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Ancient Indus Sites




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Harappa was an Indus civilization urban center. It lies in Punjab Province, Pakistan, on an
old bed of the River Ravi.

The latest research has revealed at least five mounds at Harappa that 3-D renditions of
Harappa show to have been surrounded by extensive walls. Two mounds have large walls around them, perhaps as much for trade regulation as defense.

A structure once considered a granary is now thought to have been
a large building with ventilated air ducts. A set of working platforms to the south of this structure are also of great interest to archaeologists.

it has some of the best preserved stone architecture. next to the Indus River. Dholavira Dholavira is located on Khadir Beyt. Dholavira appears to have had several large reservoirs. Pakistan. and an elaborate system of drains to collect water from the city walls and house tops to fill these water tanks. not far from the very early human flint mining quarries at Rohri. uniform buildings and weights. The Indus may once have flowed to the west of Mohenjo Daro. and its earliest levels have not been reached. an island in the Great Rann of Kutch in Gujarat State.often abbreviated as Harappan . Due to a rising water table. As large as Harappa and Mohenjo Daro. hidden drains and other hallmarks of the civilization were discovered in the 1920's. India. Mohenjo daro Mohenjodaro is probably the best known Indus site. This is where the most unicorn seals have been found. but it is now located to the east. . Mohenjo Daro is in Sindh.civilization. A tantalizing signboard with Indus script has also been discovered. Here the Great Bath.An abundance of terracotta figurines at Harappa provided the first clues in the 19th century to the ancient Indus . It has only been excavated since 1990. most of the site remains unexcavated.

It was first discovered by Sir Aurel Stein and surveyed by Dr. A bead factory and Persian Gulf seal have been found here suggesting that like many sites on the Gulf of Khambat. bone and seal-making facilities which involved writing were found. R. Smaller Settlements Gola Dhoro (also known as Bagasara) is a site in Gujarat. Some suggest that the pottery and single shard with ancient Indus signs on it is definitive of Harappan settlement. excavated from 1996 to 2004. A unique hoard of exquisite bronze chariots and animals that may or may not be of Indus Civilization style was also found here. Mughal in the 1970s. M. Various tool. it was deeply into trading. shell. near the Sabarmati River and the Arabian Sea. yet. Ganweriwala Ganeriwala is in Punjab. Partial excavations have revealed that it is as large as Harappa. It was a manufacturing center. Daimabad is in Maharashtra near Bombay. others say the evidence is not sufficient. It spreads over 80 hectares and is almost as large as Mohenjo Daro. India. Beads were made using efficiently layered floors.Lothal Lothal is on the top of the Gulf of Khambat in Gujarat. It is near a dry bed of the former Ghaggar or Sarasvati River. India. A distinctive ancient Indus seal was found there. Ganweriwala may have been a fifth major urban center. Discovered in 1958. Sutkagen Dor in Baluchistan is the westernmost known Harappan site located on the Pakistani border with Iran. Chanhudaro seems also to have been hastily abandoned. Equidistant between Harappa and Mohenjo Daro. Rakhigarhi Rakhigarhi is a recently discovered city in Haryana. and has not been excavated. India. as well as extensive evidence for the sudden evacuation of this tiny town with well stocked manufacturing facilities. Chanhudaro is 80 miles south of Mohenjo Daro in Sindh. it is a controversial site. Mohenjo Daro and Ganweriwala. Pakistan near the Indian border. It is thought to have once been on a navigable inlet of the . It is the most extensively researched Harappan coastal site.

