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2009 Asia-Pacific Conference on Information Processing

An Efficient wireless communicated architecture based on TD-SCDMA & WiMAX

Zhenjun Li 1,2,Yunting Lu 2
1: School of Electronic and Information Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China
2: Shenzhen Institute of Information Technology, Shenzhen 518029, P.R. China

Abstract—One of the focal points in the telecommunication are different operation modes for MS, i.e., LAN and WAN. In
research is the integration of TD-SCDMA and WiMAX. the LAN mode, a wireless mesh network is built by the MS
Whether TD-SCDMA is compatible to other 3G standards is within a cell. As the mesh client, MS can communicate with
crucial to the success of 3G in China. Based on the analysis of the each other based on the IEEE 802.16d protocol, whilst Node B
advantages and disadvantages of TD-SCDMA and WiMAX in acts as a mesh router. In the WAN, MS can communicate by
wireless transmission, a new framework of wireless fully using the TD-SCDMA.
telecommunication is proposed. In this framework, when the The paper is organized into four sections. In the section
source Mobile Station (MS) and target MS are located in two, the main idea within the new framework, the work flow
different cells, they can use TD-SCDMA to communicate
and the efficiency of communication in the new
(defined as WAN mode in the paper), and when the source MS
and target MS are located in the same cell, a wireless Mesh
communicational architecture are introduced. The section three
network will be built and the MSs can communicate using compares the efficiency among the different frameworks
WiMAX as the air interface (defined as LAN mode). The mentioned in this paper. Based on emulational results, the new
proposed framework efficiently integrates the advantages of TD- framework can enhance the efficiency of wireless
SCDMA and WiMAX. Finally, based on simulation, the communication. The section four concludes with some
performance of the proposed framework demonstrates some remarks.
advantages in actual wireless telecommunication.
Keywords: Framework, TD-SCDMA , WiMAX , Mesh SCDMA & WIMAX
TD-SCDMA is a 3G technology that integrates some
advanced technologies including Smart Antenna, Joint
The market of The 3rd generation communication (3G) has detection and relay handover as well as adaptive power
attracted considerable attention from the global control. In China, the TD-SCDMA is the milestone of the
communication industry. Concurrent with the emergence and development of wireless communication and will be utilized in
involvement of a high-speed Wireless Access Technology, i.e. a wide range of applications in the nation [6].
WiMAX (IEEE802.16a), the future of the 3G has become
increasingly attractive and broadened. The research on the A. Conceptual Framework
combination of 3G and WiMAX has also become popular.
In this new framework, MS has a function to support the
Currently, ITU accepts four 3G standards including
double frequency. In other words, it can support 1880-1920
WCDMA, CDMA2000, TD-SCDMA and WiMAX. Although
MHz/2010-2025 MHz (the Spectrum of TD-SCDMA) and
all of these standards belong to 3G, at the very beginning, TD-
(2200-11000) MHz (the spectrum of WiMAX designed by the
SCDMA has aimed at providing supports to fast handover and
national department).
roaming technologies, for the purpose of establishing a rapid
Figure 1 shows the framework of the paper. All MSs that
and seamless global wireless communication. Therefore, 3G
treat Node B as the primary uplink Base station and the Node
can provide perfect support to the fast handover and roaming.
B will found a Wireless Mesh network (LAN1 or LAN2). This
However, theoretically, according to the TD-SCDMA, the
network can provide the wireless transfer between local MS,
transfer rate is up to 2M [6]. But in the practical
within which, TD-SCDMA can play a role of air interface
communication environment towards business users, the
protocol between the MS and Node B. If source MS and target
transfer rate of the TD-SCDMA is significantly less than the
MS is in the same cell, the direct data transfer can be done
aforementioned rate and can not support some applications
through WiMAX (We define it as LAN Mode in new
requesting high volume of data transmission such as real time
framework). If not, the mode of data transfer will transform to
multimedia. WiMAX (IEEE802.16A) is a new air interface
TD-SCDMA (defined as WAN Mode).
standard for wireless LAN access. The main purpose of
WiMAX is to provide high-speech wireless transmission.
Theoretically, the upper limit of WiMAX within 50km is close
to 70Mbps. However, until IEEE802.16d, WiMAX can not
support the mobile handover and IEEE802.16e that supports
roaming is also immature at present [9] [10].
Based on the advantages and disadvantages of TD-
SCDMA and WiMAX, we propose a framework to achieve the
integration of two technologies. In the new framework, there

