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2nd Edition (K)2000 All Rights Reversed Tap here for miscellaneous publication information. History of the Necronomicon by H.P. Lovecraft Contents The Article Chronology Letter to C.A.Smith Letter to J.Blish and Wm.Miller The Truth about the Necronomicon Quotes from HPL's stories Quotes from HPL's letters Final Thoughts Fake Necronomicons The DeCamp-Scithers N. The Wilson-Hay-Turner-Langford N. The Simon N. The Gregorius N. The Quine N. The Ripel N. The Perez-Vigo N. The Lin Carter N. The H.R. Giger N. The Necronomicon Project. Necronomicon Glossary Abdul Alhazred The King in Yellow Aleister Crowley John Dee Ebn Khallikan Ibn Schacabao
Irem, the City of Pillars (The Patriarch) Michael Theodorus Philetas The Voynich Manuscript Olaus Wormius About the Author "History of the Necronomicon", by H.P. Lovecraft, Original version (corrected) written in 1927 with 1993 annotation From Kendrick Kerwin Chua's Necronomicon FAQ and further annotation by Dan Clore (email@example.com) Note: The original Dan Clore version substituted the corrected text for the older, corrupt text used in the FAQ. Ed. There has been some difficulty over the date of this essay. Most give the date as 1936, following the Laney-Evans (1943) bibliography entry for the pamphlet version produced by the Rebel Press. This date, as can easily be ascertained from the fact that this was a "Limited Memorial Edition", is spurious (Lovecraft died in 1937); in fact, it dates to 1938. The correct date of 1927 comes from the final draft of the essay, which appears on a letter addressed to Clark Ashton Smith ("To the Curator of the Vaults of Yoh-Vombis, with the Concoctor's[?] Comments"). The letter is dated April 27, 1927 and was apparently kept by Lovecraft to circulate as needed. History of the Necronomicon by H.P. Lovecraft Original title Al Azif -- "azif" being the word used by Arabs to designate that nocturnal sound (made by insects) suppos'd to be the howling of daemons. Composed by Abdul Alhazred, a mad poet of Sanaá, in Yemen, who is said to have flourished during the period of the Ommiade caliphs, circa 700 A.D. He visited the ruins of Babylon and the subterranean secrets of Memphis and spent ten years alone in the great southern desert of Arabia -- the Roba el Khaliyeh or "Empty Space" of the ancients -- and "Dahna" or "Crimson" desert of the modern Arabs, which is held to be inhabited by protective evil spirits and monsters of death. Of this desert many strange and unbelievable marvels are told by those who pretend to have penetrated it. In his last years Alhazred dwelt in Damascus, where the Necronomicon (Al Azif) was written, and of his final death or disappearance (738 A.D.) many terrible and conflicting things are told. He is said by Ebn Khallikan (12th cent. biographer) to have been seized by an invisible monster in broad daylight and devoured horribly before a large number of fright-frozen witnesses. Of his madness many things are told. He claimed to have seen fabulous Irem, or City of Pillars, and to have found beneath the ruins of a certain nameless desert town the shocking annals and secrets of a race older than mankind.fn He was only an indifferent Moslem, worshipping unknown entities whom he called Yog-Sothoth and Cthulhu.09 In A.D. 950 the Azif, which had gained a considerable tho' surreptitious circulation amongst the philosophers of the age, was secretly translated into Greek by Theodorus Philetas of Constantinople under the title Necronomicon.10 For a century it impelled certain experimenters to terrible attempts, when it was suppressed and burnt by the patriarch Michael. After this it is only heard of furtively, but (1228) Olaus Wormius made a Latin translation later in the Middle Ages, and the Latin text was printed twice -- once in the fifteenth century in black-letter (evidently in Germany) and once in the seventeenth (prob. Spanish) -- both editions being without identifying marks, and located as to time and place by internal typographical evidence only.11 The work both Latin and Greek was banned by Pope Gregory
IX in 1232, shortly after its Latin translation, which called attention to it.12 The Arabic original was lost as early as Wormius' time, as indicated by his prefatory note;fn and no sight of the Greek copy -- which was printed in Italy between 1500 and 1550 -- has been reported since the burning of a certain Salem man's library in 1692.13 An English translation made by Dr. Dee was never printed, and exists only in fragments recovered from the original manuscript.14 Of the Latin texts now existing one (15th cent.) is known to be in the British Museum under lock and key, while another (17th cent.) is in the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris. A seventeenth-century edition is in the Widener Library at Harvard, and in the library of Miskatonic University at Arkham. Also in the library of the University of Buenos Ayres.15 Numerous other copies probably exist in secret, and a fifteenth-century one is persistently rumoured to form part of the collection of a celebrated American millionaire. A still vaguer rumour credits the preservation of a sixteenth-century Greek text in the Salem family of Pickman; but if it was so preserved, it vanished with the artist R.U. Pickman, who disappeared early in 1926. The book is rigidly suppressed by the authorities of most countries, and by all branches of organised ecclesiasticism. Reading leads to terrible consequences. It was from rumours of this book (of which relatively few of the general public know) that R.W. Chambers is said to have derived the idea of his early novel The King in Yellow.16
Al Azif written circa 730 A.D. at Damascus by Abdul Alhazred Tr. to Greek 950 A.D. as Necronomicon by Theodorus Philetas Burnt by Patriarch Michael 1050 (i.e., Greek text). Arabic text now lost. Olaus translates Gr. to Latin 1228 1232 Latin ed. (and Gr.) suppr. by Pope Gregory IX 14.. Black-letter printed edition (Germany) 15.. Gr. text printed in Italy 16.. Spanish reprint of Latin text This should be supplemented with a letter written to Clark Ashton Smith for November 27, 1927: I have had no chance to produce new material this autumn, but have been classifying notes ? Necronomicon of the mad Arab Abdul Alhazred! It seems that this shocking blasphemy was produced by a native of Sanaá, in Yemen, who flourished about 700 A.D. ?Al Azif -- azif (cf. Henley's notes to Vathek) being the name applied to those strange night noises (of insects) which the Arabs attribute to the howling of daemons. Alhazred died -- or disappeared -- under terrible circumstances in the year 738. In 950 Al Azif was translated into Greek by the Byzantine Theodorus Philetas under the title Necronomicon, ?fn The original Arabic was lost before Olaus' time, ? In yet another letter (to James Blish and William Miller, 1936), Lovecraft says: You are fortunate in securing copies of the hellish and abhorred Necronomicon. Are they the Latin texts printed in Germany in the fifteenth century, or the Greek version printed in Italy in 1567, or the Spanish translation of 1623? Or do these copies represent different texts? Note that this is not entirely consistent with the accounts given earlier.
he mentioned its author.com/creation/necron/ Many labor under the misconception that the Necronomicon is a real book that predates Lovecraft. and information on the various hoax editions of the Necronomicon. 99) The first reference to the Necronomicon occurred when Lovecraft's The Hound (September 1922) was printed in the February 1924 issue of Weird Tales: Immediately upon beholding this amulet we knew that we must possess it. 2. the ghastly soul-symbol of the corpse-eating cult of inaccesible Leng. but we recognised it as the thing hinted of in the forbidden Necronomicon of the mad Arab Abdul Alhazred. Included here are Lovecraft's own fictional references to the Necronom-icon. and were disturbed by what we read. Quotes Regarding the Necronomicon from Lovecraft's Letters Lovecraft often had to explain to his many correspondents that he had invented the Necronomicon.* 6. Lovecraft archive at www. Alien it indeed was to all art and literature which sane and balanced readers know. (The Nameless City. Abdul Alhazred. 1. Quotes Regarding the Necronomicon from Lovecraft's Stories Even before Lovecraft introduced the Necronomicon to his readers. Quotes Regarding the Necronomicon from Lovecraft's Stories The world's first contact with the Necronomicon was through Lovecraft's "The Hound". lineaments. and sometimes we burned strangely scented candles before it. And with strange aeons even death may die. he wrote. that this treasure alone was our logical pelf from the centuried grave. excerpts from Lovecraft's letters in which he states that the Necronomicon was his invention. but as we looked more closely we saw that it was not wholly unfamiliar. 174) The jade amulet now reposed in a niche in our museum. In The Page 4 . Some Final Thoughts on the Necronomicon Some personal observations on the Necronomicon issue. (The Hound. All too well did we trace the sinister lineaments described by the old Arab daemonologist. These pages have been created in the hopes of disabusing people of that notion. Even had its outlines been unfamiliar we would have desired it. Loucks from the H. and about the relation of ghouls' souls to the objects it symolised. and the "unexplainable couplet": That is not dead which can eternal lie. We read much in Alhazred's Necronomicon about its properties.hplovecraft. 3-5. 175) Imagine the intrigue that these fragmentary comments stirred in the hearts of Weird Tales readers.P.The Truth About The Necronomicon by Donovan K. (The Hound. drawn from some obscure supernatural manifestation of the souls of those who vexed and gnawed at the dead. as well as many other tales. in Central Asia. as well as on other sources of misinformation.
