Journal of Paleontology: Trilobites from lower Mississippian Starv...

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Trilobites from lower Mississippian Starved Basin facies of the Southern United States Brezinski, David K ABSTRACT-A distinctive trilobite fauna occurs within condensed statigraphic sections of the Lower Mississippian (Tournaisian) Chappel Limestone of the Llano region of Texas, the Welden Limestone of Oklahoma, and the Chouteau Limestone of Union County, Illinois. The seven species comprising this fauna are interpreted to have inhabited sediment-starved basinal environments. The starved-basin facies existed in the south-central United States throughout the Tournaisian (Kinderhookian to Osagean). Two species from this fauna, Australosutura llanoensis, and Carbonocoryphe planucauda, are new. The remaining five species, Griffithidella doris (Hall), Griffithidella alternata (Girty), Carbonocoryphe depressa (Girty), Thigiffides roundyi (Girty), and Pudoproetus chappelensis (Hessler), are restricted to starved-basin facies. INTRODUCTION LOWER MISSISSIPPIAN trilobites of North America are well known from shelf facies. Hessler (1963, 1965), Chamberlain (1969, 1977) and Brezinski (1986, 1988a, b) are but a few of the Lower Mississippian trilobite studies that have described the relatively diverse trilobite faunas from shelf limestone. Brezinski (1990) has shown that a low-diversity Osagean fauna composed primarily of the genus Australosutura occupied platform-edge Waulsortian reefs in northeast Oklahoma. Unlike the deep-water European Kulm facies where a distinctive fauna is well known (see for example Hahn and Hahn, 1988), off-shelf species from North American Lower Mississippian strata are very poorly known. The only documented North American occurrences of Carboniferous off-shelf trilobite species is by Hahn, Paull, and Chamberlain (1980), who described a species of Carbonocoryphe from flysch deposits in Idaho. Paleogeographic reconstructions of Lane (1978), Lane and De Keyser (1980) and Gutshick and Sandberg (1983) have shown that extensive off-shelf, deep-water environments existed during the Early Carboniferous and stretched from Texas into southern Illinois and Indiana. Examination of trilobite collections from Texas, Oklahoma, and Illinois indicates that a generically distinct trilobite fauna inhabited these deep-water, starved-basin milieus during the Lower Mississippian (Kinderhookian-Osagean). The composition of this fauna is unlike that known from shelf faunas and appears to have some generic affinities to the European Kuhn facies. The purpose of this paper is to redescribe the trilobite species known from the Chappel Limestone of central Texas, the Welden Limestone of the Lawrence Uplift of south-central Oklahoma, and the Chouteau Limestone of southern Illinois, and to discuss their paleozoogeographic and paleoenvironmental implications. This study is based primarily upon existing museum collections of the U.S. National Museum, Chicago Field Museum of Natural History, and Carnegie Museum of Natural History. Additional collections were made from the Chappel Limestone near San Saba, Texas and Welden Limestone along Jackfork Creek near Ada, Oklahoma by the author and A. Kollar utilizing funding from the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. Terminology for trilobite species conforms to Harrington (1959) and Richter and Richter (1949). Specimens utilized in this study are reposited in the Chicago Field Museum of Natural History (CFM), the Section of Invertebrate Paleontology of Carnegie Museum of Natural History (CM), and the United States National Museum (USNM). PALEOGEOGRAPHIC MODEL Lane (1978), Lane and De Keyser (1980), and Gutshick and Sandberg (1983) have outlined the regional paleogeography for Lower Mississippian strata of the United States (Fig. 1). During much of the Paleozoic, the United States was transected by an intermittently emergent area that extended from northern New Mexico northeastward through the central United States to Wisconsin. During the Early Mississippian this positive area, known as the Transcontinental Arch, was rimmed by shelf areas on which carbonate rocks were deposited. On the east side of the arch, the Burlington shelf extended from southeast Iowa through Missouri into northeastern Oklahoma. In north-central Texas, the Chappel Limestone was deposited. These thick shelf deposits, which are known only from the subsurface, are coeval with a thin (1 meter thick) limestone bearing the same name