with a depth of 2. as well as defensive walls 30 feet wide. considering its antiquity.000 residents. There are probably many more important Indus sites. The usual citadel and town are present. there is a building similarly civic in nature . It has a planned layout based on a grid of streets. Jonathan Mark Kenoyer has noted that no record of grain exists at the "granary. Sutkagen Dor would have been on the trade route from Lothal in Gujarat to Mesopotamia and was probably heavily involved in the fishing trade similar to that which exists today in the coast along Baluchistan. Some must have been lost or destroyed by shifting river paths. and in the center was the pool. Others are probably buried under modern towns. Various specialized manufacturing facilities suggest that they were heavily involved in trade with each other and far outside the region. with a layer of natural tar to keep it from leaking. All these sites flourished for various periods between 3500 and 1700 BCE. Measuring 12m x 7m." He suggests that a more appropriate title would be "Great Hall."[9] Close to the granary. Hariyupia and the Aryan Invasion Hypothesis INDUS | HOME © Harappa 1996-2008 Mohenjo-daro Mohenjo-daro is a remarkable construction. The buildings of the city were particularly advanced. The elaborate bath area was very well built. it may have been used for religious or spiritual ceremonies. They are on rivers or near the coast. The so-called "Great Granary" at Mohenjo-daro was interpreted by Sir Mortimer Wheeler in 1950 as designed with bays to receive carts delivering crops from the countryside. The public buildings of these cities also suggest a high degree of social organization. with structures constructed of same-sized sun dried bricks of baked mud and burned wood. which were laid out in perfect patterns. Ancient Indus Civilization II.Arabian Sea. . with steps down to a brick-lined pool in a colonnaded courtyard. and there are ducts for air to circulate beneath the stored grain to dry it. However.4m. At its height the city probably had around 35.a great public bath (sometimes called the Great Bath). What does seem clear is that the important sites were ancient commercial centers. Indus Civilization Geography IV. I.

Within the city. and waste water was directed to covered drains lining the major streets. It also had a building with an underground furnace (hypocaust). and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. The city was divided into two parts. and defensive fortifications to the south. the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. however the extent and functioning of an administrative centre remains unclear. It was extensively excavated in the 1920s. A variety of buildings were up to two stories high. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites. Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa. Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. and central marketplace. but no in-depth excavations have been carried out since the 1960s. individual homes or groups of homes obtained water from wells. but the Citadel is known to have the public bath. it also featured a large well. Being an agricultural city. Houses opened only to inner courtyards and smaller lanes. that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality. . Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout. vanished without trace from history until discovered in the 1920s. Some of the houses included rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing. the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. it did have towers to the west of the main settlement. Harappa and their civilization.000 citizens and two large assembly halls. possibly for heated bathing. lead to the question of whether Mohenjo-daro was an administrative centre. Mohenjo-daro was a well fortified city. Each time. Most of the Lower City is yet to be uncovered. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction. Lacking actual city walls. a large residential structure designed to house 5. Mohenjo-daro.

As the archaeologist Gregory Possehl says. She's about fifteen years old I should think. but at least fleetingly recognizable past. I think. A girl perfectly. There's nothing like her. one of the excavators at Mohenjo-daro.. her hand on her hip in a half-impudent posture. perfectly confident of herself and the world. "We may not be certain that she was a dancer. not more. and legs slightly forward as she beats time to the music with her legs and feet.[10] The artistry of this statuette is recognizable today and tells of a strange." John Marshall. The 10. described her as a vivid impression of the young .8 cm long bronze statue of the dancing girl was found in 1926 from a house in Mohenjo-daro. but she stands there with bangles all the way up her arm and nothing else on."The Dancing girl" artifact found in Mohenjo-daro The "Priest-king" statue [edit]Artifacts The "Dancing girl" found in Mohenjo-daro is an artifact that is some 4500 years old. She was British archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler's favorite statuette. but she was good at what she did and she knew it". in the world. for the moment. The statue could well be of some queen or other important woman of the Indus Valley Civilization judging from the authority the figure commands. as he said in this quote from a 1973 television program: "There is her little Baluchi-style face with pouting lips and insolent look in the eyes. .. girl.