Yog-Sothoth is the key and guardian of the gate. and evil the mind that is held by no head. except in letters and in his fictional History of the Necronomicon (1927). Second. published in 1681. one of his most frequent revision clients. Besides the "History". but fats and instructs the very worm that gnaws. and there are things in Alhazred's Azif which weren't known in Atlantis!" (The Last Test. and eventually. and things have learnt to walk that ought to crawl. and pile of books. instead referring more to traditional occult works. and where They still tread them. Lovecraft used his creation in two unusual ways. Yog-Sothoth knows the gate.. Great holes secretly are digged where earth's pores ought to suffice. In this brief work. 216) Lovecraft made a couple of passing references to the Necronomicon in The Descendant (1926). 211) The Necronomicon figures in the rites practiced beneath Kingsport. the old man now left the room. the terrible Saducismus Triumphatus of Joseph Glanvill.. the unmentionable Necronomicon of the mad Arab Abdul Alhazred. and worst of all. 47) Lovecraft never used this Arabic title for the book again. Past. Wisely did Ibn Schacabao say. and the dull scavengers of earth wax crafty to vex it and swell monstrous to plague it. in Olaus Wormius' forbidden Latin translation. for their marvels are strange and terrific. He knows where They have trod earth's fields. and another lengthy quote is included at the end of the story: The nethermost caverns. but of which I had heard monstrous things whispered. (The Festival. English. a story he was revising for Adolphe de Castro. Lovecraft gives an account of the origin of the Necro-nomicon. Lovecraft mentions the Necronomicon along with several "legitimate" occult books: Pointing to a chair.Festival (1923). and happy the town at night whose wizards are all ashes. or that the common bulk of life and substances walks alone. Then. Lovecraft only mentions the Necronomicon briefly in The Call of Cthulhu (Summer 1926) and. and Page 5 . printed in 1595 at Lyons. Lovecraft didn't rely on the Necronomicon. Cursed the ground where dead thoughts live new and oddly bodied. The Old Ones were. (The Festival.. By Their smell can men somtimes know them near. he included it in The Last Test (1927). a book which I had never seen. but of Their semblance can no man know. all are one in Yog-Sothoth. saving only in the features of those They have begotten on mankind. in spite of the heavy occult tone of The Case of Charles Dexter Ward (January-1 March 1927). For it is of old rumour that the soul of the devil-bought hastes not from his charnel clay. and the Old Ones shall be. and when I sat down to read I saw that the books were hoary and mouldy. present. Yog-Sothoth is the gate. and why no one can behold Them as They tread. you ----! There are powers against your powers--I didn't go to China for nothing. as well as its translations from the original Arabic. but between them. table.are not for the fathoming of eyes that see. undimensioned and to us unseen. that happy is the tomb where no wizard hath lain. and where They shall break through again. till out of corruption horrid life springs. They walk serene and primal. which only made sense because its author was Arabic: "Be careful..that man is either the oldest or the last of earth's masters. He knows where the Old Ones broke through of old. he invented an Arabic title for the book. The following passage is especially powerful: Nor is it to be thought. the Old Ones are. into Greek. Latin. the shocking Daemonolatreia of Remigius. future. Not in the spaces we know. This fragment (the title is not Lovecraft's) did not see publication until 1938 when it appeared in issue 2 of Leaves. First. not printed until after Lovecraft's death. and that they included old Morryster's wild Marvells of Science. the greatest amount of information about the Necronomicon appeared in The Dunwich Horror (Summer 1928).
and of the still stranger and more disturbing descriptions of the evilly fabled plateau of Leng which occur in the dreaded Necronomicon of the mad Arab Abdul Alhazred. one can hardly expect to be wholly free from mental tension. The wind gibbers with Their voices. The Whisperer in Darkness (24 February . they had stopped him from consulting the dubious old books on forbidden secrets that were kept under lock and key in a vault at the university Page 6 . and had voluntarily cut down his course at several points. But. 170) In another revision story. in which he combines elements of the occult with that of Einsteinian physics. yet may not forest or city behold the hand that smites. Kadath in the cold waste hath known Them. and what man knows Kadath? The ice desert of the South and the sunken isles of Ocean hold stones where Their seal is engraven. and the earth mutters with Their consciousness. and when one mixes them with folklore. his tying together of occult lore and scientific evidence is very effective. Iä! Shub-Niggurath! As a foulness shall ye know Them.of those are there many sorts. all of these references were also merely in passing. Man rules now where They ruled once. differing in likeness from man's truest eidolon to that shape without sight or substance which is Them. yet ye see Them not. Lovecraft made only one passing reference to the Necronomicon. Something about the scene reminded me of the strange and disturbing Asian paintings of Nicholas Roerich. in his next tale. Their hand is at your throats. yet can he spy Them only dimly. Moreover. one of his first tales that leans more heavily towards science-fiction than horror. p. but who hath seen the deep frozen city or the sealed tower long garlanded with seaweed and barnacles? Great Cthulhu is Their cousin. and Their habitation is even one with your guarded threshold. (The Dunwich Horror. Gilman came from Haverhill. 7) Dyer and Pabodie have read Necronomicon and seen Clark Ashton Smith's nightmare paintings based on text. (At the Mountains of Madness. whereby the spheres meet. he makes nearly a dozen references to it in At the Mountains of Madness (February-22 March 1931). 62) Although Lovecraft's references to the Necronomicon in this story are not especially long or overt. (At the Mountains of Madness. and after winter summer. and will understand when I speak of Elder Things supposed to have created all earth-life as jest or mistake. for here shall They reign again. They shall soon rule where man rules now. p. (At the Mountains of Madness. later on. that I had ever looked into that monstrous book at the college library. Yog-Sothoth is the key to the gate. They walk unseen and foul in lonely places where the Words have been spoken and the Rites howled through at their Seasons. Just when it seemed as if Lovecraft had decided to use the Necronomicon as little more than window-dressing. p. However. and tries to trace a strange background of multi-dimensional reality behind the ghoulish hints of the Gothic tales and the wild whispers of the chimney-corner. though even that mad Arab had not hinted that any existed except in the dreams of those who had chewed a certain alkaloidal herb. Something in the air of the hoary town worked obscurely on his imagination. Medusa's Coil (May 1930). but it was only after he entered college in Arkham that he began to connect his mathematics with the fantastic legends of elder magic. The professors at Miskatonic had urged him to slacken up. Non-Euclidean calculus and quantum physics are enough to stretch any brain. I was rather sorry. They wait patient and potent. They bend the forest and crush the city. Lovecraft uses a similar technique in The Dreams in the Witch House (January-28 February 1932). 22) These viscous masses were without doubt what Abdul Alhazred whispered about as the "shoggoths" in his frightful Necronomicon. After summer is winter.26 September 1930). the Necronomicon is mentioned no less than five times.
and of the posthumous vicissitudes and translations of his hideous and unmentionable work Al Azif. Nyarlathotep. To Robert E. Abdul is a favourite dream-character of mine--indeed that is what I used to call myself when I was five years old and a transported devotee of Andrew Lang's version of the Arabian Nights. announcing myself as a devout Mohammedan and assuming the pseudonym of "Abdul Alhazred"--which you will recognise as the author of that mythical Necronomicon which I drag into various of my tales. Lovecraft refers to the book only briefly in seven stories: The Horror in the Museum (October 1932). Yeb. (The Dreams in the Witch House. de Castro's work is that the latter gentleman is a revision-client of mine--into whose tales I have stuck these glancing references for sheer fun. The Thing on the Doorstep (21-24 August 1933). one need only turn to his letters for the answers: To Edwin Baird (February 3. p.--a synopsis which I shall follow in future references to the dark and accursed thing. 1924): At one time I formed a juvenile collection of Oriental pottery and objects d'art.--let me confess that this is all a synthetic concotion of my own. R'lyeh.I read the Arabian Nights at the age of five. and the Great Old Ones! The Necronomicon of the mad Arab Abdul Alhazred is likewise something which must yet be written in order to possess objective reality. and the image of this archetypal book of evil had been firmly planted in their minds. I think it is rather good fun to have this artificial mythology given an air of verisimilitude by wide citation. Yog-Sothoth.. But all these precautions came late in the day. Cthulhu. If any other clients of mine get work placed in W. I ought. etc. to write Mr. Howard (October 4.. 1930): Regarding the solemnly cited myth-cycle of Cthulhu. the fragmentary Book of Eibon.which I later revived. and The Haunter of the Dark (November 1935). O'Neail and disabuse him of the idea that there is a large blind spot in his mythological erudition! To Robert E. you will perhaps find a still-wider spread of the cult of Azathoth. 263) Now that Lovecraft had established the Necronomicon in the minds of his readers. so that Gilman had some terrible hints from the dreaded Necronomicon of Abdul Alhazred. Through the Gates of the Silver Key (October 1932-April 1933). burnt-cork a beard on my face. and the suppressed Unaussprechlichen Kulten of von Junzt to correlate with his abstract formulae on the properties of space and the linkage of dimensions known and unknown. Howard (August 14. Long has alluded to the Necronomicon in some things of his--in fact. In those days I used to dress up in a turban. in memory of old times.. there was no need to rely on lengthy descriptions or quotes from it. A few years ago I prepared a mock-erudite synopsis of Abdul's life. The reason for its echoes in Dr. though. Shub-Niggurath.T.library. like the populous and varied pantheon of Lord Dunsany's Pegana. 1930): . After this point.. Quotes Regarding the Necronomicon from Lovecraft's Letters If Lovecraft raised any questions as to the reality of the Necronomicon and the entities named within it. The Shadow out of Time (November 1934-March 1935). to confer on the hypothetical author of the hypothetical Necronomicon! Page 7 . and call myself by the synthetic name (Allah only knows where I got it!) of Abdul Alhazred -. Nug.. The Diary of Alonzo Typer (October 1935). His previous references to the Necronomicon had been sufficient to arouse the interest of his readers. Out of the Aeons (1933). etc..
