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Additional information on lowest Ordovician trilobites from the uppermost Deadwood formation, Black Hills and Bear Lodge Mountains, South Dakota and Wyoming Stitt, James H TRILOBITES from the Missisquoia Zone and the Symphysurina brevispicata Subzone of the Symphysurina Zone (Ibexian Series, lowest Ordovician) were collected from measured sections in the uppermost Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Bear Lodge Mountains in northeasternmost Wyoming. These collections were made by Christina Lochman-Balk and her students, and turned over to the author to complete the project. They are compared with previous reported occurrences of this fauna from this area. No trilobites from the underlying Sunwaptan Stage (Upper Cambrian) occur with the lowest Ordovician trilobites, suggesting that the sharp faunal extinction at the base of the Ordovician (North American sense = Eurekia apopsis Zone, Ibexian Series) occurred in the Deadwood Formation as it did over all of the North American continent. The Black Hills is a domal uplift cored by Precambrian granites and quartzitic and schistose metamorphic rocks that was formed during the Laramide orogeny (Stitt, 1998). The Deadwood crops out as an oval belt of siltstones, sandstones, shales, and limestones unconformably overlying the Precambrian rocks. Specimens used in this study were collected from a series of measured sections located in the northernmost outcrop belt of the Deadwood. Hu (1973) identified lowest Ordovician trilobites from one section (Bridal Veil Falls) in the northern Black Hills and from three sections (Reuter Canyon, Bearlodge Ranch, and Sheep Mountain) in the nearby Bear Lodge Mountains. He also described one new genus and four new species. His composite faunal list, and subsequent taxonomic reassignments in brackets, include the following trilobites: Euloma cordilleri [=Highgatella cordilleri Winston and Nicholls, 19671, Euptychaspis trematocus, Highgatella facila [=Apoplanias rejectus Ludvigsen, 1982], Hystricurus sp., Missisquoia graphica J=Missisquoia typicalis Westrop, 1986], Missisquoia cyclochila [=Missisquoia typicalis Ludvigsen, 1982], cf. Missisquoia typicalis, Olenaspella elongata, Sympkysurina brevispicata, and the brachiopod Apheoorthis sp. His collection from Bridal Veil Falls probably comes from the Missisquoia Zone, and the other three collections are from the Symphysurina brevispicata Subzone of the Symphysurina Zone (Stitt, 1977). Hu pointed out that Euptychaspis and Olenaspella occur in the underlying Upper Cambrian, giving the impression that the sharp extinction at the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary that had been reported in Oklahoma (Stitt, 1971), in central Texas (Winston and Nicholls, 1967; Longacre, 1970). and in the Great Basin (Taylor, 1971; Palmer, 1971) did not occur in the uppermost Deadwood in this area. This sharp extinction has subsequently been reported from the southern Canadian Mountains (Westrop, 1986; Loch et al., 1993), and the northern Canadian Rocky Mountains (Ludvigsen, 1982), with additional documentation from Oklahoma, central Texas, and the Great Basin (Stitt, 1977, 1983; Miller et al., 1982). The trilobites and brachiopods from the Lochman-Balk collection in the same area reveal a slightly different story. Over 2,000 specimens were examined for this study. A small fauna (Stitt and Straatmann, 1997) is present from the latest Cambrian Saukiella serotina Subzone of the Saukia Zone (Longacre, 1970). No fossils diagnostic of the basal Ordovician Eurekia apopsis Zone (Ross et al., 1997) have been recovered from the uppermost Deadwood. The overlying Missisquoia depressa Subzone of the Missisquoia Zone is present only as a float sample (Sheep Mt. SM A; see Appendix). No Upper Cambrian trilobites or brachiopods occur in in situ beds with the fauna from the lowest Ordovician Missisquoia Zone and overlying Symphysurina brevispicata Subzone of the Symphysurina Zone in 15 collections from seven localities in the northernmost Black Hills (Fig. 1) and 12 collections from two localities in the Bear Lodge Mountains. This includes collections from three of Hu's four localities. Upper Cambrian trilobites (commonly Eurekia eos, Bayfieldia simata and Idiomesus sp.) do occur with lowest Ordovician trilobites in collections that are clearly identified as float samples. The composite faunal list from in situ collections in the