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LONDON LAW REVIEW
Volume 1, June 2005, Issue 1

Foreword

lv
Thc Rt. Hnn. Lnrd JustIcc Mav
Vice-Iiesidenl of lhe Oueen´s ßench Division


This first issue of London Law Review is the start of an ambitious project with
highly commendable objectives. It aims to provide students with the ability to
submit for publication papers on a diverse range of legal issues, and so to enhance
international academic literature with enduring excellence. It further aims to
generate revenue to plough back into legal education. To do either would be an
achievement: to do both, a fine achievement indeed.

As reference to the papers in this first issue shows, the title “London Law Review”
conceals a diverse international content. Highlights include papers on international
terrorism complemented with an array of scholarship about Alternative Dispute
Resolution, mediation in particular. These latter have a full European and
international spectrum on a range of dispute resolution procedures which have
gained increased prominence at a time when the cost and other strains of adversarial
litigation accumulate. The international content is maintained with a paper about
privacy and confidence relating to the media: the European theme with a paper on
Insider Trading in the Netherlands.

I am delighted to express my support for the launch of this publication; to
congratulate all those who have contributed to its initial success; and to give every
encouragement for its future establishment as a prominent source of legal academic
excellence.


Anthony May
Royal Courts of Justice
London
Iune 2OO5
LONDON LAW REVIEW
Volume 1, June 2005, Issue 1



First Published in 2005 by

LONDON LAW REVIEW
27 Old Gloucester Street
London WC1N 3XX
UK


© London Law Review 2005

All rights reserved.

Copyright for individual articles generally remains with the authors.


ISSN 1747- 9436 (Print)


The content of this journal does not necessarily reflect the position or views of Lord
Woolf or the London Law Review.



Printed by

Brunel University Press
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LONDON LAW REVIEW
Volume 1, June 2005, Issue 1


CONTENTS



FOREWORD
The Importance of the Law Review
Rt. Hon. Lord Justice ANTHONY MAY

EDITORIAL
Looking toward the future of the LLR

ARTICLES
Mediation Opportunities in the EU and Internationally 1
KARL MACKIE

Proposal for an EU Directive on Aspects of Mediation 5
PROF. MARIANNE ROTH

Med-ARB Hybrid: A Viable Solution? 27
ANDREW BURR

Mediation: Moving to a more Flexible Access to Justice 49
PAOLA FERRONI

Is ADR a Viable Solution or Simply Second Class Justice? 59
T. ANDREW DE BEAULAC

Injunctions Against the World 69
PAUL DOUGAN

Insider Dealing: A Dutch Perspective 95
DIRK P.F. MEERBURG

Critical Analysis of International Terrorism Legislation 109
JOHN PICKLES

Why is Suicide Terrorism Increasingly Becoming the Tactic of First Resort? 115
JASMINE CHADHA

Home Secretary’s Proposal on House Arrest 141
KELECHI ONWERE

The Juvenile Death Penalty Under International Law 145
FERDERIQUE BIET


LONDON LAW REVIEW
Volume 1, June 2005, Issue 1


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Copyright: Copyright © 2005 by the London Law Review. Pieces herein may be duplicated for
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LONDON LAW REVIEW
Volume 1, June 2005, Issue 1



MASTHEAD


PATRON
Rt. Hon. Lord Chief Justice of England & Wales
Lord Woolf

Executive Editor-in Chief Editor-in-Chief
Paul Dougan T. Andrew de Beaulac

Managing Editor
John D. Pickles

Editorial Board

Production Editor Research Editor Business Editor
James Doheny Julie Wright Suzanne Alyamani

Articles Editor EU & Constitutional Editor Comments & Notes Editor
Rebecca Frankel Tina Green Rukia Dames
Ruth Pogonowski Frederique Biet Umsilla Moodley

STAFF
Akar Kayma Steven Hanson Norma Burke
Luba Fjordorova Denise Williams Justin Richards
Isaac Fabelurin Greg Reynolds Heike Hamercher
Sharon Ajakaiye Kelechi Onwere Henry Male
Carla Ballard Nicole Abraham Nicola Sawyer
Julian Torres Asim Gaba Robert Bruce
Tim Finch Edward Glen Erica Novium
Sarah Earl Barbora Hamblin Carl Latchford
Aliya Syzdykova-Baxter Guillaume Lecat


* * *















































LONDON LAW REVIEW
Volume 1, June 2005, Issue 1


EDITORIAL

Welcome to the first issue of the London Law Review, a quarterly journal devoted to
timeous and critical analysis of contemporary legal issues. It is envisaged that the
publication will become a forum for contributions both from academia and the legal
professions, though a central aim of the Review is to provide a platform to enable
students to further their academic writing skills through interaction with and
publication alongside these legal academics and practitioners.

The articles in this issue demonstrate just how diverse and exciting the area of
international law and dispute resolution can be. Two practitioners articles, written by
Karl Mackie, Chief Executive of CEDR and Andrew Burr from Atkin Chambers in
London, provide thoughtful insights into the present state and future of dispute
resolution here in the UK whilst Professor Marianne Roth and Paola Ferroni look at
similar developments in mainland Europe. Dirk Meerburg from De Brauw
Blackstone Westbroek Advocaats in London provides an extremely interesting
analysis of insider dealing in the Netherlands.

The issue concludes with our student-written articles, including a piece by
Frederique Biet, looking at issues surrounding the juvenile death penalty, while
Jasmine Chadha addresses the international threat of suicide terrorism, placing it in a
wider context.

The editorial board would like to thank all of the authors for their contributions. We
are committed to providing our readers with broad coverage of timely and important
legal issues, and we appreciate the continued support and advice of our patron, Lord
Woolf, and the hard work of the law review team.

I hope you will find this new arrival on your desk both informative and helpful and
that you enjoy reading this issue of the London Law Review. If you have any
comments or questions, or if you are interested in submitting an article, essay,
speech or other work for publication, please do contact us.



Paul Dougan, Executive Editor-in-Chief T. Andrew de Beaulac, Editor in Chief

LONDON, JUNE 2005

* * *














































MLDIATION - OIIORTUNITILS IN THL LU
AND INTLRNATIONALLY

KaiI Mackie

Appioaches lo nedialion on lhe inleinalionaI scene have nol leen unifoin.
The cosls, deIavs and conpIexilv lhal appeaied incieasingIv lo chaiacleiise
adveisaiiaI Iiligalion piaclice in lhe connon Iav voiId, neanl lhal lhe
lenefils of and lheiefoie nedialion effoils and innovalions, veie fiisl
appaienl in ceilain counliies - lhe USA, AusliaIia, Canada and lhe UK.

IncieasingIv in lhese juiisdiclions nedialion has lecone ovei lhe Iasl decade
a nainsliean looI of lhe IegaI svslen and couil piaclice oflen inlegialed inlo
couil iuIes.
1
WhiIsl olhei nalionaI IegaI svslens vilhin Luiope veie aIso
affIicled lv deIav and conpIexilv (aIleil lo a vaiied lul usuaIIv Iessei degiee
lhan lhe UK) lhe advanlages of nedialion veie olscuied lv Ianguage
consideialions and diffeiing juiisdiclionaI issues. This is nov leginning lo
change lolh undei giaduaI inleinalionaI infIuence and doneslic iefoin
novenenls vhich aie laigeling inefficienl Iiligalion svslens and aie
iecognising lhal nedialion offeis lellei lenefils lhan jusl cuiling Iiligalion
svslen iIIs.

Ioi nanv veais, lhe UK vas viiluaIIv a Ione voice in Luiope in leins of
canpaigning, liaining and innovalion in nedialion use and deveIopnenl.
This couId expIain vhv lodav, aIlhough nedialion vas iniliaIIv a US expoil,
lhe UK is nov seen lo le one of lhe noie pioaclive and ciealive deveIopeis
of lhe nedialion piocess and a Ieading voice in Luiope. The UK has aIso
leen assisled in deveIoping inleinalionaI nedialion expeiience lecause of
lhe liadilionaI pie-eninence of London as an inleinalionaI conneice,
insuiance and piofessionaI seivices naikel.
2



† Karl J Mackie, founding Chief Executive of CEDR (Centre for Dispute Resolution) in London,
Honorary Professor in Alternative Dispute Resolution in the Faculty of Law of University of
Birmingham, and Director of Studies for Negotiation and Management Skills programmes for the
Commerce and Industry Group of the Law Society of England & Wales. A barrister and psychologist by
training, Professor Mackie is a mediator and Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators.

1
According to the Overriding Objective of the Civil Procedure Rules in England and Wales, the courts
are obliged to ‘encourage the parties to use an alternative dispute resolution procedure if the court
considers that appropriate and facilitating the use of such procedure’, Part 1 CPR volume 1, r 1.4(2)(e).
2
For a review of typical international cases mediated through CEDR see the appendix of International
Mediation: The Art of Corporate Diplomacy, Kluwer Law International, 1999, E Carroll and K Mackie.
2 LONDON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 1: 1
Il is onIv ovei lhe Iasl lvo veais lhal piogiess acioss Luiope has acceIeialed,
vilh lhe delale shifling fion a nalionaI lo a pan-Luiopean IeveI. Recenl
aclivilv vilhin lhe Luiopean Union has lioughl nedialion and lhe fieId of
aIleinalive dispule iesoIulion (ADR) lo lhe foiefionl of lhe civiI juslice
iefoin agenda. This has ieinfoiced exisling nonenlun, and ciealed nev
nonenlun in juiisdiclions vheie conneiciaI nedialion had nade IillIe
headvav. Ieihaps lhe nosl dianalic iIIuslialion of lhis inpacl has leen lhe
infIuence exeiled on counliies vho iecenlIv soughl accession lo lhe LU, vho
have leen iequiied lo voik lovaids ensuiing lhal lheii IegaI svslens neel
agieed slandaids, incIuding educalion in ADR.
3


WhiIe LU allenlion focused fiisl on cioss-loidei consunei dispules and
ADR nechanisns foi addiessing lhese, lhe focus has shifled noie iecenlIv
lo lhe aiena of nainsliean 'conneiciaI nedialion´. Wilh lhis cane iniliaIIv
a concein aloul Iack of ieguIalion of an eneiging piofession, ialhei lhan
enlhusiasn lo pionole nedialion and lesl piaclice in lhe fieId. Wilh
incieasingIv sophislicaled knovIedge vilhin lhe Luiopean Connission of
lhe expeiience, chaIIenges and polenliaI foi lhe fieId lo conliilule lo lellei
Luiopean juslice svslens, lhe enphasis has nov svilched lo seIf-ieguIalion
and encouiagenenl of lesl piaclice.

The LU inleiesl in oul-of-couil dispule sellIenenl piogiessiveIv incieased
fion 1996, vhen lhe Luiopean Connission pul foivaid lhe possiliIilv of
sellIing consunei dispules in an efficienl and appiopiiale nannei lhiough
oul-of-couil pioceduies. The idea vas diiven lhiough an escaIaling lackIog
of cases in nalionaI couils, incieasing cosls of Iiligalion and confusion ovei
cioss-loidei consunei iediess. The Luiopean Connission has since
adopled a nunlei of neasuies inpIenenling sone foin of oul-of-couil
sellIenenl pioceduie in lhe aieas of consunei dispules, IegaI aid,
4
faniIv
dispules
5
and eIeclionic conneice.
6
In 2OO1, vilh Luiopean Connission
funding, CLDR pailneied piovideis fion Iiance, ßeIgiun, lhe NelheiIands
and IlaIv lo lenchnaik lhe deveIopnenl of nedialion in lhe LU. This
invoIved idenlifving lhe vaiious piovideis lhioughoul lhe LU and
pioviding ieconnendalions on lhe deveIopnenl of nedialion vilhin lhe
LU, incIuding connon liaining slandaids, elhicaI codes and lhe ieIalionship
vilh couil svslens. The findings veie lhen deIiveied lo deIegales

3
The EU Mediation Atlas: Practice and Regulation, Appendix 1 comparative tables on the new member
states: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia.
4
Directive on Legal Aid, 18 July 2002
5
Proposal for a Regulation concerning jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments
in matrimonial matters and in matters of parental responsibility, 3 May 2002, COM/2002/0222
final/2
6
Directive 2000/31/EC on Electronic Commerce, 8 June 2000
2005] Meditation-Opportunities 3

(piinaiiIv judges and ninisliv of juslice officiaIs) fion lhe 15 LU nenlei
slales.

In ApiiI 2OO2, The Luiopean Connission pulIished ils Cieen Iapei on
'AIleinalive Dispule ResoIulion in CiviI and conneiciaI Lav´
7
and Iaunched
a piIol schene lo nake ADR seivices noie accessilIe foi consuneis
invoIved in cioss loidei dispules lhiough ADR schenes and piovideis in
lhe LU.

Ieihaps lhe liggesl slep change cane in ApiiI 2OO3 vhen lhe Luiopean
IaiIianenl senl a cIeai nessage lo lhe Luiopean Connission lhal il vanled
nedialion deveIopnenl lo focus on fuilhei ieseaich, pionolion and
pionuIgalion of lesl piaclices, and lhe sinpIificalion of lhe fieId ialhei lhan
diiecl ieguIalion. CLDR, in ils iesponse lo lhe Cieen Iapei, had Iollied
vigoiousIv foi lhis appioach lo le laken on loaid. To have ovei ieguIaled
lhe Luiopean fieId loo eaiIv vouId onIv have seveieIv hanpeied ils
deveIopnenl.

Lalei lhal veai, lovaids lhe end of 2OO3, and as a iesuIl of lhe Luiopean
IaiIianenl´s diieclion and olhei discussions vilh lhe Luiopean
Connission, lhe Connission pul logelhei an aclion pIan lo diafl a
Luiopean Code of Conducl foi Medialois and nedialion cenlies and lhe
ciealion of an ADR diieclive lo pionole nedialion. The Code of Conducl
vas inlended lo le a voIunlaiv and seIf-ieguIaloiv code lo vhich piovideis
couId affiIiale lhenseIves, ialhei lhan a foinaI LU code. As foi lhe Diafl
Diieclive adopled lv lhe Luiopean Connission (lhis couId lake up lo lhiee
veais lo appiove), lhe pionuIgalion of il adds fuilhei ciediliIilv,
iecognilion and nonenlun lo lhe fieId. Il cIaiifies lhe need foi a
ieIalionship lelveen lhe couils and nedialion, and pioposes ceilain
nininun Iav iefoins (on confidenliaIilv, enfoicenenl and Iinilalion
peiiods) lo ensuie a coheienl cioss-loidei appioach.

Il vas againsl lhis lackgiound of eaiIv deveIopnenl of lhe fieId, diveisilv of
nalionaI piaclice and gioving LU inleiesl, sophislicalion and suppoil, lhal
CLDR feIl il vas line lo cieale a nedialion ¨alIas¨ of lhe LU in pailneiship
vilh lhe UK and inleinalionaI Iav fiin, CMS Caneion McKenna. The guide
oulIines conneiciaI nedialion in each juiisdiclion and piovides a piaclicaI
guide lo lhe piesenl slalus of nedialion in lhe vaiious LU counliies.
8
The
oljeclives veie lo:

7
Green Paper of 19 April 2002 on Alternative dispute Resolution in civil and commercial matters, COM
(2002) 196 final
8
The EU Mediation Atlas: Practice & Regulation published by LexisNexis UK can be obtained from
CEDR, e-mail info@cedr.co.uk or call +44 (0)207 536 6000.
4 LONDON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 1: 1

• cIaiifv vhal is happening in each of lhe nenlei slales of lhe LU
• undeisland lhe IegaI fianevoik foi nedialion vilhin diffeienl
juiisdiclions and lhe iange of appioaches lo liaining,
piofessionaIisn, couil-iefeiied nedialion schenes and piovidei
nodeIs nake il easiei lo lesl nev lhinking and effoils al
hainonisalion againsl lhe iange and ieaIilv of cuiienl piaclice on
such issues as confidenliaIilv
• piovide a lenchnaik againsl vhich fuluie deveIopnenl can le
conpaied.

The dangeis of ovei ieguIalion in a fieId sliII expIoiing ils scope and Iinils
Iook, ceilainIv foi lhe foieseealIe fuluie, lo have leen pievenled. As foi
oppoilunilies, in Iine vilh nedialion deveIopnenl eveivvheie, lhese offei
huge scope. The LU allenlion lo lhe lopic viII heIp slinuIale change in
pieviousIv undeveIoped juiisdiclions. Lncouiagenenl of giealei
undeislanding of lesl piaclice acioss lhe LU, viII aIso heIp lolh in
deveIoping slandaids and in heIping lhe LU al Ieasl calch up vilh US
piaclice if nol suipass il. CLDR is connilled lo conlinuing lo le al lhe
Ieading edge of lhese inpiovenenls in undeislanding and piaclice
inleinalionaIIv and is acliveIv pailneiing vilh lolh US and Luiopean
nedialion piovideis lo nove nedialion fion lhe nalionaI lo lhe
inleinalionaI dispule iesoIulion aiena.

In ApiiI 2OO5 CLDR announced a najoi slialegic aIIiance vilh lhe US´s
Iaigesl nedialion piovidei, IAMS. The ain is lo offei lhe cIienls of lolh
oiganisalions an exlensive, veII eslalIished, neuliaI channeI foi iesoIving
conneiciaI and civiI Iiligalion dispules vilhin lhe US and Luiope. Oulside
lhe US, deveIopnenls in nainIand Luiope aie leing echoed in olhei pails of
lhe voiId such as Asia, Lalin Aneiica and iecenlIv pails of Afiica. ADR and
nedialion Iook sel lo lecone a kev fealuie in a nev eia of gIolaI innovalion
in juslice svslens and civiI confIicl nanagenenl.




THL IROIOSAL IOR AN LU DIRLCTIVL ON
CLRTAIN ASILCTS OI MLDIATION IN
COMIARISON WITH
AUSTRIAN MLDIATION LAW

Maiianne Rolh

I. IntrnductInn
As dislincl fion judiciaI pioceedings, nedialion has a nunlei of lenefils lo
offei, pailicuIaiIv in cioss-loidei silualions: il piovides a cosl effeclive and
quick exlia-judiciaI iesoIulion of dispules lhiough piocesses laiIoied lo lhe
pailicuIai needs of lhe pailies. SellIenenl agieenenls ieached via
nedialion aie noie IikeIv lo le enfoiced voIunlaiiIv and aie lellei suiled lo
pieseive an anicalIe and suslainalIe ieIalionship lelveen lhe pailies lhan
decisions iendeied aflei an adjudicaloiv piocess.
1

Thus, in oidei lo foslei lhe use of nedialion and lheielv ensuie lellei access
lo juslice vilhin lhe Luiopean inleinaI naikel, lhe Connission of lhe
Luiopean Connunilies has piesenled a finaI pioposaI foi a diieclive on
ceilain aspecls of nedialion in civiI and conneiciaI nalleis on Oclolei 1O,
2OO4.
2
ShoilIv lefoie, on Mav 1, 2OO5 Ausliia has aIieadv enacled a fedeiaI
Iav on nedialion in civiI nalleis (Ziti|rccn|s-Mcdia|icns-Gcsc|z) and lheielv
has lecone lhe fiisl Luiopean Union counliv lo piovide a conpiehensive
IegaI fianevoik foi nedialion.
3
Hence, lhe queslion aiises lo vhal exlenl
lhe Ausliian Medialion Acl coiiesponds vilh lhe envisaged LU nedialion
diieclive. This ailicIe piesenls lhe nain piovisions of lhe pioposed diieclive,

† Doctor iuris, LL.M. (Harvard), Vice-Dean and Professor of Law, Paris Lodron University Salzburg,
School of Law, Austria.
1
See Preamble, No. 6 of the proposed directive, infra note 2; explanatory memorandum to the proposed
directive, infra note 2, No. 1.1.3.; Mähler & Mähler, in BECK’SCHES RECHTSANWALTHANDBUCH 251 et
seq. (8
th
ed. 2004); Grilli, Vom Anwalt zum Schlichter, 49 DEUTSCHES ANWALTSBLATT 533, 533-36
(1997); Steinbrück, Wirtschaftsmediation und außergerichtliche Konfliktlösung—Chancen für
Unternehmen, Anwälte und Gerichte, 49 DEUTSCHES ANWALTSBLATT 574, 578 (1999).
2
Proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and the Council on certain aspects of mediation in
civil and commercial disputes of 22.10.2004; 2004/0251 (COD); COM (2004) 718 final;
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/lex/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2004/com2004_0718en01.pdf.
3
Act on Mediation in Civil Matters (Zivilrechts-Mediations-Gesetz) 2004, Federal Law Gazette
(Bundesgesetzblatt, abbreviated BGBl.) I 2003/29, http://www.ris.bka.gv.at. Section VI of the Mediation
Act concerning educational establishments and mediation courses went already into effect on January 1,
2004. See Roth & Markowetz, Bundesgesetz über Mediation in Zivilrechtssachen - Ein Überblick über
die neuen Bestimmungen, 126 JURISTISCHE BLÄTTER, 296-302 (2004).
6 LONDON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 1: 5


foIIoved lv an exaninalion of Ausliia´s conpIiance vilh lhe expecled
ieguIaloiv fianevoik of lhe LU. The papei keeps lhe sliucluie of lhe
pioposed diieclive, incIuding lhe assessnenl of lhe Ausliian nedialion Iav
al lhe end of each chaplei.
II. Gcncra! Ru!cs
1. ObjcctIvc
AilicIe 1, paia. 1 of lhe pioposaI expiessIv slales lhe diieclive´s oljeclive:
lo faciIilale access lo dispule iesoIulion lv pionoling lhe use of
nedialion and lv ensuiing a sound ieIalionship lelveen nedialion
and judiciaI pioceedings.
Hence, lhe pioposed diieclive conlains lvo lvpes of piovisions: fiislIv,
piovisions vhich olIige lhe nenlei slales lo acliveIv pionole lhe use of
nedialion (infra III.), and secondIv, civiI pioceduiaI iuIes vhich ensuie a
sound ieIalionship lelveen nedialion and judiciaI pioceedings (infra IV.).
These pioceduiaI iuIes concein lhe iecognilion and enfoicenenl of
sellIenenl agieenenls ieached via nedialion (infra IV.1.), lhe pioleclion of
confidenliaIilv of nedialion in sulsequenl judiciaI pioceedings (infra IV.2.),
as veII as lhe suspension of Iinilalion peiiods (infra IV.3.). As a diiecl
neasuie lo pionole nedialion lhe pioposed diieclive iequiies nalionaI
couils lo suggesl nedialion lo lhe pailies, vhen appiopiiale (infra III.1.). In
addilion, nenlei slales shouId pul in pIace effeclive quaIilv conlioI
nechanisns conceining lhe piovision of nedialion seivices and lhe liaining
of nedialois (infra III.2.).
ßv selling such connon nininun slandaids vilhin lhe Luiopean
Connunilv, lhe pioposaI ains al pulling nedialion on an equaI fooling
vilh judiciaI pioceedings: onIv faclois ieIaled lo lhe pailicuIai dispule, such
as lhe naluie and neiils of lhe case as veII as lhe cosls, deIav and piospecls
of success shouId le decisive foi lhe pailies in deleinining lhe appiopiiale
dispule iesoIulion nelhod.
4

This oljeclive of lhe pioposed diieclive is fuIIv in Iine vilh lhe Ausliian Acl
on Medialion in CiviI Malleis. Up unliI iecenlIv, lhe nunlei of nedialion
pioceedings has leen lehind olhei conciIialion and aililialion pioceedings.
5


4
Explanatory memorandum to the proposed directive, supra note 2, No. 1.1.2.
5
See Explanatory Notes to Government Bill, 24 Supplements to the Stenographic Minutes of the National
Assembly, XXII
th
Legislative Period, hereinafter EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP (Erläuternde Bemerkungen
zur Regierungsvorlage, 24 der Beilagen zu den stenographischen Protokollen des Nationalrates, XXII.
2005] Meditation Directive 7

This has leen piinaiiIv due lo insufficienl infoinalion anong polenliaI
useis of nedialion iegaiding lhe naluie and piocess of nedialion, ils aieas
of appIicalion and ils piospecls of success. AIso, lheie has leen a significanl
Iack of piofessionaI nedialois in Ausliia. Thus, in oidei lo inciease pulIic
confidence in lhis aIleinalive nelhod of dispule iesoIulion and lo pionole
ils use, a conpiehensive IegaI fianevoik foi nedialion in civiI nalleis has
leen enacled. In pailicuIai, lhe nev Iav addiesses lhe IegaI consequences of
nedialion as veII as quaIilv slandaids foi nedialois.
6

2. 5cnµc nf Aµµ!IcatInn
Accoiding lo AilicIe 1, paia. 2 of lhe pioposaI, lhe diieclive shaII appIv in
civiI and conneiciaI nalleis.
Lven lhough IegaI ceilainlv as iegaids lhe piocess of nedialion and ils IegaI
consequences is pailicuIaiIv inpoilanl in cioss-loidei silualions, lhe scope
of lhe diieclive is nol iesliicled lo inleinalionaI dispules. Such a Iinilalion
in scope vouId Iead lo lhe ciealion of lvo paiaIIeI IegaI iegines vilh
possilIv diffeienl slandaids conceining lhe piovision and ieceipl of
nedialion seivices. Hence, lhis duaIilv vouId leai lhe iisk of
disciininaloiv effecls foi useis as veII as piovideis of nedialion seivices,
since couils vouId suggesl nedialion lo sone pailies onIv, depending on
lhe ieIevanl cioss-loidei eIenenls, e.g., lhe pailies´ pIace of iesidence, lhe
pIace of nedialion, oi lhe pIace of lhe conpelenl couil. Moieovei, a
iesliiclion in scope lo inleinalionaI dispules nighl Ieave lhe appIicaliIilv of
lhe diieclive in lhe hands of lhe pailies, vho couId inlioduce cioss-loidei
eIenenls lhiough lheii choice of lhe pIace of lhe nedialion oi lhe couil foi
lhe dispule in oidei lo lenefil fion lhe iuIes Iaid dovn lv lhe diieclive.
Such effecls, hovevei, vouId iun counlei lo lhe piincipIes of lhe inleinaI
naikel as veII as lhe effoils of lhe Luiopean Union lo sinpIifv lhe
ieguIaloiv fianevoik foi individuaIs and lusiness.
7

The Ausliian Medialion Acl appIies excIusiveIv lo lhe nedialion of ¨civiI
nalleis¨, neaning ¨aII confIicls lhal lhe ieguIai civiI couils have juiisdiclion
lo decide¨.
8
Hence, lhe nolion of civiI nalleis aIso incIudes conneiciaI
nalleis, lul excIudes confIicls lhal nusl le decided in adninislialive

Gesetzgebungsperiode), at 19; Hoffmann, Der aktuelle Beitrag—Mediation, 63 ÖSTERREICHISCHES
ANWALTSBLATT 361-62 (2001).
6
See Roth & Markowetz, The Austrian Law on Mediation in Civil Matters. An Overview of the New
Provisions, 22 ADR & THE LAW (forthcoming 2005).
7
Explanatory memorandum to the proposed directive, supra note 2, No. 1.2.
8
See Austrian Mediation Act, supra note 3, at § 3, ¶ 1, No. 1.
8 LONDON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 1: 5


pioceedings, oi foi vhich no officiaI pioceedings aie avaiIalIe.
9
Hovevei, il
is nol aIvavs easv lo deleinine vhelhei a pailicuIai IegaI dispule~vhen
vieved in lhe alsliacl~is suljecl lo civiI couil juiisdiclion. Inagine a
dispule ovei lhe appiovaI of opeialion foi a pioduclion pIanl. Such a
confIicl vouId faII piinaiiIv undei lhe juiisdiclion of lhe adninislialive
aulhoiilies. Il has eIenenls, hovevei, lhal louch on lhe iighls of
neighlouiing ovneis lhal aie sonelines cIaiified in civiI Iav pioceedings.
Theiefoie, lhe expIanaloiv noles lo lhe Ausliian Medialion Acl assune lhal
such a case vouId le one foi civiI nedialion.
1O

3. DcfInItInn nf McdIatInn and McdIatnr
Ioi lhe puiposes of lhe pioposed diieclive nedialion neans
anv piocess vheie lvo oi noie pailies lo a dispule aie assisled lv
a lhiid pailv lo ieach an agieenenl on lhe sellIenenl of lhe
dispule, iegaidIess of vhelhei lhe piocess is inilialed lv lhe
pailies, suggesled oi oideied lv a couil oi piesciiled lv nalionaI
Iav (AilicIe 2 Iil a of lhe pioposaI).
Adjudicaloiv piocesses aie excIuded fion lhe scope, and so aie piocesses
vheie lhe lhiid pailv issues a ieconnendalion on lhe iesoIulion of lhe
dispule, vhelhei IegaIIv linding oi nol. Thus, aililialion pioceedings,
onludsnen schenes, consunei conpIainl schenes, oi expeil
deleininalion aie nol coveied lv lhe pioposed diieclive (IieanlIe, No. 8 of
lhe pioposaI). AIso, allenpls nade lv lhe judge lo conciIiale lhe pailies
vilhin lhe couise of civiI pioceedings aie excIuded, since lhose allenpls
ialhei foin pail of lhe case nanagenenl lechniques avaiIalIe lo lhe judge
and nosl of lhe sulslanlive piovisions of lhe diieclive vouId nol le ieIevanl
foi lhal silualion. On lhe olhei hand, couil-annexed nedialion schenes,
vheie nedialion can le conducled lv anolhei judge of lhe sane couil, aie
coveied lv lhe pioposed diieclive.
The nolion of ¨nedialoi¨ is defined as
anv lhiid pailv conducling a nedialion, iegaidIess of lhe
denoninalion oi piofession of lhal lhiid pailv in lhe Menlei
Slale conceined and of lhe vav lhe lhiid pailv has leen appoinled
oi iequesled lo conducl lhe nedialion (AilicIe 2 Iil l of lhe
pioposaI).