in the Llano region of the south-central part of the state. In southcentral New Mexico, near the southern terminus of the arch, the Lake Valley shelf passed southward into oceanic basin. Bordering the arch on the southwest in Arizona was the EscabrosaRedwall shelf, and farther to the north in Wyoming and Montana the Madison Limestone was deposited on the Madison shelf. The Burlington and Chappel shelves passed eastward and southeastward into deeper water of the Illinois Basin and Ouachita Trough. Waulsortian reefs intermittently developed at the shelf edge (Harbaugh, 1957; Lane and De Keyser, 1980). Bordering the Redwall and Madison shelves on the west was deeper water of the Deseret basin. East of the Transcontinental arch the basinal deposition was sediment-starved. Consequently, during the Late Kinderhookian and Early Osagean, while hundreds of meters of limestone were being deposited on the shelves, less than one meter of off-shelf sediment accumulated. These sediment-starved environments are now manifested as the Chappel Limestone of the Llano region of Texas, the Welden Limestone of the Arbuckle Mountains of Oklahoma, and the Chouteau Limestone and Springville Shale of Illinois (Chauff, 1983), and perhaps the Rockford Limestone of central Indiana. Lane (1978) termed these limestones the "starved magnafacies," inasmuch as these limestones, typicially less than a meter thick, can preserve as many as 5 conodont zones. Water depths have been interpreted to have been in excess of 300 m (Lineback, 1969). LOWER MISSISSIPPIAN TRILOBITE BIOFACIES

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Journal of Paleontology: Trilobites from lower Mississippian Starv...

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Hahn and Hahn (1988) have summarized the distribution of Lower Carboniferous trilobites from the Belgium Kohlenkalks and adjacent areas. They showed that shelf limestone contains a trilobite fauna predominated by the genera Phillipsia, Cummingella, and Piltonia. The deeper Kulm basin was inhabited by Liobole, Archegonus, and Phillibole. Waulsortian reefs were inhabited by Brachymetopus and Pudoproetus. In North America, no such shelf-to-basin segregation has been shown to have existed. Brezinski (1986) described shallow water trilobite associations composed of Breviphillipsia, Comptonaspis, Griffithidella, Elliptophillipsia, Proetides, Piltonia, and Dixiphopyge from the Chouteau Formation of the Burlington shelf of central Missouri. Furthermore, Brezinski (1990) proposed that Pudoproetus and the brachymetopid genus Australosutura inhabited deeper water facies, including ramp environments of the Fort Payne Formation and prodeltaic environments of the Borden and Cuyahoga deltas. Additionally, these faunal elements are common in off-shelf, Waulsortian reefs of northeastern Oklahoma (Brezinski, 1990). Hahn et al. (1980) described a species of Carbonocoryphe from Lower Carboniferous flysch sediments of Idaho. However, widespread basinal facies faunas have yet to be described from North America. The fauna described herein is present within similar sedimentologic facies from three separate areas. This facies fauna is dominated by the genera Pudoproetus, Thigiffides, Griffithidella, and Carbonocoryphe. Also present is Australosutura. Of these genera, only Griffithidella is represented within the shelf facies. Griffithidella doris (Hall) appears to be consistently present within the starved-basin facies, whereas G. welleri Hessler seems to be representative of shelf facies. As Brezinski (1990) has shown, species of the genus Pudoproetus also appear to have a deep-water affinity. Pudoproetus chappelensis (Hessler), P. fernglenensis (Weller), P. michiganensis (Hessler), and P. missouriensis (Shumard) can all be attributed to off-shelf environments. Carbonocoryphe is widely known from the Kulm facies of Europe, but has been noted only once in North America (Hahn et al., 1980). The presence of Carbonocoryphe in deposits that Lane and De Keyser (1980) equated to the Kulm facies of Europe illustrates the ecological constraints on the distribution of this genus. Thigiffides is currently known in North America only from interpreted starved basinfacies of the Chappel, Welden, and Chouteau Limestones. AGE OF THE FAUNA The Early Mississippian starved-basin environment appears to have existed for a considerable time in the southeastern and south-central United States. However, unlike shelf deposits which are sensitive to minor fluctuations of sea-level, basinal deposits