Lochman-Balk collections includes the following lowest Ordovician trilobites: Apoplanias rejectus, Highgatella cordilleri, Hystricurus millardensis, Missisquoia enigmatica, Missisquoia typicalis, Symphysurina brevispicata, Symphysurina cleora, and the brachiopods Apheoorthis ornata, Nanorthis hamburgensis, and Syntrophina campbelli. Collecting in situ fossils in the uppermost Deadwood is not easy. In most sections, the strata crop out on steep slopes, and the lithologies consist of siltstones, sandstones, and shales, with subordinate interbedded thin limestones. If the siliclastic rocks are well-cemented, the Deadwood crops out as a steep slope or cliff. If the siliclastic rocks are easily weathered, the Deadwood crops out only along naturally occurring steep areas such as meander bends. Either way, access to collect fossils is difficult. The limestones contain almost all of the fossils, and thin slabs of limestone can be present on the steep slopes as obvious float samples. They can be used for taxonomic information, but not for biostratigraphy. Some of the collections in the Lochman-Balk collection are float samples that were probably not very far out of place, but not in situ. Considering that no Upper Cambrian trilobites or brachiopods occur in the many in situ collections of lowest Ordovician fossils in the much larger Lochman-Balk collection, the interpretation favored here is that the Upper Cambrian trilobites that Hu reported as occurring with his lowest Ordovician trilobites were float samples that got mixed up with the lowest Ordovician fossils. Biostratigraphically, the basal Missisquoia depressa Subzone of the Missisquoia Zone is represented by Plethopeltis arbucklensis, unfortunately known only from a float sample (Sheep Mt SM A). The base of the overlying Missisquoia typicalis Subzone of the Missisquoia Zone is defined by the lowest occurrence of species of Missisquoia typicalis, Apoplanias rejectus, or Apheoorthis ornata (Stitt, 1977). This subzone occurs in situ at D 358

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Journal of Paleontology: Additional information on lowest Ordovic...

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and SM 166, and as float samples at D xA, RC x90, and SM D. The top of the Missisquoia Zone is defined by the base of the overlying Symphysurina brevispicata Subzone of the Symphysurina Zone, which is defined by the lowest occurrence of Highgatella cordilleri or Symphysurina brevispicata (Stitt, 1977). Most of the lowest Ordovician collections are assigned to this subzone (see Appendix). A possible in situ sequence from the M. typicalis Subzone into the S. brevispicata Subzone occurs at Sheep Mountain, where SM 168 marks the base of the S. brevispicata Subzone. The fauna is not illustrated, because there are no new taxa, and the specimens present add nothing to the taxonomy of these wellknown species and genera, which have been adequately described and illustrated in many publications (Stitt, 1971, 1977, 1983; Freeman and Stitt, 1996; Ludvigsen, 1982; Westrop, 1986; Loch et al., 1993). Apoplanias rejectus is very abundant, and ranges higher in the Deadwood than previously reported in other areas such as the Williston Basin (Lochman, 1964a), Alberta, Canada (Loch et al., 1993), and Oklahoma (Stitt, 1971, 1977). Normally it occurs in the lower to middle part of the M. typicalis Subzone, but in the Deadwood it is abundant in the overlying S. brevispicata Subzone also. The trilobites and brachiopods from the Missisquoia Zone and Symphysurina brevispicata Subzone of the Symphysurina Zone in the uppermost Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills and Bear Lodge Mountains are similar to those reported from coeval strata in the Rabbitkettle Formation in the northern Canadian Rocky Mountains (Ludvigsen, 1982); in the Basal Silty Member of the Survey Peak Formation in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains (Westrop, 1986; Loch et al., 1993); in the Notch Peak Formation in the Great Basin (Miller et al., 1982; Ross et al., 1997); in the San Saba Member of the Wilberns Formation, central Texas (Winston and Nicholls, 1967; Longacre, 1970), and in the Signal Mountain Limestone in the Arbuckle and Wichita Mountains in Oklahoma (Stitt, 1971, 1977). ACKNOWLEDGMENTS C. Lochman-Balk and her students are thanked for collecting and preparing the specimens upon which this study is based. The collection was given to the author by Lochman-Balk to complete the study. The U.S. Forest Service and local landowners are thanked for allowing access to the sections. REFERENCES FREEMAN, R. J., AND J. H. STITT. 