and supernatural themes--in all truth they don't amount to much. As for seriously-written books on dark. 1933): By the way -. 1934): Regarding the Necronomicon--I must confess that this monstrous ?Necronomicon while I refer to his Book of Eibon . Tsathoggua ?Book of Eibon are inventions of Clark Ashton Smith. 13. There never was any Abdul Alhazred or Necronomicon.. For the fun of building up a convincing cycle of synthetic folklore. The late Robert E. Also.. . 14.] Just had 2 more enquiries as to the reality of the Necronomicon! To William Frederick Anger (Aug. Howard. while Friedrich von Junzt ?Unaussprechlichen Kulten originated in the fertile brain of Robert E. All this gives it a sort of air of verisimilitude. Thus our black pantheon acquires an extensive publicity ? but always carefully explain to enquirers that it is 100% fiction. issue an abridged Necronomicon--containing such parts as are considered at least reasonably safe for the perusal of mankind! When von Juntz's Black Book and the poems of Justin Geoffrey are on the market.S. Howard (May 7. ? To Robert H.this month's triple use of such allusions is bringing me in an unusual number of inquiries concerning the real nature ? To Miss Margaret Sylvester (Jan. To Willis Conover (July 29. Page 8 . for I invented these names myself. In order to avoid ambiguity in my references to the Necronomicon I have drawn up a brief synopsis of its 'history'. 1932): As for writing the Necronomicon--I wish I had the energy and ingenuity to do it! I fear it would be quite a job in view of the very diverse passages and intimations which I have in the course of time attributed to it! I might. 1936): Now about the "terrible and forbidden books"--I am forced to say that most of them are purely imaginary.. while the Book of Eibon is an invention of Clark Ashton Smith's. 1934): [P. Howard is responsible for Friedrich von Junzt and his Unaussprechlichen Kulten.. I sometimes insert a devil or two of my own in the tales I revise or ghost-write for professional clients. all of our gang frequently allude to the pet daemons of the others--thus Smith uses my Yog-Sothoth. That hellish ? To Robert Bloch (early to mid July 1933): As for the "Necronomicon" -. occult. Robert Bloch devised the idea of Ludvig Prinn and his De Vermis Mysteriis. 1934): Regarding the dreaded Necronomicon of the mad Arab Abdul Alhazred--I must confess that both the evil volume ?.. while I use his Tsathoggua. though. I shall certainly have to think about the immortalisation of old Abdul! To Robert Bloch (May 9.To Robert E. That is why it's more fun to invent mythical works like the Necronomicon and Book of Eibon.there is no "Necronomicon of the mad Arab Abdul Alhazred". Barlow (August 14.
[It should be noted that the original text of what follows was heavily hyperlinked. The Quine Necronomicon. like a "perfect" circle. Some Final Thoughts on the Necronomicon Despite all the evidence given in the other pages here. as a means of getting a reaction out of others. there will still be those who believe that the Necronomicon is a "real" book. chartreuse devils jumping up and down on things. The Perez-Vigo Necronomicon. They are of the opinion that "power" comes from belief. The Gregorius Necronomicon. Then again. and most references to them. Page 9 . And they bolster their argument by pointing out his frequent references to his fantastic dreams. If belief is all that is necessary to achieve occult power. 1937): The name "Abdul Alhazred" is one which some adult (I can't recall who) devised for me when I was 5 years old ?Necronomicon. go to geocities..htm] Fake Necronomicons by Dan Clore ". why would one of these books be needed? Wouldn't the ingredients on a catsup bottle suffice as a chant or spell? For that matter. with no facts to get in the way.To Harry O. They are of the opinion that Lovecraft somehow tapped into some higher plane of consciousness and drew upon it for his creations. even those who admit that these books are "hoaxes"... It's purely an opinion. The Lin Carter Necronomicon. Those links. The Wilson-Hay-Turner-Langford N.the Necronomicon. he always made the fiction of the book known to those who asked. is any printed matter necessary at all? There are also those who believe that Lovecraft's Necronomicon is an archetype of occult books. How can one argue against this? It can no more be disproven than it can be proven. Burroughs The DeCamp-Scithers Necronomicon. try to consider me among the sane for having such a crazy belief. a highly secret magical text released in paperback. Fischer (late February. That is. I could argue that such books are unnecessary. Go ahead -.. The Simon Necronomicon. considering my own belief system. Honestly.. I don't know if I could disagree with this. However.. To view the original web page.disprove that.William S. I'm of the opinion that gravity is caused by countless invisible. There are also those who will claim that the power of the hoax Necronomicons is real." -.occurred to me in the course of a dream. Better yet. There will also be those who merely claim to believe. that the book somehow exists in some Platonic sense. The Ripel Necronomicon. have been removed for their lack of utility in this format. Although Lovecraft may have wanted his readers to at least temporarily suspend their disbelief in the Necronomicon.com/SoHo/9879/necfake. and so their mere belief in these hoax books imbues them with power. There's not much point in arguing with this latter group of people.
Langford indeed contributes a portion in which he claims that a computer analysis has deciphered the manuscript Liber Logaeth of John Dee. all centering on the theme of the scholar who finds the hellish tome. for Colin Wilson has admitted as much in his article. "The Necronomicon. and winds up smeared all over the walls.when the word "necronomicon" actually means the book of dead laws. The Wilson-Hay-Turner-Langford Necronomicon Typical illustration from the Wilson-Hay-Turner-Langford Necronomicon.The H. with the characters nearest the margins changed to help hide the repetition. the Origin of a Spoof". Sprague De Camp relates a tale of intrigue about how he smuggled the manuscript of this. were very dreadful indeed. which appeared in Crypt of Cthulhu and was reprinted in Black Forbidden Things: Cryptical Secrets from the "Crypt of Cthulhu". stupidly invokes powers greater than he can control. released by Owlswick Press. he further states. in a later commentary on his introduction. according to Wilson. As this obviously cannot be taken seriously. A scholar who attempted to translate it. Page 10 . The Necronomicon Project. in which a computer analysis proves the existence of the Necronomicon. contributes another section. for he says: In fact. most of the book. DeCamp himself. Little effort need be spent to prove that this version is not the genuine article. In fact. wound up spattered all over the walls of his study. has said: I hope you get a chuckle out of this introduction -. an actual practitioner of ceremonial magick.R. anyone with the slightest knowledge of Latin will instantly recognise it for a fake -. with the usual unsightly results. out of Iraq amidst various dangers. I may wish to go back to Iraq some day. Wilson instead proposed that they attempt to produce something that could actually be the Necronomicon itself. Giger Necronomicon. revealing it to be -none other than. anyone with the slightest knowledge of Latin will recognise that the title is Greek. consists of a mere eight pages of scrambled Syriac script repeated over and over. In fact. The tales. entitled Al Azif. Wilson describes how George Hay approached him with the idea of his writing an introduction to a spoof volume of stories about the Necronomicon. Wilson's claims cannot be taken entirely seriously.but I also trust that you will not take it seriously. In the finished volume.it is subtitled "The book of dead names" -. edited by Robert Price. The idea was partly inspired by a tale by David Langford. it would be unfair to consider this a hoax rather than a sort of in-joke. and I do not want this little hoax to complicate my visit. The DeCamp-Scithers Necronomicon Lovecraft biographer and science-fiction writer L. Robert Turner.