This bearded sculpture wears a fillet around the head.A seated male sculpture is the so-called "Priest King" (even though there is no evidence that either priests or kings ruled the city). an armband. Harappa . The upper lip is shaved and a short combed beard frames the face. It was found in an unusual house with ornamental brickwork and a wall niche and was lying between brick foundation walls which once held up a floor. while the sewerage and drainage systems throughout the Indus Valley Civilization were the most advanced sanitation systems in the world at that time. It remains unknown whether Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were two large cities of a single empire or capitals of two states. double circle and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Archaeologists discovered the sculpture in Lower town at Mohenjo-daro in 1927. while some scholars suggest that Harappa succeeded Mohenjodaro which has been devastated by floods several times. The large crack in the face is the result of weathering or it may be due to original firing of this object. Eyes are deeply incised and may have held inlay. Two holes beneath the highly stylized ears suggest that a necklace or other head ornament was attached to the sculpture. The plans of both cities reveal highly advanced ancient civilization.org/wiki/Mohenjo-daro Mohenjo-daro Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were the largest cities of the Indus Valley Civilization among all (over 100) towns and villages which have been discovered so far.5 cm tall statue is another artifact which has become a symbol for the Indus valley civilization. no bun is present. and a cloak decorated with trefoil patterns that were originally filled with red pigment.wikipedia. or it could have held a more elaborate horn and plumed headdress. Drill holes in the center of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel. This 17. The two ends of the fillet fall along the back and though the hair is carefully combed towards the back of the head. Source: http://en. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil. The flat back of the head may have held a separately carved bun as is traditional on the other seated figures.

Sindh. gold and stone figurines. The ruins of Harappa reveal similar plan to Mohenjo-daro . etc. A lot of attention attracted the elaborate pool measuring 12 meters x 7 meters ( 39 feet x 23 feet) with a depth of 2.a fortified citadel on a hill on the western flank and living quarters on the eastern flank of the city. while the stone stairs imply that many houses were at least two stories high. tigers. is the largest and most extensively excavated Indus city in Pakistan. Every seal usually included inscriptions in the Indus Valley Civilization script which has not been fully deciphered yet although the language of Indus Valley Civilization has been identified as Dravidian. Mohenjo-daro The remains of sun dried or baked mud bricks imply on a monotonous architectural style. while depictions of humans are very rare. pottery. in Larkana District.anciv. . The residential buildings in the Lower City build from sun dried or baked mud bricks were open only to the inner courtyards. Sourcee: http://www. 20 km from Larkana and some 80 km southwest of modern Sukkur. Insight into Indus Valley Civilization arts and culture provide only various sculptures. Pakistan. However. Sindh. and terra-cotta. Buildings perhaps included elaborated wood carvings or decoration with other materials but there is any preserved evidence. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and better preserved than Harappa. jewelry.the Citadel and the Lower City. Ancient city on the bank of the Indus River.info/indus-valley-civilization-and-vedic-period/art-andarchitecture-of-indus-valley-civilization. longitude 67 degrees 35 minutes east). massive granary and two large assembly halls which implies on existence of central government or administration. Many houses had small bathrooms and were well-provided with drains which lined the major streets. rhinoceros. due to rain the upper part of tomb is now destroyed despite steps to further save this world historical place. 25 minutes north. in present-day southern Pakistan The site of Mohenjo-Daro (also Moenjo-daro. Especially important are numerous small seals predominantly made of steatite which depict variety of animals such as oxen. crocodiles. latitude 27 degrees.The city of Mohenjo-daro was divided into two parts .html Mohenjo Daro Mohenjo-daro was a city of the Indus Valley Civilization. Fortified citadel located on an artificial hill on the western flank encompasses large residential structure. Children's toy.5 meters (8 feet) which probably served as a public bath or some sort of tank but it might have been used for religious and spiritual ceremonies and rituals. Pakistan. elephants.