9
See generally MEDIATION IM ÖFFENTLICHEN BEREICH (Ferz & Pichler eds., 2003) (explaining the
settlement of public law disputes through mediation).
10
See EBRV 24 BglNR XII GP, supra note 5, at 20.
2005] Meditation Directive 9

In conliasl lo lhese ialhei geneiaI definilions vhich ain foi a vide
appIicalion of lhe diieclive, Ausliian IegisIalois consciousIv chose a
sonevhal naiiovei definilion of nedialion and nedialoi lhal deleinines
lhe nedialion piocess as piecise as possilIe in oidei lo slienglhen lhe
pulIic´s confidence in lhis aIleinalive neans of dispule iesoIulion.
11

Accoiding lo Seclion 1, paia. 1 of lhe Ausliian Medialion Acl,
nedialion is a voIunlaiv aclivilv in vhich a lechnicaIIv liained,
neuliaI inleinediaiv |i.c. lhe nedialoi! uses accepled nelhods lo
svslenalicaIIv foslei connunicalion lelveen lhe dispuling
pailies vilh lhe ain of faciIilaling a iesoIulion of lheii confIicl foi
vhich lhe pailies lhenseIves aie iesponsilIe.
12

Having a lechnicaIIv liained nedialoi vho uses accepled nelhods
diffeienliales nedialion fion olhei nelhods of achieving conciIialion and
ieconciIialion. Thus, confIicl iesoIulion lv nenleis of poIilicaI pailies oi
lhe pasloiaI seivices of a ieIigious denoninalion do nol cone undei lhe
Ausliian nedialion Iav.
13
Anolhei inpoilanl iequiienenl of nedialion as
defined in lhe Ausliian Medialion Acl is lhal lhe pailies pailicipale
voIunlaiiIv. Theiefoie, a pailv cannol le invoIved in nedialion vilhoul
giving consenl oi againsl his oi hei viII.
14
Hovevei, lheie is no vioIalion of
lhe piincipIe of voIunlaiiness if a judge ieconnends nedialion and
suspends Iiligalion pending piivale nedialion. On lhe olhei hand, il aIso
foIIovs fion lhe voIunlaiv iequiienenl lhal a pailv´s iejeclion of lhe couil´s
¨suggeslion¨ lo nediale and ils iefusaI lo even convene lhe nedialion nav
nol have a negalive infIuence on ils IegaI silualion.
15
IinaIIv, lo faII vilhin
lhe neaning of ¨nedialion¨ undei lhe Ausliian Medialion Acl, lhe
nedialion pioceeding nusl le conducled lv a neuliaI nedialoi. NolalIv, a
peison is nol consideied lo le neuliaI jusl lecause he oi she is nol in lhe
canp of one of lhe pailies. Whal is iequiied is lhal a nedialoi nainlains lhe
sane dislance fion lolh pailies and iefiains fion favouiing one of lhen.
Thus, a nedialoi, Iike a judge,
16
nusl le unliased and inpailiaI.
17


11
Cf. EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP, supra note 5, at 19.
12
This statutory definition is in harmony with conventional definitions of mediation found in the
literature. See, e.g., BREIDENBACH, MEDIATION: STRUKTUR, CHANCEN UND RISKEN DER VERMITTLUNG
IM KONFLIKT 4 (1995).
13
See EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP, supra note 5, at 19.
14
See Judgement of July 15, 1997, Austrian Supreme Court, Oberster Gerichtshof, OGH 1 Ob 161/97a
(unpublished); Ganner, Vertragsgerechtigkeit durch Mediation, 56 ÖSTERREICHISCHE JURISTENZEITUNG
710, 712-14 (2003).
15
See EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP, supra note 5, at 19; RECHBERGER & SIMOTTA, GRUNDRISS DES
ÖSTERREICHISCHEN ZIVILPROZESSRECHTS 438 (6
th
ed. 2003).
16
See Judicial Service Act (Richterdienstgesetz) § 57; Jurisdictional Norm (Jurisdiktionsnorm) § 19. Cf.
Code of Criminal Procedure (Strafprozessordnung) § 72 (with respect to the criminal sector).
10 LONDON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 1: 5


In pailicuIai, lhe inlioduclion of lhese suljeclive eIenenls of liaining and
neuliaIilv undei lhe Ausliian Medialion Acl is in shaip conliasl vilh lhe
definilions of lhe pioposed LU diieclive vhich consciousIv nakes no
iefeience lo quaIifving ciileiia such as lhe independence oi neuliaIilv of lhe
nedialoi. In oidei lo guaianlee a vide appIicalion of ils iuIes, il is lhe
expiess inlenlion of lhe diieclive lhal ils appIicalion lo a given silualion
shouId le liiggeied lv lhe naluie of lhe piocess in queslion and nol lv vho
has acled as a nedialoi and hov.
18
Wilh iegaid lo lhe nedialoi´s conducl
Luiopean Iav puisues a diffeienl appioach: lhe vaiious iighls and
olIigalions of a nedialoi aie geneiaIIv nol addiessed in lhe diieclive: ialhei
lhev aie deaIl vilh in lhe Luiopean Code of Conducl foi Medialois
piesenled lv lhe Luiopean Connission on IuIv 2, 2OO4.
19

Anolhei ienaikalIe diffeience lo lhe diieclive´s definilion of nedialion is a
voIunlaiv iequiienenl of lhe Ausliian Medialion Acl. WhiIe lhe pioposed
diieclive does nol nake nedialion conpuIsoiv, il aIso does nol excIude lhe
possiliIilv foi nenlei slales lo piovide foi such iuIes, piovided lhev do nol
inpede on anv of lhe pailies´ iighl lo access lo lhe judiciaI svslen, especiaIIv
in cioss-loidei silualions.
2O

III. PrnmntInn nf McdIatInn
The ioIe of lhe Luiopean Union lo diieclIv pionole nedialion is lv
necessilv Iiniled. Thus, lhe diieclive conlains onIv one conciele neasuie lo
foslei lhe use of lhis aIleinalive nelhod of dispule iesoIulion: il olIiges
nenlei slales lo aIIov couils lo iefei pailies lo nedialion (infra 1.). This
oplion of iefeiiaI, hovevei, is seconded lv anolhei inpoilanl neasuie: lhe
diieclive aIso olIiges nenlei slales lo piovide quaIilv nedialion seivices
and lo lhis end sel up quaIified liaining foi nedialois (infra 2.).
1. Rcfcrra! tn McdIatInn
AilicIe 3, paia. 1 of lhe pioposaI piovides lhal

17
See EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP, supra note 5, at 20. See Kollros, Die Rechtsstellung des Mediators
nach dem Zivilrechts-Mediations-Gesetz, 14 ECOLEX 745, 745 (2003).
18
Commission Staff Working Paper, Annex to the proposed mediation directive, supra note 2,
22.10.2004, SEC (2004) 1314;
http://europa.eu.int/comm/justice_home/ejn/adr/adr_ec_annex_mediation_en.pdf.
19
The European Code of Conduct for Mediators was presented by the European Commission on 2 July
2004; http://europa.eu.int/comm/justice_home/ejn/adr/adr_ec_code_conduct_en.pdf. See also infra III.1.
For its drafting history see Mähler & Kerntke, Initiativen der EU - Verhaltenskodex und
Richtlinienvorschlag, 7 ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR KONFLIKTMANAGEMENT 151 (2004).
20
See Article 3, ¶ 2 of the proposed directive and infra III.1.
2005] Meditation Directive 11

a couil lefoie vhich an aclion is lioughl nav, vhen appiopiiale
and having iegaid lo aII ciicunslances of lhe case, invile lhe
pailies lo use nedialion in oidei lo sellIe lhe dispule. The couil
nav in anv evenl iequiie lhe pailies lo allend an infoinalion
session on lhe use of nedialion.
This piovision ensuies lhal lhe pailies al Ieasl considei lhe possiliIilv of
using nedialion foi soIving lheii dispule. Ioi lhis puipose lhe couil nav
even olIige lhe pailies lo allend an infoinalion session on vhal nedialion
is aII aloul. Such an infoinalion session seens pailicuIaiIv suilalIe in cases
vheie il appeais lhal lhe pailies iejecl lhis possiliIilv onIv due lo a Iack of
knovIedge of nedialion. In anv evenl, hovevei, lhe pailies ielain lhe iighl
lo decide vhelhei lo acluaIIv have iecouise lo nedialion oi nol, unIess lhe
use of nedialion has leen nade conpuIsoiv undei lhe appIicalIe nalionaI
Iav. Such IegisIalion vouId nol le in vioIalion of lhe diieclive, since AilicIe
3, paia. 2 of lhe pioposaI expIicilIv slales lhal
lhis diieclive is vilhoul piejudice lo nalionaI IegisIalion naking lhe
use of nedialion conpuIsoiv oi suljecl lo incenlives oi sanclions,
vhelhei lefoie oi aflei judiciaI pioceedings have slailed, piovided
lhal such IegisIalion does nol inpede on lhe iighl of access lo lhe
judiciaI svslen, in pailicuIai in silualions vheie one of lhe pailies is
iesidenl in a Menlei Slale olhei lhan lhal of lhe couil.
In conliasl lo lhe delaiIed piovisions of AilicIe 3, paia. 1 of lhe pioposed
diieclive, lhe Ausliian Code of CiviI Iioceduie onIv conlains a veiv geneiaI
iuIe pioviding lhal:
lhe couil nav, vhen appiopiiale, suggesl lhe pailies an oul-of-couil
dispule iesoIulion.
This piovision has leen incIuded lv lhe 2OO4 Medialion Acl as Iasl senlence
in Seclion 2O4, paia. 1 of lhe Ausliian Code of CiviI Iioceduie in lhe conlexl
of allenpls nade lv lhe judge lo conciIiale lhe pailies in lhe couise of
judiciaI pioceedings. Lven sonevhal noie indefinile piovisions exisl in lhe
2OO3 Non-Conlenlious Iioceedings Acl (Au|crs|rci|gcsc|z)
21
as veII as in lhe
Ausliian CiviI Code (A||gcncincs oùrgcr|icncs Gcsc|zoucn):
Thioughoul lhe pioceedings |on paienlaI iesponsiliIilies, lhe chiId´s
iesidence, oi lhe exeicise of conlacl! lhe couil nusl lake sleps lo

21
Federal Law Gazette (Bundesgesetzblatt, abbreviated BGBl.) I 2003/111, in force since 01.01.2005,
http://www.ris.bka.gv.at.
12 LONDON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 1: 5


ensuie lhe pailies ieach an anicalIe agieenenl.
22
If such an
agieenenl nighl le expecled via lhe suppoil of an oul-of-couil
inslilulion, pioceedings shouId le suspended foi lhe ieIevanl Ienglh
of line nol exceeding six nonlhs, unIess a deIav in lhe decision
vouId inpaii pulIic oi piivale inleiesls piolecled lv lhe
pioceedings.
23

Hovevei, aII lhese iuIes do nol pailicuIaiIv nenlion nedialion noi do lhev
piovide foi anv infoinalion session on nedialion. Thus, lhe Ausliian civiI
pioceduiaI Iav viII have lo le anended accoidingIv.
2. EnsurIng Qua!Itv nf McdIatInn 5crvIccs
To ensuie lhe necessaiv liusl in lhis aIleinalive dispule iesoIulion nelhod,
pailicuIaiIv vilh iegaid lo ils IegaI consequences, ceilain neasuies aie
necessaiv conceining lhe quaIilv of nedialion seivices. Thus, AilicIe 4 of
lhe pioposaI piovides lhal
1. The Connission and lhe Menlei Slales shaII pionole and
encouiage lhe deveIopnenl of and adheience lo voIunlaiv codes of
conducl lv nedialois and oiganisalions pioviding nedialion
seivices, al Connunilv as veII as al nalionaI IeveI, as veII as olhei
effeclive quaIilv conlioI nechanisns conceining lhe piovision of
nedialion seivices.
2. Menlei Slales shaII pionole and encouiage lhe liaining of
nedialois in oidei lo aIIov pailies in dispule lo choose a nedialoi
vho viII le alIe lo effecliveIv conducl nedialion in lhe nannei
expecled lv lhe pailies.
These nechanisns ain al pieseiving lhe aulononv of lhe pailies and lhe
fIexiliIilv of lhe nedialion piocess. To lhis end, lhe pioposed diieclive
piinaiiIv encouiages seIf-ieguIaloiv neasuies al Connunilv as veII as al
nalionaI IeveI lhiough, foi exanpIe, lhe deveIopnenl of voIunlaiv codes of
conducl. Indeed, as aIieadv nenlioned supra. on IuIv 2, 2OO4 lhe Luiopean
Connission piesenled a Luiopean Code of Conducl foi Medialois
24

addiessing kev aspecls of lhe nedialion piocess, such as lhe conpelence

22
§ 13, ¶ 3 of the Non-Contentious Proceedings Act, § 177a, ¶ 1 and 2 of the Austrian Civil Code for
proceedings on the attribution of parental responsibilities and § 108 of the Non-Contentious Proceedings
Act for contact proceedings.
23
§ 29 of the Non-Contentious Proceedings Act.
24
Supra note 19.
2005] Meditation Directive 13

and appoinlnenl of nedialois, lheii independence and inpailiaIilv, lhe
faiiness of lhe piocess, lhe nedialion agieenenl, and lhe queslion of fees.
25

Lven lhough AilicIe 4 of lhe pioposaI puls enphasis on lhe pionolion of
seIf-ieguIalion, vhich lhe Connission al lhis slage has found lo le lhe nosl
appiopiiale poIicv insliunenl foi lhis puipose, lhe pioposed diieclive
Ieaves a Iaige degiee of fieedon lo lhe nenlei slales as lo hov lhe iequiied
quaIilv of lhe nedialion seivices shouId le ensuied. Ausliia does nol
piovide foi conciele seIf-ieguIaloiv neasuies: il ialhei ensuies quaIilv of
nedialion seivices lv nainlaining a Iisl of iegisleied nedialois (|is|c dcr
cingc|ragcncn Mcdia|crcn), ieguIaling liaining of nedialois and eslalIishing a
CounciI foi Medialion (8cira| fùr Mcdia|icn). vho shaII advise lhe IedeiaI
Minislei of Iuslice in aII nedialion nalleis.
The Iisl of nedialois is nainlained lv lhe IedeiaI Minislei of Iuslice and
pulIished eIeclionicaIIv on lhe Inleinel.
26
OnIv lhose vho have leen
enleied on lhis Iisl aie iegisleied nedialois vilhin lhe neaning of lhe
Medialion Acl:
27
lhal is, onIv a iegisleied nedialoi is enlilIed lo lhe speciaI
posilion piovided lv lhe slalule:
28
iegisleied nedialois aie exenpl fion lhe
dulv lo leslifv in civiI and ciininaI pioceedings foIIoving nedialion
29
and
lhev have speciaI iighls and olIigalions undei lhe Medialion Acl, such as
lhe dulv lo insliucl lhe pailies aloul lhe naluie and IegaI consequences of
nedialion and, vhen appiopiiale, aIso aloul lhe need foi IegaI advice.
3O

Anvone vho vanls lo le iegisleied on lhe Iisl of nedialois nusl le ovei 28
veais of age, lechnicaIIv quaIified, liuslvoilhv and nusl have appiopiiale
IialiIilv insuiance.
31
The age iequiienenl is inlended lo guaianlv lhal a
iegisleied nedialoi possesses peisonaI naluiilv and Iife expeiience.
32
ßv
incIuding pioof of liuslvoilhiness as a pieiequisile foi iegislialion, lhe
nedialion Iav adopls a Iicensing iequiienenl Iike lhal iequiied of olhei
piofessionaI gioups, such as judges,
33
alloinevs,
34
nolaiies,
35
psvchoIogisls,

25
For a discussion of the European Code of Conduct‘s provisions in comparison with the Austrian
Mediation Act see Pitkowitz, Die neuen Mediationsregeln der EU - Ist Österreich noch Wegbereiter?, 3
ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR SCHIEDSVERFAHREN - GERMAN ARBITRATION JOURNAL 81, 88-90 (2005).
26
http://www.mediatorenliste.justiz.gv.at/mediatoren/mediatoren.nsf/docs/home; see Austrian Mediation
Act, supra note 3, at § 8.
27
Id. at § 3, ¶ 1, No. 2.
28
See EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP, supra note 5, at 23.
29
See Code of Civil Procedure (Zivilprozessordnung) § 320, No. 4; Code of Criminal Procedure
(Strafprozessordnung) § 152, ¶ 1, No. 5. See also discussion infra Part IV.2.
30
Roth & Markowetz, Rights and Obligations for Mediators under the Austrian Law on Mediation in
Civil Matters, 3 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS LAW BULLETIN (2004), http://www.cils.net/iblb/index.htm.
31
See Austrian Mediation Act, supra note 3, at § 9, ¶ 1, No. 1-4.
32
See EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP, supra note 5, at 24.
33
See Judicial Service Act (Richterdienstgesetz) § 57.
34
See Attorneys Act (Rechtsanwaltsordnung) § 5, ¶ 2 and § 30, ¶ 3.
14 LONDON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 1: 5


and psvcholheiapisls
36
. Tiuslvoilhiness can le pioved lv sulnilling an
exliacl fion lhe iegislei of conviclions lhal is no noie lhan lhiee nonlhs
oId. This can le dispensed vilh onIv if liuslvoilhiness is a IegaI
pieiequisile foi lhe nedialoi´s olhei piofessionaI aclivilies, e.g., as alloinev,
nolaiv, oi psvcholheiapisl.
37

The nedialion Iav pavs speciaI allenlion lo lhe nedialoi´s lechnicaI
quaIificalions: undei Seclion 1O, paia. 1, a nedialoi is lechnicaIIv quaIified if
he oi she has lhe knovIedge and skiIIs foi nedialion lased on speciaIized
liaining and is faniIiai vilh nedialion´s lheoielicaI and IegaI lasis. The
nedialoi´s knovIedge nusl ieIale piinaiiIv lo lhe lheoielicaI lasis of
nedialion, vhich incIudes ils psvchoIogicaI and sociaI lasis. SkiIIs aie nol
neieIv lhe appIicalion of acquiied lheoielicaI knovIedge, lul aIso lhe
piaclicaI expeiience vhich lhe piospeclive nedialoi has acquiied duiing
piaclicaI liaining, such as in ioIe-pIaving. Of couise, a nedialoi nusl aIso
le faniIiai vilh lhe IegaI lasis foi his oi hei aclivilies, pailicuIaiIv lhe
piovisions of lhe nedialion Iav.
38

An appIicanl vho fuIfiIs aII lhe pieiequisiles sel foilh in Seclion 9, paia. 1 of
lhe Medialion Acl has a iighl lo le iegisleied on lhe Iisl of nedialois.
39

Regislialion on lhis Iisl Iasls foi five veais. Wilhin a veai of, lul no Iess lhan
lhiee nonlhs lefoie lhe expiialion of lhe iegislialion, lhe nedialoi can
appIv lo ienev lhe iegislialion.
4O
A iegisleied nedialoi vho no Iongei
neels lhe pieiequisiles foi iegislialion shaII le sliicken fion lhe Iisl. AIso, a
nedialoi vho does nol conpIv vilh lhe conlinuing educalion olIigalion
iequiienenls undei Seclion 2O of lhe Medialion Acl
41
oi olheivise giossIv
vioIales his oi hei dulies, oi does so iepealedIv despile vaining, shaII aIso
le ienoved fion lhe Iisl of iegisleied nedialois.
42

In lhe inleiesls of quaIilv assuiance, lhe liaining needed lo lecone a
iegisleied nedialoi nusl geneiaIIv le conpIeled onIv in educalionaI
eslalIishnenls and nedialion couises Iisled lv lhe IedeiaI Minislei of
Iuslice.
43
Theie aie exceplions, hovevei, pailicuIaiIv foi appIicanls vho
veie liained alioad oi vho acquiied lheii liaining vhen lheie vas no such

35
See Notaries Act (Notariatsordnung) § 11, ¶ 3, No. 1 and § 117a, ¶ 3.
36
See Psychologists Act (Psychologengesetz) § 10, No. 4 and § 11, No. 4.
37
See Austrian Mediation Act, supra note 3, at § 11, ¶ 2.
38
EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP, supra note 5, at 24.
39
Id. at 17.
40
Austrian Mediation Act, supra note 3, at § 13, ¶ 2.
41
A mediator is obliged to take at least 50 hours of training in a five-year period in the form of technical
seminars, workshops, supervision in his or her occupation, case analysis, or similar activities.
42
Austrian Mediation Act, supra note 3, at § 14, ¶ 1.
43
Id. at § 10, ¶ 1.
2005] Meditation Directive 15

Iisl.
44
Undei Seclion 29, paia. 2 of lhe Medialion Acl, lhe lheoielicaI pail of
lhe liaining iequiies 2OO lo 3OO liaining unils and lhe appIicalion-oiienled
pail, 1OO lo 2OO liaining unils. In lhe lheoielicaI pail, fuluie nedialois nusl
acquiie knovIedge in lhe foIIoving najoi aieas: pioceduies, nelhods, and
phases of nedialion: lasics of connunicalion (pailicuIaiIv queslioning and
negolialing lechniques and Ieading and nodeialing discussions): confIicl
anaIvsis: peisonaIilv lheoiv: and elhicaI and IegaI queslions, pailicuIaiIv
civiI Iav queslions ieIaling lo nedialion.
45
The appIicalion-oiienled pail
nusl consisl piinaiiIv of peei gioup voik and case voik, incIuding
pailicipalion in supeivision in lhe aiea of nedialion, and piaclice seninais
lo use nedialion lechniques (foi exanpIe, ioIe pIaving, sinuIalion, and
iefIeclion).
46
Since nedialion and, lheiefoie, ils liaining iequiienenls
conlinue lo deveIop dvnanicaIIv, lhe IedeiaI Minislei of Iuslice is
aulhoiized lo issue ieguIalions vilh noie delaiIed piovisions on lhe
liaining of nedialois aflei consuIling vilh lhe CounciI foi Medialion.
47

Consideiing aII lhese delaiIed neasuies lo ensuie quaIilv of nedialion
seivices in Ausliia, lheie is no need foi fuilhei inpIenenling neasuies. In
lhis iespecl, lhe Ausliian Iav aIieadv fuIIv conpIies vilh lhe pioposed
Luiopean nedialion diieclive.
IV. Rc!atInnshIµ bctwccn McdIatInn and LItIgatInn
The inleiaclion lelveen nedialion and judiciaI pioceedings can lake pIace
al seveiaI occasions: lhe fiisl quile connon silualion is lhal lhe pailies
choose lo use nedialion innedialeIv aflei lhe dispule has aiisen, lul if lhev
faiI lo ieach a sellIenenl agieenenl, lhev sliII vish lo have lheii dispule
Iiligaled in couil. SecondIv, one nav inagine lhal even if a sellIenenl
agieenenl has leen ieached lhiough nedialion, one of lhe pailies nav faiI
lo honoui lhe agieenenl, caIIing foi civiI pioceedings lo le Iaunched
anvvav. And lhiidIv, lheie is lhe silualion in vhich lhe pailies iniliale civiI
pioceedings innedialeIv aflei lhe dispule has aiisen, and onIv al a Ialei
slage of lhe Iiligalion considei lhe possiliIilv of a slav of pioceedings in
oidei lo lake iecouise lo nedialion.
48

Due lo lhe alsence of oi disciepancies lelveen nalionaI pioceduiaI Iavs, lhe
inleiaclion lelveen nedialion and Iiligalion piesenls a nunlei of unceilain

44
See EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP, supra note 5, at 24.
45
See Austrian Mediation Act, supra note 3, at § 29, ¶ 2, No. 1.
46
Id. at § 29, ¶ 2, No. 2.
47
Id. at § 29, ¶ 1. See also id. at § 4, ¶ 1 (stating that this Council is to be set up to advise the Federal
Justice Minister on mediation matters).
48
Explanatory memorandum to the proposed directive, supra note 2, No. 1.1.2.
16 LONDON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 1: 5


eIenenls, such as lhe queslion of vhelhei il is sliII possilIe lo liing a Iavsuil
aflei lhe leininalion of lhe nedialion, nainIv vilh iegaid lo Iinilalion
peiiods. Anolhei concein nighl le vhelhei a sellIenenl agieenenl
concIuded via nedialion viII le honouied lv lhe pailies and nighl
evenluaIIv le enfoiced. AIso, lhe queslion vhelhei infoinalion having leen
discIosed duiing nedialion is adnissilIe as evidence in sulsequenl judiciaI
pioceedings, le lhev ieIaled lo lhe dispule lhal foined lhe suljecl nallei of
lhe nedialion oi nol, nighl le of pailicuIai inleiesl lo lhe pailies. Thus,
even if nedialion nav le lhe nosl suilalIe foin of dispule iesoIulion in a
given case, pailies nav opl foi judiciaI pioceedings in viev of lhese
unceilainlies.
49

Hence, lo cieale IegaI ceilainlv, lhe pioposed diieclive ains al eslalIishing a
slalIe and piediclalIe IegaI fianevoik vilhin lhe Luiopean Union.
Lnsuiing a sound ieIalionship lelveen nedialion and judiciaI pioceedings
conliilules lo pulling nedialion on an equaI fooling vilh judiciaI
pioceedings and lheielv indiieclIv pionoles lhe use of nedialion.
1. Enfnrccmcnt nf 5ctt!cmcnt Agrccmcnts
The possiliIilv foi naking sellIenenl agieenenls enfoicealIe is of pailicuIai
inleiesl in cioss-loidei silualions, vheie one pailv´s faiIuie lo honoui lhe
agieenenl nav foice lhe olhei pailv lo fiIe a Iavsuil in anolhei slale. To
pievenl lhis iisk, AilicIe 5, paia. 1 of lhe pioposed diieclive iequiies
nenlei slales lo piovide appiopiiale pioceduies vheielv a sellIenenl nav
le iendeied enfoicealIe diieclIv aflei lhe nedialion:
5O
lhus
Menlei Slales shaII ensuie lhal, upon iequesl of lhe pailies, a
sellIenenl agieenenl ieached as a iesuIl of a nedialion can le
confiined in a judgnenl, decision, aulhenlic insliunenl oi anv
olhei foin lv a couil oi pulIic aulhoiilv lhal iendeis lhe agieenenl
enfoicealIe in a siniIai nannei as a judgnenl undei nalionaI Iav,
piovided lhal lhe agieenenl is nol conliaiv lo Luiopean Iav oi lo
nalionaI Iav in lhe Menlei Slale vheie lhe iequesl is nade.
The specific pioceduie lv vhich lhe sellIenenl is iendeied enfoicealIe is in
lhe iesponsiliIilv of lhe nenlei slales. The pioposed diieclive iequiies
onIv lhal lhe confeinenl of enfoicealiIilv aIvavs iesl vilh a pulIic aulhoiilv
and do nol fIov diieclIv fion anv iequiienenls of foin oi piocess.
51

Hovevei, vhelhei lhis pulIic aulhoiilv is a couil oi a nolaiv, e.g., is of

49
Ibid.
50
Commission Staff Working Paper, supra note 18, No. 2., Comments on Article 5.
51
Ibidd.
2005] Meditation Directive 17

equaI vaIue. To inciease lianspaiencv as conceins lhe iespeclive aulhoiilies
in lhe vaiious nenlei slales vhich aie conpelenl lo leslov enfoicealiIilv,
AilicIe 5, paia. 2 of lhe pioposaI iequiies:
Menlei Slales lo infoin lhe Connission of lhe couils oi pulIic
aulhoiilies lhal aie conpelenl foi ieceiving a iequesl in accoidance
vilh paiagiaph 1.
The possiliIilv foi iendeiing a sellIenenl agieenenl enfoicealIe aIieadv
exisls in a nunlei of slales: eilhei lv sulnilling lhe agieenenl lo a nolaiv
lo have il confiined in an aulhenlic insliunenl, oi lv sulnilling il lo a
couil foi a specific pioceduie usuaIIv iefeiied lo as ncnc|cga|icn, vheielv
lhe agieenenl is iendeied enfoicealIe in lhe sane vav as a judgnenl.
52

ßolh pioceduies have lhe effecl lhal lhe sellIenenl agieenenl can le
iecognised and enfoiced in anolhei LU nenlei slale undei lhe ReguIalion
ciealing a Luiopean Lnfoicenenl Oidei vilhoul lhe need foi anv
inleinediale pioceedings in lhe slale of enfoicenenl.
53
AIleinaliveIv, an
aulhenlic insliunenl nav aIso le enfoiced undei lhe ßiusseIs I ReguIalion
vhich, hovevei, iequiies a decIaialion of enfoicealiIilv in lhe slale of
enfoicenenl.
54
OnIv nalleis faIIing vilhin lhe scope of lhe ßiusseIs IIlis
ReguIalion aie piiviIeged: in naliinoniaI nalleis and nalleis of paienlaI
iesponsiliIilv agieenenls lelveen pailies lhal aie enfoicealIe in one
nenlei slale of lhe Luiopean Union nav aIso le enfoiced in anolhei
nenlei slale vilhoul having leen appioved oi confiined lv a couil oi
pulIic aulhoiilv.
55

In Ausliia, lhe confeinenl of enfoicealiIilv nav le ollained in seveiaI
foins: lhe nosl connon one is lhal lhe pailies vho have ieached a
sellIenenl via nedialion sulnil lheii agieenenl lo a nolaiv lo have il
confiined in an enfoicealIe nolaiiaI insliunenl.
56
Anolhei possiliIilv is
lhal lhe pailies ask an aililiaI liilunaI lo diav up a iecoid of lhe sellIenenl,

52
Ibid.
53
See Regulation (EC) No. 805/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004
creating a European Enforcement Order for uncontested claims, OJ of April 30, 2004, L 143/15, Articles
3, ¶ 1 lit. a and d, 24 and 25.
54
See Council Regulation (EC) No. 44/2001 of December 2000 on jurisdiction and the recognition and
enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, OJ of January 16, 2001, L 12/1, Article 57 in
connection with Articles 38 ff.
55
Council Regulation (EC) No. 2201/2003 of November 2003 concerning jurisdiction and the recognition
and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and the matters of parental responsibility, repealing
Regulation (EC) No. 1347/2000, OJ of December 23, 2003, L 338/1, Preamble, No. 22.
56
§ 3 of the Austrian Notaries Act (Notariatsordnung), § 1, No. 17 of the Austrian Enforcement Code
(Exekutionsordnung).
18 LONDON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 1: 5


vhich is enfoicealIe undei nalionaI Iav,
57
oi lo iecoid lhe sellIenenl in lhe
foin of an aililiaI avaid on agieed leins,
58
vhich is enfoicealIe nol onIv in
Ausliia, lul aIso inleinalionaIIv undei lhe 1958 UN Convenlion on lhe
Recognilion and Lnfoicenenl of Ioieign AililiaI Avaids (¨Nev Yoik
Convenlion¨).
59
The oplion of having a sellIenenl agieenenl iecoided lv
an aililiaI liilunaI, hovevei, onIv seens suilalIe if pailies lo an aililialion
opl lo sellIe lheii dispule via nedialion and lhen, aflei having iesuned lhe
aililialion, piesenl lheii sellIenenl. A siniIai possiliIilv is avaiIalIe in
judiciaI pioceedings: aflei an allenpl al nedialion pailies nav iesune lhe
Iiligalion and have lheii agieenenl iecoided in lhe foin of an enfoicealIe
couil sellIenenl.
6O
In viev of lhese vaiious possiliIilies lhal exisl undei
Ausliian Iav lo iendei sellIenenl agieenenls ieached lhiough nedialion
enfoicealIe, lheie is no cuiienl need foi fuilhei inpIenenling neasuies in
lhis iegaid.
61

2. PrntcctInn nf CnnfIdcntIa!Itv
The pailies´ ceilainlv lhal infoinalion discIosed duiing lhe nedialion viII
le kepl confidenliaI is of ulnosl inpoilance, since nuluaI liusl is a
pieiequisile foi nedialion lo succeed.
62
Accoiding lo lhe piincipIe of pailv
aulononv, vhich leIongs lo lhe kev advanlages of nedialion, lhe pailies aie
fiee lo agiee on lhe confidenliaIilv of lhe piocess. Theie aie hovevei Iinils
lo vhich an agieenenl of lhe pailies, and a connilnenl of lhe nedialoi,
can effecliveIv piolecl confidenliaIilv. This is nolalIv lhe case in sulsequenl
judiciaI pioceedings, vheie lhe couil nav nol iespecl lhe agieenenl of
confidenliaIilv and consequenlIv adnil, foi exanpIe, lhe nedialoi lo le
heaid as a vilness. Anolhei juslificalion foi IegaIIv ieguIaling lhe pioleclion

57
§ 605, No. 1 of the Proposal for an Arbitration Law Amendment (Schiedsrechts-Änderungsgesetz 2005,
expected date of entering into force: 1.1.2006), § 1, No. 16 of the Austrian Enforcement Code
(Exekutionsordnung). See Liebscher, Country Report-Austria, in PRACTITIONER’S HANDBOOK ON
INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION 574 (WEIGAND ED., 2002).
58
§ 605, No. 2 of the Proposal for an Arbitration Law Amendment (Schiedsrechts-Änderungsgesetz 2005,
expected date of entering into force: 1.1.2006). See OBERHAMMER, ENTWURF EINES NEUEN
SCHIEDSVERFAHRENSRECHTS 113-15 (Rechberger ed., Veröffentlichungen des Ludwig-Boltzmann-
Instituts für Rechtsvorsorge und Urkundenwesen, Vol. XXVII, 2002).
59
UN Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, New York, June 10,
1958, UN-Doc. E/Conf.26/8/Rev.1, Austrian Federal Law Gazette (Bundesgesetzblatt, abbreviated BGBl)
1961/200.
60
§ 204 of the Austrian Code of Civil Procedure (Zivilprozessordnung), Article 58 of the Brussels I
Regulation. See Judgment of 25 January 1989, Austrian Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof), 67
ÖSTERREICHISCHE RICHTERZEITUNG (1989) No. 53.
61
But see Pitkowitz, Die neuen Mediationsregeln der EU - Ist Österreich noch Wegbereiter?, 3
ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR SCHIEDSVERFAHREN - GERMAN ARBITRATION JOURNAL 81, 85-90 (2005) (ignoring the
European Enforcement Order Regulation).
62
See Kollros, Die Rechtsstellung des Mediators nach dem Zivilrechts-Mediations-Gesetz, 14 ECOLEX
745, 745-46 (2003); BREIDENBACH, MEDIATION: STRUKTUR, CHANCEN UND RISKEN DER VERMITTLUNG
IM KONFLIKT 288-89 (1995).
2005] Meditation Directive 19

of confidenliaIilv in nedialion is lhe need lo piovide a connon slandaid foi
nedialois. Sone nedialois leIong lo ieguIaled piofessions vhose nenleis
aie lound lv piofessionaI seciecv, vhiIe olheis do nol. This gives an unfaii
conpelilive advanlage lo lhe foinei gioup, and lheiefoie caIIs foi specific
piovisions lo piolecl lhe confidenliaIilv of ceilain aspecls of lhe nedialion
piocess iegaidIess of lhe nedialoi´s piofession.
63

The pioposed diieclive deaIs vilh lhe queslion of confidenliaIilv of lhe
nedialion piocess in AilicIe 6. This piovision conlains delaiIed ieguIalions
as lo lhe adnissiliIilv of evidence ieIaled lo a nedialion in civiI judiciaI
pioceedings.
64
Il ieads as foIIovs:
1. Medialois, as veII as anv peison invoIved in lhe adninislialion of
nedialion seivices, shaII nol in civiI judiciaI pioceedings give
leslinonv oi evidence iegaiding anv of lhe foIIoving:
(a) An invilalion lv a pailv lo engage in nedialion oi lhe facl lhal a
pailv vas viIIing lo pailicipale in nedialion:
(l) Vievs expiessed oi suggeslions nade lv a pailv in a nedialion
in iespecl of a possilIe sellIenenl of lhe dispule:
(c) Slalenenls oi adnissions nade lv a pailv in lhe couise of lhe
nedialion:
(d) IioposaIs nade lv lhe nedialoi:
(e) The facl lhal a pailv had indicaled ils viIIingness lo accepl a
pioposaI foi a sellIenenl nade lv lhe nedialoi:
(f) A docunenl piepaied soIeIv foi puiposes of lhe nedialion.
2. Iaiagiaph 1 shaII appIv iiiespeclive of lhe foin of lhe infoinalion
oi evidence iefeiied lo lheiein.
3. The discIosuie of lhe infoinalion iefeiied lo in paiagiaph 1 shaII
nol le oideied lv a couil oi olhei judiciaI aulhoiilv in civiI judiciaI
pioceedings and, if such infoinalion is offeied as evidence in
conliavenlion of paiagiaph 1, lhal evidence shaII le liealed as