978-0-7695-3699-6/09 $25.00 © 2009 IEEE 545

DOI 10.1109/APCIP.2009.270
Because the WiMAX is used as the air interface transfer
protocol within the mesh network, MSs can be categorized
into the mutual mode of transfer. So it is not necessary to
distinguish between the uplink or downlink OFDM sub-
frame. Under this new framework, the OFDM only includes
the part of downlink sub-frame (see Figure 2-2).
C. Work Flow of The new Framework
Before the workflow is introduced, some norms should be
illustrated [1] [7].
According to IEEE802.16d OFDM physical frame model,
Figure 1. Wireless Communication Framework based on TD-SCDMA and under the TDD model, the length of each sub-frame is 5ms, the
WiMAX length of OFDM (includes CRC) is 115.2 usec. The radius of
the cell is 1km. As mention, the norms above apply to the TD-
B. The air interface of WiMAX SCDMA and WiMAX.
• Under the new framework, there are two fields within
Based on the mechanism of the new framework, within a
the “Pulse #1” of the frame, i.e., the broadcasting
cell, the data can be transferred upon the WiMAX protocol
message and the cell id of mobile station, the Cell id of
regardless of up and downlink. Therefore, under the current
the mobile station is exclusive within the cell.
framework, the air interface protocol has to be simplified in
order to improve the efficiency of transfer data. • Presume the cell establish the self-construct LAN
At the physical layer, OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency network with specific prefixes. These frames are
Division Multiplexing) is used. The simplification of WiMAX downlink frames which are sent by DPCH. The
air interface can focus on the modification of the OFDM purpose is to inform the source MSs located in the cell
frame. In order to match up with the usage of TDD in TD- and proposed to set up a direct connection.
SCDMA, OFDM under the network also utilizes the TDD • The MSs do not actively detect the information of
mode. Figure 2-1 shows the format of OFDM frame under OFDM frame unless received the mesh-set-up require
TDD [2]. frame from the Node B.
• When MSs need broadcasting message, the Node B
will send the Broadcast Require (B_require) frame to
the MSs in the cell. After the confirmation, MSs begin
to monitor and receive the OFDM frames, in which the
standard of broadcasting message is “1”.
Now, We will introduce the work flow of our framework
a) When the MSs register in cells, each MS will be
identified by a Cell id. The mark will be saved in the MS
memory until it leaves cell or shuts down.
b) When the source MS claims the request, if Node B
 finds the target MS and source MS are located within the
Figure 2-1. The format of OFDM frame same cell, a mesh confirm frame will be sent to the source
MS. In the meantime, an mesh require frame will be sent to
target MS. The detectional function for Cell id will be
activated by the target MS. After source MS received the mesh
confirm, a WiMAX frame including the so-called MS’s cell id
will be sent to the Node B. The target MS does receive the
data frame in which the cell id belongs to itself and
establishes the direct connection with source MS.
c) After the link is set up, the source MS and target MS
Figure 2-2 .The format of new frame which only includes the downlink sub-
can adjust their transmitted power to make the end to end
frame data transfer.
d) After the completion of the data transfer, the source
In the TDD frame of OFDM, each frame can be divided MS and the target MS will release the link, which is the same
into uplink sub-frame and downlink sub-frame. Each downlink as the so-called “shaking hands for three time” in TCP,
sub-frame consists of a downlink physical protocol unit which without the notification to Node B(1-4 defined as LAN mode).
is composed of the preambles, FCH and a series of downlink
pulse sequence. After the first pulse within the pulse sequence e) If source MS and target MS are located in different
is the broadcast message or usual message. The uplink sub- cells, the Node B can build up the link between them through
frame is more complicated than the downlink sub-frame.