the civilization died. but it is subdivided into several sectors. Vats and K. To the east of the citadel was the lower city. The people were good at irrigation and flood control. Also located here was a giant granary. a large residential structure. Mohenjo-Daro – Mohenjo-daro is about 400 miles away from Harappa The site of Mohenjo-Daro (also Moenjo-daro. 25 minutes north. D. Some houses were small. Each city had broad parallel streets which crossed each other to divide the city into compact rectangular blocks. assembly halls and towers. which gave greater durability to all of its buildings. and at least two aisled assembly halls. were built according to a grid pattern plan. revealing for the first time the remains of one of the most ancient civilizations in the Indus Valley. These fortifications taken into consideration. N. this was surrounded by a verandah.mud bricks. laid out in a grid pattern. in Larkana District. baths. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout (Harappa is less well preserved due to early site defilement). E. lead to the question of whether Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. in Larkana District.• • This city would have dominated the major trade routes and agricultural potential of the southern Indus plain. latitude 27 degrees. The people of the city used very little stone in their construction. The city was approximately one square mile in size. Mohenjo-Daro is located in District Larkana at a distance of about 28 km from Larakana and 107 km from sukkur. and shell-working shops have all been discovered. Sindh. is the largest and most extensively excavated Indus city in Pakistan. In 1922-1927 large scale excavations at Mohenjo-daro were carried out by R. and was abandoned around 1700 BC. The city was divided into two parts. and lasted until 3. from around 2600-1900 BCE. and wood bricks. and were drained to keep the area sanitary. Dikshit under the direction of Sir John Marshall. and had an advanced and extensive drainage system. 25 minutes north. Mohenjo-daro had planned city streets and buildings. It was part of the Harrapan Civilization. there are brick stairways leading to the roofs of many houses. and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. Mohenjo-Daro – It was built around 2600 BC. Defensively Mohenjo-daro was a well-fortified city. Banarjee and continued by M. H. They used timber to create the flat roofs of their buildings. longitude 67 degrees 35 minutes east).700 BP. Mohenjo-Daro means “mound of the dead”. that there was some kind of political or administrative . as well as metalworking. and the city had at least 35. bead making. Potter’s kilns. They used two types of bricks. However. dyer’s vats. Mohenjo-Daro was a city located in the south of Modern Pakistan in the Sind Province. It was built between four and five thousand years ago. In addition to it’s numerous other achievements Mohenjo-daro and other Indus sites made extensive use of baked brick (unlike the sun-dried brick typical of Mesopotamian civilization). Mohenjo-Daro – The high western mound is generally referred to as the “citadel” mound. Most had small bathrooms.000 residents. longitude 67 degrees 35 minutes east). Sindh. Pakistan. J. latitude 27 degrees. which were created by burning wood. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites. when the Indus River changed its course around 3700 years ago. and others were larger with interior courtyards. and defensive fortifications to the south. Though it did not have city walls it did have towers to the west of the main settlement. S. The settlement was thought to house roughly 5. As a result of this extensive work almost one-third of the area of the old city was exposed. The language of the Indus Civilization has yet to be deciphered. a granary. the Citadel included an elaborate tank or bath created with fine quality brickwork and drains. and had houses. Pakistan. The streets were straight.000 people. It was rediscovered in the 1920s by Sir John Marshall’s archaeologists. All Indus valley sites including Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. on the right bank of the Indus River. as well as a comparison to the Harappa ruins to the northeast. Mohenjo-Daro – largest city of the Indus Civilization The site of Mohenjo-Daro (also Moenjo-daro. MacKay carried out further excavations from 1927 to1931. is the largest and most extensively excavated Indus city in Pakistan. probably due to a change of course of the river which supported the civilization. Sir Mortimer Wheeler made small excavations in1950. Typical of most large and planned cities.