63
Commission Staff Working Paper, supra note 18, No. 2., Comments on Article 6.
64
The protection of confidentiality outside any subsequent judicial proceedings does not call for a
regulatory intervention. It is purely a question of a contractual rule, which would be made mandatory if it
were to be laid down in law (possibly subject to if the parties have agreed otherwise), and there is not
sufficient public interest to establish binding rules on this issue at Community level. Commission Staff
Working Paper, supra note 18, No. 2., Comments on Article 6.
20 LONDON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 1: 5


inadnissilIe. NeveilheIess, such infoinalion nav le discIosed oi
adnilled in evidence
(a) lo lhe exlenl iequiied foi lhe puiposes of inpIenenlalion oi
enfoicenenl of a sellIenenl agieenenl ieached as a diiecl iesuIl of
lhe nedialion,
(l) foi oveiiiding consideialions of pulIic poIicv, in pailicuIai vhen
iequiied lo ensuie lhe pioleclion of chiIdien oi lo pievenl hain lo
lhe phvsicaI oi psvchoIogicaI inlegiilv of a peison, oi
(c) if lhe nedialoi and lhe pailies agiee lheielo.
4. The piovisions of paiagiaphs 1, 2 and 3 shaII appIv vhelhei oi
nol lhe judiciaI pioceedings ieIale lo lhe dispule lhal is oi vas lhe
suljecl nallei of lhe nedialion.
5. Suljecl lo paiagiaph 1, evidence lhal is olheivise adnissilIe in
judiciaI pioceedings does nol lecone inadnissilIe as a consequence
of having leen used in a nedialion.
AilicIe 6 of lhe pioposed diieclive has leen nodeIIed upon lhe
coiiesponding piovision of AilicIe 1O of lhe UNCITRAL ModeI Iav on
InleinalionaI ConneiciaI ConciIialion.
65
In pailicuIai, lhe consliuclion
chosen vilh an enuneialion of specific poinls vhich aie coveied lv lhe
confidenliaIilv, inslead of a noie geneiic iuIe, has leen consideied lo le
noie appiopiiale having iegaid lo lhe unieguIaled naluie of nedialion and
lhe nedialoi.
66

In conliasl, lhe peilinenl piovision of lhe Ausliian Medialion Acl, Seclion
18, iequiies lhe nedialoi as veII as anv assisling slaff in a veiv geneiaI vav
lo keep confidenliaI anv facls Ieained lv oi enliusled lo hin oi hei in lhe
conlexl of lhe nedialion, as veII as anv docunenls piepaied oi ieceived lv
hin oi hei in lhe conlexl of lhe nedialion. AIong vilh lhe nedialoi´s dulv
lo confidenliaIilv, lhe pailies lo lhe confIicl aie aIso piecIuded fion
inlioducing in judiciaI pioceedings evidence lhal vas gained in lhe
nedialion.
67
A nedialoi vho lieaches his oi hei dulv of confidenliaIilv

65
General Assembly A/57/17; http://www.uncitral.org/english/texts/arbitration/ml-conc-e.pdf. For a
critical analysis of the UNCITRAL model law in light of U.S. mediation law and rules see van Ginkel,
The UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Conciliation. A Critical Appraisal, 21
JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION, 1-65 (2004).
66
Commission Staff Working Paper, supra note 18, No. 2., Comments on Article 6.
67
See EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP, supra note 5, at 30; Kollros, Die Rechtsstellung des Mediators nach
dem Zivilrechts-Mediations-Gesetz, 14 ECOLEX 745, 745-46 (2003).
2005] Meditation Directive 21

nav incui ciininaI IialiIilv undei Seclion 31 of lhe Ausliian Medialion Acl
if lhe conceined pailv expiessIv fiIes foi pioseculion. Hovevei, lhe
nedialoi is nol susceplilIe lo punishnenl foi having discIosed ceilain facls
oi docunenls lecause of a ieasonalIe piivale oi pulIic inleiesl.
68
This is lhe
case, foi exanpIe, if lhe nedialoi infoins lhe poIice of an inninenl ciininaI
acl.
69

AIso accoiding lo lhe pioposed diieclive, exceplions fion lhe piincipIe of
confidenliaIilv can le nade foi oveiiiding consideialions of pulIic poIicv,
vheie as nosl inpoilanl exanpIes lhe pioleclion of chiIdien and lhe
pievenlion of hain lo lhe phvsicaI oi psvchoIogicaI inlegiilv of a peison
have leen speIIed oul. In addilion, an expiess exceplion has leen piovided
foi lhe inleipielalion and enfoicenenl of a sellIenenl agieenenl, since a
couil oi olhei aulhoiilv seized vilh such queslions nusl le alIe lo ieIv on
evidence fion lhe nedialoi lo nake a piopei assessnenl of lhe case. This
nav invoIve, e.g., queslions conceining lhe vaIidilv of lhe sellIenenl
agieenenl oi ils conpIiance vilh nalionaI Iav if enfoicealiIilv is soughl.
The pioposed diieclive, and consequenlIv aIso AilicIe 6 conceining lhe
pioleclion of confidenliaIilv, onIv appIies in civiI nalleis and evidence fion
lhe nedialoi vouId lheiefoie le adnissilIe in ciininaI pioceedings. The
Iinilalion lo civiI pioceedings is anolhei dislinclive fealuie lelveen lhe
pioposed diieclive and Ausliian Iav: in Ausliia, nol onIv lhe Code of CiviI
Iioceduie
7O
, lul aIso lhe Code of CiininaI Iioceduie
71
conlains piiviIeges
foi nedialois: in civiI pioceedings iegisleied nedialois nav nol le
queslioned vilh iespecl lo vhal vas enliusled lo lhen oi Ieained in lhe
conlexl of lhe nedialion. Sonevhal noie Ienienl is lhe peilinenl piovision
foi ciininaI pioceedings. Heie, iegisleied nedialois have lhe iighl lo iefuse
lo give evidence vilh iegaid lo lhe alove nenlioned nalleis, i.c. vilh
iespecl lo vhal vas enliusled lo lhen oi Ieained in lhe couise of nedialion.
Thus, coiiesponding lo Seclion 18 of lhe Ausliian Medialion Acl, aIso in lhe
pioceduiaI codes ve find ialhei geneiaI cIauses piolecling lhe
confidenliaIilv of nedialion.
AII in aII, lhe Ausliian Iav conceining lhe pioleclion of confidenliaIilv of lhe
nedialion piocess and in pailicuIai lhe adnissiliIilv of evidence in
sulsequenl judiciaI pioceedings seens lo le sonevhal sliiclei lhan lhe
peilinenl iuIes of lhe pioposed diieclive. This is nainIv due lo lhe
IegisIalive lechnique of using geneiaI cIauses inslead of enuneialions vilh

68
See Austrian Mediation Act, supra note 3, at § 31, ¶ 2.
69
FUCHSHUBER, MEDIATION IM ZIVILRECHT, NEUE WEGE DER KONFLIKTLÖSUNG 24 (2004).
70
See Austrian Code of Civil Procedure (Zivilprozessordnung), at § 320, No. 4.
71
See Austrian Code of Criminal Procedure (Strafprozessordnung), at § 152, ¶ 1, No. 5.
22 LONDON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 1: 5


iegaid lo lhe pieces of infoinalion oi evidence vhich aie coveied lv lhe
confidenliaIilv iequiienenl. On lhe olhei hand, lhe Ausliian Medialion Acl
aIso uses a lioad geneiaI cIause defining lhe exceplions fion lhe
confidenliaIilv iequiienenl: pulIic and ieasonalIe piivale inleiesls juslifv a
lieach of lhe nedialoi´s dulv of confidenliaIilv.
72
LegaI Iileialuie has
ciilicized lhese exceplions as loo vague, since lhev Ieave a lioad specliun of
inleipielalion open.
73
Il nusl le noled, hovevei, lhal lhese adnilledIv
lioad giounds of juslificalion - lhe pulIic oi ieasonalIe piivale inleiesls -
onIv eIininale lhe nedialoi´s ciininaI IialiIilv, if he oi she opls lo discIose
olheivise piolecled infoinalion: lul lhev do nol piovide foi anv possiliIilv
lo iequiie lhe nedialoi lo give leslinonv oi evidence iegaiding lhe ieIevanl
infoinalion in civiI oi ciininaI pioceedings. Hence, lhe scope of lhe
nenlioned exceplions shouId le exlended levond lhe nedialoi´s ciininaI
IialiIilv lo lhe piiviIeges foi nedialois conlained in lhe codes of civiI and
ciininaI pioceduie.
74

3. 5usµcnsInn nf LImItatInn PcrInds
To ensuie lhal lhe decision of lhe pailies lo use nedialion in a pailicuIai
case viII nol deliacl fion lheii possiliIilies lo iniliale judiciaI pioceedings al
a Ialei slage, shouId lhe nedialion luin oul nol lo le successfuI, lheie nusl
le IegaI piovisions lhal suspend lhe iunning of anv Iinilalion peiiod duiing
lhe nedialion piocess. Olheivise, pailies lo nedialion vouId le undei
piessuie lo fiIe cIains in couil vhiIe lhe nedialion is going on foi no olhei
ieason lhan lo slop lhe Iinilalion peiiod fion iunning. Such lehavioui,
hovevei, vouId le counleipioduclive foi an anicalIe iesoIulion of lhe
dispule and iepiesenl a polenliaI vasle of iesouices of lhe conpelenl couil,
vhich in facl nighl nevei le caIIed upon lo decide lhe case.
AilicIe 7, paia. 1 of lhe pioposed diieclive nanes lhiee occasions vhich
liiggei lhe suspension of anv peiiod of piesciiplion oi Iinilalion iegaiding
lhe cIain lhal is lhe suljecl nallei of lhe nedialion:
(a) lhe pailies agiee lo use nedialion,
(l) lhe use of nedialion is oideied lv a couil, oi
(c) an olIigalion lo use nedialion aiises undei lhe nalionaI Iav of a
Menlei Slale.

72
§ 31 of the Austrian Mediation Act.
73
FERZ/FILLER, MEDIATION, GESETZESTEXT UND KOMMENTAR, § 31 Austrian Mediation Act, at fn. 2.
74
See also Pitkovitz, Die neuen Mediationsregeln der EU - Ist Österreich noch Wegbereiter?, 3
ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR SCHIEDSVERFAHREN - GERMAN ARBITRATION JOURNAL 81, 85 (2005).
2005] Meditation Directive 23

AIso, in AilicIe 7, paia. 2 lhe pioposed diieclive pieciseIv ieguIales lhe
ciicunslances undei vhich lhe peiiod iesunes iunning.
Wheie lhe nedialion has ended vilhoul a sellIenenl agieenenl, lhe
peiiod iesunes iunning fion lhe line lhe nedialion ended vilhoul
a sellIenenl agieenenl, counling fion lhe dale vhen one oi lolh of
lhe pailies oi lhe nedialoi decIaies lhal lhe nedialion is leininaled
oi effecliveIv vilhdiavs fion il. The peiiod shaII in anv evenl
exlend foi al Ieasl one nonlh fion lhe dale vhen il iesunes
iunning, excepl vhen il conceins a peiiod vilhin vhich an aclion
nusl le lioughl lo pievenl lhal a piovisionaI oi siniIai neasuie
ceases lo have effecl oi is ievoked.
In conliasl lo lhis delaiIed piovision, lhe Ausliian Iav on nedialion
ieguIales lhe suspension of Iinilalion peiiods in a ialhei geneiaI vav:
Seclion 22, paia. 1 ieads as foIIovs:
The connencenenl and piopei conlinualion of nedialion lv a
iegisleied nedialoi suspend lhe iunning of lhe line Iinils foi
asseiling iighls and naking cIains affecled lv lhe nedialion.
75

The expIanaloiv noles of lhe Medialion Acl nake il cIeai lhal lhe peiiod of
Iinilalion is suspended foi lhe duialion of lhe nedialion, i.c. lhe Iinilalion
peiiod does nol iesune iunning unliI lhe nedialion is concIuded.
76
As
undei lhe pioposed diieclive, lhe loIIing effecl ieIales onIv lo lhe IegaI
ieIalionship lelveen lhe pailies lo lhe nedialion and does nol affecl cIains
lv oi againsl lhiid pailies.
77

In addilion lo lhis geneiaI iuIe, Seclion 22, paia. 2 of lhe Ausliian Medialion
Acl conlains a specific piovision as lo nedialion in faniIv nalleis. In lhese
cases, lhe suspension of line Iinils coveis aII exisling iighls and cIains of a
faniIv Iav naluie lelveen lhe pailies, even if lhev aie nol diieclIv affecled

75
The suspensive effect applies to statutes of limitations as well as to so-called preclusive periods. Roth
& Markowetz, Bundesgesetz über Mediation in Zivilrechtssachen - Ein Überblick über die neuen
Bestimmungen, 126 JURISTISCHE BLÄTTER, 296, 301-302 (2004). See generally on the suspension of
limitation periods KOZIOL & WELSER, BÜRGERLICHES RECHT I 206 (12
th
ed. 2002); HOLZHAMMER &
ROTH, BÜRGERLICHES RECHT 93-94 (6
th
ed. 2004).
76
§ 22, ¶ 1 of the Mediation Act, however, does not affect current case law under which mere settlement
negotiations only suspend the expiration of the period of limitation until the end of negotiations plus a
short grace period. See EBRV 24 BlgNR XII GP, supra note 5, at 31; Roth & Markowetz, Bundesgesetz
über Mediation in Zivilrechtssachen - Ein Überblick über die neuen Bestimmungen, 126 JURISTISCHE
BLÄTTER, 296, 301-302 (2004); DEIXLER & ROTH, DER ZIVILPROZESS IN DER PRAXIS 71 (3rd ed. 1999)
(providing examples on the suspensive effect of settlement negotiations and references to case law).
77
See EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP, supra note 5, at 31.
24 LONDON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 1: 5


lv lhe nedialion.
78
ßv viillen agieenenl, hovevei, lhe pailies can iesliicl
lhis exlended slav lo ceilain faniIv Iav cIains oi excIude il conpIeleIv.
ConveiseIv, lhe pailies lo a nedialion of olhei civiI nalleis can enlei inlo a
viillen agieenenl aIso suspending line Iinils as lo cIains lelveen lhen
lhal aie nol affecled lv lhe nedialion.
Conpaiing lhe Ausliian nedialion Iav vilh lhe pioposed diieclive, one has
lo nole lhal lesides lhe addilionaI ieguIalion of lhe suspension of Iinilalion
peiiods in faniIv nedialions, Ausliian Iav Iacks lhe specificilv lhe pioposed
diieclive shovs. Wilh iegaid lo lhe suspension of Iinilalion peiiods, lheie
is a lvofoId need foi anending lhe Ausliian nedialion Iav: fiislIv, lhe
suspension of Iinilalion peiiods nusl aIieadv lake pIace al lhe line vhen
lhe pailies agiee lo use nedialion and nol onIv vhen lhe nedialion acluaIIv
connences. The lvo olhei silualions vhich liiggei lhe suspension of
Iinilalion peiiods undei lhe diieclive, hovevei, nav cuiienlIv nol occui in
Ausliia, since lheie is no couil oideied nedialion noi anv olhei olIigalion
lo use nedialion undei Ausliian Iav. The second need foi anendnenl
conceins lhe line fiane foi vhich lhe Iinilalion peiiod exlends aflei lhe
leininalion of lhe nedialion: lhe diieclive specifies an appiopiiale peiiod of
al Ieasl one nonlh excepl foi shoilei peiiods vilhin vhich an aclion nusl le
lioughl lo pievenl piovisionaI neasuies lo eIapse.
V. Cnnc!usInn
In viev of lhe unlapped polenliaI lhal nedialion hoIds as a dispule
iesoIulion nelhod, lolh lhe pioposed LU nedialion diieclive as veII as lhe
Ausliian nedialion Iav puisue lhe sane oljeclive: lo faciIilale access lo
juslice in civiI and conneiciaI nalleis lv pionoling lhe use of nedialion
and ensuiing a sound ieIalionship lelveen nedialion and judiciaI
pioceedings. Theie aie, hovevei, sone inpoilanl diffeiences lelveen lolh
sels of iuIes. AIieadv lhe definilion of nedialion on vhich lhese lexls aie
lased vaiies consideialIv: lo slienglhen lhe confidence in lhis nelhod of
dispule iesoIulion, lhe Ausliian Iav enpIovs a ialhei naiiov nolion of
nedialion, vheieas lhe pioposed diieclive uses a vide definilion
consciousIv avoiding anv Iiniling iefeiences lo suljeclive eIenenls such as
lhe liaining oi neuliaIilv of lhe nedialoi, in oidei lo guaianlee a vide
appIicalion of ils iuIes. Il nav le Iefl open vhich appioach is lellei suiled
lo foslei nedialion: Luiopean Iav pievaiIs and lhus lhe Ausliian Medialion
Acl viII have lo le anended accoidingIv.


78
See Austrian Mediation Act, supra note 3, at § 22, ¶ 2.
2005] Meditation Directive 25

ßolh lhe pioposed diieclive as veII as lhe Ausliian Medialion Acl addiess
sone of lhe kev issues of nedialion, lhough on a diffeienl IeveI of
specificilv: i.c. lhe quaIilv of lhe nedialion seivices incIuding lhe liaining foi
nedialois, lhe pioleclion of confidenliaIilv and lhe suspension of Iinilalion
peiiods. WhiIe lhe Ausliian Iav piovides delaiIed ieguIalions conceining
lhe quaIilv of nedialion seivices and lhe liaining foi nedialois, il onIv
conlains ialhei geneiaI iuIes on lhe inpoilanl queslions of confidenliaIilv
and suspension of Iinilalion peiiods vhich in facl Iack sone of lhe delaiIs
iequiied lv lhe pioposed diieclive. Hence, vilh iegaid lo lhese lopics lhe
Ausliian nedialion Iav nusl le anended in oidei lo confoin lo lhe
pioposed nedialion diieclive.
AIso, lheie is a need lo anend lhe iespeclive piovisions in lhe Ausliian
Code of CiviI Iioceduie on lhe couils´ iefeiiaI lo nedialion. The exisling
iuIe in lhe conlexl of lhe couil´s allenpl lo ieach a sellIenenl agieenenl
seens lo le loo vague and in pailicuIai does nol piovide foi an infoinalion
session on nedialion vhich lhe pioposed diieclive iequiies. On lhe olhei
hand, vilh iegaid lo lhe iecognilion and enfoicenenl of sellIenenl
agieenenls ieached lhiough nedialion, lhe Ausliian Iav aIieadv fuIIv
conpIies vilh lhe iequiienenls of lhe pioposed diieclive, even lhough il
does nol piovide foi a honoIogalion pioceduie. A sellIenenl agieenenl
nav le laken in a nolaiv deed, vhich is enfoicealIe nol onIv undei lhe
aulononous Iav of Ausliia, lul aIso undei Luiopean insliunenls, naneIv
lhe ReguIalion ciealing a Luiopean Lnfoicenenl Oidei as veII as lhe
ßiusseIs I ReguIalion. AIso, a sellIenenl agieenenl nav le iecoided in lhe
foin of a couil sellIenenl oi an aililiaI sellIenenl, oi even an aililiaI
avaid on agieed leins, vhich can le enfoiced in aII nenlei slales lo lhe
Nev Yoik Convenlion on lhe Recognilion and Lnfoicenenl of AililiaI
Avaids.
AII in aII, one nav concIude lhal even lhough Ausliia viII have lo
inpIenenl sone of lhe piovisions conlained in lhe pioposed diieclive, lhe
2OO3 Ausliian Medialion Acl lo a Iaige exlenl aIieadv conpIies vilh lhe
expecled LU iuIes. ßv naking avaiIalIe highIv quaIified nedialion seivices
and lv pioviding a piediclalIe IegaI fianevoik foi nedialion, lhe Ausliian
Medialion Acl has ciealed a IeveI of IegaI ceilainlv lhal heIps lo inciease lhe
acceplance of nedialion in lolh doneslic and inleinalionaI dispules.

* * *












































MED-ARB: A VIABLE HYBRID SOLUTION?
Andrew Burr


Introduction
This article sets out first, to provide a working definition of the concept
“Med-Arb”; secondly, to consider precisely where that concept fits into the
general dispute resolution landscape; thirdly, to provide a short history of its
use (including a bibliography of the available literature), and finally to
consider the various pros and cons of Med-Arb.
A dispute resolution roadmap

† Andrew Burr MA (Cambridge), 1 Atkins Chambers, Barrister specialising primarily in domestic and
international construction and technology disputes. Acts generally as advocate in litigation and
arbitration, in an advisory capacity with regard to ADR and sits as adjudicator under the TeCSA rules.
Member of Midland and Oxford and European Circuits, TECBAR and COMBAR.
Negotiation
Mediation
Settlement
conference
Parties attempt to reach
joint settlement
Mediator assists parties
in negotiations and
facilitates settlement
Neutral performs case
evaluation and advises as
to probable result; assists
in negotiations
Low cost; reduced stress
compared to litigation
Less direct and indirect
cost; reduced stress
compared to litigation
Less direct and indirect
cost; reduced stress
compared to litigation
28 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:27
Dispute resolution methodologies
Alternative dispute resolution (ADR), touted as the fast and cost-effective
solution to litigation, is often regarded as cumbersome, time-consuming and
as costly as many cases put before the courts. But parties that enter into ADR
often enjoy a more economical resolution and a speedier determination of
the issues in dispute than if the case was litigated.
Early neutral
evaluation
Mini-trial
Summary jury trial
Evaluator narrows
issues; assists with
discovery plan, case
management and
settlement
Panel hears summary
case presentation;
neutral panel member
may assist with
settlement negotiations
Voluntary, or paid jury,
hears summary case
presentations and issues
non-binding decision
Less direct and indirect
cost; reduced stress
compared to litigation
Structured adversarial
case presentation;
voluntary, or court
ordered
Structured adversarial
case presentation;
voluntary, or court
ordered
Med-Arb
Arbitration
Litigation
Mediator assists parties
in negotiation. If no
settlement continues to
arbitration
Arbitrator presides over
case and issues a
binding award subject to
court review
Judge hears case
presentation and issues
binding judgment subject
to appeal
Private, confidential
assisted negotiation.
Structured proceeding if
case goes to arbitration
Structured adversarial
case presentation;
voluntary, contractual, or
court ordered
Structured adversarial
case presentation
Figure 1 : Explanation of dispute resolution methods. Mediation is the least
adversarial whilst litigation is the most so. The selected method should obviously
match the perceived needs of the case and of the particular clients.
2005] MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution 29
Figure 1 above highlights the available methods of dispute resolution which
are examined in greater detail below. Each process has its advantages but
also carries risks. Proper use requires a thorough analysis of the case, the
parties’ needs and the potential methods of resolution. The objective should
be to employ the least expensive and intrusive method to achieve the most
positive result for the client, whilst also taking into account the personality
of the parties; vexatious would-be litigants are unlikely to be content with a
straightforward mediation process. The following summary adopts a
“trickle-up” approach.
Negotiation
Negotiating a settlement is an efficient and cost effective way to resolve
disputes as settlement is reached without the expense of a neutral third
party but may not be appropriate if one of the parties is in a position of
power or control over the other. Since it is based on voluntary disclosure of
information and good faith of the parties discovery may need to be
undertaken.
Mediation
Mediation is recommended when the parties’ emotions or positional
bargaining have restricted their ability to negotiate but they do not wish to
hand the decision-making to a judge or arbitrator. The mediator, a neutral
and impartial third party, facilitates communication between the parties but
has no decision-making authority and cannot give legal advice. It is
inappropriate if the case requires precedent-setting issues for judicial
opinion and may not be successful if the mediator’s attitude or style is
inconsistent with the needs of the parties. Mediation does however increase
the likelihood of settlement.
Settlement conferencing
A neutral and impartial legal professional hears both sides of the case,
conducts an informal assessment and negotiation session and then may
advise the parties on the law and precedent relating to the dispute and
suggest a settlement. The difference between mediation and a settlement
conference is primarily one of style: mediation uses facilitative bargaining
techniques and settlement conferences use directive and reality-testing
techniques. There are risks involved in settlement conferences as some
element of trial strategy may be disclosed or compromised in the process.
Early neutral evaluation
30 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:27
The parties’ perception of the dispute and their expectation with regard to
the final decision are a major factor in the parties’ determination to continue
with proceedings rather than accept settlement. Clarification of the dispute
can make a decision to reach settlement, but who should provide
clarification? Neutral evaluation is the recommended tool for promoting a
settlement.
A neutral evaluator is either appointed by the court or the parties and
intervenes in order to narrow the issues, assist in case planning and
management and, if appropriate, assist in settlement. Early neutral
evaluation (ENE) is non-binding and confidential evaluation process
conducted in the early stage of a lawsuit by an experienced litigator.
ENE though does have its drawbacks when combined with arbitration. In
complex cases, the neutral evaluator requires considerable time and effort to
study the case and the parties are left asking why they should pay both an
arbitral tribunal and a neutral evaluator to do more or less the same work.
Mini-trial
In a mini-trial, a neutral and an official with settlement authority from each
party listens to the evidence and conduct settlement negotiations. The mini-
trial combines elements of negotiation, mediation and adjudication to
facilitate settlement with the objective of achieving settlement between top
decision-makers of the parties. The risks of using mini-trial include possible
disclosure of trial strategies and the added expense and delay if a trial is
required, but they can be an efficient and cost-effective method of resolving
complex litigation disputes.
Summary jury trial
Summary presentations in complex cases are made before a jury empanelled
to make findings which may or may not be binding and is the only ADR
method providing for case presentation before a jury. The objective here is to
provide litigants with a jury verdict to help them facilitate settlement and
can be an effective, low-risk method to obtain a case assessment on which to
base settlement negotiations.
Med-Arb
Med-Arb is a process whereby a neutral third party is employed to first
serve as a mediator and then as an arbitrator if mediation fails to resolve the
2005] MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution 31
dispute. This process is a combination of mediation and arbitration and has
the benefit that if mediation fails, the parties can move to arbitration to reach
a binding decision. There are risks involved in that the parties may not
disclose facts to the mediator if there is a possibility that he will become
arbitrator.
The process works best when the parties are of relatively equal bargaining
experience and when the efficiency of Med-Arb outweighs the strategic
effect of the mediator’s anticipated role change. It is cost effective since the
same neutral can decide the case and it can help the parties preserve their
relationship by promoting communication and settlement and using
arbitration only to decide those issues upon which settlement cannot be
reached.
Essentially, Med-Arb provides leveraged mediation and when used
successfully the parties rarely go to the arbitration phase.
Arbitration
One or more neutral and impartial expert third parties hear and consider the
evidence provided by the disputing parties and issue a binding or non-
binding decision. Although arbitration is less formal than court proceedings
it is still adversarial. The arbitrator’s decision may be legally binding on the
parties and is enforceable by any court having jurisdiction. The decision can
be non-binding and advisory only if the parties agree in advance.
Differences between mediation and arbitration
Whether parties enter into arbitration or mediation is largely determined
through contractual obligation, voluntary agreement or court order.
Arbitration’s objective is to reach a final and binding award, whereas
mediation’s intention is to bring the parties to a binding agreement,
although this is not an automatic outcome of the process. The arbitrator’s
duty is to make a binding decision, but the mediator has neither duty nor
authority to do so.
In arbitration and litigation, the arbitrator or judge makes a decision in
accordance with the law. However, mediators are able to promote
settlements which go beyond the confines of the contract and the parties are
subject only to public policy in reaching an agreement.
If the arbitrator sees potential for settlement he may recommend the parties
make an attempt at conciliation. The practice of such recommendations is
current in the national courts of a number of countries as illustrated below:
32 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:27
Figure 2: National court practice in recommending conciliation
This mediation window is met with favour by some arbitration practitioners
but is rarely used in international arbitration. The parties believe that having
engaged in arbitration the arbitral tribunal should settle the dispute and
resent the perceived attempt of the tribunal to transfer its task to a mediator.
An arbitral tribunal may decide certain critical issues in advance of others
and if the parties do not reach agreement the task of a mediator may be used
by the partial award. The effectiveness of a partial award can be questioned
since it treats only part of the dispute and favours the party with the
stronger case concerning the issues decided. That same party however may
be less successful on other issues that have yet to be decided.
Is Med-Arb possible?
The most efficient combination of arbitration and mediation is when the
same person acts both as arbitrator and mediator. But is such a combination
possible? Judges in common law countries are not permitted to become
involved in settlement facilitation, but in civil law countries, the position
varies:
Country Practice
England The Commercial Court issued a Practice Statement where
if the judge feels the action or issues are appropriate for an
attempt at ADR settlement and the parties have not
previously done so, s/he can invite the parties to set ADR
procedures in motion and adjourn proceedings to enable
the parties to take such steps
France Judicial mediation where the court appoints “médiateur”
(consultant/expert) to discuss the case with the parties
outside court. The mediator reports the result, success or
failure, without releasing information about the content of
the mediation or the parties’ position
United
States
Annexed mediation is a frequent feature and is sometimes
required by law
2005] MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution 33
Country Position
Austria/ Germany
Judge can stay any stage of the proceedings to
see if an amicable settlement of the dispute or
any contentious issues can be resolved
Brazil
Section 125 of the Code of Civil Procedures
expressly proscribes conciliation between the
parties as a judicial duty
France
Mediation is expressly mentioned as one
function of a judge
Italy No provision exists in civil law
Mexico
Combination is not permitted. Conciliatory
efforts are performed by a court official
different from the judge trying the case
Sweden
The law requires courts under certain
circumstances to promote settlement but in
practice judges are reluctant to get involved in
settlement attempts by the parties
Switzerland
The practice is known is some cantons, but not
others
Turkey Not permissible
Figure 3: Civil law countries’ approach to Med-Arb
There is therefore a variety of, and fundamental differences in, attitudes
towards a combination of arbitration and mediation, which is reflected in
the cultural differences regarding arbitration and dispute settlement
procedures in general. Conflicts arise where parties of different cultural
background and different experiences meet in international arbitration. It is
necessary for the arbitrators and counsel to proceed with caution when
conducting Med-Arb and when settling procedural aspects of such
combination. The following should be taken into consideration when a case
in arbitration moves to mediation:
(i) Idea of settlement discussions;
(ii) Starting conciliation proceedings;
34 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:27
(iii) Participants in the mediation;
(iv) Methods and scope of the discussion;
(v) Settlement proposals;
(vi) Meeting parties separately;
(vii) After the conciliation.
(i) Settlement discussions
The arbitral tribunal must not engage in settlement attempts without
the parties’ prior consent. It must be cautious when raising the idea
of assisting the parties in their settlement attempts and be aware
that the parties have conflicting expectations and interests.
Arbitrators should leave no doubt about their willingness to decide
a dispute and all issues which the parties fail to settle. If the tribunal
is prepared to assist the parties in their settlement attempt at a later
stage in the proceedings the parties should be made aware of this
from the start and be allowed to express reservations, even if the
attempt is envisaged only for a later stage.
(ii) Starting conciliation
In view of the differences between arbitration and mediation it is
important to distinguish between the two. When the arbitrator
commences mediation, all parties should be made aware that they
are entering a new stage of the proceedings. At this time, all points
giving rise to the conflict and differences in Med-Arb must be
clarified.
It is worth considering confirming that settlement is made at the
request or express consent of the parties; that in case settlement fails
arbitration may proceed before the same arbitral tribunal and that
participation of the arbitrator in mediation is no grounds for the
parties objecting to that person as arbitrator; that if agreed the
arbitral tribunal is required to make a settlement proposal; and if so
agreed the arbitrator may meet the parties separately.
(iii) Participants
The mediation process must be supported by a full arbitral tribunal.
Meetings should be attended by decision makers within the
organisation and that those involved in the origin of the dispute
should be discouraged from creating a negative impact when their
own responsibilities and emotions are involved.
2005] MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution 35
(iv) Method and scope
The arbitrator may give an indication to the parties of the views that
might be taken when deciding the case but avoid any exaggeration,
e.g. cost, duration, to avoid the risk of a negative outcome. Pressure
on the parties in their efforts to reach a settlement should also be
avoided although some situations may be justified, for example,
where the solution to the dispute in a decision based on law may not
make commercial sense or the value of the dispute is out of
proportion to the costs.
(v) Settlement proposals
Is it admissible or suitable to make a settlement proposal? The
specific request or authority must be given to the mediator before
such a proposal can be made.
(vi) Meeting parties separately
This aspect of mediation raises the most serious objections to the
arbitrator’s settlement efforts. There is widespread opposition in
common law countries to private meetings with parties, for
example:
The objections raised concern:
(i) the effectiveness of conciliation and private meetings if the mediator
later has to decide the case as arbitrator (providing the parties agree,
it cannot now be argued that it is inadmissible for a mediator to
continue as arbitrator); and
(ii) continuation of proceedings after a failure of settlement
attempt and use of confidential information obtained by the
arbitrator in private meetings.
(vii) Post conciliation
If mediation is successful, it is advisable to record the settlement.
The parties may agreed on an award by consent which is
enforceable like any other award.
Germany Against
Hong Kong Positive reaction
India Not permissible
Switzerland Not uncommon but controversial
USA Against
36 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:27
If mediation fails, arbitration will normally have to continue. All is
not lost however since the mediation may have produced
clarification on certain points which may be used in arbitration and
the task of the tribunal may be reduced to a choice between the last
two offers made in mediation. It should also be decided if a new
argument or evidence may be presented or if the tribunal must
decide the case as it stands at the end of the settlement attempt.
Why choose Med-Arb?
In essence, Med-Arb harnesses the benefits of mediation with the comfort of
knowing that should agreement fail to be reached, the parties can continue
to arbitration. The table below examines the rôles of mediation and
arbitration and how Med-Arb is formed.
Figure 4: Differences between mediation, arbitration and Med-Arb
Mediation Arbitration Med-Arb
The traditional role of
the mediator is that of
a person engaged to
assist the parties in
reaching settlement
without conferring
decision making
powers on him. The
starting point of
mediation is a
dispute. In mediation
taking place outside
of or pending
litigation or
arbitration the
mediator looks for
elements beyond the
dispute to enlarge the
scope of a possible
settlement and create
grounds for the
outcome to satisfy all
parties.
The traditional
western form of the
arbitration process is a
two-staged process
whereby the parties
present their case,
bringing evidence and
argument they believe
is needed to support
it. The tribunal then
decides the dispute.
The third party
intervening to bring
about settlement is
expected to be a
professional and
unrelated either to the
parties or the dispute.
The scope of the
dispute before the
arbitrator places
constraints on the
mediator’s efforts. As
a result, settlement
efforts by the court or
arbitral tribunal
differs in scope from
the mediator’s acting
in a manner unrelated
to pending court or
arbitration
proceedings
2005] MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution 37
Figure 5: The Med-Arb process
Pros and cons of Med-Arb
Pros
Cost Arbitration, especially international arbitration, is
expensive and complex, but Med-Arb allows the
parties to achieve early case resolution with huge
cost savings
Creative solutions Med-Arb less biased and ritualistic than
arbitration and covers more human elements such
as politics, cultural differences, effective
communication, as opposed to litigation-relevant
selection of facts
Building trust Effective mediators help to structure negotiating
teams and negotiations, provide creative solutions
and can give a reality-check to the parties
Style Arbitrators can be too passive or make procedural
orders by rote with little or no regard to cost to the
parties of compliance
Cons
Confidentiality The parties fear abuse of documentary disclosure
especially if the dispute proceeds to arbitration
and confidential information has been given to the
mediator
Separate party
meetings
The largest barrier to adopting Med-Arb as one
party may fear confidential information may be
released to the other party during settlement
discussions. The solution here may be to suggest
that the mediator should forget what he has heard
in the confidential meetings or that the mediator
should decide whether information obtained
during settlement discussions prevents him from
continuing as arbitrator