usually do not reflect any but the most significant sea level fluctuations. Numerous authors (Hass, 1959; Lane, 1978; Haywa-Branch and Barrick, 1990; Chauff, 1983) have shown, through conodont zonation, that condensed stratigraphic packages are present in Lower Mississippian rocks of the south-central United States. The sediment-starved basin in which these strata were formed existed through much of the Late Kinderhookian and Osagean, some 15-17 million years (Sando, 1984). Hass's (1959) conodont zonation demonstrates that the approximately 1 m of Chappel Limestone of the Llano region of Texas was deposited during the Late Kinderhookian and Osagean (Fig. 2). Likewise, Haywa-Branch and Barrick (1990) presented evidence that as many as four conodont zones of the Late Kinderhookian and Osagean are present within about 1.5 m of Welden Limestone of Oklahoma and adjacent pre-Welden and Caney Shales. Lane (1978, figs. 3, 4) illustrated the condensation of conodont faunas from the Burlington shelf into the adjacent basinal deposits where as little as 2 m of rock can contain as many as seven different conodont faunas. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY Family BRACHYMETOPAE Prantl and Pribyl, 1950 Genus AUSTRALOSUTURA Campbell and Goldring, 1960 AUSTRALOSUTURA LLANOENSIS new species Figure 3.1-3.8 Diagnosis.-Glabella cylindrical, preglabellar field straight, anterior border furrow narrow, sharply upturned, almost vertical to margin. Pygidium profile low, with very small, poorly defined tubercles. Description.-ranidium of moderate vaulting, glabella cylindrical in outline, exhibiting small tubercles. lp glabellar furrows broad, deep; 2p furrows indistinct. In longitudinal profile, glabella of even convexity, transverse profile crescentic with vertical sides. Dorsal furrow narrow, deepest between eyes, preglabellar furrow shallow, distinct. Lateral preoccipital lobes small, subtriangular in outline. Occipital furrow straight, narrow (longitudinal), moderately deep, occipital lobe narrow and of even width. Palpebral lobes small, crescentic, inclined into dorsal furrow. Preglabellar field straight, steeply inclined into border furrow, covered with coarse tubercles along upper slope and fine pits along lower. Border furrow narrow, sharply upturned, nearly vertical on furrow side. Border bluntly rounded at top, covered with fine terrace sculpture, then recurved beneath border. Anterior facial sutures with long, straight, diverging gamma to beta section, sharply rounded at beta. Posterior sutures with diverging, steeply descending zeta to omega section. Pygidium parabolic in outline, vaulting low. Axis tapers strongly toward posterior, sharply rounded posteriorly, composed of 13 rings, transverse profile suboctagonal, longitudinal profile straight. Rings narrow, sinuous, acutely rounded in longitudinal profile. Ring furrows broad, deep, rounded, slightly overhung by rings. Dorsal furrow sharp. Pleural fields evenly convex in transverse profile, composed of 8 ribs, which become increasingly recurved posteriorly so that posterior most rib is directed longitudinally. Posterior band of each rib slightly broader and higher in elevation than anterior band. Posterior band ornamented with small, poorly defined tubercles. Pleural furrows deep, broad, rounded, extending to margin, interpleural furrows narrow, distinct, only two anterior most reach lateral margin. Pygidial flange, posterior to axial terminus, broad, concave. Remarks.-Australosutura llanoensis new species can be distinguished from all other North American species of this genus by the cylindrical outline of the glabella, sharply upturned anterior margin, and poorly defined ornament and low vaulting to the pygidium. Australosutura

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elegans (Girty), A. lodiensis (Meek), and A. stratton-porteri (Williams) all exhibit a conical outline to the glabella, broadly rounded anterior border, and highly tuberculate and vaulted pygidium. Australosutura georgiana Rich possesses a forward tapering glabella, much wider between the palpebrae than anterior or posterior to them, a broad shallow anterior border, and a pygidium with 12 rings and 8 or 9 ribs. Cranidial characters between Australosutura cf. A. gardneri discussed by Ormiston (1966) are markedly similar to A. Ilanoensis, except that A. Ilanoensis possesses a more sharply upturned anterior margin and relatively narrower field of tubercles on the preglabellar field. Australosutura argentinensis Hahn and Hahn exhibits a cylindrical glabella as does A. Ilanoensis; however, A. argentinensis is much more highly vaulted, with an arched (longitudinal) glabellar profile, nearly vertical preglabellar field, and exhibits extremely coarse tuberculate ornamentation on both the pygidium and cephalon. Australosutura gardneri (Mitchell), as illustrated by Amos et al. (1960), exhibits a similar glabellar outline to A. Ilanoensis, except that A. gardneri possesses a slightly anteriorly tapering glabella, inflation to the 2p glabellar lobe, and less sharply upturned anterior border furrow. Moreover, pygidia of A. gardneri show coarse tuberculations and significantly greater vaulting. Holotype.