (Chinese respondents) Name Jovi Chong Vivian Li Vanessa Fang Alick Wong Kevin Fang Key +/. peers. The results are shown in Tables 4 and 5. Tsai et al. internet and shops.

1978) and enhance attractiveness (McCracken.” Kevin. Chinese. Like Coby Bryrant. they (basketball players) will show up. which confirms with the literature that celebrity endorsement can lead to product credibility (McGuire. they are familiar faces. and it’s easy to make connections. you know. 24. 23. advertisements in the shopping mall. British. he was the representative of adidas previously…” Vivian. on the street…they (advertisers) put posters in the public areas. 1989). Male “I guess it does (have an effect) on subliminal basis.mentioned that they became more aware of the brands through the celebrities in the advertisements.” “The adidas ‘impossible is nothing’ advert with leading sportsmen like Michael Jordan. David Beckham. Lance Armstrong.” “I used to play basketball and so I used to watch NBA games. similar number of Chinese and the UK respondents agreed that it does have impact on their purchasing decisions. Zidane (is very memorable)…because I know them through their sports achievement. Chinese. Female “TV. During the game break. 23. Male As far as peers influence on clothes purchasing is concerned. “It (Advertising) is important because the brand image is built up so that you will choose (to buy them). 45 . Marketing people may affect me someway. so they associate themselves with brands.” Neil.

46 . in which interviewees were asked. “How do you judge the quality of the clothes?” Their attitudes towards country-of-origins of clothes were also solicited from the follow-up questions. Male Other sources for raising brand awareness like internet surfing and shop visiting are also prevalent among Chinese and British respondents.” Kevin.3. 4. 23. I will ask them what the brand is…my brother bought a Helly Hansen sportswear. when I go shopping next time. British.” Neil. 4 British interviewees revealed that they became familiar with the brands through shop visiting. and from my mind. Male “If I am training and I see a friend wearing a new T-shirt or something. I will consider them.3 Perceived quality The issue of perceived quality was investigated through question 6. Chinese.“Maybe they (my friends) buy very nice clothes. they are nice to put them on. while 4 Chinese interviewees got their brand information via internet surfing. The findings are illustrated in Tables 6 and 7. So. that’s cool. 24.

Most of them could mention these judging criteria at once. durability. followed by style.Table 6: Criteria for judging clothes quality (British respondents) Criteria Name Materials Style Colour Durability Country of origin Others Hannah Smith Mark Morrison Neil Bowley Narinder Sandhu Michael Kosciukiewicz + + + + + + + Performance Price + - Table 7: Criteria for judging clothes quality (Chinese respondents) Criteria Name Materials Style Colour Durability Country of origin Others Jovi Chong Vivian Li Vanessa Fang Alick Wong Kevin Fang Key + + + + + + + + + + + + + - +/. +/. colour.or words in blue: Response with prompt As shown in Tables 6 and 7. nine out of ten respondents regard materials as one of the criteria for judging clothes quality. 1991). price and performance.or words in black: Initial response without prompt. in which these criteria are important for consumers in judging product quality (Aaker. There are no significance differences between British 47 .

they represent better quality. Regarding country of origin. I expect Puma quality basically. British.” Michael. For buying Puma shoes. Two Chinese interviewees pointed out that country of origin is correlated with quality.and Chinese respondents.” Jovi. The results are listed in Tables 8 and 9. France No comment No comment No comment Countries with lowest quality No comment No comment No comment No comment No comment 48 . Contradictory to the literature. 24. Male When further question was asked about the issue ‘Which country’s clothes do you think they’re of highest/ lowest quality?’ British and Chinese respondents showed divergent views. France Italy. 22. Table 8: Perception towards countries which produce clothes with highest and lowest quality (British respondents) Countries Name Hannah Smith Mark Morrison Neil Bowley Narinder Sandhu Michael Kosciukiewicz Countries with highest quality Italy. so the countries don’t really affect it. Chinese. Female “It should all be good quality if they have a brand name on it because it’s what the brand name stands for. “In some of the countries like Japan. France or Italy. country of origin seems not to have an impact to the UK respondents on perceived quality. 3 Chinese respondents found that it would have an effect on the clothes perceived quality.