Mediation Arbitration Med-arb
Unable to
reach
settlement
Settle and
issue non-
binding
agreement
38 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:27
discussions. The solution here may be to suggest
that the mediator should forget what he has heard
in the confidential meetings or that the mediator
should decide whether information obtained
during settlement discussions prevents him from
continuing as arbitrator
Some recorded examples
The title to this paper obviously raises a number of sub-issues, namely:
• A solution to what?
• Is there only one form of this hybrid?
• When, why and in what solution viable?
In this regard, we should also bear in mind that, less than ten years ago,
Professor van den Berg (for one) strongly disapproved of the process and
memorably described it as “talking with two tongues in cross-cultural
confusion”.
A solution to what?
The first sub-question seems to the author to be the most important and,
perhaps, also the easiest and quickest to answer. This paper proceeds upon
the basis that we are here concerned with the satisfactory resolution of
substantial commercial disputes in the most speedy and cost-effective
manner.
In other words, the following arenas, in particular, are ignored for the
purposes of the present discussion:
• Consumer affairs: see, for example, the Association of British
Travel Agents/ Chartered Institute of Arbitrators Med-Arb
scheme for tour operators and travel agents;
1
• Employment and labour relations: see, for example, the Labour
Relations Code of British Columbia;
2
• Matrimonial differences: see, for example, the Institute of Family
Mediation and Arbitration in the United Kingdom.
3

1
Launched in May 2003: see the website of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (www.arbitrators.org).
2
Described in Med-arb: Fraught with danger or ripe with opportunity?, by David Elliott (1996)
Arbitration 175.
3
Please see page 231 of ADR Principles and Practice (second edition), by Henry Brown and Arthur
Marriott QC.
2005] MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution 39
Is there only one hybrid?
There are many variations on the theme. As David Elliott stated in an article
published some eight years ago:
4
“An increasing number of variations on the med/arb process are emerging:
• mediate first and, if mediation fails, arbitrate;
start arbitration proceedings and allow for mediation at some
point during the arbitration;
• mediate some issues and arbitrate others;
• mediate, then arbitrate some unresolved issues, then return to
mediation;
• mediate, if unsuccessful ask for an “advisory opinion” by the
mediator, which is binding as an award, unless either party
vetoes the opinion within a limited period of time.
• Another med/arb variation growing in popularity is
mediation, if unsuccessful, followed by a final offer by each
side, coupled with limited argument, following which the
mediator turned arbitrator must choose one or other of the
offers.”
A further variant, sometimes called “co-Med-Arb", addresses the problems
of confidential (and unfavourable) information by having two different
people perform the rôles of mediator and arbitrator. Jointly, they preside
over an information exchange as between the parties, after which the
mediator works with the parties in the absence of the arbitrator. If mediation
fails to achieve a settlement, the case (or any unresolved issues therein) can
then be submitted to the arbitrator for a binding decision.
As with all modern forms of dispute resolution, it is therefore always
necessary to consider the method appropriate for any given set of
circumstances. This particular paper concentrates primarily upon the second
of the above alternatives (namely allowing for the use of mediation in the
course of ongoing arbitral proceedings) and that is what it will do. Professor
Pieter Sanders has charmingly described this “mediation window” As the
‘intermezzo’.
5
What relevant laws, or rules, apply?

4
Please see footnote 2 above.
5
Please see page 174 of Cross-border arbitration- a view on the future, by Professor Pieter Sanders
(1996) Arbitration 168.
40 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:27
Around the world, various statutory provisions permit the same individual
to combine the rôles of mediator (or conciliator) and arbitrator. These
include the following examples:
• The Bermuda Conciliation and Arbitration Act;
• Section 2B of the Hong Kong Arbitration Ordnance 1990’
• Article 38(4) of the Japanese Arbitration Act;
• Section 27 of the New South Wales Commercial Arbitration
Act 1990 Amendment;
• Article 1043 of The Netherlands Arbitration Act 1996;
• Section 17 of the Singapore International Arbitration Act 1994.
In addition, the following exemplify particular rules which specifically
permit similar provision:
• Rule 11(5) of the Rules for International Commercial
Arbitration and Conciliation Proceedings of the British
Columbia International Commercial Arbitration Centre;
• Article 13 of the WIPO Mediation Rules.
When, why and in what circumstances is the solution viable?
A review of the available literature reveals a limited number of specific
examples from different jurisdictions of the practical application of Med-
Arb, each of which is cited at some length below. Other helpful examples
were also gathered together in the extremely comprehensive paper delivered
by Michael Schneider to the ICCA Congress in Seoul in 1996

.
6
The Canadian experience
Haig Oghigian reported in an article published in 2002,
7
as follows:
…..in the three instances where I have employed this concept, the
parties, though in significant commercial dispute, expressly stated
their intent to continue their business relationship and……they
had no intention of terminating their relationship……..in all three
cases, one party was Japanese and the other American…….

6
Combining arbitration with conciliation, by Michael E Schneider (1996) ICCA Congress Series no. 8, at
pages 9 to 11 inclusive.
7
arbitrators acting as mediators, by Haig Oghigian (2002) Arbitration 42, at pages 44 to 45.
2005] MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution 41
It dawned on me that the most effective way to disarm a possible
challenge to my ability to maintain my impartiality in both roles, as
arbitrator as well as mediator, was to switch the order of my functions;
arb/med rather than med/arb….the meetings began much in the same
way as a full blown arbitration hearing begins, with briefs prepared in
advance of the hearing date and full formal presentations by the parties
to the single arbitrator.
After free and full questions, answers and dialogue followed (the
shortest period was one day, the longest three) in the context of a
hearing. In all cases, I adjourned and went off to prepare a formal
arbitral award, advising the parties that I wished to meet them the next
morning (or in one instance the following) to provide them with my
award. At that meeting I placed an envelope on the table which
contained two copies of my full arbitral award, signed and sealed. I
informed the parties that I was now fully discharged, and vacated, of
my duties and office as an arbitrator. I then suggested that if they both
wished and both agreed, I would be prepared to attempt to mediate the
dispute between them. The rules were that they had to agree to this in
writing and all of us (each party as well as myself) would, at any time,
be free to stop the proceedings and call for a termination of the process.
In all three cases, the parties eagerly accepted the suggestion for
mediation because neither party wanted to see what the envelope
contained. Of course, the envelope, to one degree or another,
proclaimed a winner and a loser. Particularly where the parties
apparently expected to continue a business relationship, this all or
nothing solution was judged to be better avoided if possible. In all three
cases the matter was successfully mediated and settled.
I might say that the parties were much more focused during the
mediation part of the process; First, because they felt that they had been
given a full chance, in the adversarial sense, to put their case in its best
possible light. During the post-arbitral mediation, this resulted in less
grandstanding and belligerency. There was a clear atmosphere,
motivated much more purely to avoid a win/lose situation and to focus
on compromise to achieve settlement. At the same time, my rôle as a
mediator became liberated and empowered. Liberated because I could
be assertive (in a positive sense) and somewhat opinionated, without
ruffling feathers or risking the possibility that someone could claim bias.
My arbitral award was already on the table and, after all, at any point
either party could end the mediation. Empowered, because I now knew
the soft spots of each party’s case and could move them towards seeing
42 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:27
a possible compromise solution with a free hand and foreknowledge. In
essence I was able to avoid the risk of bias.
In short, I was able to play a much more effective rôle as a mediator
where I was vacated of my responsibilities and duties as an arbitrator
and could, by agreement and voluntarily, bring out the interests and
weaknesses of the parties in order to expand the dialogue and achieve
settlement.
A final advantage of this modus operandi is that it avoids another
common problem of Med-Arb: if it is understood that the mediator will
become the arbitrator in due course, the parties may well use the process
to present their position not with a genuine view to achieving a
settlement but rather, tactically, to lay the groundwork for the
subsequent adjudicatory phase of the process.”
In this Canadian example of Med-Arb, the time and cost of arbitration is
not therefore avoided; on the contrary, success is almost dependent
upon it. The real driver here appears to have been the ultimate wish of
the parties to continue their commercial relationship.
The Hong Kong experience
Michael Thomas CMG QC has recorded, in an article,
8
his following
experience in 1992:
An overseas party claimed liquidated and unliquidated
damages from a Chinese party for a delay in completing a
building project. The pleadings showed disputes about the date
for completion, why time slipped, possible extensions, and
waiver and so on. The sum claimed approached US $1m and
there were counterclaims.
Each party had appointed an arbitrator, and they in turn had appointed
me as the third. After directing pleadings, we decided to convene a
meeting for directions with an agenda. Among the topics we raised in
advance was ‘whether there should be any formal or informal process of
mediation or conciliation prior to the hearing of the arbitration, and if
so, when and by whom it should be undertaken?’

8
Mediation at work in Hong Kong, by Michael Thomas CMG QC (1992) Arbitration 29.
2005] MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution 43
At the hearing, both parties asked if I would be willing to mediate. I
said I would if we could agree a procedure. The minute of the agreed
outcome of discussions provided for a ‘standstill’ in the arbitration for
two months pending my efforts to conciliate, that I could contact or meet
with the parties separately or together (and without lawyers) at my
choice, that everything said or done for the purpose of conciliation could
not be referred to at the arbitration, and that my fees (on hourly rates
quoted) would be costs in the arbitration, and that I should continue to
act as the third arbitrator if mediation failed.
I thereafter spent some hours in conversation with the parties separately
trying to convey to each of them where I saw the strengths and the
weaknesses of their case, and drawing attention to the wider commercial
interests that made a settlement desirable. Finally, I saw them together
before sending them off to discuss the matter between themselves. After
some hours while I remained ‘in waiting’ and they separately reported
progress to me by telephone, a settlement was concluded. It happened
to be at the figure which beforehand I had privately indicated to the
paying party as my best guess of the lowest figure that the other party
would be likely to accept in settlement.”
The learned author notes, however, that the following factors almost
certainly assisted his task in this particular case:
The dispute was not overly complicated. The Chinese party was
unfamiliar with Hong Kong arbitral procedures, and was not at first
represented by a local lawyer. A good deal of my input was to
counsel them frankly on their case, and where it might come
unstuck. The other party may have benefited from hearing a little
world-weary advice to contrast with its own lawyers’ ebullience.
The paying party may have been assisted in obtaining clearance
from higher authority to settle because it had my approval as a
reasonable outcome.
This, perhaps, is an example of a relatively inexperienced Oriental party
being guided to a mutually satisfactory solution, rather than a case of
any more general application.
The Singapore experience
Michael Hwang SC reported to the 2004 ICCA Congress,
9
as follows:

9
The rôle of arbitrators as settlement facilitators, by Michael Hwang SC (ICCA paper, 2004), at page 12.
44 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:27
The only known case of Arb-Med in Singapore took place at the
SIAC and involved a Chinese party and a German party. The
tribunal was made up of three arbitrators, a German, a Chinese and
a Singaporean, and it had to decide:
(a) whether or not there was a breach of contract by the
German party;
(b) if so, the quantum of the loss suffered by the Chinese party; and
whether or not the Germans were entitled to rely on a contractual
provision which limited their liability.
At the start of the hearing, the German arbitrator suggested that the
parties should settle and asked whether there was anything that the
tribunal could do to assist the parties to reach a settlement.
Subsequently, it was decided that the tribunal would give the parties a
preliminary indication of the merits of the case at the end of the Chinese
Claimant’s case. The tribunal was careful to make it clear that the
preliminary indication was not conclusive and was merely based on the
evidence and arguments that had been given at that stage.
The tribunal eventually indicated that is thought that the Chinese party
had a 60% chance of succeeding on its claim for breach of contract. The
tribunal also gave an indication of what it thought was the loss suffered
by the Chinese party. Lastly, the tribunal considered that the Chinese
party had only a 40% chance of succeeding on the issue of whether the
Germans were entitled to rely on the contractual provision limiting their
liability.
The German arbitrator then proposed a settlement on the basis that the
Chinese party should recover 60% of that part of the loss within the
purported limit and 40% of 60% (i.e. 24%) of that part of the loss
exceeding the purported limit.
The settlement figure proposed by the German arbitrator was then used
as a starting point for further negotiations and, eventually, a settlement
was reached which did not deviate too far from the starting point.”
2005] MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution 45
This is therefore an example of parties being helped to find the “zone of
possible agreement” (ZOPA),
10
by a careful sub-division of the issues
and a detailed consideration of the risks affecting each.
The Swiss experience
Professor Pierre Lalive observed to the same audience,
11
as follows:
My own experience of such a situation is very limited, I must confess,
and it clearly does not allow general conclusion. One special and
perhaps unique example comes to my mind, of a rather complex case
in which the parties and the Tribunal finally agreed on the following
‘quasi-conciliation procedure’ during the arbitration- only the broad
lines of which need be described here. After the 3 member-panel had
read the memorials and heard oral arguments, they had a preliminary
discussion of the merits, and formed a certain idea of the respective
weaknesses in each side’s argument, then it was decided: (a) that each
Party would confer separately with the Arbitrator it had nominated;
(b) following which the two Arbitrators would report to the Chairman
and confer on the possibility of concessions on each side; (c) then, in a
second stage of separate discussions, each Party would confer
separately with the Arbitrator nominated by the opposite party; (d)
following which the full Tribunal would meet again and examine the
situation; (e) then the Chairman would meet, alone, with each Party
separately, and report to his fellow-Arbitrators; (f) following which
the whole Tribunal would meet with the Parties and later, in case no
agreement was then reached, would deliver an award. In the (unique)
case I have in mind, the Parties settled directly, between stage (e) and
(f) and if I remember correctly, they asked the Tribunal to issue a
consent award (‘Sentence d’accord parties’).
The learned author notes, however, as follows:
• Whilst the circumstances of the case might have justified this complex
procedure, it cannot be proposed as a model;
It is nevertheless an interesting illustration of the various possibilities
offered of the arbitrator in his rôle as settlement facilitator, as well as of
the inevitable risks involved in such a rôle.

10
Described by Joerg Risse at the Heidelberg meeting of the European Branch of the Chartered Institute
of Arbitrators, in May 2004.
11
The rôle of arbitrators as settlement negotiators, by Professor Pierre Lalive (ICCA paper, 2004), at
page 12.
46 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:27
Some personal observations
Particularly when sitting as adjudicator under the Housing Grants,
Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 (HGCRA) (a rôle which results
in a binding and generally enforceable decision in construction disputes,
subject to any subsequent arbitration, or litigation), the author
frequently feels the urge (which is invariably repressed!) to explore with
the parties the ZOPA,
12
having first explored the underlying contractual
and factual background. There is little doubt in my mind that, were
appropriate agreements between the parties to be put in place (which is
difficult, if not impossible, in the particular fast track statutory
circumstances under the MGCRA), a mutually satisfactory resolution
could almost be achieved without the necessity for a formal decision
(and, perhaps, the necessity to enforce the same). This impression is
reinforced by the author’s experience in teaching courses on dispute
resolution, particularly with regard to consumer disputes and utilities
issues.
13
Conclusions
In 2001, the English adjudicator whose conduct and decision was the
subject-matter of the decision in Glencot Development and Design Company
Limited v Ben Barrett and Son Limited,
14
posed the question “Should an
arbitrator or adjudicator act as a mediator in the same dispute”. His article,
15
concluded as follows:
“With (adequate) safeguards in mind, the short answer to the question
posed in the title of this paper is yes, subject to the fulfillment of the key
criteria. On the assumption of the appropriateness of the approach in
question for all or part of the dispute:
• when shifting from one process and one rôle to another the
parties should be fully aware of the implications;
• parties should be required to enter a written agreement which
identifies the ground rules and the rights, or limitations on
them, of the parties;
• the arbitrator or adjudicator must be appropriately ‘qualified’
for the task; and

12
Please see footnote 10 above
13
Summer 2004, in Vilnius, Lithuania
14
[2001] BLR 207. See, also, the helpful list at pages 11 and 12 of the paper by Michael Schneider
(footnote 6 above).
15
(2001) Arbitration 221.
2005] MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution 47
• the arbitrator or adjudicator must ensure that there is clarity
as to the direction of the process.”
The various International experiences which have already been recited,
together with my own personal observations, suggest that this conclusion is
correct, again subject to the various criteria suggested above. I close,
however, with the following words written by Michael Schneider in 1996,
16
which still remain apposite:
….major effects must be made to familiarize (international)
arbitrators with the particularities of proceedings which incorporate
elements of conciliation…….much remains to be done for the
accomplishment of this challenging task.
As we say in England: “Plus ça change, plus c’est la meme chose”!

16
Please see footnote 6 above, at page 15.
* Originally delivered as a paper at the colloquium entitled “Les Arbitres Internationaux” and organised in
Paris in February 2005 by the Centre Français de Driot Comparé. The author is extremely grateful to
Alison Pannell of Leeds for her invaluable assistance in the preparation of this article.
* * *












































¨MLDIATION¨: MOVINC TO A MORL
ILLXIßLL ACCLSS TO IUSTICL

IaoIa Ieiioni

IntrnductInn

AIleinalive Dispule ResoIulion (ADR) has in iecenl veais lecone
incieasingIv connon and is nov veiv nuch peiceived as a noie econonicaI
and expedilious neans of liinging aloul a sellIenenl.

Luiopean Inslilulions, in pailicuIai lhe Luiopean Connission, have
undeilaken vaiious inilialives and piojecls conceining ADR. Since lhe
leginning, lhe nosl inpoilanl inilialives on ADR laken al Luiopean IeveI
veie nainIv conceined vilh aII oul-of-couil nelhods of dispule sellIenenl
piinaiiIv vilhin lhe consunei secloi. RecenlIv, iefeiences have leen nade
lo lolh nedialion and aIso lhe fieId of civiI and conneiciaI nalleis.

This papei slails vilh an oveiviev of lhe liends foIIoved lv Luiopean
Inslilulions in ieguIaling and encouiaging lhe adoplion of oul-of-couil
nechanisns foi sellIing dispules lv focusing on lhe inpoilanl ioIe assuned
lv consunei dispules. The papei viII lhen expIoie lhe diffeienl appioaches
conlained in lhe Cieen Iapei on aIleinalive dispule iesoIulion of ApiiI 2OO2
lefoie noving on lo a noie delaiIed exaninalion of lhe piovisions conlained
in lhe iecenl IioposaI foi a Diieclive on nedialion in civiI and conneiciaI
nalleis as adopled lv lhe Luiopean Connission on 22 Oclolei 2OO4.

The sludv viII shov lhal lhe pioposed Diieclive iepiesenls lolh lhe
concIusion of lhe piocess lhal legan vilh lhe Cieen Iapei of 2OO2 as veII as
lhe slailing poinl of a nev phase lhal diieclIv invoIves lhe Menlei Slales in
lhe deveIopnenl of nedialion noie diieclIv. The papei suggesls lhal lhe
pioposed Diieclive couId Iead lo a ceilain IeveI of hainonizalion of lhe Iavs
of Menlei Slales, lul aIso idenlifies a significanl nunlei of issues lhal have
leen Iefl lo lhe discielionaI inilialives of Menlei Slales.

Out-nf-cnurt dIsµutc sctt!cmcnts In cnnsumcr mattcrs

IniliaIIv, ADR vas deveIoped in oidei lo heIp consuneis lo ieach soIulions
lhal oidinaiv judiciaI pioceedings veie nol alIe lo guaianlee. Since lhe eaiIv



Doctorate in Jurisprudence (Italy), Practicing Attorney with Macchi-Gangemi Italian Law Firm
50 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:49

9Os, lhe Luiopean Inslilulions, in pailicuIai lhe Luiopean Connission, have
issued nuneious neasuies conceining lhe oul-of-couil iesoIulion of
dispules in lhe consunei fieId. IoIIoving lhe suggeslions of lhe Cieen Iapei
in 1993
1
conceining lhe access of juslice lo consuneis and lhe sellIenenl of
consunei dispules in lhe singIe naikel, lhe Luiopean Connission issued a
Reconnendalion on 3O Maich 1998
2
oulIining lhe piincipIes lhal appIied lo
lhe lodies iesponsilIe foi oul-of-couil
3
sellIenenl of consunei dispules.
This Reconnendalion vas Iiniled lo pioceduies vheie a dispule vas
sellIed lhiough lhe inleivenlion and pioposaIs of independenl lhiid pailies.
Such decisions couId eilhei le linding upon lhe pailies oi conslilule a neie
ieconnendalion lhal pailies couId chose vhelhei oi nol lo accepl.
Iuilheinoie, lhe Reconnendalion indicaled nev piincipIes lhal shouId le
adopled lv decision-naking lodies invoIved in oul-of-couil dispules,
incIuding lhe piincipIes of independence, lianspaiencv, effecliveness,
IegaIilv, Iileilv, iepiesenlalion, and lhe adveisaiiaI piincipIe.

In 2OO1, keeping vilhin lhe ieaIn of consunei dispules, lhe Luiopean
Connission, noling lhal sone oul-of-couil pioceduies feII oulside lhe scope
of lhe Reconnendalion of 1998, adopled anolhei Reconnendalion
4
lo
inlioduce lhe piincipIes foi oul-of-couil lodies invoIved in lhe consensuaI
iesoIulion of consunei dispules. In conliasl lo lhe oiiginaI, lhe Iallei
Reconnendalion piovided foi pioceduies vheie lhe inleivenlion of lhiid
pailies vas nol ained lovaid achieving a foinaI decision, il vas Iiniled lo
liinging lhe pailies logelhei in an allenpl lo convince lhen lo find a
soIulion lv connon consenl. The iequiienenls sel oul veie noie fIexilIe
lhan lhose ieconnended in 1998
5
. Thev incIuded lhe piincipIe of
inpailiaIilv, lianspaiencv, effecliveness and faiiness
6
.

Medlatlon ln cltl| and commercla| matters: the Green Paµer of 2002

The Luiopean Inslilulion´s inleiesl in consunei dispules iepiesenled onIv
lhe slailing poinl of lhe delale conceining oul-of-couil pioceduies foi

1
COM (93) 576 final of 16 November 1993.
2
OJ L 115, 17.4.1998, p. 0031-0034.
3
It is worth noting that this Recommendation yses the term “out-of-court” instead of “ADR”.
4
OJ L 109, 19.4.2001, p. 0056-0061.
5
It should be noted that the principles set out in the Commission Recommendation of 2001 do not affect
the principles laid down in the Commission Recommendation of 1998. The application of the different
principles depends on the out-of-court procedures adopted.
6
In this way, the European Commission seems to take account of those principles that most closely
represent the nature of the out-of-court procedures (such as mediation). Indeed in the absence of debate
between parties and where the procedure does not terminate with a decision, the adversarial principle
loses its scope.
2OO5! Moving lo a Moie IIexilIe Iuslice 51

dispule sellIenenl. The lenefils
7
aiising fion lhe adoplion of such
pioceduies invoked a gioving inleiesl in ADR al Luiopean IeveI. In 1999 lhe
Luiopean CounciI
8
, poinling oul lhe inpoilance of aIleinalive neans of
sellIing dispules, suggesled lhal Menlei Slales cieale aIleinalive,
exliajudiciaI pioceduies foi a videi access lo juslice. AccoidingIv, in 2OO2,
lhe Luiopean Connission pulIished a Cieen Iapei on aIleinalive dispule
iesoIulion in civiI and conneiciaI Iav
9
.

The Iapei sunnaiised lhe silualion of ADR in Luiope and Iaunched lioad
consuIlalions on lhe neasuies lo le laken
1O
. The Cieen Iapei iepiesenled a
luining poinl in lhe ciealion of exliajudiciaI aIleinalive nelhods of dispule
sellIenenl, and lhe pioposed nedialion Diieclive adopled lv lhe Luiopean
Connission in 2OO4
11
iefIecled lhis liend. Ioi lhe fiisl line, iefeience vas
nade lo ADR pioceduies and lhe spheie of appIicalion vas enIaiged lo
incIude civiI and conneiciaI nalleis, incIuding enpIovnenl and consunei
Iav.

A vide iange of aIleinalive nelhods of dispule iesoIulion veie exanined,
dislinguishing lelveen 'ADR in lhe conlexl of judiciaI pioceedings´ and
'convenlionaI ADR´. The foinei can le conducled lv a couil oi enliusled lv
lhe couil lo a lhiid pailv. ADRs in lhe conlexl of judiciaI pioceedings occui
vhen a judge is invoIved vilh conciIialion. This pioceduiaI phase can le
conpuIsoiv, lul lhe judge´s ioIe can aIso le Iiniled lo inleivene in oidei lo
ieach a sellIenenl lelveen lhe pailies. ADRs enliusled lv lhe couil lo a
lhiid pailv can assune diffeienl foins in lhe Menlei Slales. Moie
specificaIIv, lhe pioceduies can le suljecl lo geneiaI ieguIalions oi can le
consliluled lv lhe iecouise lo ADR. Depending on lhe IegaI svslen
consideied, lhe iecouise lo ADR lv pailies can le inposed oi encouiaged.
Wilh iefeience lo convenlionaI ADR, lheie is nol a geneiaI ieguIalion and ils

7
The main advantages leading the development of ADR are summarised in the Green Paper of 2002 and
include: wide access to justice, flexibility of the procedure, low costs sustained by the parties,
confidentiality.
8
See Presidency Conclusions of the European Council meeting held on 15 and 16 October 1999 in
Tampere, where it is stated that: “The European Council invites the Council, on the basis of proposals by
the Commission, to establish minimum standards ensuring an adequate level of legal aid in cross-border
cases throughout the Union as well as special common procedural rules for simplified and accelerated
cross-border litigation on small consumer and commercial claims, as well as maintenance claims, and on
uncontested claims. Alternative, extra-judicial procedures should also be created by Member States”. The
conclusions are available at
http://ue.eu.int/en/Info/eurocouncil/index.htm
9
COM (2002) 196 final of 19 April 2002.
10
The Green Paper is not a particular type of recommendation, but shows how the European Commission
seeks to take stock of the status of ADR in Europe, by encouraging Member States to collaborate in this
respect and by verifying the most important aspects of the issue.
11
2004/0251(COD).
52 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:49

appIicalion is suljecl lo lhe geneiaI piovisions of conliacl Iav and lo lhe
specific iuIes ieguIaling lhe liansaclion agieenenls. The pioceduies aie
lased on nininaI guaianlees and lhe appIicalIe piincipIes iefei lo conliacl
Iav, lhe Iav of civiI pioceduie and piivale inleinalionaI Iav.

The use of ADR iaises conceins on poIilicaI, sociaI, and econonicaI IeveIs.
The oveiviev desciiled in lhe Cieen Iapei evidenced lhe necessilv lo decide
lhe vav in vhich Luiopean Inslilulions shouId appioach ADR in oidei lo
ensuie quaIilv and fIexiliIilv in lhe pioceduies.

In lhe 'Sunnaiv of iesponses lo lhe Cieen Iapei on aIleinalive dispule
iesoIulion in civiI and conneiciaI Iav´
12
a sliicl inleivenlion in lhe
ieguIalion of lhe nallei vas cIeaiIv iefused lv lhe secloi´s opeialois. Such
an inleivenlion vouId necessilale delaiIed ieguIalions coveiing lhe
pioceduiaI iuIes of nedialion. AccoidingIv, lhe docunenl evidenced lhe
oppoilunilv of pionoling ADR lv guaianleeing piincipIes.

Thc Prnµnsa! fnr a DIrcctIvc nn ccrtaIn asµccts nf mcdIatInn In cIvI! and
cnmmcrcIa! mattcrs

IoIIoving lhe ieaclions lo lhe Cieen Iapei of 2OO2, lhe Luiopean
Connission issued a IioposaI foi a Diieclive on ceilain aspecls of nedialion
in civiI and conneiciaI nalleis. The Luiopean Inslilulions, lv adopling lhe
diieclive as a IegaI insliunenl lo 'ieguIale´ lhe nallei, opened a nev phase
in lhe ieguIalion of ADR, pioviding foi lhe diiecl invoIvenenl of Menlei
Slales nev inpul inlo lhe pionolion of nedialion.

The nain diive of lhe pioposed Diieclive is lo guaianlee lhe fundanenlaI
iighl of access lo juslice as eslalIished in AilicIe 6 of lhe Luiopean
Convenlion foi lhe Iioleclion of Hunan Righls and IundanenlaI Iieedons.
Al lhe sane line, lhe Connission soughl lo ensuie lhe iespecl foi lhe iighl
lo a faii liiaI as iecognized in AilicIe 47 of lhe Chailei
13
. Access lo juslice is
faciIilaled lv pionoling nedialion. Medialion is consideied a vaIid
aIleinalive foi aII pailies vilh an inleiesl in soIving dispules vilhoul lhe
diiecl invoIvenenl of a judge
14
. Medialion is iecognized as '|...! a quickei,
sinpIei and noie cosl-efficienl vav lo soIve dispules, vhich aIIovs foi
laking inlo accounl a videi iange of inleiesls of lhe pailies, vilh a giealei

12
The summary of the comments to Green Paper is contained in the “Summary of responses to the Green
Paper on alternative dispute resolution in civil and commercial law”, available at
http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/justice_home /news/consulting_public/adr/resume_comments_en.pdf
13
Recital 15 of the proposed Directive.
14
Article 1 of the proposed Directive.
2OO5! Moving lo a Moie IIexilIe Iuslice 53

chance of ieaching an agieenenl vhich viII le voIunlaiiIv iespecled, and
vhich pieseives an anicalIe and suslainalIe ieIalionship lelveen lhen´
15
.

The inleivenlion of lhe Luiopean Connission conpIies vilh sulsidiaiv and
piopoilionaIilv piincipIes. In pailicuIai, a ceilain and piediclalIe IegaI
fianevoik is necessaiv, given lhe possiliIilv of silualions invoIving - in|cr
a|ia - cioss-loidei eIenenls. The decision vhelhei oi nol lo adopl nedialion
shouId lake inlo accounl lhe lvpe of dispule, lhe cosls and lhe Ienglh of lhe
pioceduie and lhe peispeclives of success. Iuilheinoie, il shouId le noled if
lhe appIicalion of a IegaI fianevoik vas Iiniled lo cioss-loidei dispules,
anv ienaining dispules vouId le suljecl lo diffeienl iuIes and lhis vouId le
conliaiv lo lhe geneiaI piincipIes of lhe Luiopean piovisions. ßv iespecling
lhe piincipIe of piopoilionaIilv, lhe Luiopean Connission Iiniled ils
inleivenlion, ieguIaling lhe ieIalionship lelveen nedialion and judiciaI
pioceedings and aIso eslalIishing nininun connon iuIes lo covei ceilain
kev aspecls of civiI pioceduie. AccoidingIv, lhe nedialion piocess, lhe
appoinlnenl and lhe acciedilalion of lhe nedialoi aie nol coveied lv lhe
pioposed Diieclive.