com. at least in their present state of preservation. Sindh and Punjab and Western Asia.centrality. including Harappa itself and Mohenjo-daro. is flanked by two storm water channels. are almost exclusively built out of brick. however the extent and functioning (and even the placement and type) of an administrative center remains relatively The site covers an area of over 250 hectares. wells and large open spaces.” Source: http://www. The excavation brought to light the sophisticated urban planning and architecture. The acropolis is the most carefully guarded as well as impressive and imposing complex in the city of which it appropriates the major portion of the southwestern zone. gold. Excavation was initiated in 1989 by the Archaeological Survey of India under the direction of R.heritage. beads.[5] [edit]Reservoirs . the city of Dholavira has a rectangular shape and organization. street system. and 616. Archaeologists believe that Dholavira was an important centre of trade between settlements in south Gujarat.pk/travel-guide/sindh/mohenjo-daro/ Dholavira Excavations The ancient site at Dholavira.10 metres in length. Like Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. representing various phases of urban growth and reorganization. built-up areas.85 metres in width. The most striking feature of the city is that all of its buildings. but in antiquity it may have been on the west and one channel of the river cuts through the site dividing the so-called “citadel” mound from the “lower town. are built out of stone. whereas most other Harappan sites. gateways. The area measures 771. the city is composed to a pre-existing geometrical plan. The Indus river is currently situated to the east of the site. of three divisions the citadel. the middle town and the lower town. Bisht. The city within the general fortification accounts for 48 hectares. silver. the Mansar in the north. The acropolis and the middle town had been further furnished with their own defence-work.[4] [edit]Architecture and material culture Estimated to be older than the port-city of Lothal. S. Next to this stands a place called 'bailey' where important officials lived. and is spread over 100 hectares. and the Manhar in the south. and unearthed large numbers of antiquities such as seals. Beyond the walls. The towering "castle" stands majestically in fair insulation and defended by double ramparts. terracotta ornaments and vessels linked to Mesopotamia. animal bones. There are extensive structure-bearing areas though outside yet intimately integral to the fortified settlement. yet another settlement has been found.

Lothal was a small village next to the river providing access to the mainland from the Gulf of Khambhat. However no skeleton or human remains found under structure. They are about 7 meter deep and 79 meter long.[7] Bathing tank had steps descending inwards. however except one they were devoid of skeletons. They were used for storing the fresh water brought by rains or to store the water diverted from a nearby rivulet.Dholavira Sophisticated Water Reservoir One of the unique features of Dholavira is the sophisticated water conservation system of channels and reservoirs. beads and intaglio engraving found. a drop of 13 m from northeast to northwest. micaceous red surface. Other reservoirs were excavated. beads and semi-precious stones.[6] Reservoirs are cut through stones vertically. rings. Some of these took advantage of the slope of the ground within the large settlement. Harappans were attracted to Lothal for its sheltered harbor. The circular structure is built with ten radial walls of mud bricks in a shape of spoked wheel.org/wiki/Dholavira Lothal History Before the arrival of Harappan people (c. Also many pottery pieces. attested by the discovery of copper objects.[7] A soft sandstone sculpture of a male with phallus erectus but head and feet below ankle truncated was found in the passage way of the eastern gate. bangles. The settlers lived peacefully with the Red Ware people. [edit]Other structures and objects A huge circular structure. to the micaceous Red Ware. one to the east of the castle and one to its south. some into living rock. The inhabitants of Dholavira created sixteen or more reservoirs of varying size during Stage III.[7] Also many funerary structures are found.[7] A large well with a stone-cut trough to connect the drain meant for conducting water to a storage tank also found. The indigenous peoples maintained a prosperous economy. This probably came in wake of the desert climate and conditions of Kutch. Recent work has revealed two large reservoirs. Ceramic wares were of fine clay and smooth. The beads and gems of Lothal were in great demand in the west. the earliest found anywhere in the world and completely built out of stone.[6] . terracotta seals. A new technique of firing pottery under partly-oxidizing and reducing conditions was improved by them—designated black-and-red ware. where several years may pass without rainfall. rich cotton and rice-growing environment and bead-making industry. Reservoirs skirted the city while citadel and bath are centrally located on raised ground. of which three are exposed.wikipedia. 2400 BCE). near the Annexe. believed to be grave or memorial is found. adopting the manner from the natives. who adopted their lifestyle—evidenced from the flourishing trade and changing working techniques—Harappans began producing the indigenous ceramic goods. Source: http://en.