-A cephalon from the Chappel Limestone from U.S. National Museum locality 9047 (see Carter, 1967, p. 263), CM 35773. Paratypes.-A partial cephalon, CM 35774, and 2 partial pygidia CM 35775, from the same locality as the holotype. Etymology.-llanoensis, referring to the origin of this species in the Llano region of Texas. Family PROETIDAE Hawle and Corda, 1847 Genus PUDOPROETUS Hessler, 1963 PUDOPROETUS CHAPPELENSIS (Hessler, 1963) Figure 3.9-3.20 Proetus (Pudoproetus) chappelensis HESSLER, 1963, p. 550-551, plate 60, figures 1-11, 14, 15, 17; 1965, p. 249, table 1; HAHN AND HAHN, 1969, p. 60-61; CHAMBERLAIN, 1969, text-figure 4. Description.-See Hessler, 1963, p. 550-551. Remarks.-Hessler (1963) originally assigned Pudoproetus to the subgeneric level. However, Osmolska (1970), Kobayashi and Hamada (1980), and Hahn and Hahn (1988) have considered Pudoproetus to be a separate genus from Proetus. Inasmuch as Pudoproetus is restricted to the Carboniferous and Proetus to pre-Carboniferous strata, it appears to be a valid assumption to consider Pudoproetus as a distinct genus. Pudoproetus chappelensis Hessler is unquestionably the largest, most ubiquitous trilobite species in the Chappel Limestone of the Llano region. It was observed in all collections from all localities which contained trilobites. One cranidium from USNM locality 9045 was up to 35 mm long. In the Welden Limestone of Oklahoma, Thigiffdes, is the most common and largest trilobite. Hessler (1963) notes the occurrence of P. chappelensis in the Chouteau of Union County, Illinois, but these were not examined for this study. Material.-From the Chappel Limestone: three pygidia and 3 cranidia from USNM locality 9048, 6 cranidia and 2 pygidia from USNM locality 9044, 22 cranidia and 25 pygidia from USNM locality 9045, are all housed in the systematic collections of the U.S. National Museum. Two cranidia and 4 pygidia from USNM locality 9047 are in the collections of Carnegie Museum of Natural History, CM 35776, 35777, 2 partial cranidia and 2 partial pygidia are from the type section in the collections of Carnegie Museum. From the Welden Limestone: a cranidium, CM 35778, 4 complete and partial pygdia, CM 35780, from the Jackfork Creek Section, Pontotoc County, Oklahoma. Genus GRIFITHIDELLA Hessler 1965 GRIFFITHIDELLA DORIS (Hall, 1860) Figure 3.21-3.23 Proetus doris HALL, 1860, p. 112. Phillipsia doris WINCHELL, 1865, p. 133; HERRICK, 1887, p. 62; VOGDES, 1887, p. 90. Phillipsia rockfordensis WINCHELL, 1865, p. 133; HERRICK, 1887, p. 62; VOGDES, 1887, p. 91. Grifithidella doris HESSLER, 1965, p. 253-254, plate 37, figures 1-lS, 19, 21. Griffithidella (Griffithidella) doris HAHN AND HAHN, 1970, p. 198-199. Description.-See Hessler (1964, p. 550-551). Remarks.-Pygidia assigned to Griffithidella doris (Hall) are readily distinguishable from G. alternatus by the well-developed shoulders to the axis, the extension of the pleural ribs onto the border, and by the terminus of the axis, which does not quite extend all the way to the posterior border. The pygidia of specimens of G. doris illustrated by Hessler (1965) show a considerable range of morphologic variability. It appears that a number of different taxa have been lumped together. True G. doris exhibit ribs that extend onto the border both laterally and posteriorly. Cranidial characters include sharp margin to the border and large, posteriorly located palpebral lobes. Hessler (1965, pl. 37, fig. 11) clearly appears to belong to some other genus. Material.Chappel Limestone: a single pygidium, CM 35784; Welden Limestone: 2 fragmentary pygidia and a single external mold, CM 35782; Chouteau Formation of Illinois: 5 complete and two fragmentary pygidia, CFM 51948. GRIFFITHIDELLA ALTERNATA (Girty, 1926) Figure 3.24-3.28 Proetus roundyi var. alternatus GIRTY, 1926, p. 40, plate 6, figures 13a, b, 15a, b.