A delaiIed anaIvsis of lhe piovisions conlained in lhe Diieclive ieveaIs vhal
appeai lo le veiv geneiaI definilions of 'nedialion´ and 'nedialoi´.
Accoiding lo AilicIe 2 Iel.a) nedialion incIudes '|...! anv piocess, hovevei
naned oi iefeiied lo, vheie lvo oi noie pailies lo a dispule aie assisled lv
a lhiid pailv lo ieach an agieenenl on lhe sellIenenl of lhe dispule, and
iegaidIess of vhelhei lhe piocess is inilialed lv lhe pailies, suggesled oi
oideied lv a couil oi piesciiled lv lhe nalionaI Iav of a Menlei Slale´.
Iuilheinoie, aililialion, onludsnen schenes, consunei conpIainl
schenes, expeil deleininalion, oi piocesses adninisleied lv lodies issuing
a foinaI ieconnendalion aie nol incIuded in lhe piovisions
16
. The
nedialion can le conducled lv a lhiid pailv. The ioIe of nedialoi can le
assuned independenlIv fion lhe denoninalion oi piofession laken in lhe
Menlei Slales.

AIlhough AilicIe 2 Iel.a) piovides foi lhe excIusion, vilhin lhe scope of lhe
diieclive, of lhe aclive inleivenlion of lhe judge in lhe couise of lhe judiciaI
pioceedings in oidei lo sellIe lhe dispule, lhe judges aie enliusled vilh
ieIevanl lasks. NaneIv, lhe couils aie invoIved vilh lhe evaIualion of lhe
oppoilunilies open lo lhe pailies and lhe iesuIl ieached lv lhen.


15
Point 1.1.3 of the explanatory Memorandum of the proposed Directive.
16
Recital 8 of the proposed Directive.
54 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:49

Iuisuanl lo AilicIe 3.1, lhe Menlei Slales shouId peinil couils, vheie il
appeais lo le oppoilune and having given iegaid lo lhe ciicunslances of lhe
case, lo invile pailies lo use nedialion in oidei lo soIve lhe dispule. In
addilion, lhe judge lefoie vhich lhe aclion has leen lioughl can iequiie
pailies lo pailicipale in an infoinalive neeling on lhe use of nedialion. Il is
voilh noling lhal aIongside lhe inpIenenlalion neasuies adopled lv
Menlei Slales, il viII le fundanenlaI lhal lhe judges appIving such
piovisions shouId le veII liained vilh lhe necessaiv piofessionaI and
peisonaI skiIIs in oidei lo conpIv vilh lhe scope of lhe Diieclive. In such
cases, since lhe invilalion lo adopl nedialion cones fion lhe couil lhal has
aIieadv exanined lhe dispule, pailies viII IikeIv le induced lo adopl lhe
aIleinalive nelhods of dispule iesoIulion noie favouialIv.

The Cieen Iapei of 2OO2 nade il cIeai lhal, vhiIe lhe IegaI svslens of sone
Menlei Slales aIieadv piovide foi a nandaloiv iecouise lo ADR lefoie lhe
case is lioughl lefoie a couil, in olhei Menlei Slales lhe adoplion of
aIleinalive nelhods is consideied facuIlalive lelveen pailies.

In lhe voiks lhal foIIoved lhe pulIicalion of lhe Cieen Iapei, il vas poinled
oul lhal lhe appIicalion of ADR shouId le consideied '|...! in facl peisuasive
ialhei lhan nandaloiv, since even vheie iecouise lo ADR is olIigaloiv, lhe
ADR piocess ilseIf ienains voIunlaiv, and lhe pailies can al anv poinl end
lheii negolialions and luin lo a judge oi aililialoi
17
´. The Luiopean
Connission cane lo a conpionise vilh lhe pioposed Diieclive. As a iesuIl,
AilicIe 3.2 slales lhal, vilhoul piejudice lo nalionaI iuIes pioviding foi 'lhe
use of nedialion conpuIsoiv oi suljecl lo sanclions oi incenlives´ and
'vhelhei lefoie oi aflei judiciaI pioceedings have slailed´ lhe iighl of access
lo juslice shouId nol le Iiniled.

AilicIe 4 of lhe pioposed Diieclive is lo le veIconed as il nakes a cIeai
slalenenl ensuiing lhe quaIilv of nedialion. The pioposaI encouiages lhe
deveIopnenl of codes of conducl vhich aie lo le iespecled lv nedialois and
oiganizalions pioviding nedialion seivices. Selling iuIes lo ensuie
nininun quaIilv slandaids and pioceduiaI guaianlees is a concepl lhal vas
Iaunched in lhe Cieen Iapei of 2OO2. Recognising lhe ieIevance of lhe issue
and vanling lo pieseive lolh lhe fIexiliIilv of lhe nedialion piocess and lhe
piivale aulononv of lhe pailv, lhe Luiopean Connission passed ieguIalion
of lhe nallei on lo Menlei Slales undei a piopoilionaIilv piincipIe
18
. In IuIv
2OO4, seeking lo suppoil seIf-ieguIaloiv inilialives, lhe Luiopean

17
See point 3.2.1.1 of the Green Paper of 2002 and the “Summary of responses to the Green Paper on
alternative dispute resolution in civil and commercial law”.
18
See recitals 12 and 13 of the proposed Directive.
2OO5! Moving lo a Moie IIexilIe Iuslice 55

Connission, issued lhe Luiopean code of conducl foi nedialois
19
. The code
sels oul a nunlei of piincipIes lo vhich individuaI nedialois can
voIunlaiiIv decide lo connil. Il is appIicalIe lo aII kinds of nedialion in civiI
and conneiciaI nalleis. Aspecls coveied in lhe code incIude conpelence
and appoinlnenl of nedialois, piincipIes of independence, inpailiaIilv and
confidenliaIilv as veII as lhe nedialion agieenenl, piocess, sellIenenl and
fees.

Lnsuiing a sound ieIalionship lelveen nedialion and judiciaI pioceedings,
lhe pioposaI piovides a suspension of anv peiiod of piesciiplion oi
Iinilalion in nalleis vheie iecouise lo nedialion has leen decided, oi
vheie lhe use of nedialion is oideied lv a couil, oi vheie lhe olIigalion lo
adopl nedialion is iequiied lv lhe appIicalion of lhe |cx fcri. Accoiding lo
AilicIe 7.2 lhe peiiod iesunes fion lhe poinl al vhich lhe nedialion ended
vilhoul a sellIenenl agieenenl
2O
.

In addilion, lhe pioposaI nainlains a iespeclfuI iecognilion foi
confidenliaIilv, vhich conslilules an essenliaI eIenenl in nedialion. To lhis
puipose, AilicIe 6 ieguIales lhe adnissiliIilv of evidence in civiI judiciaI
pioceedings. In pailicuIai, leslinonv oi evidence can nol le given lv
nedialois in lhe judiciaI pioceedings, vhelhei oi nol lhe dispule conceined
is lhe suljecl nallei of lhe nedialion. The iesliiclions on giving evidence
incIude lhe inleiesl of pailies in iecouise lo nedialion, lhe opinion expiessed
and lhe adnissions nade lv pailies in lhe couise of nedialion, lhe pioposaIs
nade lv nedialoi foi sellIing lhe dispule and lhe viIIingness lo accepl il lv
pailies.

Vice veisa, lhe leslinonv of lhe nedialoi and lhe evidence on lhe alove
nenlioned ciicunslances can nol le iequiied lv a couil in lhe couise of
judiciaI pioceedings. The infoinalion oi evidence ieceived lv infiinging
such piovision aie consideied inadnissilIe. The alove nenlioned
iesliiclions aie suljecl lo sone exceplions, lhe nosl inpoilanl of vhich
conceins lhe necessilv lo inpIenenl oi enfoice a sellIenenl agieenenl
ieached lv pailies in lhe couise of lhe nedialion
21
.

19
http://europa.eu.int/comm/justice_home/ejn/adr/adr_ec_code_conduct_en.pdf.
20
Article 7.2 provides that “Where the mediation has ended without a settlement agreement, the period
resumes running from the time the mediation ended without a settlement agreement, counting from the
date when one or both of the parties or the mediator declares that the mediation is terminated or
effectively withdraws from it. The period shall in any event extend for at least one month from the date
when it resumes running, except when it concerns a period within which an action must be brought to
prevent that a provisional or similar measure ceases to have effect or is revoked.”
21
Pursuant to Article 6 “1. Mediators, as well as any person involved in the administration of mediation
services, shall not in civil judicial proceedings give testimony or evidence regarding any of the following:
(a) An invitation by a party to engage in mediation or the fact that a party was willing to participate in
56 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:49


In oidei lo avoid lhal nedialion couId le iegaided as a pooiei aIleinalive lo
judiciaI pioceedings, and in lhe allenpl of ensuiing ceilainlv and
piediclaliIilv of lhe IegaI fianevoik pioposed, lhe Luiopean Connission
consideied il necessaiv lo inlioduce a pioceduie lhal Menlei Slales couId
adopl lo enfoice a sellIenenl agieenenl. AccoidingIv, puisuanl lo AilicIe 5,
lhe sellIenenl agieenenl ieached lv pailies al lhe end of lhe nedialion ¨can
le confiined in a judgenenl, decision, aulhenlic insliunenl oi anv olhei
foin lv a couil oi pulIic aulhoiilv lhal iendeis lhe agieenenl enfoicealIe¨.
The enfoicenenl viII le piovided lv lhe judge foIIoving a foinaI evaIualion
of lhe agieenenl ieached lelveen lhe pailies.

Cnnc!usInns

The inilialives adopled lv lhe Luiopean Inslilulions vilh iegaid lo
aIleinalive nelhods of dispule iesoIulion have had videspiead infIuence
upon lhe IegisIalion of Menlei Slales. Iion ils hunlIe leginnings in
consunei dispules, ADR has deveIoped and lheie aie nov pioposaIs foi ils
videi appIicalion, incIuding in civiI and conneiciaI nalleis. The nev
appioach, inlioduced lv lhe Cieen Iapei of 2OO2 has leen inpIenenled lv
lhe pioposed Diieclive of 2OO4. Having exanined lhe piocesses lhal Ied lo
lhe Diieclive and lhe piovisions adopled lo ¨ieguIale¨ lhe nallei, il appeais
lhal lhe inlenlion is lo slienglhen lhe use of nedialion. AccoidingIv, lhe
nain iequiienenls of lhis aIleinalive lechnique of dispule sellIenenl:
voIunlaiv iecouise, confidenliaIilv in lhe pioceduie and quaIilv assislance
lv nedialois, have ieceived veIcone iecognilion lv lhe Luiopean IegisIaloi.

The pioposed Diieclive does hovevei faiI lo covei sone of lhe noie ieIevanl
aspecls of ADR. The Luiopean IegisIaloi has piefeiied lo Ieave discielion in

mediation; (b) Views expressed or suggestions made by a party in a mediation in respect of a possible
settlement of the dispute; (c) Statements or admissions made by a party in the course of the mediation; (d)
Proposals made by the mediator; (e) The fact that a party had indicated its willingness to accept a
proposal for a settlement made by the mediator; (f) A document prepared solely for purposes of the
mediation. 2. Paragraph 1 shall apply irrespective of the form of the information or evidence referred to
therein. 3. The disclosure of the information referred to in paragraph 1 shall not be ordered by a court or
other judicial authority in civil judicial proceedings and, if such information is offered as evidence in
contravention of paragraph 1, that evidence shall be treated as inadmissible. Nevertheless, such
information may be disclosed or admitted in evidence (a) to the extent required for the purposes of
implementation or enforcement of a settlement agreement reached as a direct result of the mediation, (b)
for overriding considerations of public policy, in particular when required to ensure the protection of
children or to prevent harm to the physical or psychological integrity of a person, or (c) if the mediator
and the parties agree thereto. 4. The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall apply whether or not the
judicial proceedings relate to the dispute that is or was the subject matter of the mediation. 5. Subject to
paragraph 1, evidence that is otherwise admissible in judicial proceedings does not become inadmissible
as a consequence of having been used in a mediation”.
2OO5! Moving lo a Moie IIexilIe Iuslice 57

lhe ieguIalion of ADR lo Menlei Slales. On one hand lhis choice has
guaianleed noie fIexiliIilv in lhe use of nedialion: on lhe olhei hand il has
suloidinaled lhe fuluie deveIopnenl of lhe nelhods invoIved, enliusling
lhen lo lhe nalionaI inilialives and capacilies of Menlei Slales.
* * *












































IS ADR IUSTIIILD OR SIMILY A SLCOND
CLASS IUSTICL`

T. Andiev de ßeauIac

Abstract

Since lhe Loid WooIf Refoins, AIleinalive Dispule ResoIulion (ADR) has
lecone an anpIified vehicIe foi case nanagenenl in lhe UK adjudicalive
svslen, leconing an incieasingIv popuIai neans of pioviding videi access
lo juslice, vhiIsl vieIding enpoveinenl lo lhose vhon liadilionaIIv Iacked
lhe neans foi foinaI Iiligalion. CeneiaIIv il is seen lo le noie fIexilIe lhan
lhe judiciaiv appioach: as a iesuIl pailies nav ieduce couil cosls and iesoIve
lhe issue vilhin a quickei line fiane, aIIoving foi a noie pioaclive
sellIenenl lhiough appeaI foi possilIe ieconciIialion. TheoielicaIIv ADR is
a pioceduie in vhich dispuling pailies voIunlaiiIv convene logelhei vilh a
neuliaI lhiid pailv in oidei lo iesoIve conlioveisv in an infoinaI sliucluie
avav fion lhe liadilionaI appioach of Iiligalion. The noie connon
nelhods of ADR aie nedialion and aililialion, lul olhei nelhods nav
incIude a hvliid of ned-aililialion, eaiIv neuliaI evaIualion, facl finding,
conciIialion, onludsnen...elc. The use of ADR in conliacl and Toil Iav
is nol nev lo lhe UK, lul is nov acliveIv encouiaged as a pieIininaiv slep
in iesoIving dispules. In nosl cases ADR is puieIv voIunlaiv, lhe couils do
hovevei have a gieal deaI of infIuence in ieconnending case nanagenenl.
Il nusl le noled lhal ADR enconpasses a lioad aiea of diveise lopics, lhus,
lhe piinaiv focus of lhis essav viII anaIvse lhe efficiencv and quaIilv of
ADR lhiough Medialion and Aililialion. Wilh lhe conlinued giovlh in
nedialion leconing a popuIai aIleinalive lo lhe foinaI adjudicalive svslen,
a nunlei of conceins have aiisen aloul lhe quaIilv and efficiencv of ADR
conpaied lo lhe foinaI IegaI svslen, queslioning vhelhei il is nolhing noie
lhan a second cIass IegaI svslen opeialing in lhe shadovs of lhe Iav.

Casc Managcmcnt (Vn!untarv nr CncrcIvc)

Sone IileiaI ciilics aigue lhe enphasis upon lhe quanlilv of cases iesoIved
Iacks lhe quaIilv of lhe foinaI juslice svslen, laking avav lhe iighl of access
lo lhe couil. The nev LngIish CiviI Iioceduie RuIes (CIR) veie enacled in

† Birkbeck College, University of London.
60 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1: 59

ApiiI 1999, since lhen a consideialIe uuan|i|u of judgnenls deaIing vilh
AIleinalive Dispule ResoIulion (ADR) have leen sellIed in LngIand.

The HaIInaik of ADR pioceduies, and peihaps lhe kev lo
lheii effecliveness in individuaI cases, is lhal lhev aie
piocesses voIunlaiiIv enleied inlo lv lhe pailies in dispule
vilh oulcones, if lhe pailies so vish, vhich aie non-linding.
ConsequenlIv lhe couil cannol diiecl lhal such nelhods le
used lul nav neieIv encouiage and faciIilale.
2


CiviI Iioceduie RuIes
3


The oveiiiding oljeclive

|1.1 (1)! These iuIes aie a nev pioceduiaI code vilh lhe oveiiiding
oljeclive of enalIing lhe couil lo deaI vilh cases juslIv
|1.4 (1)! The couil nusl fuilhei lhe oveiiiding oljeclive lv acliveIv
nanaging cases
|1.4 (2c)! Deciding pionplIv vhich issues need fuII invesligalion and
liiaI and disposing sunnaiiIv of lhe olheis
|1.4 (2e)! Lncouiaging lhe pailies lo use an ADR pioceduie ....

A nunlei of ciilicisns have aiisen since CIR vas inlioduced, anong lhen
lhe povei of lhe couils lo oidei a pailv lo have lhe dispule nedialed. Iiioi
lo lhe Couil of AppeaIs finding in Ha|scu and Mi||cn Kcuncs Gcncra| NHS
Trus|
4
nosl couils consideied il lheii iighl lo oidei nedialion.

Since lhe iuIing in lhe alove case, lhe Couil of AppeaI has found lhal lhe
couil does nol have lhe aulhoiilv lo oidei a pailv lo enlei inlo nedilalion,
finding lhal nandaloiv enfoicenenl of ADR vas a vioIalion of ailicIe 6 of
lhe Luiopean Convenlion on Hunan Righls. Hovevei, lhev iuIed lhe
couils nav sliongIv ieconnend lhe pailies lo seek ADR vilh lhe
consequence lhal if lhe ieconnendalion is ignoied, lhen lhe pailv nol
viIIing lo seek ADR faces seveie cosls consequences once lhe judgnenl is
iendeied, see leIov:
5


lhe couil can decide lo depiive successfuI pailies of sone oi
aII of lheii cosls on lhe giounds lhal lhev have iefused lo

2
Volume 1 of the White Book (2003)
3
DCA department for Constitutional Affairs, see
http://www.dca.gov.uk/civil/procrules_fin/contents/parts/part01.htm
4
Halsey v. Milton Keynes General NHS Trust [2004] EWCA 576
5
Ibid
2005] ADR: Second Class Justice? 61


agiee lo ADR, lul il nusl le loine in nind lhal such an
oidei is an exceplion lo lhe geneiaI iuIe lhal cosls shouId
foIIov lhe evenl. The luiden lo juslifv a depailuie fion lhe
geneiaI iuIe is on lhe unsuccessfuI pailv lo shov lhal lhe
successfuI pailv acled unieasonalIv in iefusing lo agiee lo
ADR.
6


Recenl judgnenls such as: Dunnc| t. Rai||rac|
7
, vhich vas piioi lo lhe alove
case, shov lhe couils have coeiced oi foiced pailies lo nediale even if lhev
feIl lhev had a ¨valeilighl¨ case, and veie convinced lhev vouId vin
8
.
Iudges have fai exceed lheii aulhoiilv in seveiaI such cases lv coeicing
pailies lo nediale due lo lhe poIilicaI poIicv lhal lhe nallei vouId le lellei
suiled in nedialion oi aililialion, even againsl lhe pailies expiessed desiies.
WhiIe lhe case of Ha|scu t. Mi||cn Kcuncs Gcncra| NHS Trus|
9
ieveised lhis
faIIacious liend of oideiing nedialion: lhe couils aie sliII alIe lo use
coeicive neasuies such as a cosls penaIlv oi iefusaI of IudiciaI Reviev if il is
found lhe pailv iefused lo nediale.

Loid WooIf´s iuIing in Ccu| t. P|uncu|n sel a piecedenl foi lhe couils vhen
deciding hov lo penaIise pailies vho iejecled nedialion vilhoul sufficienl
cause.
1O
See leIov:

The couils shouId nake appiopiiale use of lheii anpIe
poveis undei CIR lo ensuie lhal lhe pailies liv lo iesoIve
lhe dispule vilh lhe nininun invoIvenenl of lhe
couils.lo achieve lhis oljeclive lhe couil nav have lo hoId
on ils ovn inilialive a heaiing al vhich lhe pailies can
expIain vhal sleps lhev had laken lo iesoIve lhe dispule.
11


The judgenenl in HaIsev acknovIedged lhal nol aII cases aie suilalIe foi
nedialion, vhiIe al lhe sane line slipuIaling lhal lhe couils have an oveiaII
dulv lo case nanagenenl in ensuiing pailies use neans of ADR vheie
appiopiiale. The oljeclive lesl sliII ienains a pieiogalive of lhe couils in
deciding upon lhe neiils of lhe iefusaI lo use ADR. The sinpIe facl lhal lhe
pailies undeisland lhal lhe judge nav nol gianl cosls nav le effeclive in
coeicing lhen inlo nedialion.


6
Ibid
7
Dunnet v. Railtrack [20012] 2 All ER 850
8
Ibid
9
[2004] EWCA 576
10
Cowl v. Plymouth City Council [2001] EWCA Civ 1933 Kb
11
Ibid
62 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1: 59

CIR (44.3.(2)) sels oul lhe geneiaI iuIe lhal lhe unsuccessfuI pailv
shouId pav lhe cosl lo lhe successfuI pailv. CIR 44.3(5), aIIovs cosls
lo le vaiied lv lhe couil, laking inlo accounl lhe lehavioui of lhe
pailies lolh lefoie and duiing lhe pioceedings, incIuding lheii
allenpls lo iesoIve lhe dispule.
12


The couils in Ha|scu nade a naiiov dislinclion lelveen lhe aulhoiilv of lhe
couils lo encouiage pailies lo use nedialion and lhe povei of lhe couils lo
foice pailies lo nediale againsl lheii viII.
13
Il can nol le aigued lhal lhis is a
slep in lhe iighl diieclion, lul I vouId aigue lhal lhe guidance sliII faIIs
vilhin giev aieas. Iuslice Dvson ailicuIaled lhal il vouId le an olsliuclion
of lhe pailies´ iighl of access lo lhe couils if lhev veie lo le foiced lo use
ADR nelhods.

CnnfIdcncc In thc 5vstcm

Confidence in lhe svslen is anolhei kev issue upon vhich a gieal deaI of
ciilicisn is focused. The Depailnenl foi ConslilulionaI Affaiis (DCA)
acknovIedges lhal confidence in lhe quaIilv of lhe ADR piocess is necessaiv,
and nanv issues addiessed iequiie expeil undeislanding and highIv
deveIoped inleipeisonaI skiIIs in oidei lo liing lhe pailies lovaids
iesoIving lhe dispule. Hovevei, a vide gap ienains in slandaidising
appioaches and liaining, giving iise lo concein ovei lhe quaIilv of nedialion.

Since ADR is a ieIaliveIv nev piocess lhal is expanding lo neel lhe needs of
socielv, advocales cIain il is a difficuIl lask lo deleinine lhe appiopiiale
foin of ieguIalion vilhoul Iiniling ils polenliaI. On lhe olhei hand ciilics of
nedialion leIieve lhe Iack of a slandaidised oi ieguIaled lodv goveining
lhe ADR piocess viII nol le alIe lo piolecl lhe iighls of lhe peopIe. In
iesponse lo lhis cIain lhe DCA Iaunched a facl-finding paneI in oidei lo
deleinine vhal sleps nav le necessaiv in ieguIaling lhe svslen.

Iiofessoi Ross Cianslon (LSL) vas appoinled lo lhe inquiiv and chaiged
vilh Iooking al lhe piolIens suiiounding access lo juslice and pioviding
possilIe soIulions.
14
In oidei lo acconpIish lhis duanling lask he appoinled
acadenic advisois fion aiound lhe voiId lo covei a lioad iange of lopics:
such as, pioceduies & conlioIs, sliucluie, iesouices (i.e, pulIic funding,
liained nedialois / aililialois) elc..Whal lhev found vas a vaiielv of
nelhods vhich Iacked confoinilv and conlioI. The Inquiiv sulnilled lheii

12
DCA department for Constitutional Affairs,
13
Halsey v. Milton Keynes General NHS Trust [2004] EWCA 576
14
http://www.dca.gov.uk/civil/interim/annex2.htm (DCA)
2005] ADR: Second Class Justice? 63


iepoil aIong vilh a nunlei of suggeslions vhich lhev leIieved vouId
iesoIve nanv of lhe conceins.

The ciilics of ADR aigue lhe Iack of conlioI in goveining lhis nev svslen is
fundanenlaIIv fIaved as il opeiales in lhe 'shadovs of lhe Iav´
15
. Thev
aigue inslead foi a foinaI hieiaichv of lhe IegaI svslen, insisling lhe foinaI
svslen lhiough Iiligalion piovides lhe iuIe of Iav lased upon cIeai
pioceduiaI confoinilv. Lven lhe ciilics leIieve ADR has a pIace in lhe
svslen, lul il shouId nol le consideied a sulslilule lo peopIe´s iighls lo
liadilionaI juslice. Anv lhing Iess vouId disiupl lhe liue neasuie of juslice
in a denocialic slale. Iuilheinoie, ADR shouId le a suppIenenl lo lhe
exisling liadilionaI svslen, offeiing a cIeai, ieguIaled judgenenl.

Whal lhe ciilics faiI lo see is lhal inleinalionaI delale has allenpled lo
addiess lhese issues, caIIing foi a gIolaI slandaidisalion of lhe oveiaII
piocess. The Luiopean Connission aie giaduaIIv slandaidising lhe piocess
acioss nenlei slales, vhiIe guaiding lhe fundanenlaIs of AilicIe 6 of lhe
Hunan Righls acl. Anolhei aiea vhich ciilics lend lo faiI lo iecognize is
lhal nanv peopIe feeI isoIaled oi disenfianchised vilh lhe liadilionaI svslen.
Il is in facl lhe geneiaI dissalisfaclion in lhe foinaI adjudicalive svslen
vhich has Ied nanv peopIe lo enliace nedialion and olhei foins of ADR.
Manv peopIe aie nol alIe lo effecliveIv access lhe foinaI adjudicalive
svslen and feeI il is no Iongei in keeping vilh changing sociaI vaIues.

UK ieguIaloiv Agencies Iisled leIov aIso voik in landen vilh nanv olhei
US, Iapanese, and Luiopean nenlei slales lo allenpl in slandaidising lhe
oveiaII piocess.

• CeneiaI CounciI of lhe ßai
• Chaileied Inslilule of Aililialois

Incqua!ItIcs nf Pnwcr

WhiIe nedialion and aililialion, as a neans of aIleinalive dispule
iesoIulion aie sliII in a foin of infancv, lhev aie affoidalIe, geneiaIIv ieIialIe,
quickei and nosl inpoilanlIv a neans of enpoveiing lhe individuaI lo
iesoIve dispules, giving lhe povei of seIf ieguIalion lack lo lhe pailies foi
iesoIving dispule. Medialion focuses on lhe shaied inleiesl of pailies lo
iesoIve lheii dispule in a conciIialoiv fashion in a non foinaI nannei, vilh
no vinneis oi Ioseis. This is in shaip conliasl lo lhe foinaI adjudicalive
svslen vhich ieIies upon sliicl iuIes and pioceduies, and is seen lo le a

15
R Mnookin, Kornhauser Bargaining in the Shadow of the Law (1979 Yale Law Journal) 950
64 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1: 59

suljugalion of lhe veakei pailv, vho oflen enough does nol have lhe
financiaI oi IegaI neans lo effecliveIv iesoIve lheii dispule.

Cieal sliides have leen nade in lhe Iasl fev decades lo addiess lhe
inequaIilies of lhe IegaI svslen. CiviI iighls issues have leen addiessed and
aie conlinuaIIv noniloied lv lolh lhe LngIish IaiIianenl and lhe LU IegaI
svslen. Wonen´s iighls have nade a nunlei of inpiovenenls in lhe
sociaI-econonic svslen, gaining giealei fieedon and pioleclion undei lhe
slalues. Hovevei, Ieninisls such as Ann ßollonIev viev aIleinalive looIs
such as nedialion as nol capalIe of addiessing inlaIances of povei
lelveen lhe pailies (e.g., iace, gendei). This peispeclive addiesses lhe Iack
of safeguaids in nedialion foi vonen and iaciaI inlaIances exisling in
vhile naIe doninaled socielies. Iuilheinoie, ADR is seen as a pooiIv
inadequale sulslilulion foi lhe IegaI iighls of vonen, a piinaiiIv concein
foi vonen in divoice nedialion.
16


Ciilics addiess lhese issues, cIaining lhal nedialion is jusl anolhei foin of
sociaI conlioI sel up lv lhe enpoveied vhile naIe socielv lo sliip avav
fundanenlaI iighls of due piocess. Thev feeI lhal nedialion does nol
addiess lhe Iong haid lallIes foughl foi lhe alove iighls, noi does il offei
adequale pioleclion againsl inequaIilv. Iiofessoi Oven Iiss pulIished lhe
ailicIe 'Againsl SellIenenl´, (1984) 93 YaIe Lav IouinaI 1O73 cIains
nedialion is:

lhe civiI anaIogue lo pIea laigaining, consenl is coeiced, lhe
laigain nav le sliuck lv soneone vilhoul aulhoiilv, lhe
alsence of a liaiI and judgenenl iendeis sulsequenl judiciaI
invoIvenenl lioulIesone, and aIlhough dockels nav le
liinned, juslice nav nol le done. Like pIea laigaining,
sellIenenl is a capiluIalion lo lhe condilions of nass socielv
and shouId nol le encouiaged oi piaised.
17


Hovevei, lhe ciilics faiI lo see lhe pioleclion and avaiIaliIilv lo iesoIve
dispules lhiough nedialion and olhei foins of aIleinalive dispule
iesoIulion lechniques vhich aie offeied lo lhe nasses. Iiisl, Aililialion is
sliongIv goveined lv lhe slalules and lhese iuIing aie nade accoiding lo lhe
iuIe of Iav. The pailies have lhe iighl lo send aililialion decision lo couils
foi judiciaI ieviev accoiding lo sliicl guideIines. SecondIv, nedialion
decisions nav aIso seek judiciaI ieviev againsl decisions vhich lheie aie

16
A Bottomley What is happening to Family Law 1985, (Routledge & Keagan Paul) pp. 73-110
17
O Fiss Against Settlement (1984) (93 Yale Law Journal 1073)
2005] ADR: Second Class Justice? 65


found: evidence of undue infIuence, unfaii piessuie, capacilv issues and
silualions of naleiiaI inequaIilv in lhe laigaining povei of lhe pailies.
18


5tatutcs nf LImItatInns

Anolhei issue ciilics aigue is lhal ADR nav inleifeie vilh lhe slalue of
Iinilalion of case lo le iesoIved in lhe adjudicalive svslen. This lhev
leIieve is deliinenlaI lo lhe pailies vho nav le unalIe lo conlinue cases as
lhe Iinilalion iuns oul lo have lhe case heaid lefoie lhe couils. AIso, if
pailies aie unalIe lo iesoIve cases lhiough nedialion oi olhei foins of ADR
lhen lhev vouId incui addilionaI chaiges and Ienglhen lhe line il lakes lo
iesoIve lhe dispule. Ciilics chaige lhis couId le used as a slaIIing facloi lv
sone pailies lo insuie lheie is insufficienl line Iefl vilhin lhe Iinilalion
peiiod lo iesoIve lhe case. Accoiding lo an LU connission iepoil, lhis nav
le iun fouI of ailicIe 6 (1) LU Convenlion on Hunan Righls and ailicIe 47 of
lhe Chailei of IundanenlaI Righls of lhe LU.
19


AilicIe 47 (1) Lveivone vhose iighls and fieedons guaianleed lv lhe Iav of
lhe Union lhal aie vioIaled has a iighl lo an effeclive ienedv lefoie a
liilunaI in conpIiance vilh lhe condilions Iaid dovn in lhis ailicIe.
2O


Olhei aieas of concein facing Iinilalions aie lo le found in iesoIving lians-
nalionaI oi inleinalionaI dispules, as slalules vaiv lelveen one counliv lo
lhe olhei, and ADR judgenenls nav nol le linding in lhese vaiious
juiisdiclions. Whal lhe ciilics faiI lo ieaIise is lhal lhe pailies aie alIe lo
choose vhich foin of ADR lhev use and in vhich juiisdiclions. In nanv
conneiciaI cases lhe conliacls diavn up slipuIale vhich counliv has
juiisdiclion, hovevei lhis nav nol aIvavs le lhe case. Il ceilainIv vouId le
unusuaI in civiI dispules.

As lhe ciilics iighlIv poinl oul 'Iinilalions´ aie a vilaI concein vhich nusl le
addiessed as ADR nav unjuslifialIv cause lhen lo le ieduced The
Luiopean connission has viillen a nunlei of gieen iepoils discussing lhis
nallei and have ieconnended Menlei Slales fieeze suspension of peiiods
of Iinilalion duiing peiiods of dispule iesoIulion, in oidei lo addiess and
soIve lhese issues.


18
http://www.cfcj-fcjc.org/full-text/2001_dra/gary_wong.html
19
http://www.europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc
20
http://www.europarl.eu.int/charter/pdf/text_en.pdf
66 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1: 59



MInImum Qua!Itv 5tandards.