each serving 20–30 houses of thick mud and brick walls.[edit]Town planning A flood destroyed village foundations and settlements (c. Lothal's people failed to upkeep their walls and dock facilities. Civilizations in Rakhigarhi are understood to have flourished right through the early. The lower town was also periodically enlarged during Lothal's years of prosperity. The city was divided into a citadel. a tributary of the legendary Saraswati. However. pushing it back to perhaps 3500 BC. 220 metres (720 ft) long. The town's zealous rebuilding ensured the growth and prosperity of the trade. Facilitating the movement of cargo was a mud-brick wharf. The discovery of Hakra Ware artifacts belonging to the pre-Indus Valley period has raised questions on the period of the civilization. showing promise of adding a new dimension to Harappan civilization. and are leading historians to believe that the Indus Valley Civilization was closely linked . and is regarded by archaeologists as an engineering feat of the highest order. believed to be as large as Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. The lower town was subdivided into two sectors — the north-south arterial street was the main commercial area — flanked by shops of rich and ordinary merchants and craftsmen. A flood of moderate intensity in 2050 BCE exposed some serious weaknesses in the structure. this basin may have been an irrigation tank and canal.[7] Lothal planners engaged themselves to protect the area from consistent floods.[8] There was an important public building opposite to the warehouse whose superstructure has completely disappeared. It was located away from the main current of the river to avoid silting. The layout of the urban settlements. 2350 BCE). or acropolis and a lower town. but provided access to ships in high tide as well. which featured paved baths. with rising prosperity. The town was divided into blocks of 1–2-meter-high (3–6 ft) platforms of sun-dried bricks. While the consensus view amongst archaeologists identifies this structure as a "dockyard.wikipedia. Rakhigarhi is a site where excavation is still in progress. Lothal engineers accorded high priority to the creation of a dockyard and a warehouse to serve the purposes of naval trade. The warehouse was built close to the acropolis on a 3.5-meter-high (10. but the problems were not addressed properly. Copper fishing hooks and fishing nets at the site indicate a river in the vicinity. Dock and city peripheral walls were maintained efficiently.[3] The dock was built on the eastern flank of the town. Its significance lies in its sheer size and strategic location on the banks of the now dry river Drishdwati. with a ramp leading to the warehouse. mature and late stages of the Harappan culture. The rulers could thus supervise the activity on the dock and warehouse simultaneously.[9] Source: http://en. The rulers of the town lived in the acropolis. built on the western arm of the dock. The residential area was located to either side of the marketplace. Harappans based around Lothal and from Sindh took this opportunity to expand their settlement and create a planned township on the lines of greater cities in the Indus valley. underground and surface drains (built of kiln-fired bricks) and a potable water well. possibly as a result of over-confidence in their systems. the drainage system and the artifacts that have so far been discovered are similar to the discoveries at other Indus Valley sites. the city had to brace itself through multiple floods and storms." it has also been suggested that owing to small dimensions.5 ft) podium of mud bricks.org/wiki/Lothal Rakhigarhi Located near Jind and Narnaul in Haryana’s Hissar district. Throughout their time.