Wilson himself contributes the introduction. by Angela Carter.. whereas in Lovecraft this being is clearly female.) For the most part." Other inconsistencies with Lovecraft's conceptions appear as well. in a scheme borrowed from August Derleth that neither appears in Lovecraft's work nor is consistent with it. Awake in the Witch-House: On the Trail of the 'real' Brown Jenkin.purporting to be the translation of Liber Logaeth. however. the vast majority of the material in this version of the Necronomicon owe its inspiration not to the Lovecraft Mythos. They are: Dreams of Dead Names: The Scholarship of Sleep by Christopher Frayling. Other than this. another innovation of Derleth. Shub-Niggurath appears as a male deity. which was in fact invented by August Derleth after Lovecraft's death. -.which.when they are not simply supplanted by typical magick récipés. Wilson's introduction will be interesting to those with the background knowledge to separate the fact from the fantasy.we could accept the authentically archaic "y ". which presents a mishmash of fact and fantasy. The Simon Necronomicon Page 11 . which are doubtless better sources.use of "ye" for "the". the "Elder Gods" vs the "Great Old Ones". spurious..] There has since appeared a purported R'lyeh Text. but to the vastly different Derleth Mythos -. "black magic" quotation. By 1992. For the most part. (For example. The material presented as the Necronomicon itself lacks aesthetic value. along with his Christianity-inspired tale of the revolt of the Great Old Ones against their Elders and betters. claiming (unfoundedly) that Lovecraft's father belonged to "Egyptian Freemasonry" and had learned all sorts of bizarre occult secrets -. by Patricia Shore -. These include only the purported translations of Liber Logaeth. It is interesting to note that Lovecraft never used the name R'lyeh Text. with typical magickal récipés utilizing a few Mythos names. the near-constant -. and Lovecraft and Landscape. The work also holds to the two warring factions. there is little to say about the book. the book is just more of the same. and if anything in the book makes it worth owning it will be these. it is run-of-the-mill occultist fare.but inconsistent -. The well-known cryptic couplet appears several times misquoted as: "That which is not dead which can eternal lie. The Old Ones are correlated with the four elements. however. The work also includes two essays supposedly written before the discovery of the manuscript key. includes the notorious. The use of the Cthulhu Mythos is also suspect. A number of on-line versions of the Wilson-Hay-Turner-Langford Necronomicon exist. and which is not identical with the Necronomicon or any part of it. compiled by the same team. Hinterstoisser". There is included an interesting essay. (It is supposedly in the actual tongue of Cthulhu himself and possibly brought from the stars with him. -. [See website for links. which claims to continue the manuscript begun in the first volume. There is also a letter by a "Dr.which he later spouted in his (actual) insanity.) Whether it has value for practicing mages I leave to them to decide. Some find the information on cryptography in Langford's piece interesting. and omit all other material. there are entire books available on this subject. includes an accurate account of Lovecraft's invention of Abdul Alhazred and the Necronomicon. by the way.which. The simple fact is. actually written by Dominic Purcell. one's scholarship really ought to have been better than that.
are unconvincing.) Again. for example. The publisher states that the MS cannot be held up to public inspection. Babylonian. Simon would like us to see great similarities between both his Mesopotamian material and the magick of Aleister Crowley. whereas Shub-Niggurath is female. Simon says that one section of his putative translation. given the basis of "The Dunwich Horror" in Arthur Machen's "The Great God Pan". it will receive a longer examination than the others. "might be Lovecraft's R'lyeh Text". What few he does attempt to argue for. He states: Page 12 . As this is the only Necronomicon which qualifies as a full-blown hoax rather than a spoof or in-joke. (Yog-Sothoth would certainly correspond fairly well. in an historically impossible fashion. Again.Typical illustration from the Simon Necronomicon. they state that the manuscript is in Greek. he would have us note the similarity between Lovecraft's exclamation Iä!. it does look kind of like CTH^H. The other entries on his short list are either commonplaces of magick and weird fiction or even less similar. In any case the story told about the discovery of the manuscript is simply too much like a bad Cthulhu Mythos story to be credible. however. the URILLIA TEXT. which was an invention of August Derleth's (after Lovecraft's death). but provides essentially no correspondances between them. it is used as the Lovecraftian exclamation). He would like us. to see great similarity between the name Cthulhu and the Greek word stélé (as in Crowley's Stélé of Revealing). But scholars would not normally use the actual manuscript of such a work. and the work is distinct from the Necronomicon in Derleth's conception. Lovecraft. Crowley's use of the commonplace exclamation Io! and the equally commonplace deity name IAO. The pieces purporting to represent the original languages of various incantations are apparently simply gibberish. -. on the other hand.in the right Greek typeface. and the Lovecraft Mythos. Simon also wishes us to see a great correspondance between the Lovecraft Mythos and the Mesopotamian mythologies. Akkadian. Simon tosses together Sumerian. with Lovecraftian names tossed in wherever the original is unreadable. he wants us to notice the similarity between Shub-Niggurath and Crowley's Pan (a commonplace of magick and weird fiction both). which Simon claims as a variant of the god EA (despite which. never referred to the R'lyeh Text. Provision of such a set would certainly bolster the book's claim. and the Sumerian deity name IA. all of them impeaching its claims to represent a true text of the Necronomicon. they would work from a set of photographs of it. There are quite a number of problems with the volume. whereas Lovecraft makes it clear that the Greek text has been lost for centuries. It is evident that the majority of the work is composed of adaptations of existing translations of various Mesopotamian religious and magickal texts. In addition. and Assyrian materials without discrimination. The claims concerning the supposed manuscript are unconvincing. in his Necronomicon.
it would appear the attempt ended in abject failure. much like the Leviathan of the Old Testament. Considering that renaming the Good and Evil sides of the Mesopotamian deities "The Elder Gods" and "The Ancient Ones" is the major attempt at syncretising the two systems. or Rhan-Tegoth. which explains Lovecraft's famous Miskatonic River and Miskatonic University. "the mad Arab" as "the Mad Arab". NANNA. and INANNA (ISHTAR). In any case. it is made clear that they are amoral and indifferent to man rather than evil. Yog-Sothoth appears as IAK SAKKAK. The proper Sumerian form. figure prominently. has nothing corresponding to him in the Simon Necronomicon. Ghatanothoa. It is in fact an accurate description of the Derleth Mythos rather than the Lovecraft Mythos. not to mention the chief diety [sic] of his pantheon. etc. where AZAG is indeed a Sumerian demon. At least one deity of paramount importance in Lovecraft. underworld gods and goddesses. Simon derives it from KUTU. Azathoth as Azatot.Lovecraft depicted a kind of Christian Myth of the struggle between opposing forces of Light and Darkness. In. without attempting to give a corresponding form. who correspond to "Darkness". that is. So Yog-Sothoth appears as Yog Sothot. PAZUZU. only occurs in one story -. Those knowledgable of modern Lovecraft scholarship will recognize that this does not accurately describe Lovecraft's work. a name which never appeared before this book. the various alien races invented by Lovecraft have no place in Simon's Necronomicon. if these words were compounded. These include: MARDUK. sometimes in great detail. there are two "sets" of gods in the mythos: the Elder Gods. The pronunciation of chthonic is 'katonic'. such as Yig. but Page 13 . however. the name Cthulhu is of non-human origin and thus not amenable to such interpretation. with no answering form in Lovecraft. would be LU-KUTU. he gives us no clue. Shub-Niggurath appears as ISHNIGGARAB. and THOTH is the Coptic name for the Egyptian deity Tehuti. Cthulhu appears as KUTULU. in the Cthulhu Mythos. ENKI. and LU. As to how this compound name could have come about. Other deities are less convincing. and which correspond to the Christian "Light". The treatment of individual deities is hardly any better. however. shoggoth as shuggoth. in which there are no Elder Gods. TIAMAT. save that they are a stellar Race that occasionally comes to the rescue of man. and who constantly strive to break into our world through a Gate or Door that leads from the Outside. as is the case with various minor creations of Lovecraft's that one might expect to put in an appearance. Nor does he tell us why it had never appeared in print before. Nug and Yeb. The term "Ancient Ones". and no cosmic conflict between Good and Evil in any form either. Even where Simon merely cites a Lovecraftian name. Nyarlathotep. Likewise. between God and Satan. And again: Basically. Another questionable assertion that Simon makes is as follows: Lovecraft's mythos deals with what are known as chthonic dieties [sic]. "not dead. Cthulhu. Simon derives Azathoth from a compound AZAG-THOTH. as well. the city Kutha. about which much is told. and the Ancient Ones. man. however. These latter are the Evil Gods who wish nothing but ill for the Race of Man.and there. he frequently misspells them. while a host of supernatural creatures from Mesopotamian cultures. a sea monster who lies. about whom not much is revealed. whereas several of the most important Mesopotamian deities in the volume have no corresponding deity in Lovecraft.
Cthulhu is not the chief deity of Lovecraft's supposed pantheon. In any case. This is fully consistent with modern theories of magick.333 copies. Gregorius). the Simon Necronomicon was also released in an expensive leatherbound edition of 666 copies. but an extraterrestrial or extradimensional creature impeded by being trapped beneath the ocean. Cthulhu is not an actual enemy of Mankind. an Ancient One and supposed enemy of Mankind and the intelligent Race. Another such volume. The name Miskatonic most likely derives from American Indian roots. Robert Anton Wilson. this is simply a Page 14 . which gives a more récipé-like approach to the section "The Book of Fifty Names". Sea monsters are not usually considered chthonic. the proprietor of the Magickal Childe occult bookshop of New York. One of these states that he was Herman Slater. was also announced for publication. which is indeed mentioned prominently in the volume. who has subsequently gained a great name for himself in the field of Chaos Magick. but apparently never appeared. it would not seem to correspond to anything in Lovecraft. Cthulhu is never referred to as an 'Ancient One'. Avon has recently re-issued the Spellbook. This is like saying that a human is an enemy of Termitekind because he would exterminate those who infest his house. it cannot derive from the word chthonic. more likely rumor. L. Many claim that the volume works wonders in the area of magick. has it that he was a magickian in need of cash. Cthulhu is not a 'sea monster'. though he is associated with a group called the Great Old Ones. Most readers seem to find the portion labelled "The Testimony of the Mad Arab" to work effectively as Lovecraftian fiction. Gregorius (The Necronomicon: From the Transcription of Gregor A. but is important due merely to his proximity. What 'the intelligent Race' might refer to here is unclear. There is also a Simon Necronomicon Spellbook (originally titled The Necronomicon Report). Less likely candidates rumored to have authored the Simon Necronomicon include L. The Simon Necronomicon exists in pirated form on the Web. and Sandy Pearlman (the Lovecraft-influenced lyricist for the band Blue Öyster Cult). titled Das Necronomicon: Nach den Aufzeichnungen von Gregor A. Cthulhu's name derives from an alien language predating humanity by aeons.dreaming" below the world.] Various rumors have spread around concerning the true identity of "Simon". The Gregorius Necronomicon Published in Germany and German. though Lovecraft may have been influence in his coining of the name by that word. used everywhere else in his Necronomicon. Colin Wilson. Ron Hubbard. The Gates of the Necronomicon. men are merely in his way. Timothy Leary. [See website for links. the 'ch' is silent. In addition to the inexpensive paperback edition. followed by another of 3. regardless of whether the factual claims made regarding its origins are fraudulent or not. this assertion conflicts with Simon's proposed derivation of the word as KUTU + LU. Another. There is quite a number of problems with this statement: The pronunciation of chthonic is 'thawnick'. Sprague De Camp.