A kev poinl of ADR is ils fIexiliIilv, hovevei il nusl le aigued lhal
nininun slandaid of quaIilv nusl le deleinined. Ciilics aigue lhe UK
seens lo le piinaiiIv seIf ieguIaled. Agencies aie sel up vhich govein a
pailicuIai indusliv, lul a geneiaI Iack of confoinilv acioss indusliiaI
loundaiies seens lo exisl. The ciilics find lhis hainfuI as il cieales a
vacuun in lhe slandaids of quaIilv and pioleclion. Thev iighlIv poinl oul
lhal nedialion nav in facl hain lhe oveiaII aliIilv of lhe couils lo deleinine
and sel nev slandaids of Iav lhiough a Iack of piecedenl. ADR is a iapidIv
expanding enleipiise, vhich has found nanv soIiciloi fiins giaduaIIv
expanding lo incoipoiale ADR vilhin lheii piaclices. The Lav Socielv
ieguIales lhis aiea, lul oiganisalions aie spiinging up daiIv, nanv of vhich
seen lo le nolhing noie lhan fIv lv nighl conpanies.

This aigunenl lv lhe ciilics is vialIe, lul faiIs lo undeisland lhal quaIilv is
noniloied lhiough lhe judiciaI ieviev piocess. AII pailies, if lhev can piove
lheii case vas pooiIv nanaged oi unduIv infIuenced nav iequesl lhe couil
of appeaIs lo heai lheii case. WhiIe lhis does nol addiess lhe issue al lhe
onsel, il does piovide confidence in lhe oveiaII svslen. Iuilheinoie, as lhe
use of ADR giovs, il pioves lhal lhe peopIe lhenseIves aie salisfied vilh lhe
oveiaII fIexiliIilv of lhe nev svslen conpaied lo lhe aichaic choice of
Iiligalion.

IinaIIv, gieal sliides have leen nade in ensuiing lhiough access lo juslice
lhal pailies seeking aIleinalive dispule iesoIulions nav seek IegaI aid. Il is
of vilaI inpoilance lhal pailies aie gianled lhis aliIilv lo seek financiaI
suppoil fion lhe slale in oidei lo ensuie lhev have adequale access lo lhe
svslen. The Connunilv LegaI Seivices (pieviousIv knovn as LegaI Aid) aie
iequiied lo voik vilh IocaI aulhoiilies in oidei lo ensuie lhe avaiIaliIilv of
funds.
21
This is acluaIIv quile nev, lul il does shov lhe evoIulion and
deleininalion in pioviding videi access lo juslice.

Cnnc!usInn

The ciilicaI aigunenls againsl aIleinalive dispule iesoIulion have shovn a
geneiaI veakness in lhe iadicaI change lo lhe LngIish adjudicalive svslen.
Thev have evaIualed and ciilicised nuch of lhe svslen, lul faiI lo
undeisland hov lhis is aIIoving videi access lo juslice lo lhose foineiIv

21
http://www.dca.gov.uk/consult/civ-just/adr/section 1fr.htm section 1.5
2005] ADR: Second Class Justice? 67


vilhoul iecouise. I peisonaIIv leIieve ADR is a sociaI slep in lhe iighl
diieclion in nanv cases, lul vouId agiee vilh sone ciilics vho voiiv aloul
povei inlaIances. AIleinalive dispule iesoIulion lhiough nedialion nav
in ceilain cases (e.g. Divoice) piove lo le unvise, vel lhe avaiIaliIilv of lhe
svslen is an inpoilanl slep in handing fieedon of choice lack lo lhe
connon popuIalion.

Mv nain concein is lhal lhe couils aie alIe lo use lheii infIuence ovei lhe
pailies lo encouiage aclive pailicipalion of ADR sinpIv lo iid lhe couils of
heavv case Ioads piioi lo ieaching lhe noie foinaI svslen of adjudicalion.
Il is nv leIief ADR shouId le 1OO° voIunlaiv, and pailies shouId nol le
piaised foi using one svslen ovei lhe olhei, as lolh aie a pail of lhe sane
svslen, opeialing undei lhe sane iuIes of Iav.

WhiIe issues of Iinilalions sliII pIague lhe svslen, I feeI pailies shouId sliII
allenpl lo nediale lheii dispules: hovevei, safeguaids shouId le pul inlo
pIace lo ensuie lhis does nol hain lheii aliIilv foi foinaI adjudicalion
shouId lhe nedialion faiI. A sinpIe neans of lhis vouId le lenpoiaiv
suspension of lhe slalule of Iinilalions duiing ADR. The conlinued giovlh
of aIleinalive dispule iesoIulion has nol Iead lo lhe piivalisalion of oui IegaI
svslen as sone have feaied, lul has given lack lo lhe peopIe a foin of
confidence in lhe svslen lhal aII peopIe iegaidIess of gendei oi iace viII le
affoided lheii dav in couil.
* * *












































MLDIA IOWLR , INIUNCTIONS
CONTRA MUNDUM AND THL
INIORMATION SOCILTY

IauI Dougan

IntrnductInn

MicheI IoucauIl suggesled lhal 'knovIedge is povei´
1
and il is evidenl lhal
ve aie enleiing an eia vheie infoinalionaI knovIedge is achieving
hegenonv ovei lolh discuisive and naiialive knovIedge. Infoinalion is an
incieasingIv vaIualIe connodilv in oui posl indusliiaI socielv and il can le
aigued
2
lhal since infoinalion is a sociaI phenonenon lhen Iav, as lhe
ieguIaloi of sociaI ieIalions, viII diieclIv affecl lhe geneialion and
connunicalion of infoinalion. This eIevalion of lhe vaIue of infoinalion in
nodein socielv is evinced lv oui use of lhe neoIogisn `Infoinalion Socielv':
ve Iive in a voiId of infoinalion and lhe sludv of lhe use of lhal
infoinalion is one of evei incieasing inpoilance.

To lhe Media in pailicuIai, lhe lineous avaiIaliIilv of infoinalion is
deleininalive of vhelhei lhev viII achieve success in a highIv conpelilive
nodein indusliv. The nedia, of couise, iun on veiv diffeienl linescaIes lo
Iavveis and lhe judiciaiv, vho opeiale, nuch Iike lhe Acadenv, on lhe
|cnguc durcc. Nevspapeis and olhei infoinalionaI nedia nake lhe
ieadeiship accepl lheii asseilions nol lhiough IogicaI aigunenl lul ialhei
lhiough lhe ¨liule faclicilv of lheii nessages¨,
3
Ieading lo epheneiaIilv,
'dunling dovn´ and a pailicuIai fixalion vilh lhe aclivilies of lhe ceIeliilv,
lhe poIilician and lhe noloiious ciininaI. Manv noloiious ciininaIs have
Iong foughl lallIes vilh lhe piess, and sonelines lhiough lhe couils, lo
censuie iepiesenlalions lhal aie danaging lo lheii iepulalion. Thev aie
avaie lhal ceilain inages of lhen can le danaging lo lheii case oi a

† Address for correspondence : School of Law & Social Sciences, Brunel University, Uxbridge,
Middlesex UB8 3PH, UK. Email : Paul.dougan@brunel.ac.uk. The author would like to thank Dr Claire
Valier of the University of London for supplying the author with some material included within this piece
and for her invaluable support. Some of the material on the Maxine Carr case is published in the July
2005 edition of the Entertainment Law Review.
1
Foucault, M. Discipline and Punish (1975)
2
The author recommends the seminal article by John Cahir : 'Understanding Information Laws: A
Sociological Approach', The Journal of Information, Law and Technology (JILT) 2002 (3)
3
Lash, S. (2000) Critique of Information. London: Sage, at 73
70 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:69

piospeclive appeaI, foi inslance UK Moois´ Muideiei Mvia HindIev soughl
lo pievenl exhililion of Maicus Haivev´s conlioveisiaI painling of hei vhen
she vas appeaIing againsl hei 'vhoIe Iife´ laiiff.
4
Hovevei, lheie is a
ceIelialed diclun vhich slales lhal 'lheie is no confidence in iniquilv.´ This
neans lhal iniquilous peopIe such as lhose convicled of heinous ciine have
no aclion foi lieach of confidence. This has oflen leen uliIised lv lhe Media
lo lheii conneiciaI advanlage.

Mosl iecenlIv lhe gianling of an injunclion ccn|ra nundun in lhe UK case of
Maxine Caii,
5
iepiesenls lhe Ialesl inslaIInenl in lhis lense confionlalion
lelveen lhe UK nedia and convicled ciininaIs seeking lo piolecl lheii
'iepulalions´ oi nev idenlilies. The case signifies a polenliaI lioadening in
lhe ciileiia consideied apposile lo lhe gianling of such 'injunclions againsl
lhe voiId´ and nav vel piove lo le a lenchnaik in fuluie cases lioughl
lefoie lhe couils. The oulcone aIso sils iII al ease vilh lhe polenliaI
chaIIenges vioughl lv lhe advenl of lhe Infoinalion Socielv. The
lechnoIogicaI advance in lhe connunicalions indusliv has aigualIv
veakened lhe efficacv of lhe ccn|ra nundun injunclion in gIolaI leins.
Hovevei lhis issue viII le addiessed in noie delaiI Ialei in lhis papei.

Thc McdIa and thc Lcga! Framcwnrk In thc UK

Theie is IillIe doull lhal lhe IegaI iighls of jouinaIisls and lioadcasleis aie
noie secuie nov lhal lhev have leen al anv line in lhe pasl. The inpacl of
AilicIe 1O of lhe Luiopean Convenlion on Hunan Righls and lhe
juiispiudence of lhe Luiopean Couils has secuied evei incieasing piess
fieedon. Lven in Iighl of Carr, judiciaI alliludes in lhe UK lo lhe nedia aie
nov aIso al sonelhing of a high poinl, conpaied vilh vhal lhev consideied
lhe unduIv iesliiclive lackgiound lo lhe Spuca|cncr liiaIs al lhe slail of lhe
199O´s. Olseiveis have seen a sleadv sliean of couil cases, such as Rcunc|ds.
6

Gccduin.
7
and A t 8 and C
8
vhich have denonslialed lhe IileiaI-nindedness
of lhe senioi judiciaiv and iesuIling in a iing-fencing of lhe iighls of lhe
nedia vhen lhev aie iepoiling in vhal lhev cIain lo le lhe pulIic inleiesl.
Whal seened lo le eneiging is a giealei viIIingness lo iecognise lhe
conslilulionaI significance of lhe iighl lo fieedon of expiession and indeed a
giealei iespecl foi lhe ioIe of lhe nedia in a fiee and denocialic socielv.


4
Young A 1996 Imagining Crime: Textual Outlaws and Criminal Conversations London: Sage, Chapter
5
5
Carr v News Group Newspapers Ltd, (QBD) Queen's Bench Division, 24 February 2005, unreported.
6
Reynolds v. Times Newspapers Ltd [2001] 2 A.C. 127; (1999) 3 W.L.R. 1010; [1999] 4 All E.R. 609.
7
Goodwin v U.K. (1996) 22 E.H.R.R. 123
8
A v. B Plc and Another [2003] Q.B. 195
2005] Injunctions Contra Mundum 71

Iiioi lo lhe incoipoialion of lhe LCHR inlo LngIish Lav, lhe nedia had
leen consliained lv an oflen dispaiale seIeclion of ciininaI and civiI Iavs
and ieguIaloiv poveis. Defanalion vas pail of loil Iav, lieach of
confidence had ils lasis in equilv, officiaI seciecv and conlenpl veie
deiived fion specific slalules, vhiIsl lIasphenous and sedilious IileIs veie
ciines al connon Iav. Nov lhese ienedies and iuIes seen lo have leen
sulsuned inlo lhe geneiaI oiganising piincipIe of lhe Luiopean Convenlion
on Hunan Righls AilicIe 1O povei of 'fieedon of expiession´, pailicuIaiIv
aflei lhe convenlion´s incoipoialion inlo UK Iav in lhe Hunan Righls Acl
1998 (¨HRA¨).
9
Lven lefoie lhe HRA, lhe nedia sav lhings inpioving. In
1979 lhe suppiession of lhe Sundau Tincs invesligalion of ThaIidonide vas
condenned lv lhe Luiopean Couil,
1O
and in 1995 lhe Luiopean Couil
noved lo piolecl discIosuie of jouinaIislic souices,
11
conliaiv lo decisions
laken iighl lhiough lo lhe House of Loids.

Ieihaps lhe nosl iapid aiea of IegaI deveIopnenl has leen in lhe spheie of
equilalIe ienedies, naneIv lhe gianling of lhe ccn|ra nundun injunclion
and lhe aclion foi lieach of confidence. IndividuaIs had liadilionaIIv leen
alIe lo piolecl lheii 'piivacv´ lhiough lhe use of lieach of confidence, lul
lhis iequiied aII lhe eIenenls idenlified lv Megaiiv I in 1969.
12
If a pailv is
lo le heId IialIe foi lieach of confidence il nusl le shovn lhal: (1) lhe
naleiiaI connunicaled lo hin had lhe necessaiv quaIilv of confidence: (2) il
vas connunicaled oi lecane knovn lo hin in ciicunslances enlaiIing an
olIigalion of confidence: and (3) lheie vas an unaulhoiised use of lhal
naleiiaI.

The olIigalion of confidence usuaIIv aiose vheie lheie vas a cIeai lusiness
oi doneslic ieIalionship, lul Ialei judges lended lo inpIv such ieIalionships.
UIlinaleIv, in lhe Iandnaik case of Dcug|as t Hc||c!.
13
SedIev LI said lheie
vas no need lo consliucl an ¨ailificiaI ieIalionship of confidenliaIilv¨ vhen
using lieach of confidence lo piolecl piivacv lecause lhe Iav iecognised

9
1998 Chapter 42. Schedule 1. The Act entered into law on 21
st
October 2000.
10
Sunday Times v. United Kingdom (1979-80) 2 E.H.R.R. 245; it was held that contempt of court
restrictions on freedom of expression were allowable only if it answered a “pressing social need”.
11
Goodwin v UK (1996) 22 E.H.R.R. 123; 1 B.H.R.C. 81; The Times, March 28, 1996, ECHR; the court
ruled that the Article 10 guarantee required protection of journalistic sources, otherwise information
available to the press would dry up. The UK Government’s disclosure orders therefore breached the
journalist’s Article 10 rights.
12
Coco v A N Clark (Engineers) Ltd [1969] RPC 41 at 47 –48 per Megarry J
13
Douglas v Hello! Ltd [2001] Q.B. 967 [2001] 2 W.L.R. 992 [2001] 2 All E.R. 289 [2001] E.M.L.R. 9
[2001] 1 F.L.R. 982 [2002] 1 F.C.R. 289 [2001] H.R.L.R. 26 [2001] U.K.H.R.R. 223 9 B.H.R.C. 543
[2001] F.S.R. 40 Times, January 16, 2001 Daily Telegraph, January 9, 2001; the case made it clear that
freedom of expression would not be justified in all circumstances and must be “proportionate to the
legitimate aim pursued”.
72 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:69

piivacv ilseIf. This vas peihaps a high valei naik foi lhose in favoui of
ailicIe 8, and nol jusl veaIlhv ceIeliilies vishing lo asseil lheii iighls, lul
aIso civiI seivanls, ninisleis and nenleis of lhe secuiilv seivices.

Mosl iecenlIv hovevei, and signifving sonelhing of a ieveisaI of foilunes
foi cIainanls, Loid WooIf's judgnenl in A t 8 and C
14
is polenliaIIv one of
lhe nosl significanl foi lhe nedia foi a geneialion. He asseiled lhal lhe noie
pulIic figuies voIunlaiiIv pul lheii piivale Iives inlo lhe pulIic donain, lhe
"Iess giound |lhev have! lo oljecl lo lhe inliusion |lv lhe Media!". The
definilion of vhal conslilules a pulIic figuie is nov fai videi lhan nenleis
of lhe nedia couId have expecled, indeed il is piolalIv videi lhan even lhe
ICC vouId have caIcuIaled il lo le, vilh Loid WooIf quoling, vilh appaienl
appiovaI, a CounciI of Luiope iesoIulion,
15
in vhich pulIic figuies aie
defined as "aII lhose vho pIav a ioIe in pulIic Iife, vhelhei in poIilics, lhe
econonv, lhe ails, lhe sociaI spheie, spoil oi in anv olhei donain".

Iuilheinoie, il is nol jusl ceIeliilies lhal aie lhe Iegilinised laigels of nedia
allenlion. In Tncnas.
16
a case lioughl undei lhe Iioleclion fion haiassnenl
Acl 1997, lhe couil iefeiied lo a seiies of ailicIes pulIished lv lhe Sun aloul
lhe cIainanl, vho had aIIeged lhal she had suffeied sliess and anxielv as a
iesuIl. The couil heId lhal lhe ailicIes veie nol ¨caIcuIaled lo cause aIain oi
disliess¨ oi veie ¨oppiessive and unieasonalIe¨. This is a ienaikalIe
judgenenl consideiing lhe nevspapei had iefeiied lo lhe cIainanl as a
'lIack cIeik´ lhiee lines in succession, pulIished exliacls fion Ielleis fuiious
al hei iepoiling of poIice officeis´ iacisl ienaiks and even sel up a fund lo
pav lhe iesuIling fine of one of lhe officeis.

The Iav of lieach of confidence has denonslialed lhe capacilv of lhe Iav foi
deveIopnenl and expansion undei lhe Hunan Righls Acl, such as lhe
injunclion gianled lv lhe High Couil lo piolecl lhe nev idenlilies of lhe
kiIIeis of Ianie ßuIgei aflei lheii ieIease fion cuslodv
17
. ßulIei-SIoss I
iecognised lhal lhev veie no Iongei piolecled lv lhe slaluloiv poveis
18

vhich lhev lenefiled fion as ninois, lul lheie vas a genuine possiliIilv of
ievenge allacks
19
and she lheiefoie used lieach of confidence lo gianl an
injunclion ccn|ra nundun, ialhei lhan ieIv on an in pcrscnan injunclion and
lhen conlenpl pioceedings. Il ienains lo le seen hov viIIing lhe couils viII

14
A v. B Plc and Another [2003] Q.B. 195
15
paragraph 7 of the Council of Europe's resolution 1165 of 1998
16
Thomas v News group Newspapers Ltd, The Times, July 25, 2001, CA
17
Venables v. News Group Newspapers Ltd [2001] 1 All E.R. 908
18
Minors receive special protection against publicity backed by the laws of contempt of court.
19
The injunction was granted due to the effects of Article 2 (right to life), Article 3 (prohibition of
torture) and Article 8 (right to privacy).
2005] Injunctions Contra Mundum 73

le lo geneiaIise lhis nev Vcnao|cs povei, lul il appeais lhev nav le
caulious. Healhei MiIIs´ appIicalion
2O
foi injunclion againsl pulIicalion of
hei addiess faiIed since a ¨geneiaI feai of slaIkeis oi haiassnenl¨ vas
insufficienl juslificalion, vheieas in 8cc|nan.
21
lheie vas noie specific
evidence of lhieals againsl lhe cIainanl and hei faniIv and lhe injunclion
vas duIv gianled. We viII anaIvse lhe inpIicalions of lhe Thonpson and
VenalIes judgenenl in giealei delaiI Ialei in lhis papei.

Mosl iecenlIv, ve have lhe House of Loids judgenenl in lhe Naoni
CanpleII case.
22
On 7lh Mav 2OO3, lhev iuIed lhal lhe nevspapei had
invaded lhe nodeI's piivacv vhen il pulIished a sloiv on 1 Ieliuaiv 2OO1
delunking hei deniaI of a cocaine addiclion lv ieveaIing hei visils lo
Naicolics Anonvnous in London's King's Road. In a najoiilv iuIing lv lhe
paneI of Iav Ioids, lhe couil found lhal Ms CanpleII had a iighl lo allend
hei lheiapv sessions vilhoul lhe delaiIs appeaiing in a "ceIeliilv-expIoiling
lalIoid". Loid Hope, one of lhe judges, said: "Despile lhe veighl lhal nusl
le given lo lhe iighl lo fieedon of expiession lhal lhe piess needs if il is
pIav ils ioIe effecliveIv, I vouId hoId lhal lheie vas heie an infiingenenl of
Miss CanpleII's iighl lo piivacv lhal cannol le juslified."

The iuIing has nov leen heId up lv Iavveis and senioi nedia figuies as
ciealing a de faclo 'piivacv Iav´ lv aIIoving ceIeliilies lo cIain lhal lhe
pulIicalion of infoinalion vhich lhe nedia knovs lo le piivale oi
confidenliaI, such as nedicaI liealnenl oi enpIovnenl iecoids, vouId
infiinge lheii hunan iighl lo a piivale Iife. Manv ciilics sav lhal lhe
piecedenl iepiesenls a lIov lo piess fieedon aflei lhe lhiee lo lvo najoiilv
judgenenl heId lhal lhe pulIicalion of a phologiaph of Ms CanpleII
Ieaving hei Naicolics Anonvnous neeling
23
vas an invasion of hei piivacv.
Leading lhe deliaclois vas Iieis Moigan, lhe enlallIed foinei ediloi of lhe
DaiIv Miiioi. Mi Moigan insisled his papei had leen iighl lo piinl ils sloiv,
headIined "Naoni: I an a diug addicl". He said: "This is a veiv good dav foi
Iving, diug-alusing piina donnas vho vanl lo have lheii cake vilh lhe
nedia and lhe iighl lo lhen shaneIessIv guzzIe il vilh lheii CivslaI
chanpagne. If evei lheie vas a Iess deseiving case foi ciealing vhal is
effecliveIv a lack dooi piivacv Iav il vouId le Ms CanpleII. ßul lhal's
shovliz."


20
Sir Paul Macartney’s wife; Heather Mills v. News Group Newspapers Ltd (2001) E.M.L.R. 957.
21
Beckham v MGN Ltd., unreported, June 28, 2001, per Eady J.
22
[2004] UKHL 22
23
on January 30, 2001
74 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:69

The House of Loids judgnenl, vhich Iefl lhe DaiIv Miiioi facing a IegaI liII
eslinaled al lelveen £5OO,OOO and £1 niIIion, vas lhe Ialesl lvisl in a
Ienglhv IegaI saga. Duiing lhe oiiginaI High Couil heaiing lvo veais ago,
24

Ms CanpleII vas foiced lo adnil in lhe vilness lox lhal she had leen a
diug addicl since 1997 and lhal she had a iepulalion foi lhioving lanliuns.
CanpleII aIso said lhal lhe fionl-page ailicIe, vhich incIuded quoles,
galheied lv a iepoilei posing as a feIIov iecoveiing addicl, had Iefl hei
feeIing "shocked, angiv, leliaved and vioIaled". In his judgnenl fion lhal
case, Mi Iuslice MoiIand found lhal Ms CanpleII had peijuied heiseIf lv
insisling lhal hei eneigencv adnission lo a Spanish hospilaI in 1997 vas
due lo an aIIeigv lo anliliolics. She had in facl laken an oveidose of sIeeping
piIIs. Hovevei, lhe judge nonelheIess iuIed in lhe nodeI's favoui and
avaided hei danages of £3,5OO, saving lhal despile hei liack iecoid as a
seIf-pulIicisl, she vas sliII enlilIed lo "sone space of piivacv".

The Couil of AppeaI Ialei oveiluined lhal iuIing,
25
saving lhal lhe DaiIv
Miiioi had leen iighl lo expose Ms CanpleII's dishoneslv. Hovevei, lhe
sulsequenl naiiov najoiilv iuIing lv lhe Lav Loids nade il cIeai lhal lhev
leIieved Mi Iuslice MoiIand vas coiiecl in lhe fiisl pIace in finding lhal
lheie had leen a lieach of confidence againsl lhe nodeI. ßaioness HaIe, one
of lhe lhiee judges iuIing in favoui of Ms CanpleII, said even lhose vho
spend lheii line in lhe augusl coiiidois of lhe House of Loids veie nol
unavaie of lhe liue naluie of nodein ceIeliilv. She said: "Iul ciudeIv, il is a
prina dcnna ceIeliilv againsl a ceIeliilv-expIoiling lalIoid nevspapei. Lach
in lheii line has piofiled fion lhe olhei. ßolh aie assuned lo le giovn-ups
vho knov lhe scoie." Hovevei, lhe judge said lhe DaiIv Miiioi had gone
loo fai in delaiIing liealnenl vhich anv individuaI couId expecl lo ienain
piivale. She said: "IeopIe living lo iecovei fion diug addiclion need
consideialIe dedicalion and connilnenl, aIong vilh conslanl
ieinfoicenenl fion lhose aiound lhen. ßIundeiing in vhen nalleis aie
acknovIedged lo le al a fiagiIe slage nav do gieal hain."

Lavveis foi lhe nodeI insisled lhal lhe iuIing vas nol a lIov lo lhe "so-
caIIed fieedon of lhe piess". Keilh SchiIIing, vho aIso iepiesenled Calheiine
Zela-Iones and MichaeI DougIas in lheii successfuI (al lhe line) £4n cIain
againsl HeIIo! nagazine foi pulIishing unaulhoiised picluies of lheii
vedding, said: "If anvlhing lhis Iav undeipins lhe inlegiilv of lhe nedia lv
ensuiing lhe fieedon of peopIe in lheiapv lo ieceive lhe liealnenl lhev need
and foi lhen lo expiess lhenseIves openIv and in confidence vilhoul feai of
nedia inliusion."

24
[2002] EWHC 499
25
[2002] EWCA Civ 1373
2005] Injunctions Contra Mundum 75


Defanalion and piivacv expeils have casl doull on vhelhei lhe judgnenl
couId le inleipieled as a piivacv Iav, poinling lo lhe naiiovness of lhe
giounds on vhich il vas nade. Rod Dadak, a Iavvei vho has iepiesenled
Anna Ioid and Loid ßiagg in piivacv cases, said: "Il does nol affecl fieedon
of expiession. The aigunenl vas aloul lhe anounl of delaiI lhal lhe DaiIv
Miiioi ieveaIed. AII il neans is lhal lalIoid nevspapeis have lo le caiefuI
aloul hov fai lhev go." Olhei Iavveis piedicled al lhe line lhal il vouId
Iead lo "specuIalive" cIains lv pulIic figuies living lo conceaI viongdoing.
Duncan Lanonl, a nedia Iavvei foi Iav fiin ChaiIes RusseII, said:
"CanpleII has leen living lo nake a viilue oul of lhe facl lhal she adnilled
lhal she vas a Iiai and cheal. She is a pulIic figuie vho has leen dishonesl
lul has sued ovei iiieIevancies. If poIilicians aie invoIved in sonelhing
dishonesl, jouinaIisls nighl feeI lhal lhev have lo Iav off viiling aloul lhen
lecause lhe poIilician nighl go lo couil ovei one exlia-delaiI in lhe papei."

Thc Agc nf Jnurna!IstIc Cnntcmµt

When one iefeis lo an 'age of conlenpl´ lhe aIIusion is lo a IegaI svslen in
nanv vavs poveiIess lo conlal lhe excesses of lhe nedia - a line of
unfelleied and excessive nedia fieedon Whal lhis fieedon has engendeied
anongsl jouinaIisls aie alliludes of pious and hvpociilicaI cvnicisn diiecled
squaieIv al poIilicians, ceIeliilies and noloiious ciininaIs. HaioId Lvans's
26

innoilaI advice lo jouinaIisls vas lhal vhen Iislening lo a poIilician lhev
shouId aIvavs lake cognizance of one inpoilanl queslion: ¨vhv is lhis
laslaid Iving lo ne`¨ The nedia cIain lhal sceplicisn of lhis kind is ained
lo ieinfoice aII lhal is good in lhe svslen of goveinance, lul vilhoul an elhic
of liulh-leIIing lhis allilude can sinpIv Iead lo laie cvnicisn, and
undeinine anv soil of liulh eneiging al aII. This elhicaI deficil al lhe coie of
lhe Infoinalion Socielv nav le conpounded lv lhe incieased voIune of
conneiciaI connunicalion, vhich, Iike poIilicaI connunicalion, indiieclIv
pionoles lhe idea lhal lheie aie no liulhs, onIv slialegies and cIains.

In lhe UK, ve aie nov Iiving in vhal is piolalIv lhe nosl conpelilive
peiiod in lhe hisloiv of lhe counliv´s nedia. This can le alliiluled lo a
nunlei a causaI faclois. The liadilionaI nevspapei naikel is in decIine,
pailicuIaiIv vilhin lhe lalIoid secloi, in pail due fiislIv lo lhe advenl of
eIeclionic nedia and lhe facl lhal lhe ieadeiship vas piogiessiveIv gelling
oIdei. SecondIv, lhe ieguIaloiv enviionnenl in lhe lioadcasling indusliv
has leen piogiessiveIv ieIaxed. Since lhe slail of 1993, lhe oiiginaI

26
Author of ‘The American Century’
76 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:69

iequiienenls ieIaling lo lhe nininun IeveI of cuiienl affaiis piogianning
in conneiciaI lioadcasling had leen alandoned vilh lhe iesuIl lhal lheie
vas incieased conpelilion foi adveilising ievenues. The iesuIl has leen lhal
lheie aie nov noie high-piofiIe, lig-ialing piogiannes and an enphasis
on 'Iighlei, noie allenlion-gialling naleiiaI´, ialhei lhan lhe cuiienl affaiis
seiies of lhe sevenlies and eighlies.
27
This has veiv nuch affecled lhe ieIaled
conlenl in lhe piinl nedia, vilh a enviionnenl vheie Iess nonev is chasing
a nuch videi seIeclion of polenliaI nevs oulIels, vilh IillIe oi no incenlive
lo pioduce noie seiious, naiialive oi discuisive conlenl. Theie has leen lhe
inexoialIe iise of vhal is leined lhe 'confessionaI coIunn´ oi 'ne
jouinaIisn´. In lioadcasling, a noie conpelilive and Iess ieguIaled
enviionnenl has Ied diieclIv lo a giealei concenlialion on lhe peisonaIilies,
confIicls vilhin and noie 'sIeazv´ aspecls of poIilics in pailicuIai.

Of couise, lhe nedia have nol aIvavs leen lhis feiociousIv deiisoiv. Laiiv
Salalo, lhe Aneiican SchoIai, has divided posl-vai Aneiican jouinaIisn
inlo phases lhal can le seen niiioied in lhe UK. His fiisl idenlifialIe phase
is fion lhe 194Os lo lhe niddIe of lhe 196Os, lhe eia of 'Iapdog jouinaIisn´,
an eia vhen lhe piess veie loo seiviIe lo nake anv neaningfuI ciilique of
lhe iuIing goveinnenl. The second phase vas desciiled as valchdog
jouinaIisn, vhen lhe idea of invesligalive jouinaIisn and jouinaIisls vas
ionanlicised lv lhe Iikes of Woodvaid and ßeinslein. The lhiid phase, fion
lhe niddIe of lhe 197Os onvaids, Salalo iefeis lo as 'junkvaid dog
jouinaIisn´. In his voids:

Il has lecone a speclacIe vilhoul equaI in nodein Aneiican
poIilics: lhe nevs nedia, piinl and lioadcasl, go aflei a vounded
poIilician Iike shaiks in a feeding fienzv...IulIic officiaIs and nanv
olhei olseiveis see jouinaIisls as iude, aiioganl and cvnicaI, given lo
exaggeialion, haiassnenl, sensalionaIisn and gioss insensilivilv.

In his 2OOO look, Pccpsncu, Salalo foIIovs veiv siniIai lhenes and
denonsliales hov so fev of lhe so-caIIed exposes of eIecled officiaIs can
genuineIv le iegaided as 'pulIic inleiesl invesligalions´,
28
as opposed lo
cIeai allenpls lo inciease ciicuIalion oi vieving figuies. Thus lhe nain
lechnique enpIoved lv jouinaIisls has lecone one of oveil disdain of lhe
poIilician´s nolives and a dislancing fion lhe acluaI conlenl of lhe poIilicaI
nessages lhenseIves. IouinaIisls consideied lhis lo le diiven lv a peifeclIv

27
Such as This Week and World in Action on ITV and First Tuesday on Channel 4.
28
Larry J. Sabato, Feeding Frenzy: How Attack Journalism has Transformed American Politics, New
York, Free Press, 1991, p.1; Larry J. Sabato, Mark Stencel and S. Robert Lichter, Peepshow: Media and
Politics in the Age of Scanda, Oxford, Rowman & Littlefield, 2000.
2005] Injunctions Contra Mundum 77

honouialIe deleininalion lo asseil lheii ciilicaI independence lul lhe iisk
lhal has nov nanifesled ilseIf is lhal lhis independence has leen giaduaIIv
nelanoiphosed inlo a ieIenlIessIv negalive appioach lo lolh poIilicians and
lhe poIilicaI piocess ilseIf. The queslion can nov le asked vhelhei lhe
nedia has ciossed lhe Iine denaicing delached sceplicisn and cvnicisn and
passed inlo a zone of ieIenlIess deiision and iidicuIe. The nedia, and lhe
piinl nedia in pailicuIai, aie conlenpluous of lhe suljecls of lheii sloiies
and appeai lo IaigeIv acl vilh inpunilv. The piinl nedia, unIike
lioadcasleis, aie undei no slaluloiv olIigalion lo le inpailiaI and ieguIaiIv
pass connenl veiging on lhe defanaloiv. An exanpIe occuiied in 1999
vhen Tonv ßIaii lhiealened lo 'lake on lhe piess' aflei a pailicuIaiIv vicious
episode of scandaI-nongeiing in lhe lalIoids, and lhe Sun had iesponded in
an ediloiiaI
29


Too nanv poIilicians aie sad, soidid, palhelic, inadequale vinps
vilh piivale Iives lhal nake oidinaiv peopIe´s slonachs chuin. Thev
aie nol fil lo hoId office. So, Mi ßIaii, gel voui lank off oui Iavn.
Renenlei lhal ve speak foi niIIions of ßiils vho Iive cIeanei Iives
lhan haIf of Weslninslei. We speak foi lhe peopIe vho pul vou and
voui foinicaling fiiends inlo povei.