thus ensuring privacy for the residents. They are representative in the sense that planning principles employed here are followed practically without change at all other sites. which was covered by brick slabs or corbelled brick arches. brick lined drains. the basic unit of city planning was the individual house. The street layout shows an understanding of the basic principles of traffic. The Rakhigarhi site showcases a well planned settlement with wide roads. founding cities with all their attendant rules. An orthogonal street layout was oriented toward the cardinal directions. without the benefit of technology. . The Harappan house is an amazing example of a native people. then the Harappan people succeeded admirably. as well as providing an open space inside for community activities. Source: http://www.to the Vedic civilization. large sacrificial pits. These streets divided the city into 12 blocks.much as continues in the Hindu tradition even today.this prevented the hot summer sun heating the insides of the houses. the central-western blocks were reserved for public architecture. Both cities were a mile square.org/indus-valley-civilization. Drains started from the bathrooms of the houses and joined the main sewer in the street. terracotta figurines.studentexcursion. adapting to local conditions and intuitively producing an architecture eminently suited to the climate. The prevalent view seems to be that it was used for ritualistic bathing . with defensive outer walls. combs. An advanced drainage system is also in evidence. Excavations show a degree of urban planning which the Romans achieved only later. with rounded corners to allow the turning of carts easily. Except for the west-central blocks. with 11 skeletons facing north. The house was planned as a series of rooms opening on to a central courtyard. This courtyard served the multiple functions of lighting the rooms. after a gap of 2500 years. needles and bronze vessels. The twin cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa formed the hub of the civilization. The female skeletons are distinct by their shell bangles. Perhaps the most famous examples are theGreat Bath and Granary at Mohenjo-daro. There were no openings toward the main street. In most of the sites. The Great Bath has been the subject of much debate over its exact function. acting as a heat absorber in summer and radiator in winter. depending on its width. A burial site is another interesting find.html Architecture and Town Planning If by 'urban' we mean the tendency to form society. In fact. the only openings in the houses are rather small . with a gold armlet and semi precious stones lying near the head.

Geography The Ancient Indus River Valley Civilization extended from Balochistan to Gujarat and from the east of the river Jhelum to Rupar. The result of the excavation was discovery of Harappa by Sir John Marshall. As per some archaeologists. H. Phases The three main phases of the Indus Valley Civilization are: • • Early Harappan (Integration Era) Mature Harappan (Localization Era) . In 1949. like the pyramids or ziggurats. However. This may be the reason that among the majority of books on architecture. In the year 1912. is around 500. Some time back. The discovery of the Ancient Indus River Valley Civilization was made. the excavation campaigns continued to be undertaken. the number of Harappan sites. those along the Indus and its tributaries are approximately 100 in number. Further Excavations Even though most of the Mohenjodaro city had been unearthed by 1931. Sir Mortimer Wheeler conducted excavations as the Archaeological Adviser to the Government of Pakistan. Even though most of the sites have been found on the river embankments. lasted from 3300 BC to 1700 BC. the planning principles and response of the architecture to climate are a lesson to us all. Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats and Mohenjodaro by Rakhal Das Banerjee. J. The nextthree decades were full of discoveries of the remnants of civilization. the British engineers accidentally used bricks from the Harappa ruins for building the East Indian Railway line between Karachi and Lahore. Afghanistan and Punjab of Charles Masson.It is unfortunate that none of the structures of the Indus Valley civilization survive intact today. Fleet discovered Harappan seals. Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. a number of sites were also discovered in Pakistan's NW Frontier Province. It dates back to the period of 1826 to 1838. the area of the Indus Valley Civilization was divided between India and Pakistan. unearthed along the dried up river beds of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. This incident led to an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921-1922. MacKay. E. Apart from that. along with the western states of India. along with the northwestern parts of India. which is also known as Harappan Civilization. Harappan Civilization covered most of Pakistan. now in Pakistan. the first city of Indus Valley. for posterity to marvel at. the Harappan Culture hardly merits a note. In 1857. J. when the Harappan city. the then director of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). some have been excavated from the ancient seacoast and islands as well. Sir Mortimer Wheeler. and Sir John Marshall. Unlike Egypt and Mesopotamia. Discovery The first description of the ruins of Harappa is found in the Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan. was excavated. the Harappan people left nothing monumental. Duration: 3300 BC to 1700 BC Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization that thrived in the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra river valleys. After the partition of India in 1947. led one such campaign in 1944. The civilization.