British. 49 . including China. Denmark Less developed countries No comment China As shown in Table 8. If Puma gets its stuff from China. only Chinese respondents made comments on countries which make clothes in the lowest quality. Italy No comment Korea. Male For those who can tell the names of specific countries. South Africa Vanessa Fang Alick Wong Kevin Fang France. India. 24. However.Table 9: Perception towards countries which produce clothes with highest and lowest quality (Chinese respondents) Countries Name Jovi Chong Countries with highest quality Japan. many of them mentioned that France and Italy can produce clothes in high quality. Malaysia. These findings can be explained by the literatures in that China does not have influential brands with phenomenal quality (Delong et al.” Neil. Thailand. they should meet the required quality. you can buy good or bad clothes. “I don’t have some preconception about it. some South American countries Vivian Li UK. produce poor quality clothes. Because I know from every country. Italy China. France. 22. 3 of the Chinese respondents could mention that some less developed countries.” Michael. from Thailand. Male “They suppose to all be the same. they show up the same quality standard in all countries. British. US. Italy Countries with lowest quality China.. 2004). just a few British respondents try to provide the names of specific countries.

” Vanessa. if I consider some basic ones. Actually. one Chinese interviewee specifically pointed out different countries should have their competitive advantage in either production or design. If it’s about big brands.“I think the UK and US have top brands. 23. The results are illustrated in Tables 10 and 11.3. Female Nevertheless. China don’t have very famous brands.” Vivian. or some of the developing countries. 26. Italy as well. 8 and 12 in which the respondents were asked whether they buy the same brands regularly and also if they recommend brands to the others. This is in line with what has mentioned in the literature that China is proficient in production and hence many foreign investors would like to produce their already-designed products there (Cui. Lowest (quality) maybe China. maybe it’s the reason. “China is good at manufacturing and Italy and France are good at design. 50 . Chinese.4 Brand loyalty The issue regarding brand loyalty was investigated through questions 7. Female 4. I will prefer France or Italy ones. Chinese. I think those made-in-China are something good. 1997).

recommend brands to friends or relatives. whereas the others think they need to take other factors like price and style into consideration and hence they do not buy the same brands regularly. and also hold the club cards of their favourite stores than the UK interviewees. they pointed out that they are quite satisfied with the clothes they had purchased. The quotes of regular buyers are shown as follow: 51 . more Chinese respondents tend to buy the same brands. For those who buy regularly from the same brands.Table 10: Clothes purchasing habit (British respondents) Name Hannah Smith Mark Morrison Neil Bowley Narinder Sandhu Michael Kosciukiewicz Regular buyer Recommend brands Club card owner + + - + - - Table 11: Clothes purchasing habit (Chinese respondents) Name Jovi Chong Vivian Li Vanessa Fang Alick Wong Kevin Fang Regular buyer Recommend brands Club card owner + + + + + + + - + + + + As observed from Tables 10 and 11.

23. In Hong Kong. Chinese. I like Fred Perry. British. In the UK. say ‘Go ahead! They are really good.” Neil. “I will if I visit some shops and they have good stuff. They have quite a lot of varieties of different design for me to choose from.. none of the UK respondents have any clothing club cards even though the shops take this chance to reward their loyalty in terms of discounts 52 . 23.. I will tell my friends. so I will buy them more often. Topshop and All Saints. Chinese. British. 26.the certain shops that I sort of rely upon…. there are quite many. for examples.” Vivian. four respondents cited that they would recommend brands as long as they are good.“I do have a few brands that I prefer. 27.” Jovi. I will tell them. 24. Female “I just like it. CEU and Vertical Club. Topshop’s price is affordable and also I like the style from All Saints” Narinder. British.’” Vanessa.” Mark. 24. Female As far as brand recommendation is concerned. Chinese. Male “(I like buying from) Diesel for jeans. Male Surprisingly. Female “I reckon the design fits me and these brands have high quality which is what I’m looking for. The Diesel jeans fit me well. There are casual wears good for everyday dress and they are of reasonable prices. Female “If it is excellent performance and if someone asks me.