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Griffithidella depressus (variation alternatus) HESSLER, 1965, p. 255, plate 38, figures 3, 6-8, 10, 11, 14. Griffithidella (Grif ithidella) depressa alternata HAHN AND HAHN, 1970, p. 197-198. Description.-Pygidium outline semicircular, moderately vaulted with low relief to surface features. Axis rounded in transverse profile with indistinct shoulders, arched in longitudinal profile, extending to posterior border, composed of 10 to 11 rings. Rings broad, ring furrows shallow, narrow, straight, sharp. Pleural fields evenly convex, with pleural and interpleural furrows narrow, distinct, extending to border, but not onto it. Seven ribs evenly divided into two bands of near equal width. Border furrow shallow to indistinct, border broad, convex, of nearly equal width around entire pygidial margin. Remarks.-Griffithidella alternata (Girty) can be distinguished from most of the other North American species of this genus by its greater number of ribs and rings and low vaulting. Pygidia of smaller specimens are sometimes difficult to distinguish from those of Thigigdes roundyi (Girty). The structure of the pygidial ribs of T. roundyi differs from that of G. alternata by the presence of well-defined anterior and posterior bands in the latter species. Insofar as no cranidia of this species are known, it is surmised from the structure of the pygidial ribs that this species belongs to Griffithidella. Lectotype.-A pygidium from the type section of the Chappel Limestone, USNM 3524. Paralectotype.-Two pygidia from the Chappel type section, USNM 3525, 3526. Other material.-Welden Limestone: two fragmentary pygidia, CM 35074; Chouteau Limestone of Illinois: three complete pygidia, CFM 51947. Genus CARBONOCORYPHE Richter and Richter, 1950 CARBONOCORYPHE DEPRESSA (Girty, 1926) Figure 4.1-4.4 Proetus roundyi variation depressus GIRTY, 1926, plate 6; figures 16a17b. Griffithidella depressus (variation depressus) HESSLER, 1965, p. 255, plate 38, figures 1, 4. Griffithidella (Griffithidella) depressa HAHN AND HAHN, 1970, p. 197. Description.-Pygidium very small, 3 to 4 mm wide, vaulting and relief very low, outline rounded, 0.48 times as long as wide. Axis short, 0.67 total pygidial length, acutely terminated posteriorly, not reaching posterior border, 0.33 times the maximum anterior pygidial width, composed of 7 or more rings. In longitudinal profile posterior portion of axis tapers sharply downward. Pleural fields composed of 7, perhaps 8, ribs becoming increasingly obscure to posterior. Anterior 2 to 3 pleurae composed of anterior and posterior bands of nearly equal width and length, but posterior bands slightly higher in elevation. Posteriorly, posterior band more distinct than anterior band and reaching further toward margin. Border indistinct laterally becoming narrow, well-defined behind axis. Remarks.-Although Hessler (1965) thought that Proetus roundyi variation depressus Girty was assignable to the genus Griffithidella, the size, shape, and structure of the pleurae of the type pygidia suggest that this variation of the species belongs to the genus Carbonocoryphe. Furthermore, the cross sectional profile of the pleurae appears most similar to that of the subgenus Aprathia as outlined by Hahn and Brauckmann (1975). Only one other North American occurrence of Carbonocoryphe is known, that being from the Visean of Idaho (Hahn et al., 1980). This genus is much more widespread and well known from the Kulm facies of Europe. Lectotype.-A pygidium (one of the original cotypes) from the Chappel Limestone type section, 3.9 km southeast of San Saba, Texas, USNM 3527. Paralectotype.-A partial pygidium from the same locality as the lectotype, USNM 3528. Hypotype.-A partial pygidium from present exposure along the road which now covers the type locality, CM 35783. CARBONOCORYPHE PLANUCAUDA new species Figure 4.5-4.9 Griffithidella depressus var. depressus HESSLER. 1965, plate 38, figures 2,3,5,9. Diagnosis-Pygidium flattened, smooth, axial rings flat and narrow, ring furrows shallow. Axis conical in outline. Border broadens posteriorly with extensions of the pleural bands present behind axial terminus. Description.