the communication process of TD-SCDMA (defined as WAN objectives of evaluation focus on the performance of data
mode). transfer in LAN mode. The objects of evaluation are TD-
f) If under the LAN mode, the source MS or target MS SCDMA framework and wireless Mesh framework using
makes its handover. A T_Error frame will be sent to Node B AODV route protocol.
by the runaway. Node B will reorganized the communication • connection delay
according the TD-SCDMA and change to the WAN mode.
T1= the delay of registration of MS in the cell, T2=Delay
Figure 3 shows when the source MS and target MS in the
when MS calls Target MS for the first time. T3=the time-lag
LAN mode, the difference between the framework proposed in
for MS to get the information of the Node B and establish the
this paper and the TD-SCDMA framework when they are
route tables.
operated in the process of call and response [8].
• transfer delay
T4=the delay when source MS calls target MS via Node B,
T5=Delay when MS directly contacts target MS, T6=Delay of
the communication between source MS and target MS by a
mesh way.
• control delay
T7=the delay of control and maintenance route tables in
mesh network.
Within which, in the conditions of transmitting a large
volume of data: transfer delay>control delay>>connection
Figure 3. The difference call-set-up procedure in new framework delay. The paper will analyze the performance of
communication between MSs in the following three
D. The Advantages of the new framework circumstances.
The paper proposes a wireless network framework of
transfer based on TD-SCDMA and WiMAX. In comparison
Similar to other 3G standards, the air transfer rate of TD-
with the TD-SCDMA, the normal wireless mesh framework
SCDMA is still far from the 2Mbps. Also within a Cell, only
has following advantages.
when two MSs are provided data transfer service, theoretically
Within the cell, the communication can be operated by the
they must share the data transfer channel with 2M. In such a
high-speed OFDM protocol. In contrast to TD-SCDMA or
circumstance, each MS can get a 2M/n bps (n refers to the
even HSDPA, the protocol has some advantages in terms of
number of MS in the cell). The most important indices
transfer rate. In addition, it can ignore the limit of capacity of
affecting the delay of this scenario are T1, T2 and T4.
the cell.
It is not necessary to explore the exact location of the other 2) Wireless mesh
MSs within the cell. It is also unnecessary to timely announce The wireless mesh mode of WiMAX is proposed only in
the broadcasting message and save the locations of other MSs, the whitepaper of WiMAX, which did not suggest the relevant
which can exclude some complicated calculation of topology. standard. The analysis in the paper shows how to use IEEE
All of these complicated calculations tend to be the bottleneck 802.11 protocol as an air interface by the mode of wireless
of the wireless mesh function. mesh. Although AODV is one of the most advantageous
MSs do not have to monitor the data frames within the cell protocols of route [3], MSs have to put a lot of costs on the
for a long time, until it receives the mesh require frame from establishment and maintenance of the Mesh route information.
the Node B. In comparison with normal mesh network, it can If half of MSs in the mesh network are moving rapidly, the
provide assistance for MSs to save more energy. performance of the communication will downgrade by
Because MSs can identify the downlink OFDM frames, geometric series. The most influential indices for the delay in
MS can get the internet service trough the WiMAX within the mesh communication are T3, T6 and T7.
cell covered by WiMAX.
Under the new framework, the mobile station can obtain 3) TD-SCDMAˇWiMAX
the message from their neighbors and not necessary to collect Because the framework proposed in this paper combine the
the overall message from the shared channel. Under the TDD advantages of TD-SCDMA and WiMAX, two influential
mode, also completed by Node B, we can avoid some conflict wireless standards all over the world and uses Node B as the
problems stemming from the share channel data transmission. mesh router, the indices exerting huge impacts on the delay
In addition, the errors that normally occur in the Mesh network mainly refer to T1, T2 and T5.
and some deadlock problems can be solved easily under the
new framework. B. Simulation
Scenario of Simulation: the number of MSs in the
III. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND SIMULATION simulation network is 50 (within a cell). The MSs are
randomly distributed within a circle area in which the radius is
This section will evaluate the performance of new
1Km. The volume of data transfer between source MS and
communication framework and conduct simulation test. The

target MS is 1G bytes. In order to evaluate the performance of IV. CONCLUSIONS
the wireless mesh framework, the Random-Waypoint mobile The combination of TD-SCDMA and WiMAX can not
model is used. Three indices are calculated by this model only complement each other but also contribute the mature of
including pause time, the maximum of moving rate and the the 3G technology in China and also has a huge impact on the
minimum of moving rate. When the simulation begins, the world. The wireless communication framework proposed in
MSs will randomly select a destination and select a rate this paper can not only improve the performance of the
between the upper limit and the bottom limit. When the MSs wireless communication, but also has some useful implications
arrive in the destination, there is a time-slot of staying at the for the application since many uses may stay within a cell for
destination and then go back. These processes are repeated. In work, living and study. The future research probably focuses
the whole simulation, the similar pause time is set as 2 on the efficiency control of the MS under the new framework,
seconds. The average transfer rate also changes from 0 to and we also need to conduct research on the guarantee of QoS.
20m/s [4] [5]. In addition, some problems derived from the data conversion
The transfer rate between MSs applies to the theories under during the transfer are to be solved in the future.
several standards, i.e., 2Mbps under TD-SCDMA and 70Mbps
based on the WiMAX. The other indices of delay will be
evaluated by the assessment mentioned above. The major ACKNOWLEDGMENT
index in the simulation refers to the total delay when 1G bytes The paper is supported by National Science Foundation of
data are completely transferred. China(60672150), National Science Foundation of Guangdong
Simulation 1: The theoretical transfer rates in the various Province, China(7008733) and Youth Scientific Funds of
models are undertaken: TD-SCDMA 2Mbps, Mesh 11Mbps SZIIT(QN-08003)
and WiMAX 70Mbps.
Simulation 2: Using the transfer rates with the same values,
i.e., 2Mbps.
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