Chinese.3. Female 4. store cards try to get more money from me when I don’t have more. The price is acceptable. Female “I think it’s casual and good quality. Both the British and Chinese respondents managed to recall some positive connotations of their favourite brands. 27. it takes time to apply for it and maybe I will not spend much money on the same shops…I tried to apply House of Fraser and M&S (loyalty cards). Female 53 .” Narinder. not so complicated design” Jovi. Chinese. it is examined through questions 9 and 10 in which interviewees were asked about their favourite brand images. 26. Store cards are dangerous. Female “Because we have student cards and we can enjoy the offer. Chinese. they always make them like credit cards and I don’t want to have one more credit card. 1991). “I like something that is simple and good for casual and everyday wear. 23. These findings confirm what has mentioned in the literature that associated brand images can help enhance the value of brands (Yasin.5 Brand association Regarding brand association. Some of them did mention the drawbacks of applying these cards. 2007). It’s not stylish but it is well made. That’s why I don’t apply for it. we need not apply for the loyalty cards. 24.as cited in the literature (Aaker. Sometimes. It fits my age and my occupation as students. Vivian.” Vanessa. British. The quotes for some non-club card owners are shown below: “No.

In order to investigate this issue. For jeans.“They do something stylish and good quality…sometimes good offer. Male “They are practical. 27. 26. 23. I prefer blue jeans. I prefer some simple image. Male 4. 27. 2002). khaki style…quality is good.” Mark.” Kevin. 22.” Alick. I prefer very colourful image. Female “’Simply Me’. not like football.” Vanessa. 23. 24. All Saints is a bit more innovative. Chinese. For T-shirt.3. coloured fabrics…it’s a sort of a bit unusual. Male “For Topshop. alternative sports. For shirts. British. Chinese. and they look good. Male “Simple.” Narinder. it’s a kind of like casual clothing. usually cotton…” Hannah. fits my age. 54 . Male “60s hippie. crickets but skiing and snowboarding and surfing…” Michael. like grid shirts.6 Consumer buying behaviour It is found in the literature that internet shopping is gaining its popularity among consumers (Dholakia and Uusitalo. 24.” Neil. Chinese. Female “It’s just sort of reasonably well-priced and sort of good quality. Female “Basically. British. British. British. British. they work well. the respondents were asked if they had shopped online for clothes in question 11.

23.” Kevin. right size as well” Vivian. you can buy it online. nine out of ten interviewees expressed that they had not bought clothes via the internet due to several reasons. I am a little bit fat and if I put on it. 27. 22. If you can’t find (suitable clothes) in the markets or in the shops. including the varieties of choices. One of them mentioned the poor internet security while the others revealed that they could not try the clothes before paying for it. not right colour. lower prices and informative websites. “For clothes. The clothes online are cheap. Chinese. Female “Not really. some of them can point out the positive aspects of internet shopping. 23. but I don’t buy online.” Michael. To be honest. but I know many people do. Male “I don’t buy online.” Narinder. Male 55 . just like the clothes from the markets. Because I can’t try the clothes to see if they are suitable or not” Jovi. Female “I like fitting. I’ll have a look and compare prices. British. no. Female Even though some of the interviewees do not shop online for clothes. British. I will consider maybe it is not safe to shopping online.Surprisingly. 24. I can see how it looks like…so I never buy clothes online. “No. These signify the fact that online shopping for clothes is not impossible but something need to be done to improve it as far as the problems of fitting before purchasing and online security are concerned. try on to see if it is fit probably. Chinese. Chinese.

Male “Brand is just like the name of people. Female 56 . British. 26.” (It means brands are not easy to be broken up. Chinese.) Vanessa. respondents were asked to provide their comments on brand.“(Shop online) Sometimes. Female “Brand is something difficult to understand. almost everything is quite good. It is good. 27. 24. maybe one or twice a month.” Alick. Chinese. Male “Brand is a way for people to identify each other. 24. The only thing is that sometimes the delivery fee is not that cheap. Chinese. “Brand is something that adds value to clothing but not a must” Jovi.4 Results In the last question.” Vivian. Chinese. 23. The quotes below show their perceptions towards what brand is in their mind. These are what internet offers. and I’m not fond of popular ones!” Hannah. 23. 26. Female “Brand is an important but not decisive indicator for my choice of shopping.” Vanessa. a way for companies to keep consumers back to spend their money. but it represents the taste and quality of them. Female “Brand is not a paper bag. It may not be the spirit of clothes. Chinese.” Kevin. Chinese. good quality and good prices. Female 4.