including whether or not it truly even exists. or. but as a pretext to enthusiastically endorse Giger's art. in Italy. The Necronomicon Project This is a collaborative effort to create a fake Necronomicon on the Web. of ancient Egyptian origins. but we include the entry not only for completeness. Lin Carter's version is included in a volume available from Chaosium. Page 15 . Obviously. 1987-88.org. The Perez-Vigo Necronomicon Recently published in Spain. Klein Lin Carter wrote several short stories which purport to be chapters from the John Dee translation of the Necronomicon.R. It includes a book called Sauthenerom.R.E. if you have any information on it please contact me: clore@columbia-center. However. Giger has used the title Necronomicon for a book compiling his necrotic art. it would be out in Bantam paperback with a preface by Lin Carter. this is only included here for completeness. Ripel. They relate various adventures of Abdul Alhazred. please contact me: clore@columbia-center. The volume also includes a German translation of an authentic mediaeval grimoire called the Goetia. this makes no claim to be an authentic Necronomicon. Necronomicon II. Price and entitled The Necronomicon: Selected Stories and Essays Concerning the Blasphemous Tome of the Mad Arab. The Ripel Necronomicon This was published by one Frank G. the Lesser Keys of King Solomon. The Quine Necronomicon The purported translation of the Necronomicon made by Antonius Quine appears to be so fake it doesn't even exist. If you have any such information (especially if you know where I might obtain a copy). edited by Robert M.000 years old and to have been plagiarized by Abdul Alhazred. containing sundry works of interest. The Lin Carter Necronomicon "If the Necronomicon actually existed. Giger has also produced a sequel volume.org. There is clearly no attempt to claim validity for the results of this project." -.translation of the Simon Necronomicon. I have been unable to obtain any information on the Perez-Vigo Necronomicon.D.T. as part of his Sabaean Trilogy. Obviously and explicitly fiction. who is head of the Ordo Rosae Mysticae (Order of the Mystic Rose). Giger Necronomicon Swiss surrealist H. this edition by Fernando Perez-Vigo reputedly includes a Necronomic Tarot along with a text derived from those of the Ripel Necronomicon and the Wilson-Hay-Turner-Langford Necronomicon. and a text of the Necronomicon. The H. which is alleged to be 4.
The story of Abdul Alhazred's life may be found in Lovecraft's History of the Necronomicon. since at the age of 5 I was one of them! I had not then encountered Graeco-Roman myth.W. although it is theoretically possible (however. Contents: Abdul Alhazred R. and no references to this name have been found that do not stem from Lovecraft's use of it..See it at: www. the City of Pillars (The Patriarch) Michael Theodorus Philetas The Voynich Manuscript Olaus Wormius Abdul Alhazred H. how many dream-Arabs have the Arabian Nights bred! I ought to know.eerie. It should be noted that the element "hazred" may be a pun on the phrase "all has read" or "has read all". indeed.html A Necronomicon Glossary Compiled by Dan Clore.the family lawyer. Lovecraft himself describes the origin of the name in a pair of letters: . In any case. it should be noted that the name Abdul Alhazred is not a properly-formed Arabic name.. The element -ul in Abdul is identical to the al. Chambers ?The King in Yellow Aleister Crowley John Dee Ebn Khallikan Ibn Schacabao Irem. Page 16 . thus meaning that this element is simply repeated. Another possible origin is a distorted form of Hazard. Lovecraft claimed that his great-great-great-great-great-grandfather was Robert Hazard (1635-1710). but I can't remember whether I asked him to make up an Arabic name for me. or whether I merely asked him to criticise a choice I had otherwise made. but found in Lang's Arabian Nights a gateway to glittering vistas of wonder and freedom. his only use of a variant form ("Abdool Al-Hazred") appears in a letter from the eighteenth century quoted in The Case of Charles Dexter Ward. It was then that I invented for myself the name of Abdul Alhazred. and made my mother take me to all the Oriental curio shops and fit me up an Arabian corner in my room. There is a dim recollection which associates it with a certain elder -.P. one of a well-known family in Rhode Island history.fr/~alquier/HPL/azif/n_index. every single letter in the name could represent more than one possible Arabic original.of Alhazred. hazred does not exist in Arabic. I can't quite recall where I did get Abdul Alhazred. Additionally. There appears to be no evidence to support this contention. the common prefix "al" (the definite article) being added on to the beginning. Lovecraft invented the mad Arab Abdul Alhazred. as it happens. making it hopelessly obscure as a whole). It is notable that none of the variant forms of the name used by other writers appear in Lovecraft's work.
Chambers' book appeared in 1895 and is not a novel but a collection of short stories. ar-Rahib = hermit. John Dee Dr. Abd = servant. of the tribe of Ad. and exactly what he thought of him. Chambers is said to have derived the idea of his early novel The King in Yellow. Another suggestion has been that the name is not Arabic at all. 120. Aleister Crowley Much speculation has been wasted on the hypothesis that Lovecraft may have been influenced in his conceptions by the occultist and magickian Aleister Crowley. and translates as "one-who-sees-what-should-not-be-seen". Hali for Khalid ibn Yazid. such as: Avicenna for Abu Ali al-Husein ibn Senna. "Servant-of-God Flower-of-Faith. among them: Abd al-Azrad. as many Arabic authors are known in Europe under distorted forms of their true names. need not be seen as a problem. In fact. Robert W. Averroës for Abu al-Walid Muhammad ibn Rushd. Some have speculated that Lovecraft derived his idea of the Necronomicon from Chambers' work. Lovecraft mentions Crowley in the Selected Letters V. a fabulous race of prehistoric giants. ibn Ad. Chambers and The King in Yellow Lovecraft's History of the Necronomicon states that: "It was from rumours of this book (of which relatively few of the general public know) that R.the similarity in conception apparently inspiring the playful allusion) and had referred to the Necronomicon by name as early as 1922 (The Hound). but rather Yemenite. -. as he did not read Chambers until 1927 (the same year." Abd Al-'Uzzâ ar-Rahib ibn Ad. is impossible.W. John Dee ? Page 17 . p.and here's what he has to say: In the 1890's the fashionable decadents liked to pretend that they belonged to all sorts of diabolic Black Mass cults. incidentally. however. azrad Abdallah Zahr-ad-Dihn. Al-'Uzzâ. this.This. etc. we know perfectly well that Lovecraft had heard of Crowley. a goddess woshipped alongside Allah in the pre-Muslim period. It is usually hypothesized that Lovecraft's wife. Abd = servant. ?He Cometh ? This quotation proves conclusively that Lovecraft knew nothing of Crowley other than what anyone would have gleaned from the press's libelous attacks against him. and which drives its readers mad. Some of these stories in turn refer to a play also titled The King in Yellow. however. that he authored the History -. Dr. A number of suggestions along this line have been made.this letter written in the last year of Lovecraft's life -. provides a link between the two during Lovecraft's New York period. Sonya.