Andiev Maii, lhe ßßC´s poIilicaI ediloi desciiled vhal he sav as lhe
'cuIluie of aluse´, saving:

Il is acid. Il is ealing avav al lhe lhoughlfuI cuIluie of pulIic
discouise, luining oul nuance, gollIing up delaiI, dissoIving neie
facls. And lhal, in luin, cannol heIp a sliuggIing denociacv. Seiious
nevs oulIels do caie aloul denociacv...ßul ve need, sonehov, lo
ciavI lack up lhe sIope lo IeveI-headed aigunenl as veII.
3O


SiniIaiIv, in lhe Ncu S|a|csnan duiing lhe 2OO1 geneiaI eIeclion canpaign,
lhe dislinguished jouinaIisl Iohn LIovd connenled on lhe alsence of anv
acknovIedgenenl lhal poIilicians nighl le a foice foi good:

|The ciilics! do nol considei...lhe liuIv iadicaI lhoughl lhal
poIilicians assisl ialhei lhan desliov lhe nainlenance of civiI socielv:
lhal lhev aie piecious ialhei lhan disgusling individuaIs in a line of
nedia doninance: lhal lhev defend ialhei lhan poIIule lhe pulIic
spheie.
31


29
February 1, 1999.
30
Andrew Marr, ‘The Lying Game’, Observer, 24 October 1999, p.30.
31
John Lloyd, ‘The Scorn of the Literati’, New Statesman, 4 June 2001, pp. 21-2.
78 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:69


The idea lhal poIilicians aie honesl and honouialIe individuaIs, doing lheii
ulnosl lo inpiove lhe Iol of lhe counliv´s cilizens does seen incongiuous in
lodav´s nedia cIinale. These senlinenls aie sinpIv nol appeaIing lo lhe
najoiilv of jouinaIisls. Ten veais ago, lhe lhen diiecloi-geneiaI of lhe ßßC,
Iohn ßiil, nade a speech in vhich he cIained lhal lhe laIance lelveen
iefIeclion and dispulalion in lhe nedia´s coveiage of poIilics nav have
noved loo fai in lhe viong diieclion. He spoke of hov lhe nedia 'iesound
in aciinonv, aIIegalions of inconpelence, denands foi iesignalion´, and Iike
Andiev Maii foui veais Ialei, he vas conceined aloul lhe ieaI inpacl such
conliived 'fuiv and hvpeiloIe´ vas having on poIilicaI Iife:

IoIilicians have a highei cIain lo speak foi lhe peopIe lhan
jouinaIisls. ßul sone jouinaIisls sonelines foigel lhal. Repoileis
vho pielend lhal ansveis and ienedies aie olvious: lhal eveivone
in lhe voiId lul lhen is an inconpelenl fooI: oveileaiing
inleivieveis vho sneei disdainfuIIv al lheii inleivievees...aII exhilil
alliludes vhich aie unalliaclive in a jouinaIisl, and iaieIv
appiopiiale.
32


In ßiilain, lheiefoie, as in lhe US, lheie is gioving evidence lhal ve have
nov enleied an age vhen jouinaIisls aie inlenl on ciossing lhe loundaiv
fion infoined and inleIIigenl ciilicisn lo unlhinking and uninfoined
iidicuIe and il appeais lhal lhe neIange of IegaI neasuies designed lo
consliain lheii excesses aie oflen ineffeclive.

Theie vouId lheiefoie appeai lo le IillIe nolivalion foi individuaIs lo
lecone poIilicians vhen aII lhal avails lhen is viliioI, scoin and deiision
fion lhe nedia. Conpaied lo lhe financiaI ievaids and oflen ceIeliilv
slalus of a caieei in jouinaIisn, vhal viII le lhe appeaI of a niseiIv £6O,OOO
pei veai and a Iifeline of nisliusl and viIificalion in pulIic seivice`


Thc McdIa and thc CnmmndIfIcatInn nf CrImc

Il is nol onIv lhe poIilicaI svslen lhal has loine sciulinv and suslained
ciilicisn fion lhe nedia. The nedia and indeed lhe Infoinalion Socielv
ilseIf have pIaved a cenliaI ioIe in shaping peopIe´s alliludes lovaids ciine
and ciininaIs. CIolaI fIovs of inages, ideas, capilaI and peopIe aie

32
John Birt, ‘For Good or Ill? The Role of the Modern Media’, Independent Newspapers Annual Lecture,
Trinity college Dublin, 3 February 1995.
2005] Injunctions Contra Mundum 79

ieconsliluling sociaI Iife and individuaI suljeclivilies in conpIex vavs.
33
The
nass ciicuIalion of iepiesenlalions of infanous offendeis is an inpoilanl
aspecl of lhe shifl lovaids vengefuI punishnenl and inages have pIaved a
poveifuI pail in lhe inaginalion of ciine vhich noliIised lhe 'punilive
shifl´. AIong vilh unknovn seiious offendeis in lhe connunilv, lhev find
lhenseIves al lhe cenlie of a lallIe ovei lhe pulIic´s iighl lo knov in an
infoinalion socielv.
34
Noloiious ciininaIs incieasingIv Iose lhe povei lo
conlioI use of lheii ovn inage, as lheii nanes, faces and sloiies lecone
Iucialive connodilies. In a consuneiisl cuIluie, viIificaloiv inages of
ciininaIs lecone a saIealIe connodilv, as piofilalIe liade foi a poveifuI
nedia indusliv. Danage lo iepulalion lhiough negalive iepiesenlalions is
of gieal concein vhen pulIic opinion is incieasingIv iefeienced in decisions
aloul laiiff-selling.
35
Repiesenlalions vhich eIicil phvsicaI allack and even
nuideious vigiIanlisn aie a chiIIing ienindei lhal dislinclions lelveen
ieliilulion and ievenge aie leing iediavn.
36
The caIcuIus of piopoilionaIilv
lecones an inpIicil lhieal IeveIIed againsl lolh individuaI offendeis and lhe
iuIe of Iav ilseIf: if ieliilulion is insufficienl lhen ve 'lhe pulIic´ viII exacl
ievenge.

Much ieseaich has chaIIenged lhe conlinuing saIience of concepls of noiaI
panic and popuIisl puniliveness.
37
These lheoiies inadequaleIv addiess lhe
dvnanisn of lhe connodificalion of eveivdav Iife, and dale fion lhe line
of a vaslIv diffeienl nedia enviionnenl. In lhe nain, lhese lheoiies expound
lhe piincipIe lhal puniliveness in nass nedia and poIilicaI iheloiic does nol
sinpIv iefIecl pulIic opinion, and foiegiound poIilicaI expediencv as a
conliiluling facloi. Ciine ilseIf has lecone a vaIualIe consunei
enleilainnenl connodilv, lo le enjoved and consuned daiIv lhiough
nodein nedia and connunicalion piocesses´
38
. This connodificalion is lhe

33
Urry (2000)
34
There have been campaigns and provisions to make the identity and whereabouts of obscure criminals
who are released after serving sentences for serious sex offences a matter of public knowledge (Megan’s
Laws, Sarah’s Law campaign). There is also a campaign for the Voto-Tedesco Community Notification
Law in New Jersey, which would establish notification measures when murderers are released.
35
In the UK, the ‘tariff’ is the minimum terms of imprisonment before murderers are eligible for parole.
36
Sarat, A. ‘Vengeance, Victims and the Identities of Law’ Social & Legal Studies 6 (2): 163-189
37
See Cohen, S. (1973) Folk Devils and Moral Panics St Albans: Paladin; Hall, S., Critcher, C.,
Jefferson, T., Clarke, T., and Roberts, J., (1978) Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and
Order London: Macmillan; Bottoms, A. (1995) ‘The philosophy and politics of punishment and
sentencing’, in Clarkson, C. and Morgan, R. (eds.), The Politics of Sentencing Reform Oxford: Clarendon;
Windlesham, Lord 1998 Politics, Punishment, and Populism Oxford & New York: Oxford University
Press.
38
Presdee, M. (2000) Cultural Criminology and the Carnival of Crime London: Routledge at p.11
80 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:69

piocess lhiough vhich lhings aie liansfoined inlo ailicIes of conneice lhal
can le loughl and soId foi piofil lv naxinising lheii exchange vaIue.
39


Noloiious ciininaIs have lheiefoie had lo vage a lallIe vilh lhe nass
nedia lo ieasseil and defend lheii inage againsl danage lo lolh lheii
iepulalion and lheii Iife and Iinl. In lhis conlexl, lhe IegaI ieguIalion of
dangeious iepiesenlalions lecones a sile of conleslalion. The infanous UK
'Moois nuideieis´, Ian ßiadv and Mvia HindIev, had leen lhe suljecl of
conlinuing pulIic fascinalion duiing lhe line of lheii incaiceialion, and had
iecouise lo lolh lhe Iiess ConpIainls Connission
4O
and lhe couils in seaich
of pioleclion fion hosliIe and danaging iepiesenlalions of lhen.

In IuIv 1995 a pholo of Ian ßiadv, lhe 'noois nuideiei´ vas laken fion
oulside lhe hospilaI giounds vilh a leIepholo Iens, shoving hin al a
vindov of Ashvoilh naxinun secuiilv hospilaI in Tnc Sun. The indislincl
pholo of ßiadv appeaied nexl lo an ailicIe headIined 'WeII-fed face of eviI
chiId nuideiei ßiadv.´ The ailicIe desciiled ßiadv as 'lIoaled lv sofl Iiving
in a cushv piison.´ Sloiies and phologiaphs indicling lhe puipoiledIv
Iuxuiious condilions in vhich lhe Moois nuideieis veie delained lecane
quile connonpIace.
41
ßiadv sulsequenlIv conpIained lo Iiess ConpIainls
Connission (ICC), vho iejecled his conpIainl. ßiadv vas gianled IegaI aid
foi judiciaI ieviev of lhis decision, and lhe TeIegiaph iepoiled
42
lhal ßiadv
vas 'lo chaIIenge a iuIing. lhal his noloiielv has depiived hin of lhe iighl
lo piivacv¨. The connission effecliveIv upheId lhe nevspapei´s defence
lhal ßiadv had foifeiled aII iighls lo piivacv lecause of his ciines, and lhe
couils sulsequenlIv agieed.
43


Ioui veais Ialei,
44
Iavveis foi ßiadv conpIained lhal phologiaphs
pulIished in lhe |itcrpcc| |cnc, lhe Mirrcr and lhe Dai|u Rcccrd iepiesenled
an 'unjuslified inliusion inlo his piivacv´. The pholos veie laken as ßiadv
vas diiven, undei poIice guaid, foi hospilaI lesls duiing lhe peiiod of his
hungei sliike. The Mirrcr and Dai|u Rcccrd aigued lhal ßiadv had given up
anv iighl lo piivacv vhen he connilled his ciines, lax-paveis nonev is

39
McRobbie, A. and Thornton, S. (1994) ‘Moral panic for multi-mediated worlds’ British Journal of
Sociology
40
The regulatory body for the media in the UK.
41
See for example, ‘Scandal as Myra Meets TV Bad Girl’ News of the World 1.7.2001, p.7. The article
reported that the actress who played unpopular warder ‘Bodybag’ in ITV’s show Bad Girls was filled
with revulsion after a brief and seemingly impromptu meeting with Myra Hindley in her cell at HMP
Highpoint.
42
4
th
January 1996
43
19 Nov 1996, CA judges upheld PCC decision. R v Press Complaints Commission, ex parte Stewart-
Brady [1997] E.M.L.R. 185
44
12
th
January 2000
2005] Injunctions Contra Mundum 81

iesponsilIe foi his veIfaie, and he had soughl pulIicilv lv ieveaIing lo lhe
nedia delaiIs of his canpaign lo slaive hinseIf lo dealh. ßiadv´s conpIainl
vas, again, uIlinaleIv iejecled, and lhe adjudicalion ciled lhe ieasons lhal
ßiadv had leen phologiaphed in a pulIic pIace, il did ieIale lo a nallei of
genuine pulIic inleiesl, and ßiadv had conpionised his iighl lo piivacv
lhiough his desiie lo seek pulIicilv foi his cause. Il aIso slaled fiinIv lhal
'The Code - in Iine vilh lhe Hunan Righls Acl - confeis iighls lo piivacv on
eveivone, no nallei hov hoiiendous lheii ciines.´

When ßiadv vas Ialei on hungei sliike, an Ashvoilh HospilaI enpIovee
soId sevenleen pages of his confidenliaI nedicaI iecoids fion lhe hospilaI
dalalase lo lhe Mirrcr, vhich pulIished veilalin exliacls fion lhen. The
couils oideied Mirrcr Grcup Ncuspapcrs lo discIose lhe idenlilv of lhe
enpIovee, and iefeiied lo lhe venaIilv of lhe souice.
45
The Dai|u Mirrcr noie
iecenlIv eiioneousIv piocIained lhal Mvia HindIev vas leininaIIv iII, and
she Iodged a conpIainl vilh lhe ICC. ßiadv look a nevspapei lo couil
cIaining naIicious faIsehood in conneclion vilh an ailicIe desciiling an
incidenl in vhich he vas puipoiledIv invoIved.
46
His case vas unsuccessfuI
lecause undei defanalion IegisIalion, a peison has lo denonsliale lhal a
pulIicalion caused lhen financiaI Ioss oi had leen inlended lo cause
pecuniaiv danage lo lhen.

Il oughl lo le cIeai lhal lheie is oflen pooi censuie of viIificaloiv
iepiesenlalions of ciininaIs, and an acceplance of lhe fiequenl pulIic
inleiesl defence vhich peinils lheii ciicuIalion. This is nol nalched lv a
Iack of censuie of iepiesenlalions laken lo gIoiifv ciininaIs. AilicIe 16 of lhe
ICC Code piohilils convicled ciininaIs fion piofiling fion lheii ciines
and one of lheii iepoils slales lhal lheii aclivilies in censuie aie ained lo
slop lhe gIoiificalion of ciine.
47


In lhe USA, nanv slales have 'Son of San´ Iavs, lhe fiisl of lhese leing
enacled lv lhe Nev Yoik Slale IegisIaluie in 1977 lo piohilil lhe noloiious
nuideiei David ßeikovilz, knovn as Son of San fion piofiling fion lhe
saIe of sloiies aloul his ciines. The ialionaIe lehind lhe Iavs incIudes lhe
nolion lhal lhe pulIicilv slenning fion lhe ie-leIIing of lheii ciines lv a

45
Ashworth Hospital v MGN Ltd [2001] 1 All ER 991.
46
Stewart-Brady v Express Newspapers plc [1997] EMLR
47
In an adjudication which upheld a complaint about payments for a magazine article on the Krays, the
Commission said, ‘none of these articles attempted to portray the downsides of a life of crime, of the
impact on the victims of those convicted on them… On the contrary, they glorified the way in which
various crimes had been carried out and the people who did so’ (Complaint of ‘A man’, 1.1.99). Another
adjudication stated, ‘the glorification of the crime is more of an affront if it is done for gain’ (Complaints
concerning payments for stories from convicted criminals 1.7.98).
82 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:69

convicled offendei adds lo lhe enolionaI pain of viclins. Sone slales
piohilil Iav enfoicenenl officiaIs and nenleis of lhe IegaI piofession fion
ieceiving pavnenl foi sloiies.

SiniIaiIv an IIIinois Iav slales lhal vilnesses cannol ieceive pavnenl foi
pioviding infoinalion aloul nalleis peilaining lo ciininaI pioceedings.
Wilnesses on a nunlei of occasions have leen found lo have leen paid foi
sloiies lv nevspapeis in a nunlei of noloiious ciininaI cases. In 1996,
Rosenaiv Wesl appeaIed againsl hei conviclion on lhe giounds lhal hosliIe
pie-liiaI piess coveiage had piejudiced lhe liiaI, and lhe piess had paid
vilnesses foi lheii sloiies, vhich lainled lheii evidence.
48
The couil iejecled
lhe appeaI, slaling lhal 'lhe case ilseIf vas shocking and lhe pulIic had a
iighl lo knov aloul il. Il vouId le Iudicious if heinous ciines couId nol le
liied lecause lhev had leen suljecl lo exlensive pulIicilv.´ Hovevei, lhev
aIso caIIed foi ieviev of lhe queslion of lhe pavnenl of vilnesses lv lhe
piess, and slaled lhal lhe Alloinev CeneiaI vas Iooking inlo lhe nallei.

Iiisoneis´ iighls lo connunicale vilh jouinaIisls in oidei lo expiess lheii
vievs on lheii case in lhe nass nedia aie geneiaIIv ciicunsciiled lv piison
iuIes and ieguIalions. IndividuaI piisoneis have had lo appeaI lo lhe couils
in oidei lo eslalIish iighls of lhis kind. In lhe UK case of Sinns, lhe poIicv of
inposing a lIankel lan on jouinaIisls visiling piisoneis unIess lhev signed
an undeilaking lo lhe effecl lhal lhev vouId nol pulIish anvlhing said al
inleiviev vas found lo le unIavfuI. O´ßiien and Sinns veie lolh seiving
Iife senlences foi nuidei and cIained lhal lhev had leen lhe viclins of a
niscaiiiage of juslice. The Couil of AppeaI iuIed lhal a convicled piisonei
had no iighl lo connunicale oiaIIv vilh lhe nedia lhiough a jouinaIisl,
since a senlence of inpiisonnenl neanl he couId no Iongei speak lo lhose
oulside piison oi ieceive visils fion anvone excepl his Iavvei, his ieIalives
and fiiends. The House of Loids oveiluined lhis decision, slaling lhal a
lIankel lan vas unIavfuI in lhal such a poIicv couId depiive a piisonei of
his fundanenlaI and lasic iighl lo seek juslice in leins of lhe ieviev of his
conviclion oi senlence. Hovevei, lhe case of 8anocr eslalIished lhal
piisoneis do nol enjov a geneiaI iighl of fieedon of expiession in aII
possilIe silualions. In lhis case, lhe Luiopean couil iejecled lhe aigunenl
lhal a piisonei shouId le piohililed fion conlacling lhe nedia puieIv on
lhe giounds lhal such coiiespondence vouId cause disliess lo viclins oi
lheii ieIalives. Hovevei, lhe couil found lhal exeicising effeclive conlioI
ovei connunicalions vilh lhe nedia lv leIephone vas IavfuI.


48
R v West (Rosemary Pauline) [1996] 2 Cr. App. R. 374
2005] Injunctions Contra Mundum 83

In 1996, lhe fiisl vife of Iied Wesl´s liolhei Iohn conpIained lo lhe ICC
aloul a Dai|u Mai| ailicIe vhich incIuded hei vedding phologiaph and
sone peisonaI delaiIs. The ailicIe had leen pulIished in lhe vake of Iohn
Wesl´s suicide duiing his liiaI foi iape, undei lhe headIine, 'Seciels of lhe
liolheis giin.´ She slaled lhal lhis infiinged lhe ICC´s piivacv cIause and
lhe cIause piolecling innocenl ieIalives and fiiends. The conpIainanl aigued
lhal she had divoiced Wesl lefoie lhe aIIeged ciines look pIace, she had nol
leen knovn as Wesl foi nineleen veais, and she had done aII lhal she couId
lo piolecl lheii daughlei fion pulIicilv. She expIained lhal nanv peopIe
vho had leen unavaie of hei conneclion vilh lhe Wesl faniIv had
idenlified hei and hei faniIv fion lhe ailicIe. The Connission iejecled lhe
conpIainl, slaling lhal 'lheie vas a pulIic inleiesl in nevspapei iepoiling of
lhe conpIex lapesliv lhal nade up lhe Wesl faniIv.´ The couils have nade
cIeai lhal lhe pulIic inleiesl does nol equale vilh vhalevei inleiesls lhe
pulIic, vel adjudicalions Iike lhis one nake no effoil lo denonsliale lhal lhe
offending iepiesenlalion vas in sone vav foi lhe good of socielv. In lhis
vav lhe nedia have leen IaigeIv piolecled lv lhe couils.

Thc UK Casc nf MaxInc Carr

As ve have aIieadv seen, lheie is a geneiaI nedia and pulIic inleiesl in
naking knovn delaiIs of noloiious ciininaIs. In lhe case of Maxine Caii lhis
veai, lhe aIIeged acconpIice of lhe chiId-nuidei Ian HunlIev, lhe ccn|ra
nundun injunclion gianled lv lhe High Couil in lhe UK vas vide-ianging,
and foIIoved a pievious lenpoiaiv oidei in Mav 2OO4, vhich iuIed lhal
Caii's idenlilv needed lo le kepl seciel foi hei ovn safelv foIIoving hei
ieIease on piolalion aflei seiving haIf of a 42-nonlh senlence. The piesenl
injunclion lans pulIicalion of lioad delaiIs lhal nav Iead lo Caii´s
idenlificalion and Iocalion and viII appIv unliI il is vaiied oi dischaiged lv
a sulsequenl couil oidei. The piohililed infoinalion exlends lo hei nev
nane, addiess oi anv delaiIs of hei vheiealouls, anv phologiaph oi picluie
of anv pIace she allends oi anv delaiIs of hei psvchialiic caie oi liealnenl.
Moieovei, il appIies nol onIv lo lhe Media lul aIso lo lhe geneiaI pulIic as
veII, and piohilils anvone, incIuding fuluie voiknales, pailneis and
neighlouis fion ieveaIing hei idenlilv. SoIiciling lhis infoinalion and even
asking queslions is aIso lanned and lhe penaIlies foi lieaching lhe oidei aie
consideialIe, naneIv inpiisonnenl oi sequeslialion of assels.
49


The injunclion is lv no neans a nev species, lul il is nonelheIess unique in a
nunlei of vavs. Il is fiislIv unpiecedenled in so fai as Caii is an aduIl

49
Contempt of Court Act 1981
84 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:69

offendei nol convicled of a seiious, hei neieIv leing associaled vilh a kiIIei.
SecondIv, lhe judgenenl enphasised lhe inpoilance of hei peiceived fiagiIe
psvchoIogicaI slale, vhich is an enliieIv noveI juslificalion and lhiidIv, lhe
appIicalion vas nol conlesled lv lhe nedia.

Il vas cIained lv Caii´s iepiesenlalives lhal if lhe appIicalion vas nol
gianled lhal lheie vas a ieaI and significanl iisk of hei injuiv oi dealh and
lhal faiIuie lo piolecl hei fion lhal iisk vouId anounl lo a lieach of lhe
Luiopean Convenlion on Hunan Righls AilicIe 2 (pioleclion of iighl lo Iife).
The evidence adduced in suppoil vas peisuasive: a peisislenl lhieal fion a
specific souice, acluaI incidenls of haiassnenl and expiessions of inlenlion
lv lhe pulIic lo allack oi kiII Caii, and allacks on innocenl nenleis of lhe
pulIic lv individuaIs vho lhoughl lheii viclins loie iesenlIance lo Caii. Il
vas addilionaIIv cIained lhal lheie vas a ieaI iisk lo hei aIieadv fiagiIe
psvchoIogicaI heaIlh and faiIuie lo piolecl hei againsl lhal iisk vouId
anounl lo a lieach of hei iighls undei AilicIe 8 of lhe Convenlion. This
cIain vas suppoiled lv nedicaI evidence.

The lasis of lhe injunclion in lhe Carr case foIIovs lhe cIeai Iine of aulhoiilv
deveIoped in lhe ßuIgei
5O
and ßeII
51
cases lhal pieceded il lased upon a
faiiIv naiiov sel of facls. Il oughl lo le ieslaled lhal Caii´s oiiginaI oidei in
2OO4 vas nade undei lhe doneslic Iav of confidence, ialhei lhan anv fiee-
slanding cause of aclion (piivacv as such) lased upon iighls undei lhe
Luiopean Convenlion on Hunan Righls (LCHR) and lhe piesenl case
affiined lhis oidei. The discussion of vhelhei lhe couils have a posilive
olIigalion
52
lo piolecl an individuaI´s piivacv againsl anolhei piivale Iav
pailv vas nol consideied fuilhei in lhe appIicalion
53
lul il oughl lo le cIeai
lhal lhe couil is ilseIf a pulIic aulhoiilv undei seclion 6(3) of lhe HRA and is
lound lo acl conpalilIv vilh lhe LCHR having iegaid lo lhe 'hoiizonlaIilv´
of lhe LCHR in piivale Iav cases such as lhis
54


Moieovei, seclions 12(3)-(4) of lhe HRA undeiscoie lhe inpoilance of
AilicIe 1O (fieedon of expiession) vhen aiiiving al decisions iegaiding lhe

50
Venables and Thompson v. Newsgroup Newspapers and Associated Newspapers Ltd, [2001] W.L.R.
1038.
51
X (a woman formerly know as Mary Bell) and another v. O’Brien and others [2003] All ER (D) 282
(May).
52
Under Article 8 ECHR
53
The deliberations on this point in the leading case of A v B Plc [2002] EWCA Civ 337; [2003] Q.B.
195 (CA (Civ Div)) appear to be inconclusive and largely ignore European jurisprudence in the cases of
Spencer v UK (1998) 25 E.H.R.R. CD 105 (dealing with admissibility) and other authorities (Winer v UK
(1986) 48 I.R. 154 and Barclay v UK (1999) no.35712/97 (admissibility only)).
54
hence applying the jurisprudence of Glaser v UK [2000] 2 FCR 193 and the House of Lords decision in
Douglas v Hello! [2003] EWHC 786
2005] Injunctions Contra Mundum 85

gianl of injunclive ieIief lo appIicanls, and enlodies lhe goveinnenl´s
desiie lo aIIav nedia feais lhal lhe convenlionaI lesl foi oideis inposing
injunclions
55
vouId le loo high if appIicanls cIained lhal a lhiealened
pulIicalion couId infiinge lheii iighls lo piivacv undei AilicIe 8.

Iion lhese cIeai foundalions lhe couil lhe couil is faced vilh lhe peienniaI
consideialion in deciding vhelhei lo gianl injunclive ieIief: laIancing lhe
nedia´s fieedon of expiession and lhe pulIic´s iighl lo knov againsl a
nunlei of olhei iighls enshiined vilhin lhe LCHR. In cases of 'neie
piivacv´, il is IikeIv lhal lhe nedia viII juslifv pulIicalion
56
lul in cases
vheie Ail 2 and Ail 3 consideialions nusl le nel, such as lhe piesenl case,
lhe ienedies soughl viII le gianled. These Iallei consideialions usuaIIv
iequiie sliong evidence of a seiious 'lhieal lo Iife and Iinl´ In lhe ßuIgei
case, il vas leIieved lhal seclions of lhe nedia veie inciling peopIe lo vieak
ievenge on lhe deceased´s kiIIeis and lhal ¨seclions of lhe piess suppoiled a
feeIing of ievuIsion and halied lo lhe degiee of encouiaging lhe pulIic lo
denv anonvnilv´ lo lhe kiIIeis¨.

UndoulledIv lhis aIso foined pail of lhe ieasoning lehind lhe judgenenl in
Carr. Theie vas nanifesl and cIeai evidence of peisislenl lhieals lovaid
Caii, enanaling in pailicuIai fion pailies lhe aulhoiilies consideied lo le
¨foiensicaIIv avaie.¨ Theie had aIso leen incidenls invoIving peopIe
nislaken foi Ms Caii vho had leen alused lv nenleis of lhe pulIic inlenl
on adninisleiing lheii ovn liand of ieliilulive juslice. Mosl ciuciaIIv,
peihaps, lhe couil pIaced consideialIe enphasis upon psvchialiisls´ iepoils
vhich concIuded lhal, vilhoul lhe injunclion, lhe iisks lo Caii´s fiagiIe
nenlaI slale veie veiv high and lhal lhis oughl lo anounl lo a nev ciileiion
suppoilive of lhe gianl of lhe injunclion.

Il is lenpling, of couise, lo queslion lhe nolivalion of lhe piess in ielaining
Caii in lhe pulIic consciousness as a hale figuie
57
. Caii has leen conpaied,
vilhoul chaIIenge, lo Mvia HindIev noie lines lhan lhe ieaI fenaIe kiIIei
and chiId alusei, Rosenaiv Wesl. This denonisalion is svnplonalic of lhe

55
American Cyanamid Company v Ethicon Limited [1975] AC 396. Traditionally, the Court must be
satisfied that the claim "is not frivolous or vexatious; in other words, that there is a serious question to be
tried"
56
see A v. B Plc and Another [2003] Q.B. 195; During the Thompson and Venables trial, Butler-Sloss, P.,
said that she was uncertain whether it would be appropriate to grant injunctions where only breach of
Article 8 was threatened.
57
The Mirror appears to enjoy printing some of the most violent and brutal hate messages found on the
Internet discussion rooms. They included: “I do hope she gets what’s coming to her”, “I would kill the
evil bitch” and “This bitch should be dead and I believe she will be, if there is any justice in this life, by
the end of the year”.
86 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:69

piejudice IeveIIed againsl vonen associaled vilh vioIenl acls
58
oi anv
vonen in disjuncluie vilh lhe consliuclion of noinalive fenaIe lehavioui,
a noin vhich cannol acconnodale vonen capalIe of gialuilous ciueIlv
lovaids chiIdien in pailicuIai. The queslion aiises as lo vhelhei lhis
liealnenl lv lhe nedia anounls lo a svslenalic incilenenl lo halied and
vioIence, lhus pionpling delale on vhelhei lhe nedia lhenseIves couId le
cuIpalIe foi lhe ieaclion of lheii ieadeis. This concepl, undeislandalIv,
ieceives ieIaliveIv fev coIunn inches.

Iuilhei piolIens exisl, hovevei, vilh lhe naluie and scope of lhe Carr
judgenenl ilseIf. Whal is sliiking aie lhe diffeiences lelveen lhe
iequiienenls foi gianling of lhe fiisl injunclion ccn|ra nundun and lhe Carr
case vhich is lhe Ialesl and nosl fai-ieaching in a seiies of such injunclions.
The iequiienenls foi gianl of injunclions of lhis kind veie Iaid dovn a neie
4 veais ago in lhe Thonpson and VenalIes case.
59
Al lhal line IifeIong
anonvnilv vas gianled lo lhe lvo chiId-kiIIeis upon ieaching naluiilv and
lhe ialionaIe vas sinpIe: lhev veie fiisl given pioleclion as juveniIes and lo
ienove lhe oidei vhen lhev ieached 18 vouId have leen lo expose lhen
suddenIv lo seiious hain and lo desliov lhe lenefil of lheii iehaliIilalion
vhiIe incaiceialed. Iuilheinoie, Thonpson and VenalIes´ offence vas
piolalIv lhe nosl heinous on lhe ciininaI scaIe vhiIsl Caii´s, lv
conpaiison vas ninoi.
6O


Al lhe line of lheii ciine Roleil Thonpson and Iohn VenalIes veie
desciiled lv lhe UK nass nedia as 'naiked nen´, and as 'laigels´ vho aie
'dead nen vaIking.´
61
Thev veie consideied in lhese leins lecause lhev
veie leIieved lo le al giave iisk of vigiIanle allack. Ioi lhe puiposes of
pioleclion, lhe couils nade lhe Iifeline anonvnilv oideis oi ccn|ra nundun
injunclions, vhich piohililed anvone undei lhe juiisdiclion of LngIish Iav
fion discussing oi pulIishing infoinalion vhich nighl nake lheii nev
idenlilies pulIic knovIedge. As sloiies of nols hunling lhen dovn fiIIed
lhe pages of lhe veekend nevspapeis, lhe Ncus cf |nc lcr|d´s fionl-page
headIine dianalicaIIv announced, 'ßuIgei KiIIei Dead In Ioui Weeks:

58
See the excellent article by Jo Knowles, ‘Crime and Punishment: Maxine Carr and other 'evil women'’
59
See the note by Rico Calleja, ‘Confidentiality and Freedom of Expression.’ Ent LR 2001 12(6), 190-
191
60
she provided a false alibi for Ian Huntley by lying to police about her whereabouts at the time the ten-
year-old girls were killed
61
These two ‘poetic’ appellations do not emanate from the tabloids, but rather come from a broadsheet:
‘While liberals worry that the release will make the youths dead men walking, hunted by vengeful
attackers, debate still rages…’ (The Times, 23.6.2001 ‘Touch and Go: The Start of a High-Risk
Experiment in Rehabilitation’). The headline ‘MARKED MEN’ is from the Sunday Times (24.6.2001,
p.11).
2005] Injunctions Contra Mundum 87

VenalIes´ nun´s chiIIing piediclion´. Ils ediloiiaI desciiled lhe anonvnilv
oidei as 'falaIIv fIaved.´
62

Ralhei lhan seeing lhis dianalic case as an exliene depailuie fion lhe
noinaI piaclices of conlenpoiaiv penaIlv, il couId le consliued as
ieveIaloiv of a nev puniliveness. A kev fealuie of lhe punilive luin
olseived acioss veslein juiisdiclions is lhe incieasing pioninence of
noloiielv as a cenliaI eIenenl of punishnenl undei lhe ciininaI Iav in
conlenpoiaiv socielies. To le noloiious is lo le veII-knovn oi videIv
acknovIedged. Modein usage of lhe lein suppIenenls lhis neaning lv lhe
quaIilv of iII iepule, in lhe sense lhal a noloiious peison is one knovn lo
nanv in iespecl of sone lad oi unfavouialIe quaIilv oi deed.