At the beginning of the chapter.” Michael. British. British. My clothes purchased tend to be based on the individual garment. Male 4.” Mark. mainly focusing on the four dimensions of brand equity. Male “Brand is the label a company use to market/ advertise them with. 27. British. rather than the designer.“Brand is not something I would follow because of the name. I realized.5 Summary This chapter presented the findings from the interviews of both British and Chinese respondents. manufacturer. 22. however. 57 . 23. respondents’ backgrounds were introduced to provide some thorough understandings on their clothes purchasing habits. Male “Brand is not unimportant to my decision making when buying clothes. British. Some of the responses from interviewees were quoted and analyzed so as to highlight the important findings for further brand image development. Then it came to the analysis and discussion of interviews’ findings to look for any similarities and differences between British and Chinese respondents. that a brand can be a powerful draw for many shoppers.” Narinda. 24. Female “Brand is the identity of a product or service.” Neil.

1 Introduction Based on the research findings in chapter 4.Chapter 5 Conclusions 5. It was found that there are slight differences between the Chinese and British consumers in terms of their attitudes towards brand equity.2 Conclusions The findings in chapter 4 do have some implications for the development of brand image. 5. 58 . It is then followed by the research limitations and recommendations for further research. This chapter will provide an overview of the research findings.2. this chapter draws conclusions on what has been analyzed and discussed. They are presented under each sub-section as shown below. For those British respondents who did not look for brands when purchasing clothes. However. providing insights for comprehending consumer purchasing behaviour and further investigations.1 Significance of clothing brands on consumer purchasing decisions The determining factors for clothes purchasing have been examined. Our findings suggested that all British and Chinese respondents regard quality. they cited that what they liked is more important. The comparisons were made between the British and Chinese respondents’ purchasing behaviour throughout the last chapter. style and price as their most important criteria for choosing clothes. In addition. 5. more Chinese than UK respondents expressed that brand is important for them to choose particular clothes to buy. brand is one of their considerations. with the inclusions of similarities and differences between the British and Chinese consumers.

2. In general. However. respondents tend to know the brands through advertisements. the brands need to become more aware among the consumers. these methods for spreading the brand image are commonly employed by both British and Chinese respondents.3 Perceived quality The findings suggested that most respondents tend to judge the clothes quality by looking at the materials.2 Brand awareness To increase the publicity. it could enhance the chance for consumers to buy the clothes. when it comes to the country of origin of clothes. for example. From the findings.As revealed from the above findings. Nevertheless. There are no significant differences between British and Chinese respondents regarding these issues. That is to say. none of the UK respondents thought it would affect their perception of clothes quality whereas some Chinese respondents had cited that some countries connoted to better quality. 5. consumers think of the other criteria as well. More Chinese respondents expressed that they had been influenced by advertisements and internet than British interviewees. famous sportsmen can be attributable to good sportswear performance.2. 5. many Chinese respondents had the preconception that China and 59 . followed by style. In addition. some respondents from both nations cited that they had been affected by celebrity advertising in which they could associate the brand image with the celebrities’ images. price and performance. peers. whereas British respondents tended to know the brands through on-the-spot purchase in the shops. colour. internet and shops. if brand-named clothes can incorporate the other criteria the consumers are looking for. brand can have a value-adding function in that some respondents are fond of particular brands. durability. In terms of advertisements.

styles. This coincides with the findings by Keller (1993) that consumers are attracted by the signal when they consider buying particular product.2. China does not have influential global clothing brands (Delong et al. From the findings. it is good at manufacturing (Cui. there would still be chances for China to produce well-perceived quality clothes. Such discrepancies may be because the UK respondents tend to buy clothes from more independent stores which are less likely to offer loyalty cards. 5. some respondents did reveal that they are frequent buyers of the same brands and also recommend brands to their friends and relatives. including the product features. regardless of the nations the respondents belong to. 1991). 5. Also. whereas they did think that clothes from Italy and France normally confer to better quality. by working on the brand development. however. This brings out an important issue that Chinese brands should get rid of their poor image on perceived quality at least to the Chinese themselves.4 Brand loyalty This aspect of brand equity is important for the development of customer base and encouraging repeat purchase. As brand can provide guarantee of quality to consumers. However. 1997). prices. while most of the Chinese respondents had.other developing countries produce clothes in poor quality.5 Brand association The association between brand and memory of respondents was investigated. functions etc. However.2. such perceptions may be attributable to their loyalty towards the brands (Aaker.. 2004). Some characteristics of the brands in which they are fond of were mentioned. All respondents could recall some positive aspects of their favourite brands at once. the British respondents did not have strong feelings about where the clothes come from. 60 . none of the UK respondents cited that they had had some loyalty cards from clothing shops.