1996. Upper Cambrian and lowest Ordovician brachiopods from the Arbuckle and Wichita Mountains, Oklahoma. Journal of Paleontology, 70:355-372. HINTZE, L. E 1952. Lower Ordovician trilobites from western Utah and eastern Nevada. Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey Bulletin 48, 249 p. Hu, C. H. 1973. Description of basal Ordovician trilobites from the Deadwood Formation, northern Black Hills, South Dakota. Proceedings of the Geological Society of China, 16:85-95. KULIK, J. W. 1965. Stratigraphy of the Deadwood Formation, Black Hills. South Dakota and Wyoming. Unpublished M. S. thesis, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, 263 p. LocH, I D., J. H. STITT, AND J. R. DERBY. 1993. Cambrian-Ordovician boundary interval extinctions: implications of revised trilobite and brachiopod data from Mount Wilson, Alberta, Canada. Journal of Paleontology, 67:497-517. LoCHMAN, C. 1964a. Upper Cambrian faunas from the subsurface Deadwood Formation, Williston Basin, Montana. Journal of Paleontology, 38:33-60. LocHMAN-BALK, C. 1964b. Paleo-ecologic studies of the Deadwood Formation (Cambro-Ordovician), p. 25-38. hi R. K. Sundaram (ed.), Paleontology and Stratigraphy. Proceedings of Section 8 of the 22nd International Geological Congress, India. LONGACRE, S. A. 1970. Trilobites of the Upper Cambrian Ptychaspid Biomere, Wilberns Formation, central Texas. Paleontological Society Memoir 4 (Journal of Palcotology, 44(l): Supplement), 70 p. LUDVIGSEN, R. 1982. Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician trilobite biostratigraphy of the Rabbitkettle Formation, western District of Mackenzic. Life Sciences Contributions, Royal Ontario Museum, 134, 187 P. MILLER, J. F. M. E. TAYLOR, J. H. STITT, R. L. ETHINGTON, L. E HINTZE, AND J. F. TAYLOR. 1982. Potential Cambrian-Ordovician boundary stratotype sections in the western United States, p. 155-180. In M. G. Bassett and W. T Dean (eds.), The Cambrian-Ordovician Boundary: sections, fossil distributions and correlations. National Museum of Wales, Geological Series No. 3, Cardiff. PALMER, A. R. 1971. The Cambrian of the Appalachian and eastern New England regions, eastern United States, p. 169-217. In C. H. Holland (ed.), Cambrian of the New World. Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley and Sons, New York. Ross, R. J., JR, L. E HINTZE, R. L. ETHINGTON, J. E MILLER, M. E. TAYLOR, AND J. E REPETSKI. 1997. The Ibexian, lowermost series in the North American Ordovician, p. 1-50. in Early Paleozoic biochronology of the Great Basin, western United States. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1579-A.

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ST, I H. 1971. Late Cambrian and earliest Ordovician trilobites, Timbered Hills and lower Arbuckle Groups, western Arbuckle Mountains, Murray County, Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey Bulletin, 110, 83 p. 1977. Late Cambrian and earliest Ordovician trilobites. Wichita Mountains area, Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey Bulletin, 124, 79 p. -, 1983. Trilobites, biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy of the McKenzie Hill Limestone (Lower Ordovician), Wichita and Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey Bulletin 134, 54 P. -, AND W. M. STRAATMANN. 1997. Trilobites from the upper part of the Deadwood Formation, (Upper Franconian and Trempealeauan Stages, Upper Cambrian), Black Hills, South Dakota. Journal of Paleontology, 71:86-102. TAYLOR, M. E. 1971. Biostratigraphy of the Upper Cambrian (Upper Franconian-Trempealeauan Stages) in the central Great Basin, Nevada and Utah. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 428 p. WEsTrop, S. R. 1986. Trilobites of the Upper Cambrian Sunwaptan Stage, southern Canadian Rocky Mountains, Alberta. Palaeontographica Canadiana number 3, 179 p. WINSTON, D., AND H. NicHOLLS. 1967. Late Cambrian and Early Ordovician faunas from the Wilberns Formation of central Texas: Journal of Paleontology, 41:66-96. AcCEPTED 5 NOVEMBER 1999. JAMES H. STITT Department of Geological Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia 65211 Copyright Paleontological Society Mar 2000 Provided by ProQuest Information and Learning Company. All rights Reserved

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