Page 18 . named Lam. Dr.John Dee was born on July 13. either under that name. and he also indulged in the creation of talismans. an Enochian Angel Ebn Khallikan Ibn Khallikân (1211-1282) was born in Irbil and lived in Egypt and Syria. This should not be too surprising. Dee acquired a reputation as the archetypal mage. which does indeed have its own syntax and vocabulary. dictating to Dee the messages sent by the Enochian Angels. One of the more interesting bits of Forteana concerns Dee's Enochian Angels. Lovecraft. as Ibn Khallikân is unlikely to have had access to him in the thirteenth century (do I smell a plot-germ here?). 1527 in London. where he served as kadi (head of justice) of Damas. he gained the most notoriety for the contact that he and his associate Edward Kelly (who may have been something of a con man) established with a group of praeterhuman beings they referred to as Enochian Angels. recalling the apocryphal Book of Enoch. the first of its kind. some of it in service to Queen Elizabeth I of England. As can be seen. It is interesting to note that these messages are composed in their own unique language. Extant versions (Ibn Khallikân updated the work several times) do not seem to include an entry for Abdul Alhazred. Lam appears almost identical to the "Greys" who currently besiege UFO abductees: Lam. Kelly acted as "skryer". However. having recently written his History of the Necronomicon. who seems. he produced a portrait of one. that took twenty years to complete.a piece of crystal. His life included a notable amount of study and practice of magick. In this. Later mages have supposedly found this language to be the most effective language known for their incantatory purposes. considering that the work followed the novel plan of only including information which had been obtained first-hand from living individuals. So. In any case. H. however. Much of Dee's practice consisted of alchemical experiments. the omission of the eighth-century mad Arab is understandable. He compiled a biographical dictionary. When Aleister Crowley was in contact with them. Dee was first connected with the Necronomicon by Frank Belknap Long. gazing into a "shewstone" -. to have had in mind that Dee was its author rather than a mere translator. or under any recognizable variant. then added that Dee had translated the work and referred to this translation in The Dunwich Horror.P.
you -. The key. Ibn Mushacab." Elsewhere in the fiction Irem is mentioned only in these brief allusions: . (Through the Gates of the Silver Key. Ibn Schacabao is also referred to in The Case of Charles Dexter Ward. (The Call of Cthulhu. in which Joseph Curwen writes in a letter: I laste Night strucke on ye Wordes that bringe up YOGGE-SOTHOTHE. inhabit. "Son of the Sheik Abol". DH 141) That antique Silver Key. the City of Pillars. and sawe for ye firste Time that face spoke of by Ibn Schacabao in ye ------. "Son of the Dweller" (shacab.! There are powers against your powers -. the City of Pillars.Ibn Schacabao Lovecraft has Alhazred cite Ibn Schacabao with the interesting couplet: Happy is the tomb where no wizard hath lain. but no man has passed and returned to say that his footprints on the garnet-strown sands within bear witness. Irem.. torn to pieces by members of the elder race. perhaps a pioneer of ancient Irem. And happy the town at night whose wizards are all ashes.. D 106) Of the cult. It has thus been subjected to much the same speculation as Alhazred..and thirst-crazed nomads have returned to tell of that monumental portal. Some derivate of the Hebrew term shakhabh. was that for which the Cyclopean sculptured Hand vainly grasps. or City or Pillars. the City of Pillars In Lovecraft's History of the Necro-nomicon we read: "Of his [Alhazred's] madness many things are told.and one terrible final scene shewed a primitive-looking man. but you needn't think you know all my resources. the City of Pillars. Half-starved dervishes -. and there are things in Alhazred's Azif which weren't known in Atlantis! We've both meddled in dangerous things. How about the Nemesis of Flame? I talked in Yemen with an old man who had come back alive from the Crimson Desert -he had seen Irem..I didn't go to China for nothing. he [Randolph Carter] said.wrote Carter -. (The Nameless City.. and of the Hand that is sculptured above the keystone of the arch. and had worshipped at the underground shrines of Nug and Page 19 . dreams hidden and untouched. would unlock the successive doors that bar our free march down the mightly corridors of space and time to the very Border which no man has crossed since Shaddad with his terrific genius built and concealed in the sands of Arabia Petraea the prodigious domes and uncounted minarets of thousand-pillared Irem. "to sit. he [Castro] said that he thought the centre lay amid the pathless deserts of Arabia. He claimed to have seen the fabulous Irem. Later authors have given Ibn Schacabao's work the tile Reflections. MM 426) "Be careful. and to have. "bestiality". where Irem.. dwell" plus mu-. The name "Schacabao" is not a proper Arabic name. he surmised. personalizing element).-. Possibilities include: Ibn Shayk Abol.
Illinois. Among others. taking it out of the realm of legend and giving it a historical foundation. the text is believed by some scholars to be the work of Roger Bacon since the themes of the illustrations seem to represent topics known to have interested Bacon (see also Provenance below. Its many columns.) A history of the numerous attempts to decipher the manuscript can be found in a volume edited by R. Some of these tablets mentioned Irem by name. 1978). Hejaz ascribed to Thamood tribe. Theodorus Philetas So far as I know. the latest despot of Ad.W. Irem. invisible to ordinary eyes. or Irâm appears as a city destroyed ages before and lying buried somewhere in the desert sand. but occasionally. In these. pillars. a library of more than fifteen thousand tablets was found. In 1975. this purported translator of the Necronomicon is purely fictional and an invention of Lovecraft's. however. and at rare intervals. II-255: Prehistoric fabulous tribes of Ad in the south. 47] in his commonplace book. or towers are frequently mentioned. the Voynich Manuscript's code is cracked and the volume turns out to be the Necronomicon.Yeb -. There. The City of Pillars is mentioned in the Qûran. identified with the Irem of Arabic legendry. the City of Pillars (as the Koran styles it) supposed to have been erected by Shedad. Iram. The Most Mysterious Manuscript: The Voynich "Roger Bacon" Cipher Manuscript (Carbondale. s. it remains indecipherable to this day. can be determined from an entry [no." Rock excavations in N. Lovecraft cites an article from the Encyclopedia Britannica. however. "Very gorgeous are the descriptions given of Irem. there was an archaeological discovery in the city Ebla. Although several Page 20 . Michael Cerularius. revealed a number of buried cities along routes to the "Atlantis of the Sands" -. Here is a description of the Voynich Manuscript from the Catalogue of Yale University Library. in the regions of Hudramaut. after the annihilation of its tenants. (The Patriarch) Michael Most likely. Brumbaugh. and which yet. The Voynich Manuscript really does exist. The City of Pillars made a further step into reality when archaeologist examined photographs taken by the space shuttle Challenger in 1984. in cipher. Lovecraft's precise source. The Voynich Manuscript In two works by Colin Wilson. of the Arabian Gulf Coast. where it currently resides: MS 408 Cipher Manuscript Central Europe [?]. XV^ex-XVI [?] Scientific or magical text in an unidentified language. so Arabs say. Britan. and in Omar Khayyam's Rubaiyat. S. in the Arabian Nights. there was found a city known as Ubar. Thamood in the north. Here. of which he owned the ninth edition: From "Arabia" Encyc. apparently based on Roman minuscule characters. revealed to some heaven-favoured traveller.Iä! Shub-Niggurath!" (The Last Test. remains entire.the center of the frankincense trade between 2800 BCE and 100 CE. The Return of the Lloigor and The Philosopher's Stone. Patriarch of Constantinople from 1043-58. HM 47) Lovecraft did not invent Irem. and Tasm and Jadis in the centre of the peninsula. which had itself been discovered only the decade before. These.
Almost every page contains botanical and scientific drawings. ff.folio folding leaf contains an elaborate array of nine medallions. R. VIII^4 (leaves foliated 59 through 64 missing from center of quire).scholars have claimed decipherments of the manuscript. xviii-xix. for the most part the text remains an unsolved puzzle. X^2 (1 triple fold-out). S. brown. all with identifying inscriptions. and sometimes on recto. Part VI. 74 missing. yellow. Drawings accompanied by text. with fibrous structures linking the circles. 12 missing). ff. XVI^4 (1 double fold-out. Part IV. 2 stubs between 94 and 95). ff. other emerging from objects similar to cans or tubes. the origin and date of the manuscript are still being debated as vigorously as its puzzling drawings and undeciphered text. The Cipher of Roger Bacon [Philadelphia. Binding: s. Based on the subject matter of the drawings. W. in red.scale female nudes.117v Continuous text." Speculum 49 (1974) pp. 1r-66v Botanical sections containing drawings of 113 unidentified plant species. ff. Folio 117v includes a 3-line presumed "key" opening with a reference to Roger Bacon in anagram and cipher.folio. suggested a decipherment that establishes readings for the star names and plant labels. ff. resembling vases. of a provincial but lively character. Parchment. green and yellow. filled with stars and cell-like shapes. Quire signatures in lower right corner. 46). 3 triple. Written in Central Europe [?] at the end of the 15th or during the 16th [?] century. 87r-102v Pharmaceutical section containing drawings of over 100 different species of medicinal herbs and roots. 347-55. Vellum case. 97. XVIII^12 (ff. 85r-86v This sextuple. concentric or with radiating segments. Arabic numerals. 91. Part II. blue and red. 1 quadruple-folio and 1 sextuple-folio folding leaves. IX^2 (double and triple fold-out leaves). 1928] p. XII^2 (f. leaves and the root systems of the individual plants. XVII^4 (2 double fold-outs). Little continuous text. Brumbaugh has. many full-page. ff. missing). Part V. central bifolium. ff. ff. Special care is taken in the representation of the flowers. followed by stubs of conjugate leaves). verso. the contents of the manuscript falls into six sections: Part I. not every leaf foliated) + i (paper). I-VII^8 (f. or blue and green. immersed or emerging from fluids. including 5 double-folio. Some medallions with petal-like arrangements of rays filled with stars. Remains of early paper pastedowns. 225 x 160 mm. Part III. the segments filled with stars and inscriptions. Collation is difficult due to the number of fold-out leaves that are not always foliated consistently. Newbold and R. 546-48. On almost every page drawings of pharmaceutical jars. 67r. "The Voynich 'Roger Bacon' Cipher Manuscript: Deciphered Maps of Stars. "The Solution of the Voynich 'Roger Bacon' Cipher. some with structures resembling bundles of pipes. XI^2 (1 quadruple fold-out). with stars in inner margin on recto and outer margins of verso. 102 (contemporary foliation. Accompanied by some continuous text. most with bulging abdomens and exaggerated hips. some with the sun or the moon in the center. The identification Page 21 . Kent. in ink with washes in various shades of green. 92. 98 missing. some with the signs of the zodiac and concentric circles of nude females. 75r-84v "Biological" section containing drawings of small. 103r." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 39 (1976) pp. XIII^10. These drawings are the most enigmatic in the manuscript and it has been suggested that they symbolically represent the process of human reproduction and the procedure by which the soul becomes united with the body (cf. some free-standing. XIV^1 (sextuple fold-out). see his "Botany and the Voynich 'Roger Bacon' Manuscript Once More. however. or interconnecting tubes and capsules." Gazette 49 (1975) pp. 109-110. 139-50. XV^4 (1 triple and 1 double fold-out).73v Astronomical or astrological section containing 25 astral diagrams in the form of circles.