Added to this. time and also interpreting skills. One of the obstacles for online clothes purchasing is that the consumers can not try on the clothes to see if they are fit or not.The establishment of such positive images can help enhance the brand values and there are no significant differences between the British and Chinese respondents in this regard. There are three limitations regarding the sampling method. the retailers should be more vigilant in the design of verification system.3 Limitations During the course of research. whereas the shoppers need to be aware of the login procedures. the details of the size and materials should be listed on the website to reduce the chances of buying wrong clothes.6 Consumer buying behaviour Consumers can shop for clothes via different channels. As far as sampling method is concerned.2. 2002) but the findings suggested that buying clothes online was not that common among the respondents. For online securities. several limitations were found to hinder the overall accuracy of the findings. various choices and cheaper prices. In order to make it more prevalent for clothes shopping. 5. qualitative research can not provide representative samples from the target population even though they can detect 61 . However. not to divulge personal information to unknown third parties. online security is also a matter of concern. some respondents cited that online shopping is good for its informative websites. something should be done on the aforementioned drawbacks. and whether online shopping for clothes is popular among the respondents from both nations was examined. 5. Most of the interviewees expressed that they had not bought clothes through the internet. In terms of fitting. Internet shopping is gaining its popularity (Dholakia and Uusitalo.

including the skills of handling follow-up and probing questions (Proctor. Such discretion of choosing samples may introduce a source of bias since there is a possibility to omit some types of people. As long as more time is allowed.4 Implications This dissertation attempts to find out the effect of brand image on consumer purchasing behaviour. however. 5. since in-depth interviews were chosen to be the method of data collection. 2000). In selecting the students. 2000). There are numerous brands around the world. This is the author’s second time to do the dissertation and the aspects like nervousness and lack of experiences can also be regarded as some of the limitations for this dissertation. ideas and products of other cultures than older people (Netemeyer et al. the characteristics of the interviewers. having a propensity of getting deviated results. interviewers’ questioning skill is also one of the determinants for answer accuracy. Students were used as the subjects for investigation and they tend to be more susceptible to the views. 1991). gender and age. more samples could be gathered so that it could enhance the overall conclusiveness of the interviews. especially for those who are difficult to contact (Proctor. During the interviews. will have an effect on the interviewees’ willingness to participate and their nature of answers. whether the brand is influential or not depends on how it is perceived. the combination of quota and convenience samples was used. In terms of time. for instances accent. the number of samples interviewed is limited. Finally. the responses from the in-depth interviews can be subjected to researcher’s effects. 62 . Interviewers may ask leading questions that distort respondents’ answers (Levy and Weitz..minor problems that are not obvious in a quantitative study (Proctor. 1992) and data obtained are influenced by the interviewers’ manner. In addition. The dissertation was confined to finish within the summer term which lasted for 3 months. 2000).

colour. This provides an important insight that Chinese customers should get rid of their negative perceptions towards the clothes quality. Through understanding how customers behave in these four aspects. In terms of brand awareness. aiming at finding out their similarities and differences in the consumer purchasing behaviour on clothes. As for brand association. the investment in brand loyalty could enhance the chance of repeat purchase and broaden the customer base. owing to the fact that consumers will buy clothes after they have known them well. brand loyalty and brand association. To reward loyal customers. Under the premise that brand is regarded as equity for marketers. manufacturers together with retailers need to join hands to produce better clothes for the customers to choose from. perceived quality and brand loyalty. Such positive connotations are achieved through working closely on brand awareness. namely brand awareness. having mentioned that customers judge the quality mostly based on the factors like materials. perceived quality. marketers should make use good of the traditional channels like advertisements and word-of-mouth and devise new methods to communicate with customers. Chinese brand developers should put more efforts on quality control 63 . durability. price and performance. some Chinese respondents have negative perceptions towards clothes quality produced from China and other developing countries whereas their British counterparts do not have such strong feelings. four different areas were investigated. As far as perceived quality is concerned. the study of brand can provide an insight for further brand development. marketers can think of relevant strategies. marketers can devise different reward methods in different forms such as discounts. In addition.Therefore. it is of utmost importance to keep the customers’ positive perceptions towards the brands so that the chances for repeat purchase would be increased. From the findings. style. This dissertation highlights the comparisons between British and Chinese.