the sewerage and drainage system found in the each and every city of Indus Valley comes across as even more efficient than those in some areas of Pakistan and India today. etc. The earliest examples of the Indus script date back to 3000 BC. Peas. Agriculture The major cultivated cereal crop was naked six-row barley. Mature Harappan Phase By 2600 BC. mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar and Indus Rivers and their tributaries. have been excavated from the sites of the Ancient Indus Valley Civilization. were grown during that time. etc. ornaments. Kot Diji represents the phase leading up to Mature Harappan Phase.• Late Harappan (Regionalization Era) Early Harappan Phase The Early Harappan Phase lasted from 3300 BC to 2800 BC. Science The people of Indus Valley are believed to be amongst the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures. There is also evidence of seals. bronze. warehouses. ceramic pots and other materials excavated from . The brick weights were in a perfect ratio of 4:2:1. not much information is available on the farmers and their agricultural methods. figurines. granaries. Social equality seems to be widely prevalent in the cities of Indus Valley. cotton. there are signs of maritime trade network between the Harappan and Mesopotamian civilizations also. The numerous inventions of the Indus River Valley Civilization include an instrument used for measuring whole sections of the horizon and the tidal dock. There is also the existence of the first urban sanitation systems in the world.704 mm. Symbol System As many as 400 distinct Indus symbols have been found on seals. sesame seeds. brick platforms and protective walls have been found in almost all the cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. The concept of irrigation had also been introduced. pottery. Decimal division of measurement was used for all practical purposes. like Harappa and Mohenjodaro in Pakistan and Lothal in India. The evidence suggests that most city dwellers were traders or artisans. games and stringed musical instruments in the Indus Valley. dates. The early Harappan communities were turning into large urban centers. This phase stands characterized by centralized authority and an increasingly urban quality of life. seals. who lived with others belonging to the same occupation in well-defined neighborhoods. Archaeologists have also discovered an enormous. glazed steatite bead making. lead and tin. However. Arts and Culture Various sculptures. etc. It is related to the Hakra Phase. The pottery. The people of Harappa evolved new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper. They also had the knowledge of proto-dentistry and the touchstone technique of gold testing. a crop derived from two-row barley. Trade networks had been established and there was also domestication of crops. dredged canal and docking facility at the coastal city of Lothal. gold jewelry and figurines in terracotta. Dockyards. Their smallest division was approximately 1. toys. of the civilization show great similarities with those of Central Asia and the Iranian plateau. identified in the Ghaggar-Hakra River Valley. Then. indicating trade with them. The following features of the Mature Phase were more prominent: Cities Approximately 1052 cities and settlements belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization have been excavated till date. ceramics. though there are some houses that are bigger than the others. seals. agate. Other crafts that have been unearthed include shell works. The main forms of transport include bullock carts and boats. special kind of combs. Trade and Transportation Trade seems to the major occupation of the people of the Harappan Civilization. The artifacts discovered in these cities suggest a sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture. The concept of urban planning is also widely evident. etc. bronze and steatite. Indus Valley Civilization had entered into a mature stage.

Indus symbols have been found on ritual objects also. most of the cities were abandoned. The figure is quite similar to that of Lord Pashupati. who symbolized fertility. By 1700 BC. one can see the various element of the Ancient Indus Valley Civilization in later cultures. the Lord of Creatures.the Indus Valley. but substantial portions of the Ghaggar Hakra river system also disappeared. many of which were mass-produced. Then. there are some others in which a figure is seated in a yoga-like posture and is surrounded by animals.indohistory. Not only did the climate become much cooler and drier than before. Archaeological data indicates the persistence of the Late Harappan culture till 1000-900 BC. The longest inscription on any object is 26 symbols long. Some of the seals of that time also have the swastikas engraved on them. The major reasons of the decline of the civilization are believed to be connected with climate change. www.com . However. Religion The large number of figurines found in the Indus Valley Civilization suggests that the Harappan people worshipped a Mother Goddess. at the most. Late Harappan Phase The signs of a gradual decline of the Indus River Valley Civilization are believed to have started around 1800 BC. four or five characters in length and quite small. Typical Indus inscriptions are.