B: Correspondence between W.. inscription on f. Ad Obsequia Joannes Marcus Marci a Cronland. Doctor Raphael Ferdinandi tertij Regis tum Boemiae in lingua boemica instructor dictum librum fuisse Rudolphi Imperatoris. tu uero quid nobis hic sentiendum defini. Nills. Included with MS 408 is the following supplementary material in folders or boxes labelled A . Verum labor hic frustraneus fuit.of several of the plants as New World specimens brought back to Europe by Columbus indicates that the manuscript could not have been written before 1493. S. ed. owned "a booke.N. 9v. Given to the Beinecke Library in 1969 by H. W. Voynich in 1912 from the Jesuit College at Frascati near Rome. retulit mihi D. no. Roberts. and Ashmole 487). f. P. pro quo ipse latori qui librum attulisset 600 ducatos praesentarit. G. 100. 20) who had purchased it from the estate of Ethel Voynich. Dee stated that he had 630 ducats in October 1586. huiusque seras. and his son Arthur (cited by Sir T. si quae sunt. Theodore C. See also A. Reuerentiae Vestrae. p. who purchased it for 600 gold ducats and believed that it was the work of Roger Bacon.. Acquired by Wilfred M. 1576-1612). mox eundem tibi amicissime Athanisi ubi primum possidere coepi. which booke his father bestowed much time upon: but I could not heare that hee could make it out. Peterson. pp. Works. siquidem non nisi suo Kirchero obediunt eiusmodi sphinges. Librum hunc ab amico singulari mihi testamento relictum. Accipe ergo modo quod pridem tibi debebatur hoc qualecunque mei erga te affectus indicium. in the belief that Kircher would be able to decipher it. Johannes Marcus Marci of Cronland presented the book to Athanasius Kircher. 1667. executrix of the estate of Ethel Voynich. forthcoming). eds. Keynes. see the autograph letter of Johannes Marcus Marci (d. A: Autograph letter of Johannes Marcus Marci of Cronland in which he presents the manuscript to Athanasius Kircher in Rome.. The Bibliographical Society. Bodleian Library Ashmole 1790. Correspondence between Anne M. ex qua reliqua a te legi posse persuasum habuit. Browne. Watson and R. dated 1935-61. dating and decipherment of the manuscript. animo destinaui: siquidem persuasum habui a nullo nisi abs te legi posse. 6." Emperor Rudolph seems to have given the manuscript to Jacobus Horcicky de Tepenecz (d. Watson for confirming this identification through a comparison of the Arabic numerals in the Beinecke manuscript with those of John Dee in Oxford. John Dee's Library Catalogue (London. he was in Prague 1582-86 and was in contact with Emperor Rudolph during this period. concerning the provenance. Augusti AD 1666 [or 1665?]. It is very likely that Emperor Rudolph acquired the manuscript from the English astrologer John Dee (1527-1608) whose foliation remains in the upper right corner of each leaf (we thank A. Dee apparently owned the manuscript along with a number of other Roger Bacon manuscripts. authorem uero ipsum putabat esse Rogerium Bacconem Anglum.containing nothing butt Hieroglyphicks. C: Cardboard tube containing articles from international newspapers and Page 22 . The codex belonged to Emperor Rudolph II of Germany (Holy Roman Emperor. In addition. while in Bohemia. consueta tibi felicitate perrumpe. Kraus (Cat. Petijt aliquando per litteras ejusdem libri tum possessor judicium tuum parte aliqua a se descripta et tibi transmissa. 325) noted that Dee. G. R. and the Rev. 1622). (1601-80) in 1666. cujus fauori et gratiae me totum commendo maneoque. G. 42-44. Pragae 19. J. rector of Prague University) transcribed under item A below. "Reuerende et Eximie Domine in Christo Pater. 1r "Jacobi de Tepenecz" (erased but visible under ultra-violet light). Voynich abd Prof. uerum librum ipsum transmittere tum recusabat in quo discifrando posuit indefessum laborem. ego judicium meum hic suspendo. J. uti manifestum ex conatibus ejusdem hic una tibi transmissis neque prius huius spei quam uitae suae finem fecit.  v. Newbold concerning Newbold's supposed decipherment of the manuscript (1919-26).
F: Miscellaneous material. While this is a fine example of Lovecraft's pseudo-documentary style. As an item of trivia.. Wormius published a work on the literature of his native country. pamphlets. which appeared in Crypt of Cthulhu. G: Five notebooks handwritten by Ethel Voynich containing notes on the identification of the plants. and their songs were termed Vyses. Saul (Paris) and J. The Washington Post. vulgo Gothica Dicta Luci Reddita (1636). (I am indebted to S. and her correspondence about the sale of the manuscript. D: Scrapbook of newspaper clippings (1912-26) concerning the cipher manuscript. Joshi's fine essay. Saxo Grammaticus.). It can be seen from this that Lovecraft has accidentally conflated this two figures. 89.. I . Nills listing some characters or combinations of characters as they appear in the manuscript. Liber Aureus Philosophorum (1625).L: Lectures. concerning the announced sale by H. Brumbaugh and J. Voynich. informs us. No. composed by Regner Lodbrog. M. seu. H: Box of negative and positive photostats. and others. 89v-116r by R. Includes (in K) the transcript of a seminar held in Washington D.. including handwritten notes by A. In this. word for word from the original. [.T. on November 1976 entitled "New Research on the Voynich Manuscript. A Critical Dissertation on the Poems of Ossian. Voynich. Runir.) Page 23 . and also a book on the philosopher's stone.] A more curious monument of the true Gothic poetry is preserved by Olaus Wormius. it is interesting to note that Lovecraft prepared a rough draft of a translation of Wormius' Latin version of Regner Lodbrog's poem. Olaus Wormius (Ole Wurm) was a Danish physician who lived from 1588-1654. Brumbaugh. Olaus Wormius In his History of the Necronomicon Lovecraft states that: "(1228) Olaus Wormius made a Latin translation later in the Middle Ages. miscellaneous notes by A. thus leading him into his erroneous dating of Wormius in the thirteenth century." M: Miscellaneous correspondence between R.magazines. which contains a section on Runic or Gothic poetry in general. he has committed an unfortunate error in placing Olaus Wormius at this time. and Olaus Wormius". Der Zeitgeist. E: Miscellaneous handwritten notes of W. for most of the facts in this entry. putting him far too late to make the translation Lovecraft imputes to him. who flourished in the thirteenth century. Mo. Lovecraft's unfortunate error can be attributed to his use of secondary sources rather than primary. or funeral song. in his book de Literatura Runica. and translated by Olaus. a Danish historian of considerable note. the Son of Fingal (1763). and the Latin text was printed twice". P. compiled by W. He drew on a work of Hugh Blair (1718-1800). Kraus of the cipher manuscript. C. Handwritten transcription of ff. among them The New York Times. Regner Lodbrog. reviews and articles concerning the manuscript. In fact. Blair states: Their poets were distinguished by the title of Scalders. "Lovecraft. Danica Literatura Antiquissima. Nills about the cipher. medicinal herbs and roots. Arnold (Oak Grove. It is an Epicedium.