The use of club cards was found to be more common among Chinese than the UK respondents for buying clothes. it could think of making online clothes purchasing more popular and also introducing varieties of benefits to reward loyal customers. It is hoped that Chinese can have some influential global clothing brands by doing so. like supermarkets. This may change the buying attitude that Chinese are now confined to buy luxury clothes produced in the foreign markets (HKTDC. since famous clothing brands are not uncommon in such developed country. 5. It is important to make improvement in the further research to provide more fruitful and representative findings.with a view to establish some strong national clothing brands among themselves. other kinds of research methods such as focus group and even some quantitative research methods could be used so as to provide findings from different perspectives. For the UK. Besides. More interviewers could be hired and trained to collect as much data as they can. for instance working class. Further research could also be done on comparisons between some other countries’ consumers in which they are found to have significant impact on consumer behaviour. there are several limitations as mentioned in the previous section. This could provide much more conclusive results. in addition to semi-structured interviews. More samples should be interviewed as long as time and money are not constraints. Marketers could consider the feasibility of getting this idea widespread in the clothes retailing industry as other retail sectors. For instances. it should be more aware of the marketing strategies to enhance the overall brand equity. Other sampling groups.5 Recommendations for further research Although the findings from this research are interesting and useful as one may think. could 64 . 2002). have done.

also be investigated since they may provide entirely different results as what have been obtained from the student samples. exploring the research to a higher stratum as far as brand development is concerned. By taking the above recommendations. 65 . researchers could be able to get more representative and deeper findings from different perspectives.

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S.S.S. (Data adopted from Business Week (2007)) 79 .S. U. U. France U.S. U.S. France U. Sweden Switzerland Switzerland Germany U.S. U.Appendix 1: The 100 Top Brands 2006 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Microsoft IBM GE Intel Nokia Toyota Disney McDonald Mercedes-Benz Citi Marlboro Hewlett-Packard American Express BMW Gillette Louis Vuitton Cisco Honda Samsung Merrill Lynch Pepsi Nescafe Google Dell Sony Budweiser HSBC Oracle Ford Nike UPS JPMorgan SAP Canon Morgan Stanley Goldman Sachs Pfizer Apple Kellogg Ikea UBS Novartis Siemens Harley-Davidson Gucci eBay Philips Accenture MTV Name Coca-Cola Country U. U. France U. U.S.S. U.S.S. U. Switzerland U.S.Korea Italy Italy Italy Britain Germany U.S. France U. Japan Britain S. U. U.S. Rank 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 Gap L’Oreal Heinz Yahoo! Volkswagen Xerox Colgate Wrigley KFC Chanel Avon Nestle Kleenex Amazon.S.S.S.S. Japan U. Netherlands Bermuda U. Hennessy Duracell ING Cartier Moet & Chandon Johnson & Johnson Shell Nissen Starbucks Lexus Smirnoff LG Bulgari Prada Armani Burberry Nivea Levi Name Nintendo Country Japan U. Netherlands France France U. France U. Switzerland U.S.S.S.S.S. U. U.S.S.S. Italy U. Germany U. U.S. U.S. U. U. Germany Switzerland Spain Germany S.S.S. Japan S.S.S.S.S. Britain U.S. U.com Pizza Hut Danone Caterpillar Motorola Kodak adidas Rolex Zara Audi Hyundai BP Panasonic Reuters Kraft Porsche Hermes Tiffany & Co.S.S.S.S. U. Finland Japan U. U. Germany Japan U.S.S.S. Germany U. Britain Japan U.S.S. U. U. Germany France U.S. U.S. U. U.Korea Britain Japan Britain U.S. U. U.S. Germany U.S.S.S.Korea U.

In what ways do you usually learn about clothing brands? 6. What is it about particular clothes that make you buy them? 5. Do you recommend brands? 9. Why do you like this brand? 11.Appendix 2: Interview Questions Name: Course: Nationality: Age: Year of study: Year of living in your home country: 1. Can you comment on what brand is to you? (Note: Further probing questions would be asked after each of the above question if necessary) 80 . How do you judge the quality of the clothes? 7. How much do you spend on clothing each month? 3. Can you describe the image of your favorite brand? 10. How often do you buy clothes? 2. Which categories of clothes do you usually buy? 4. Do you shop online for clothes? 12. Do you regularly buy the same brand of clothes? 8. What would you do if you are satisfied or dissatisfied about the clothes you purchase? 13.