-Pygidium outline semicircular, relief and vaulting very low. Axis less strongly tapering posteriorly, rounded in transverse profile, gently descending, straight in longitudinal profile, acutely rounded at terminus, composed of 12 to 13 rings. Rings smooth, flattened, broad (longitudinal); ring furrows shallow, narrow, straight. Pleural fields mildly convex in transverse profile, flat adjacent to dorsal furrow, composed of 9 to 10 ribs which extend behind axial terminus. Ribs composed of two bands of near equal width; anterior band lower than posterior band. Posterior band extends onto border and becomes recurved on posterior ribs. Interpleural furrows narrow, distinct on anterior ribs, becoming indistinct posteriorly; pleural furrows broader, deeper than interpleural furrows. Border indistinct, gently inclined to margin in front, becoming broader, less steeply sloping behind axial terminus, exhibits faint extensions of the pleural ribs, rounded at margin. Remarks.-The larger size, longer axis, and extension of the rib furrow onto the broad, flat, poorly defined border serve to separate C. planucauda

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new species from C. depressus (Girty). Carbonocoryphe idahoensis Hahn, Paul and Chamberlain does not possess the wide area extending behind the rhachis that does C. planucauda nor does the former species possess the broad border of the latter species. Holotype.-A pygidium from the Chappel Limestone, USNM locality 9047, CM 35785. Paratype.-An exfoliated pygidium from the section presently exposed at the type area of the Chappel Limestone, CM 35787; one complete and one incomplete pygidium from the Welden Limestone, CM 35786, 35075; two complete and three fragmentary pygidia from the Chouteau Limestone of Union County, Illinois, CFM 51946. Etymology.-planus, Latin for level or flat, cauda, Latin for tail. Genus THIGIFFIDES Hessler, 1965 THIGIFFIDES ROUNDYI (Girty, 1926) Figure 4.10-4.21 Proetus roundyi var. roundyi Grs, 1926, p. 39, plate 6, figures la12b. Thigiffides roundyi HESSLER, 1965, p. 257, 258, plate 38, figures 15, 16, 19, 20, 23-29, plate 39, figures I-4, 6, 7; CHAMBERLAIN, 1969, text-figure 4. Griffithidella (Thigides) roundyi HAHN AND HAHN, 1970, p. 202. Description.-See Hessler (1965, p. 256-258) for generic and specific description. Remarks.-The cranidium of Thigif des roundyi from the Chouteau (Darty Limestone in Hessler, 1965) of Illinois illustrated by Hessler (1965, pl. 39, figs. 3, 6) and the large specimen recovered from the Welden (Fig. 3.13-3.15) do not exhibit the sharp upturned anterior border of the Chappel specimens. It is not clear whether this has taxonomic significance or not. Hahn and Hahn (1970) proposed that Thigiffides was a subgenus of Griffithidella. The structure of the pygidial ribs of Thigiffides, with both bands of the ribs being elevated, is markedly different from Griffithidella where one of the bands is lower in elevation. Cranidial characters are also different, with the most notable difference being the isolation of the lp glabellar lobe on Griffithidella. Consequently, Thigiffides is maintained herein at the generic rank. Material examined.-Four partial pygidia and 2 partial cranidia from the Chappel Limestone 3.8 km southeast of San Saba, Texas, CM 35072, 35073; partial cranidium and 1 partial pygidium from USNM locality 9047 in the collections of Carnegie Museum, CM 35779;1 pygidium from USNM locality 9044, 2 cranidia and 19 pygidia from USNM locality 9045, in the systematic collections of the U.S. National Museum. Two cranidia and one partial pygidium from the Welden Limestone, Pontotoc County, Oklahoma, CM 35076, 35077. Three cranidia and 14 pygidia from the Chouteau Limestone, Union County, Illinois, CFM 51944, 51952. CONCLUSIONS The trilobite fauna contained within the Chappel Limestone of the Llano region of Texas, the Welden Limestone of southcentral Oklahoma, and the Chouteau Limestone of Union County, Illinois have strong taxonomic similarities. These faunas are considered to be facies faunas that inhabited deep-water environments where sediment accumulation was extremely slow. The presence of the genera Pudoproetus and Carbonocoryphe appears to be analogous to deep-water trilobite occurrences described in central Europe. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank A. Kollar of Carnegie Museum for his assistance in collecting the Welden trilobites. Field support for collecting of the Welden Limestone was supplied by the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. Specimens from the Chouteau Limestone of Union County, Illinois were made available by the Chicago Field Museum. Suggestions for manuscript improvement by C. A. Kertis are much appreciated. J. H. Stitt and L. Babcock made numerous improvements to an earlier version of this manuscript dealing only with the Chappel trilobites. Criticisms by Professor G. Hahn and Dr. J. Barrick are much appreciated. Photographic facilities were supplied by the Maryland Geological Survey. REFERENCES AMOS, A. J., K. S. W. CAMPBELL, AND R. Got.RING. 1960. Australosutura gen. nov. (Trilobita) from the Carboniferous of Australia and Argentina. Paleontology, 3:227-236. BREZINSKi, D. K. 1986. Trilobite associations from the Chouteau Formation (Kinderhookian) of central Missouri. Journal of Paleontology, 60:870-881. . 1988a. Revision and redescription of some Lower Mississippian trilobites from the Chouteau Formation (Kinderhookian) of central Missouri. Journal of Paleontology, 62:103-110. -. 1988b. Trilobites of the Gilmore City Limestone (Mississippian) of Iowa. Journal of Paleontology, 62:241-245. . 1990. The trilobite genus Australosutura from the Osagean of Oklahoma. Annals of Carnegie Museum, 59:61-70. CARTER, J. L. 1967. Mississippian brachiopods from the Chappel Limestone of central Texas. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 53:253488.

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CHAMBEr*LAIN, C. K. 1969. Carboniferous trilobites: Utah species and evolution in North America. Journal of Paleontology, 41:227-239. -. 1977. Carboniferous and Permian trilobites from Ellesmere Island and Alaska. Journal of Paleontology, 52:758-771. CHAUFF, K. M. 1983. Multielement conodont species and an ecological interpretation of the Lower Osagean (Lower Carboniferous) conodont zonation from the midcontinent North America. Micropaleontology, 29:404-429. GIRrf, G. H. 1926. The macrofauna of the limestone of Boone age, p. 24-43. In P V. Roundy, G. H. Girty, and M. I. Goldman (eds.), Mississippian Formations of San Saba County Texas. U.S. Geological Professional Paper, 146:24-43. GtrrstCK, R. C., AND C. A. SANDBERG. 1983. Mississippian continental margins in the conterminous United States, p. 79-96. In Stanley, D. J., and G. T. Moore, (eds.), The Shelfbreak: Critical Interface on Continental Margins, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Paper, 33. HAHN, G., AND C. BRAUcKMANN. 1975. Zur Evolution von Carbonocoryphe (Trilobita; Unter-Karbon). Senckenbergiana Lethaea, 56: 305-333. HAHN, G., AND R. HAHN. 1969. Trilobitae carbonici et permici I. In Fossilium Catalogus 1. Animalia, Westphal, E, (ed.), s'Gravenhage (Dr. W Junk N. V.), 120:1-160, . 1970. Trilobitae carbonici et permici II. In Fossilium Catalogus 1. Animalia, Westphal, E, (ed.), s'Gravenhage (Dr. W. Junk N.V.), 120:161-335. 1988. The biostratigraphical distribution of Carboniferous limestone trilobites in Belgium and adjacent areas. Bulletin de la Societe Belge de Geologie. 97:77-93. HAHN, G., R. A. PAULL, AND C. K. CHAMBERLAIN. 1980. First recognition and stratigraphic significance of the early late Mississippian trilobite Carbonocoryphe (Aprathia) in North America. Journal of Paleontology, 54:371-380. HALL, J. 1860. 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Journal of Paleontology: Trilobites from lower Mississippian Starv...

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fossils of the same age previously described. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 17:109-133. Accepted 10 November 1997 DAVID K. BREZINSKI Maryland Geological Survey, 2300 St. Paul Street, Baltimore 21218 Copyright Paleontological Society Jul 1998 Provided by ProQuest Information and Learning Company. All rights Reserved

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