He has been called the 20th century Edgar Allen Poe. says Fritz Leiber. used to devise all sorts of yarns about black woods. Were they gods or demons? No. The Old Ones were meant to be "extraterrestrials" (beings from outer space). Rhode Island.P." As a boy. architecture. the fantastic events that happen in them also seem real. catches glimpses of shifting." In his stories this "other race" is called the Old Ones." Lovecraft began to write fiction as a child. He built his knowledge into his imaginary places. winged horrors. "All my stories. If so. he had only the company of his mother and his aunts. Anyone who reads a Lovecraft story gets a guided tour of some weird and peculiar worlds." Page 24 . But the man responsible for these nightmare visions was not at all frightening. or Dunwich on any map of New England--but you wouldn't be surprised if you did! Lovecraft knew a lot about New England. geography. He peers into other dimensions. "and most of Lovecraft's later tales are science-fiction with a slight-to-moderate supernatural dusting. and that is why they seem so real.ABOUT THE AUTHOR It could be that you have already read some stories written by Howard Phillips Lovecraft. and his first story was called "The Noble Eavesdropper. it's history. He was a kindly. Lovecraft without getting back a long and friendly letter full of helpful suggestions--and encouragement! Howard Phillips Lovecraft was born in Providence. and at four was already reading fairy tales and the Arabian Nights. But so vividly did he describe the book and the university that many readers came to believe both really existed. spans interstellar space. but unlike Poe he dreamed up convincing settings for his stories." With his head and imagination crammed full of such "horrors. Monster. His father died when he was three. he began to dream of other. 1890. "are based on the fundamental legend that this world was at one time inhabited by another race. Later. Die. they lost their foothold and were expelled. "observing my tastes in reading. you know the Necronomicon can be found in the library of Miskatonic University--and that both Miskatonic U. he wrote that his grandfather. Lovecraft's health was poor and he spent most of his early years as a semi-invalid. and old witches with sinister cauldrons. He learned the alphabet at the age of two. In his mind he saw "vast unplumbed recesses of space that loom perpetually around our insignificant dust grain. scary shapes. or The Dunwich Horror. more interesting worlds. or perhaps you have seen movie adaptations of his works such as The Haunted Palace. according to Leiber. For practicing black magic. No aspiring writer ever sent his work to H. You won't find his towns of Arkham. yet they live on outside--ever ready to take possession of the earth again. And because the settings of his stories seem real. and after the death of his grandfather. Perhaps he was cut off from the companionship of other children by ill-health. unfathomed caves. on August 20. author and close friend of Lovecraft." Lovecraft once wrote. and the Necronomicon were "invented" by Lovecraft's lively imagination. gentle person--more interested in helping young writers get a start than in advancing his own career." In time these visions were to become the terrifying settings of many of his eerie tales. Die. Howard Phillips Lovecraft had the gift of writing so about the unbelievable that it came alive. Innsmouth.
--Margaret Ronan Written in 1926 Originally Published in A History of the Necronomicon. are full of sly humor. Howard Lovecraft lived and died a poor man. 2-4.net/lovecraft. was his favorite movie. he refers to a description of himself given by a mutual friend: "As it happens. not left shoulder that the ropy tentacles grow." Although Howard Lovecraft was not this unusual in appearance. Book publishers did not become interested in his work until after his death. He read widely and his photographic memory enabled him to retain almost everything he read. He spoke several languages. but with his time and his encouragement." or "Black Cylinder Floating between Two Universes. and wandering about Providence at night. Although his bad health in early life kept him from attending college. He was tall and gaunt. Lovecraft courtesy of The Hall of the Sausage King http://www. They were warm and friendly. the only magazine that published the kind of stories he wrote was Weird Tales--and it paid its authors only a cent a word. and he enjoyed pointing out historical errors in Hollywood epics. Berkeley Square. 1938. What grows out of the left shoulder is one of my four eyeless heads. He journeyed to New York. crabbed writing. But even as a recluse. South Carolina.All his life (he died in 1937). But although the face might at first seem forbidding. AL: The Rebel Press.P. Perhaps it was because he disliked the 20th century so that he became an adult recluse. with a bony face that could have been a composite of the faces of actors Boris Karloff and Max von Sydow. several points in Mr. And he spent more time and energy on his "paper friends. they could bear such headings as "Black Marsh of Gthath. the eyes gave away the real man inside. which starred Leslie Howard as a man who was whisked out of the 20th century and back to the 18th. In his time. Lovecraft's knowledge of the arts and sciences was amazing. Lovecraft earned so little money with his writing that he could spend only a dollar a day for food. He always told his friends if he had a choice. Image of H.html Page 25 . many of whom he never met--than on his own work. Hour of the Burning Galaxy. and Louisiana just to visit friends.wurst. His letters. Howard Lovecraft wished himself out of the 20th century. Sterling's word-picture are misleading. This head is not to be confused with the one growing out of my right elbow (the one with the green fangs). and even carried on a correspondence in latin with a student who was a latin major. hiding behind drawn shades in the daytime. Oakman. and he often skipped that food so that he could use the money for postage and paper to write his correspondents. History was a specialty of his. interested in everything and everybody. he did not separate himself from others. Hour that the Ooze Stirs. he would have preferred being born in the 18th century because he felt most at home with the ways of that time. It is out of my right. Howard Lovecraft could relax. he did stand out in a crowd. Toward these pen friends he was unfailingly generous--not only with what little money he had." --his correspondents. For all his knowledge and talent. Florida. Without this encouragement. He looked like a writer of weird stories." In one letter he sent to me. Instead of a return address and a date. With his correspondents. many of us would never have gone on hoping and trying to be writers. written in tiny.
com /SoHo/9879/necpage.The Truth about the Necronomicon Obtained at The H.P.com 1st Edition Released May 2000 2nd Edition Released July 2000 Page 26 .hplovecraft. Ronan taken from The Shadow over Innsmouth and Other Stories of Horror Published by Scholastic Book Services 1st printing.htm ©1997-99 Dan Clore Lovecraft Bio by M. Lovecraft Archive http://www. Loucks Fake Necronomicons and Necronomicon Glossary obtained at Dan Clore's Necronomicon site www. December 1971 Formatted for ebook/HTML and OCR proofread by Fauve firstname.lastname@example.org ©1998 Donovan K.geocities.
and written by the author of this outline." Return Page 27 . and the annals and secrets of its one time inhabitants will be found in the story THE NAMELESS CITY.FnThe Rebel Press edition adds this editor's note: "A full description of the nameless city. published in the first issue of Fanciful Tales.
KKC Return Page 28 . Note also that in the Simon version. In Lovecraft at Last. Al-Hazred warns against worshipping "Iak-Sakkak" and "Kutulu". Note also the inconsistencies here with the description of Al-Hazred in the Simon Necronomicon. Conover writes that Lovecraft wrote the history in order to allow people with any understanding of Arab studies to see through the mock scholarship.D. whereas Lovecrafts claims he did just that. a mythical island at the mouth of the Euphrates upon which Utnapishtim.09Note already how Lovecraft skirts the fine line between campy parody and seriousness. supposedly still resides today. the Babylonian Noah. Al-Hazred there supposedly witnessed the horrible rituals at Masshu. prefix until the next paragraph. Note also the improper use of the A. Whereas Lovecraft describes the Crimson Desert as the place where Al-Hazred witnessed much of what he wrote down.
Simon claims that Al-Hazred rendered the Necronomicon in Greek first. rather than Arabic. DC Return Page 29 . As noted below. KKC I haven't been able to find this claim in Simon's text. but he does claim that the manuscript he translated is a Greek version. Lovecraft states that the Greek version was lost.10Another inconsistency.
11Interesting to note that Lovecraft does not say outright that someone in our time had apparently found and identified these renditions of the book. KKC Return Page 30 .
Necronomicon. KKC Return Page 31 . or anything even remotely similar on any of the forbidden book lists of the era. to say the least.12The archivist has thusfar been unable to find Al Azif. But do consider that paper records from the 13th century are incomplete and unpreserved.
Fnthe Rebel Press edition adds paranthetically: "there is. but later perished in fire" -. a vague account of a secret copy appearing in San Francisco during the present century. Lovecraft says in a letter to Richard F. Indeed." Return Page 32 . Searight (1935) "This 'history' must be modified in one respect -since Klarkash-Ton's 'Return of the Sorceror' (pub in Strange Tales 3 yrs. however. ago) tells of the survival of an Arabic text until modern times.a transparent reference to Clark Ashton Smith's tale The Return of the Sorcerer.
KKC Return Page 33 .13Again. Simon claims to have translated a Greek edition.
FnThis sentence does not occur in the first draft of the essay. requires the complete edition housed in the Miskatonic University Library to fill in the gaps in the fragmentary Dee version. Yog-Sothoth's son. A complete listing of John Dee's books reveals none titled Necronomicon. as old Wizard Whateley uses an incomplete manuscript of the Dee translation. KKC This is not an inconsistency. It was added later. Wilbur Whateley. DC Return Page 34 . after Frank Belknap Long had quoted from "John Dee's Necronomicon" in his tale The Space Eaters (1928). 14An internal Lovecraft inconsistency. the old wizard called Whately utilizes a Dee translation of the Necronomicon in order to produce children for Yog-Sothoth. In his short story "The Dunwich Horror".
Interested parties may contact the archivist to confirm or deny posession of the book. which the archivist knows for sure does not exist. DC Return Page 35 . KKC They don't. if they wish. I cannot say with absolute certainty that the other locations Lovecraft lists do not have some copy of a book they may call the Necronomicon. and the fact that Miskatonic University is totally fictional.15Other than the Harvard copy.
Also.16Much of the latter part of this paragraph is in fact derived from Lovecraft's own short stories. See above on Chambers. not "The Picture in the House". Lovecraft repeatedly cites Chambers' book as his main inspiration. DC Return Page 36 . although he created the Necronomicon before he first read Chambers. of course. KKC The story featuring Robert Upton Pickman is. "Pickman's Model". which featured the sadistic Robert Pickman character. most notably "The Picture in the House". I am unaware of any serious statement by Lovecraft attesting to any significant influence from Chambers' work.
FnNote that this does not appear in the final version of the essay. Return Page 37 . as further research must have revealed to Lovecraft. The explanation is that the Index did not exist at this time.
*Part 5 was not included for reasons of irrelevance to the platform. Return Page 38 . Parts 3 and 4 were unfortunately ommitted due to non-existance.
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