How often do you buy clothes? Kevin: In China. since clothes are more expensive than those in China. normally I buy clothes 4 times a year (for each season). Chris: How much do you spend on clothing each month? In case of China and also the UK? Kevin: In China. Kevin: Yes. In England. Chris: Which categories of clothes do you usually buy? I mean high-priced. it would be like 40 to 50 pounds. I will buy clothes if there are discounts. Chris: Why? Kevin: Because in China. maybe 3 times a year. I had a girlfriend who likes shopping. so in winter. Chris: So you buy clothes less frequently in the UK. so normally I spent 30 pounds more or less each time when I went shopping. Summer clothes are cheaper than winter clothes. In England. I would like to ask you about your purchasing behaviour on clothes. Kevin. It would talk about 30 minutes. I was the company. 81 . around 20 to 30 pounds each time.Appendix 3: Interview Transcription Name: Kevin Fang Age: 23 Gender: Male Nationality: Chinese Chris: Hi.

medium-priced or low-priced?

Kevin: Medium-priced. I don’t buy very cheap clothes. I prefer higher quality, good taste, so these clothes are more expensive.

Chris: What about the kinds of clothes you buy? Sports apparel, casual wear, formal wear or others?

Kevin: The first two. I buy casual wear more frequently than sports apparels. Sports apparels are just for doing some exercises, and I won’t wear sports apparels on streets. But I buy trainers.

Chris: You really seldom buy formal wear.

Kevin: There are not many chances for me to wear. I have one, just one.

Chris: What is it about particular clothes that make you buy them?

Kevin: I prefer quality as I said, and good taste…I prefer some grand clothes…I like Jack and Jones, and Levi’s. For shoes, I like adidas and Reeboks.

Chris: You have mentioned something about price before, so do you think price is one of your considerations?

Kevin: Yes of course. My girlfriend likes to go to some markets where she can find many cheap clothes. Some of them are on discount and some of them are out of season, she is pursuing that kind of clothes.

Chris: What about you?


Kevin: I like buying shoes in a very good ground. I don’t like bargain with the prices. Some clothes have the absolute prices.

Chris: So when you went to the market with your girlfriend, did you buy them? Because normally we need to bargain in the market.

Kevin: If you go to some small shops, these clothes do not have ground, you can bargain with the shop assistants. But in some shopping malls, some clothes have ground, you cannot bargain with them. Because they are of fixed prices and the quality is good.

Chris: Which one do you prefer? Shops or Market?

Kevin: Shops.

Chris: What about brand?

Kevin: Yea, Jack and Jones.

Chris: What about country of origin?

Kevin: Um…I’m not sure which countries these clothes come from because some are made in China, maybe the designers are from other countries. Most of them I think they are from Europe.

Chris: So you have no special preferences?

Kevin: No.

Chris: If I divide the question into 2, maybe do you have any preference for the country of manufacture?

Kevin: As I said, most of them are made in China.

Chris: What about the country of design?

Kevin: Europe.

Chris: Do you have special preferences for the clothes made in Europe?

Kevin: Actually, we can’t find the clothes made in Europe, but in China.

Chris: What about advertising?

Kevin: Advertising is important. Sometimes, I go shopping for clothes just up to the advertising…and maybe there are reputations.

Chris: Do you have any advertisement series come to your mind?

Kevin: Levi’s…their advertisement for jeans is very impressive…so are the one from Jack and Jones.

Chris: What is the advertisement about? For Levi’s, why can it make you so memorable?

Kevin: Because people who wear the clothes look very nice, look very handsome with the clothes.

Chris: You mentioned some people appearing in this advertisement. Are these people celebrities?

Kevin: No, just models. Some of them are Chinese and some of them are foreigners.

but the prices for these kinds of clothes are high.Chris: If some advertisements feature the celebrities. I can’t afford it. I only wear them for one to two year. I will consider them. 85 . it may be longer. would it have an impact on you to buy the clothes? Kevin: Yes. For winter clothes. Chris: Do you talk about buying clothes with your friends frequently? Kevin: No. so maybe next time I go shopping. not frequently. they are nice to put them on. they put posters in the public areas. Chris: How do you judge the quality of clothes? Kevin: It depends. So it needs to keep the quality for that period. Chris: But you maybe affected by them. and from my mind. How can they affect you? Kevin: Maybe they buy very nice clothes. Chris: In what way do you usually learn about clothing brands? Kevin: TV. it will. Chris: What about peer influence? Do you know some brands from your friends? Kevin: Yes. of course. For summer clothes. from my perspective. on the streets. advertisements in the shopping mall.

Chris: What about lowest quality? Kevin: China…maybe. Chris: Do you have some ideas that which countries’ clothes you think they are of highest or lowest quality? Kevin: Korea (for E-land). you know. Would country of origin affect your perceptions towards clothes quality? Kevin: As I said most of them are made in China. keep the quality until out-of-date. I think their quality is good. Kevin: As long as it can. these clothes are from very good brands and they quality is conceivable. some brands have their own manufacturing (plants) in China. 86 . then it’s of high quality. by the feeling of texture and whether it will fade or not. Chris: So you judge the quality in terms of durability. I never compare which clothes come from which countries. Chris: So you think these two countries produce the highest quality clothes? Kevin: I consider brands more than the countries. Chris: Any others to judge the quality? Kevin: Colour…the feeling…whether or not it becomes fade after washing it.Chris: So if it’s durable. by the colour. and Demank (Jack and Jones).

but for casual wear. not many. it just likes Jack and Jones.Chris: Why do you have such feelings? Kevin: I think quality goes high as prices go high. Chris: Do you regularly buy the same brand of clothes? Kevin: Every time I go shopping. Chris: So you believe quality goes with prices? Kevin: Actually for young people. of course. Kevin: No. famous among young people. Chris: So you mean maybe China has some famous brands in sport apparels. the appearance is more important…the quality. we prefer clothes from other countries. I only bought E-land once… I also buy clothes from Kuhle. it’s high Chris: Do you recommend brands to your friends or someone else? 87 . I will go to those places…not E-land. maybe cheaper than from other countries. but it doesn’t have any brands in casual wear category. I think quality is not a problem for these brands. Chris: So because of the quality and the appearance. we may buy some sport apparels like LiNing. Chris: You mean China usually sells cheap clothes? Kevin: Yea. you go to that shop again to buy clothes? Kevin: Ah.

I prefer blue jeans. After I put it on. To be honest. maybe they will ignore it. 88 . I can see how it looks like. I prefer very colorful image. if it is fit to me. Chris: Can you describe the image of your favorite brand? Kevin: I prefer very simple image. but I know many people do. Chris: Does such image come from advertising and packaging? Kevin: Yea. For jeans. So. For T-shirt. The clothes online are cheap. advertising is the first impression and packaging is on-the-spot influence. If you can’t find in the market or in the shops. I will buy it. you can buy it online. Chris: So you mentioned something about colour and simplicity. like grid shirts. I don’t know. maybe they will keep in mind. how does such image come from? Kevin: I think its appearance. I never buy clothes online. I prefer some simple image. I know many girls do that. Chris: Why not? Kevin: I think every one has their own place. For shirts. Chris: Do you shop online for clothes? Kevin: No. Maybe girls can find more suitable size than guys do. if I recommend my preference to him or her.Kevin: No. like the clothes from the markets. I am a little bit fat and if I put on it.

just after finish shopping. the size may not fit and the quality as well… Chris: What would you do if you are satisfied or dissatisfied about the clothes you purchased? Kevin: If I am satisfied with the clothes I bought. Normally. Kevin: Yea. Chris: If you are satisfied. I will wear it very regularly. As long as l finish shopping. that’s the main advantage. I can get some gifts from the accumulated credits. I will go there again to see some new clothes…new arrival…But I will not go to the same shops very frequently. it maybe the advantage of buying clothes online. Chris: What are the bad things of buying clothes online? Kevin: As I said. they will give me 5 to 10 percent discount or some credits. You can find some clothes which you can’t buy in the shops or markets. Chris: If the shops do offer you some loyalty cards. maybe after one or two month. if I buy clothes more than 40 or 50 pounds once. 89 . would you apply for it? Kevin: Yea. of course I will wear it.Chris: So. maybe they are there. maybe take it as my pajamas. would you go to the same shops to have a look again? Kevin: Maybe I will go there next season when I go shopping. I will not go to the see any clothes within a short interval. but less frequently. So next time I go to these shops to buy clothes. But if I’m not satisfied with it. they will give me a VIP card. at least once a week. I have one from Kuhle and one from Jack and Jones.

but it represents the taste and quality of them.like some accessories. Chris: So you said ‘Brand is just like the name of people. something like that. I would like you to help me finish a sentence starting with ‘Brand is’. glasses. Chris: That’s all for the interview. Thanks very much. sunglasses. belts. 90 . wallet. It may not the spirit of the clothes.

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