Thonpson and VenalIes have leen desciiled in lhe High Couil as
'uniqueIv noloiious.´ Loid ßinghan of CoinhiII said in a speech of 1998, 'lhe
nanes of sone nuideieis aie luined on oui ninds and lheii ciines aie pail
of oui nalionaI expeiience´.
63
Mosl counliies have noloiious ciininaIs such
as Mvia HindIev (UK), lhe Manson IaniIv (USA), Iallv Heaisl (USA), and
IhooIan Devi (India). Tvo fealuies lhal dislinguished lhe ßuIgei case fion
lhese aie lhal lhe ciininaIs aie chiIdien and lhal lhev have leen suljecled lo
an aliupl shifl fion noloiielv lo anonvnilv. In a docunenlaiv aflei lhe
kiIIing,
64
a jouinaIisl desciiled il as a 'nade-foi-TV-nuidei.´ SensalionaI
ciines such as lhe ßuIgei kiIIing aie dislinguished lv lhe vav in vhich lhev
ievoik lhe piesuned 'infoinalionaI´ funclion of lhe nevs. Theie is a nove
fion evenl lo sensalionaI ciine and lhen lo nuidei as enleilainnenl. This is
an enliie indusliv of cuIluiaI pioduclion.
65


Iion lhe oulsel, lhe neaning of lhe ßuIgei kiIIing vas conveved lhiough
lvo veII-knovn and enolive inages. One vas a sliII laken fion CCTV
foolage, vhich shoved lhe alduclion of lhe viclin fion a lusv shopping
naII. This inage, shovn on Crincua|cn UK and pulIished oflen in lhe piess,
vas videIv associaled vilh lhe phiase 'lhe nuidei of innocence.´ a
sensalionaIisl phiase invenled lv lhe nedia. The inage has leen desciiled
as lhiealening and haiioving, and vas one lefoie vhich vieveis feIl
poveiIess and feaifuI.
66
The Iiine Minislei of lhe line, Iohn Majoi advised

62
News of the World, 24.6.2001, p.6 ‘Can Bulger killers’ secret be kept from their future wives, children,
bosses…’)
63
Bingham, T. (2000) The Business of Judging Oxford: Oxford University Press at p.331
64
BBC2 ‘Eyes of the Detective: The Murder of James Bulger’
65
Acland, C.R. (1995) Youth, Murder, Spectacle: The Cultural Politics of “Youth in Crisis” Boulder:
Westview at p.47
66
See Young A 1996 Imagining Crime: Textual Outlaws and Criminal Conversations London: Sage,
Chapter 5
88 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:69

peopIe 'lo condenn noie and lo undeisland Iess.´
67
Iion lhe line of lheii
fiisl appeaiance lefoie lhe nagisliales, angiv nols suiiounded couils
vheie lhev appeaied, lhioving nissiIes al lhe poIice vans caiiving lhe lovs
and suiged againsl lhe poIice Iines scieaning foi Thonpson and VenalIes lo
le handed ovei lo le sliung up. Duiing lhe liiaI, vhich vas desciiled as a
speclacIe and as a nalionaI evenl, lhe lvo voung defendanls veie knovn as
ChiId A and ChiId ß. Hovevei, al lhe cuIninalion of lhe liiaI, MoiIand I
look lhe conlioveisiaI decision lo Iifl iepoiling iesliiclions and peinilling
lhe 'ßuIgei kiIIeis´ lo le idenlified. He slaled lhal lhe pulIic inleiesl
oveiiode lhe inleiesl of lhe defendanls lecause lheie vas a need foi
infoined pulIic delale on ciines connilled lv voung chiIdien. Theii
nanes and schooI-pholo inages veie spIashed acioss nevspapeis and
leIevision scieens, acconpanied lv viIificaloiv headIines vhich idenlified
lhe lovs as 'nonsleis´ and 'eviI fieaks´.
68
Thev veie juxlaposed vilh lhal of
'lalv Ianes´ in a nannei vhich soughl lo ie-eiecl an uncIeai dislinclion
lelveen viclin and viclinisei, chiId and non-chiId.
69
Ciief foi Ianes vas
consliucled as giief foi lhe Ioss of an ideaI of chiIdhood
7O
and expIanalions
of lhe ciine expiessed and shaped lhe gendei poIilics of lhe 199Os, vilh Ione
nolheis incieasingIv Iinked lo juveniIe ciine.
71
Thonpson and VenalIes
veie used lo aulhoiise a noiaI panic aloul seiious juveniIe ciine vhich
cuIninaled in inpoilanl slaluloiv changes foi juveniIe juslice.
72
The panic
exlended as fai as lhe nolion lhal vioIenl inages, such as lhe Cni|ds P|au |V
fiIn, acluaIIv encouiaged chiIdien lo connil vioIenl ciine.
73


Thonpson and VenalIes veie aIso naiked nen lolh lecause lheie vas
(and in lhe eves of lhe nedia, sliII is) a piice on lheii heads and lecause lheii
nanes and faces conlinue lo le associaled vilh lheii ciine. Ihologiaphs of

67
Sunday Times 21.2.93.
68
See Franklin, B. and Petley, J. (1996) ‘Killing the age of innocence: newspaper reporting of the death
of James Bulger’ in Pilcher and Wagg (eds.) Thatcher’s Children: Politics, Childhood and Society in the
1980s and 1990s London: Falmer
69
See Kember, S. (1995) ‘Surveillance, Technology and Crime: the James Bulger Case’ in Lister, M.
(ed,), The Photographic Image in Digital Culture London: Routledge; See also Young A 1996 Imagining
Crime: Textual Outlaws and Criminal Conversations London: Sage, Chapter 5
70
See Warner, M. 1994 Making Monsters London: Vintage
71
See Mann, K. and Roseneil, S. (1994) ‘Some Mothers Do Ave Em: Backlash and the Gender Politics of
the Underclass Debate’ Journal of Gender Studies 3: 317-331
72
See James, A. and Jenks, C. (1996) ‘Public Perceptions of Childhood Criminality’ British Journal of
Sociology 47 (2); Fionda, J. (1998) ‘R v Secretary of State for the Home Department ex parte Venables
and Thompson: The age of innocence?- the concept of childhood in the punishment of young offenders’
Child and Family Law Quarterly 10 (1): 77-87; Gelsthorpe, L. and Morris, A. (1999) ‘Much ado about
nothing- a critical comment on key provisions relating to children in the Crime and Disorder Act’ Child
and Family Law Quarterly 11 (3): 209-221
73
See Barker, M. and Petley, J. (eds.), Ill Effects: The Media/Violence Debate London: Routledge ;
Buckingham, D. (1996) Moving Images: Understanding Children’s Emotional Responses to Television
Manchester: Manchester University Press
2005] Injunctions Contra Mundum 89

lhe ßuIgei faniIv laking a pelilion lo Dovning Slieel veie videIv iepoiled.
In iaising Thonpson and VenalIe´s laiiff lo fifleen veais, MichaeI Hovaid,
lhe lhen Hone Secielaiv, expIained lhal he had laken accounl of 278,3OO
pelilion and 2O,OOO coupons fion Sun ieadeis.
74
This defeience lo lhe pulIic
cIanoui vas heaviIv ciilicised lv lhe couils. Loid WooIf LCI, in ievising lhe
laiiff lo eighl veais, slaled lhal 'having lecone iesponsilIe voung nen, lhev
viII have lo Iive vilh, and viII le naiked lv, vhal lhev did vhen chiIdien
of 1O´.
75
Roleil Thonpson vas videIv quoled in lhe piess as saving lhal he
feaied lhal he vouId aIvavs le vieved as a len veai-oId nonslei. This
essenliaI inage of lhe lovs excIudes nolions of iehaliIilalion and has leen
IaigeIv geneialed lv a piinl nedia lhal seeks lo slii up vengefuI feeIings
anong lheii ieadeiship.

WhiIe lhev veie in cuslodv, a gagging oidei piohililed lhe pulIicalion of
pholos of Thonpson and VenalIes, vel pholos veie Ieaked, incIuding one of
Thonpson in a voodvoik cIass. Aflei lhe LCHR case vhich slaled lhal a
poIilician shouId nol have decided lheii laiiff
76
, lhe piocess lovaids lheii
ieIease legan. This vas acconpanied lv fuiious pioleslalion and lhieals
fion faniIv nenleis and lheii suppoileis. RaIph ßuIgei vas quoled in lhe
piess as having said: 'I viII do aII I can lo liv nv lesl lo hunl lhen dovn.´
The nedia al lhe line gave ovei nanv coIunn inches lo slalenenls of lhis
kind and appeaied lo le encouiaging nenleis of lhe pulIic lo denv
anonvnilv lo Thonpson and VenalIes. SliII, lhe injunclions veie effeclive
and ienain so lo lhis dav and il vas videIv agieed lhal lheii gianl vas
appiopiiale in lhe ciicunslances, given lhe seiiousness of lhe lhieal lo lheii
safelv.

Reluining lo lhe suljecl of lhe nosl iecenl gianling of a ccn|ra nundun
injunclion, lhe judgenenl in lhe case of Maxine Caii goes significanlIv
fuilhei and naiks anolhei slep lovaids vhal is ofl desciiled as a 'piivacv
Iav lv sleaIlh´ lhal piolecls high-piofiIe ciininaIs fion nedia exposuie. Ioi
lhe fiisl line a convicled aduIl vho has nol connilled nuidei has von an
indefinile anonvnilv oidei laiiing anv nedia connenl on hei idenlilv,
vheiealouls, caie oi liealnenl. The dangei foi lhe nedia is lhal in each case
lhe ciileiia have leen a IillIe Iess exceplionaI and lhe loundaiies of fieedon
of expiession aie pushed lack a IillIe fuilhei.


74
The coupons stated, ‘Dear Home Secretary, I agree with Ralph and Denise Bulger that the boys who
killed their son James should stay in jail for LIFE.’ Hansard, H.C., Vol. 229, Col. 684 (July 27, 1993).
75
Thompson & Venables (Recommendations as to Tariffs to the Secretary of State for Home Affairs)
[2000] s. 18.
76
V v United Kingdom (and T v United Kingdom) 2000.
90 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:69

Il couId le aigued lhal lhis cuilaiInenl of nedia fieedon does nol give
effecl lo IaiIianenl's inlenlion lhal lhe Couil shouId have pailicuIai iegaid
lo lhe inpoilance of lhe iighl of fieedon of expiession. Seclion 12 of lhe
HRA nakes speciaI piovision foi lhis vilh seclions 12(3)-(4) iaising lhe
lhieshoId lesl foi oideis inposing injunclions and pIacing AilicIe 1O(1)
'iighls´ cenlie slage. Hovevei, AilicIe 1O(2) of ScheduIe 1 lo lhe HRA speaks
of 'quaIificalions´ lo lhose iighls and in oidei lo salisfv AilicIe 1O(2), lheie
has lo le a ¨sliong and piessing need¨ lhal lhe cIainanl´s confidenliaIilv le
pieseived. The judge nusl aIso le salisfied lhal lhe gianling of lhe
injunclion iequesled is ¨piopoilionale lo lhe Iegilinale ain puisued¨. In lhe
ßuIgei case, lhe judge gave lhe 'iesliiclion´ on lhe 'iighl´ lo fieedon of
expiession lhe sane veighl as lhe iighl ilseIf and lhe inlended effecl of s.12
vas lheiefoie diIuled.
77
Theie is ieaI dangei nov lhal lhe Caii case couId
signifv fuilhei eiosion of lhe puipose of lhis inpoilanl pail of lhe HRA, in
spile of lhe iecenl Crcan judgenenl vhich appeaied lo le, in pail, ieveising
lhe liend
78
.

Whal ienains is lhe peipIexing queslion of vhv Caii´s appIicalion vas nol
chaIIenged lv lhe nedia. Il has leen nade cIeai lhal nuch of lhe popuIai
piess leIieved lhal lhev veie unIikeIv lo ieceive a svnpalhelic eai fion lhe
couil. AIlhough lhe nedia have no doull ieceived piagnalic advice fion
lheii Iavveis, and lheie is aIvavs a iighl foi lhe nedia oi anv inleiesled
pailv lo appIv lo lhe couil foi a dischaige oi vaiialion of lhe oidei, lhis nav
have Ied lo sone nisconceived juslificalions foi lhe injunclion. The lench in
lhe Caii case has laken lhe alsence of opposilion lo inpIv lhal lhe nedia
did nol leIieve lhe injunclion neanl a significanl eiosion of lheii AilicIe 1O
iighls lul if lhis veie lhe case lhen vhv vas lhe ieaclion of lhe piess so
viliioIic`
79


One nusl queslion lhe nedia´s ioIe in aIIoving lhe inexoialIe ieIaxalion of
ciileiia apposile lo lhe gianl of lhese injunclions ccn|ra nundun lul aIso lhe

77
Butler-Sloss said at the time : “the qualifications set out in Article 10(2) were as relevant as the rights
set out in Article 10(1), including the prohibition on the use of one party’s convention rights to injure the
convention rights of others. The qualification of the right of freedom of expression included the
protection of information received in confidence so that you cannot have regard to Article 10 without
having regard at the very least to Article 8 on privacy. The rights under Articles 2 and 3 were also
relevant, and are not capable of derogation, with very serious consequences to claimants if they were
breached.”
78
Cream Holdings Limited and Others v Banerjee and Others [2004] UKHL 44. This considered Interim
injunctions and the threshold test which has to be satisfied before a Court may grant an interim injunction
under Section 12 of the HRA. The judgment appears to have reversed the perceived dilution of s12 (3)
and to have put some substance back into the provisions of s12.
79
The Express called the ruling "an abominable crime", the Mirror called it "a sorry day for the freedom
of the public to receive information"
2005] Injunctions Contra Mundum 91

judiciaiv´s ioIe in accepling lhe Iines of aulhoiilv vilhoul asceilaining
vhelhei lhev conlinue lo sil confoilalIv vilh Luiopean juiispiudence. A
silualion can le envisaged in vhich, lhough incienenlaI, lhe posilion undei
lhe UK connon Iav viII le nanifeslIv al odds nol onIv vilh lhe posilion
undei lhe LCHR lul aIso vilh lhe inlenlions of lhe UK paiIianenl. OnIv an
eneigelic defence of lhese piincipIes lv lhe piess and judiciaI iigoui viII
pievenl lhis IegaI visla leconing a ieaIilv.

Thc IntcrnatInna! E!cmcnt

Manv connenlalois vouId cIain lhal lhe ccn|ra nundun injunclion is
effecliveIv poveiIess vilh lhe advenl of lhe Infoinalion Socielv. Lvidence
foi lhis asseilion can le diavn fion lhe case of Roleil Thonpson and Iohn
VenalIes. In lhal case lhe couil gianled injunclive ieIief in iespecl of a
speciaI calegoiv of confidenliaI infoinalion. Despile ils IileiaI neaning of
'againsl lhe voiId al Iaige´, lhe ccn|ra nundun injunclion onIv enfoicealIe
vilhin lhe juiisdiclion of lhe Iav of LngIand and WaIes. This Iinilalion lo ils
scope neans lhal nevs oiganizalions oulside lhis donain aie fiee lo pulIish
lhis infoinalion aloul Thonpson and VenalIes.
8O
Al lhe line of lheii
ieIease, lhe Sundau |xprcss iepoiled lhis, effecliveIv suggesling lo ieadeis
hov lhev couId gel hoId of lhe infoinalion lv leIIing lhen lhal nolhing
couId le done lo slop ßiilish louiisls luving nagazines conlaining lanned
infoinalion aloul Thonpson and VenalIes and liinging lhen lack. The
'lechnoIogicaI ievoIulion´ in lhe connunicalions indusliv neans lhal lhe
iepoiling injunclion is effecliveIv unenfoicealIe and lheie have leen feais
lhal anonvnilv piovisions viII le inpolenl in lhe face of lhe lechnoIogv of
lhe Inleinel.

Al lhe line of lhe Thonpson and VenalIes liiaI lhe Alloinev CeneiaI viole
lo Inleinel Seivice Iiovideis (ISIs) leIIing lhen lhal lhev veie lound lv lhe
injunclion. Inleinel Iavvei Maik Slephens connenled al lhe line, 'foi lhe
fiisl line lhe judiciaiv have had lheii ingenuilv pilled againsl lhe enliie
inleinel connunilv.´
81
Ioi a successfuI pioseculion, il vouId have lo le
shovn lhal lhe ISIs had acluaI knovIedge of lhe piohililed infoinalion
leing posled lhiough lheii siles, vhich in effecl vouId nean lhal lhev couId
lake no aclion lo cIose dovn an iIIegaI sile unliI il vas lioughl lo lheii
allenlion. TioulIing queslions aie lheiefoie iaised aloul lhe IegaI ieguIalion

80
A front-page report in the Sunday Express informed readers that magazines like Spain’s Interviou,
Germany’s Stern and Bild, Italy’s Espresso, Gente and Oggi and Japan’s Focus were offering large sums
of money for photographs of Thompson and Venables, representations which would ‘slap a £50,000 price
on their heads’ (24.6.2001 ‘We’ll show Bulger faces’).
81
‘Editor probed over Bulger story’ Evening Standard 23.6.2001.
92 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:69

of dangeious cvlei spaliaI iepiesenlalions, a fIuid space in vhich eaiIiei
dislinclions lelveen pulIic and piivale, lhe pioxinale and lhe dislanl, aie
iadicaIIv ieconfiguied. The pace of eIeclionic connunicalion, vilh ils
inslanlaneilv, faciIilales lhe lianscending of nalionaI loundaiies and enalIes
lhe disseninalion of lhiealening hale-speech vhich nav incile peopIe lo
connil ciines.
82
Infoinalion can le enaiIed aiound vilh ieIalive inpunilv
lecause il nighl le inpossilIe lo piosecule lhe Iaige nunleis of peopIe
lieaking lhe injunclion on discussion loaids and in onIine chal ioons.
Anolhei saIienl exanpIe Iies in lhe picluies of lhe Iale Diana, Iiincess of
WaIes in lhe falaI cai ciash vhich veie lanned fion pulIicalion lv lhe
couils in LngIand and WaIes lul videIv avaiIalIe acioss lhe channeI.
SiniIaiIv, lheie aie Ianes ßuIgei siles iun fion pIaces as fai ienoved as
Ceinanv, lhe USA, AusliaIia and Nev ZeaIand.
83


Il vas lhe Mancncs|cr |tcning Ncus lhal pulIished infoinalion on lhe
vheiealouls of Thonpson and VenalIes, onIv houis aflei lhe IaioIe ßoaid
heaiing. The Alloinev CeneiaI Loid CoIdsnilh slaled lhal lhis lieached lhe
injunclion, and asked lhe nevspapei lo expIain ils aclions. In a slalenenl
Ianes´s uncIe defended lhe papei´s decision lo pulIish lhe delaiIs, saving
'vilh aII nv heailfeIl lhanks, al Ieasl vou have had lhe laIIs lo sland up and
le counled, nol Iike lhe iesl of lhen´.
84
A docunenlaiv on lhe case
85

incIuded foolage of a jouinaIisl hoIding a iecenl CCTV inage aIIegedIv of
Roleil Thonpson. In an unconfoilalIe inveision of lhe alduclion foolage, a
secuiilv guaid vho had leen lipped off as lo his piesence liained lhe
caneia on Thonpson and capluied and inage. The piess iepoiled lhal lhis
vas leing passed aiound Meisevside and vas posled on lhe vel al an
Aneiican sile.

When faced vilh such slaIvail iesislance lo ieguIalion, vhal piovisions can
le nade foi lhe pioleclion of noloiious offendeis againsl phvsicaI allack and
viIificalion lv lhe piess` One suggeslion is lhal lighlei iepoiling iesliiclions
couId le pul in pIace lhal piolecls lhe idenlilv of lhese individuaIs. Il is nol
possilIe lo concui, hovevei, vilh aigunenls lhal iepoiling iesliiclions in

82
See Hamelink, C.J. (2000) The Ethics of Cyberspace London: Sage Chapter 6, Akdeniz, Y., Walker, C.
and Wall, D. (eds.), (2000) The Internet, Law and Society London: Longman
83
http://www.petitiononline.com/Jamie91/petition.html is the address of a petition posted by ‘Marie
Gloria, Florida, USA’ which demands for the release and anonymity rulings to be undone. Messages
posted by signatories include the following: ‘Attack these 2 monsters as soon as their photo is released to
the public’ (USA), ‘Where are they? Tell Me! I have always wanted to track down and kill a baby
murderer’ (UK), ‘Who cares if they were rehabilitated, kill 'em anyway… I hope you hunt them down
and rape them’ (US). Threats are also made against Thompson and Venables’ family and lawyers as well
as Lord Woolf.
84
‘Editor probed over Bulger story’ Evening Standard, 23.6.2001.
85
Channel 4 Dispatches, ‘Unforgiven: The Boys who Murdered James Bulger’
2005] Injunctions Contra Mundum 93

LngIand and WaIes aie cuiienlIv unduIv iesliiclive of fieedon of expiession
lul lhe pulIicilv suiiounding Aneiican liiaIs is excessive. A IegaI niddIe
giound nusl le found lelveen lhe lvo exlienes. We cuiienlIv have
piovisions piosciiling a pulIicalion IikeIv lo encouiage a ciininaI offence
vilhin lhe ICC Code lul is lhis IaigeIv a 'loolhIess´ neasuie since il is lased
upon lhe nolion of seIf-ieguIalion. Il is doullfuI if lhe neasuie acliveIv
discouiages lhe piess fion sensalionaIising ciine and eIiciling vengefuI
feeIings fion lheii ieadeiship` Il is lheiefoie apposile foi lhe goveinnenl lo
ieconsidei lhe efficacv of lhe cuiienl svslen.

In leins of lhe piolIens of lhe fuliIilv of enfoicing iepoiling injunclions on
lhe Inleinel, il is difficuIl lo envisage a svslen lhal couId voik effecliveIv. If
goveinnenls coopeialed lhiough lhe UN lo give nuluaI iecognilion of each
counliv´s injunclions, lhen lhis vouId nean lhal lhe piess on a gIolaI IeveI
vouId have lo lake cognisance of exlanl injunclions in olhei juiisdiclions. In
piaclicaI leins lhis is aInosl inpossilIe lo inpIenenl. Hovevei onIv viII a
IegaI fianevoik of lhis kind in pIace viII lhe nedia le foiced lo pIav a noie
iesponsilIe ioIe in lhe gIolaI iepoiling of ciine and lhe ciininaI juslice
svslen ilseIf, ialhei lhan neieIv sensalionaIising issues lo lheii conneiciaI
advanlage. Whal is needed lo a ieluin lo lhe 'Walchdog IouinaIisn´ of lhe
5O´s and 6O´s, an eia of jouinaIislic inlegiilv and iesponsiliIilv.

* * *












































INSIDLR DLALINC: A DUTCH ILRSILCTIVL

Diik I.I. Meeiluig

IntrnductInn

The lein insidei deaIing (sonelines aIso caIIed insidei liading, oi noie
geneiaIIv naikel aluse) viII le faniIiai lo nosl peopIe. Il evokes inages of
diieclois oi enpIovees of Iisled conpanies engaging in shadv liansaclions foi
lheii ovn lenefil, lo lhe deliinenl of lhe connon invesloi. CiininaI
pioceedings invoIving veII-knovn lusiness peisons suspecled of insidei deaIing
usuaIIv alliacl a Iol of allenlion in lhe piess. A ienaikalIe fealuie of insidei
deaIing is hovevei lhal lehavioi lhal is nov deened lo le a ciine vilh lhe veiv
ieaI capacilv lo lainl lhe pulIic inage of lhe accused (even if he is sulsequenlIv
acquilled) vas, unliI quile iecenlIv, consideied peifeclIv acceplalIe in nanv of
lhe voiId's juiisdiclions.

An LngIish case fion 19O2 iIIusliales lhe facl lhal in lhe eaiIv 2Olh cenluiv lhe
connunis opinio vas lhal insidei deaIing vas nol lo le piohililed. Diieclois of
a conpanv had loughl shaies in lhal conpanv fion a shaiehoIdei vilh lhe
knovIedge lhal negolialions veie leing heId lo seII aII shaies in lhe conpanv lo
a lhiid pailv al a highei piice lhan paid lv lhen. Thev veie nol deened lo have
lieached anv dulies vis-a-vis lhe seIIing shaiehoIdei, even lhough lhev veie in
possession and deaIl on lhe lasis of non-pulIic infoinalion vhich, if nade
pulIic, vouId have had a naleiiaI effecl on lhe naikel piice of lhe secuiilies.
1


In lhe fiisl haIf of lhe lvenlielh cenluiv, naikel piaclice in The NelheiIands vas
siniIai lo lhal in lhe Uniled Kingdon:,insidei deaIing vas condoned, if nol
accepled. As a iesuIl, lheie aie a nunlei (sone undoulledIv apocivphaI) sloiies
aloul loaid neelings of Iisled conpanies leing paused foi a vhiIe in oidei lo Iel
"lhe genlIenen" soil oul lheii piivale affaiis lefoie inpoilanl nevs vouId le
pulIicIv announced. Sonelines, lhe access lo inside infoinalion vas in facl lhe
nosl inpoilanl ieason lo join a conpanv.
2


Alliludes lovaids insidei deaIing changed hovevei in lhe couise of lhe cenluiv.
Using confidenliaI infoinalion foi peisonaI lenefil is novadavs consideied
unelhicaI. And as lhe slock naikels aie an olvious pIace foi cashing in on
confidenliaI infoinalion, IegisIalois have - ialhei ieIuclanlIv - slepped in lo cuil
anv aluses. The Uniled Slales inlioduced an insidei deaIing piohililion in lhe

† Dirk P.F. Meerburg Advocaat De Brauw Blackstone Westbroek, London
1
Percival v Wright [1902] 2 CH 421
2
L.C.A. Verstappen and P.H.C. Schriks, in: Misbruik van voorwetenschap, 1989, p. 11
96 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:95
Secuiilies and Lxchange Acl 1934.
3
In conliasl, Luiopean exchanges and
goveinnenls have leen ieIaliveIv sIov lo inlioduce siniIai ieguIalions.

The Ansleidan Slock Lxchange (nov Luionexl Ansleidan N.V.), lhe oIdesl
such exchange in lhe voiId, has foi a veiv Iong line leen seIf-ieguIaling. Ils
Iisling and issuing iuIes did nol conlain a geneiaI piohililion on insidei deaIing.
Such piohililion vas onIv inposed, lv lhe Dulch IegisIaloi, in 1989.

This ailicIe inlends lo liiefIv desciile lhe deveIopnenl of lhe Dulch insidei
deaIing iuIes fion lheii inceplion unliI lhe piesenl dav and lo highIighl a
nunlei of changes lo le lioughl aloul lv lhe LU Maikel Aluse Diieclive.

What Is InsIdcr dca!Ing?

Insidei deaIing, oi lhe aluse of inside infoinalion (in Dulch: tccruc|cnscnap), can
geneiaIIv le desciiled as lhe luving oi seIIing of ceilain secuiilies ieIaling lo a
conpanv lv a peison vho, in doing so, is in possession of specific infoinalion
vhich ieIales lo lhal conpanv oi lhose secuiilies vhich is nol geneiaIIv knovn
lul vouId le IikeIv, if nade pulIic, lo have a significanl effecl on lhe naikel
piice of lhe secuiilies. Il is nol necessaiv lo le connecled lo lhe ieIevanl conpanv
lo faII vilhin lhe scope of insidei deaIing iuIes. These iuIes iegaid anvone vho
disposes of non-pulIic, piice sensilive infoinalion.

Ear!v dIscussInns

One of lhe ieasons vhv insidei liading iuIes veie onIv inlioduced al a ieIaliveIv
Iale slage vas lhal Ienglhv aigunenls look pIace aloul lhe necessilv and
desiialiIilv of such iuIes. Il vas aigued lv sone econonisls (lolh in The
NelheiIands and eIsevheie) lhal liansaclions effecled lv peisons disposing of
inside infoinalion couId acluaIIv le usefuI: The iesuIling shaie piice vouId le a
lellei iefIeclion of lhe econonic vaIue of lhe ieIevanl shaie.
4
Il vas aIso aigued
lhal aIIoving insidei deaIing lv enpIovees couId piovide a good voik incenlive
and an efficienl Iink lelveen achievenenl and ievaid
5
.

Iuilheinoie, Iavveis aigued lhal il vouId le difficuIl lo eslalIish vhal danage
is caused lv insidei deaIing, as liansaclions on lhe slock exchange aie usuaIIv
effecled vilhoul lhe pailies knoving each olhei's idenlilv. As a iesuIl, lhe
"injuied" pailv is onIv accidenlaIIv lhe counlei-pailv of lhe peison acling on

3
Section 10(b) of the Securities and Exchange Act 1934 provides that the executive can issue regulations to
prohibit certain manipulations. Consequently, in 1940 SEC rule 10b-5 was introduced, which forms the
basis of most actions regarding insider dealing in the US. Other insider dealing rules may be found in the
Williams Act 1968 and the Insider Trading Sanctions Act 1984.
4
G. Rietkerk, Effectentransacties door ingewijden, NV 1984, p. 182; Prof. Manne, Insider trading and the
stock market, 1966; H. Berkman and A.C.C. Herst, Handel met voorwetenschap", NV 1988, p. 21
5
Berkman and Herst, ibid.
2005] Insider Dealing: A Dutch Perspective 97


inside infoinalion. In anv evenl lhe foinei vouId piolalIv have nade lhe sane
liansaclion al lhe sane piice -. and if lhal veie lhe case, hov couId lheie le an
injuiv`
6


The piinaiv ieason vhv insidei deaIing is consideied undesiialIe is lhal il
danages inveslois' liusl in an honesl couise of affaiis in lhe capilaI naikel.
Inveslois expecl a IeveI pIaving fieId. This IeveI pIaving fieId is lhiealened lv
peisons vho nake inappiopiiale use of an infoinalion advanlage. A secondaiv
ieason lo le disnissive of insidei deaIing is lhal an alsence of failh in lhe
voikings of lhe capilaI naikel iesuIls in conpanies nol leing alIe lo iaise
capilaI. Il is lheiefoie in lhe inleiesl of lolh lhe inveslois and lhe issuing
inslilulions (i.e. lhe Iisled conpanies) lo pievenl insidei deaIing.

Thc Rcµnrt nf thc Cnmµanv Law CnmmIssInn

The Dulch Conpanv Lav Connission consideied lhe issue of insidei deaIing in
lhe leginning of lhe 197Os. In ils 1973 iepoil, lhe Connission pioposed lo
inlioduce a piovision in lhe Dulch CiininaI Code, piohililing insidei deaIing. Il
ieconnended lhe foIIoving lexl:

1. He, vho luvs oi seIIs Iisled shaies of a conpanv, oi has lhese shaies
loughl oi soId, oi has induced olheis lo luv oi seII lhese shaies, vhiIe
disposing of non-discIosed infoinalion as a iesuIl of his funclion oi
piofession, vhich can le ieasonalIv consideied lo have infIuenced lhe
piice of lhe secuiilies aflei pulIic discIosuie, viII le punished lv a
naxinun of lvo veais inpiisonnenl and a naxinun fine of NLC
1OO,OOO oi of a naxinun of foui lines lhe anounl of lhe lenefils
enjoved, if lhis naxinun anounls lo noie lhan NLC 1OO,OOO, oi a
conlinalion of lhese penaIlies.

2. Deposilaiv ieceipls aie iegaided as shaies foi lhe appIicalion of lhis
ailicIe.

This pioposed lexl vas nol veIconed lv aII. The Iinilalion lo infoinalion "as a
iesuIl of funclion oi piofession" vas deened lo le unvaiianled, as il vouId
nean lhal peopIe lhal did nol ollain lhe ieIevanl infoinalion as a iesuIl of lheii
funclion oi posilion lul veie lipped-off vouId nol le punishalIe. AIso, lhe
inleinaI division of lhe Connission exenpIifies lhe divisions vilhin lhe IegaI
connunilv al lhe line. As a iesuIl, lhe Connission's iepoil vas nol foIIoved lv
anv IegisIalive aclion.
7


6
Dutch Company Law Commission, report concerning abuse of inside information , Staatsuitgeverij, The
Hague, p. 4; Prof Manne, ibid.
7
In 1987, in the explanatory memorandum of the bill which would lead to a prohibition of insider dealing
under criminal law, the government mentioned that the reasons that the Commission report did not lead to
legislation were "the complexity of the issue and doubts about the feasibility and urgency of a legislative
98 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:95

IoIIoving lhe pulIicalion of lhe Connission's iepoil, lhe afoienenlioned
discussion lelveen suppoileis and opponenls of a piohililion of insidei deaIing
vas conlinued. Lven if sone of lhe opponenls conceded lhal insidei deaIing nav
le undesiialIe, lhe expeils in lhe fieId couId nol agiee vhelhei il vas in facl
necessaiv lo lake IegisIalive aclion in lhis iespecl. Whal lhev did agiee on
hovevei vas lhal lhe soIulion couId nol le found in piivale Iav: as liading al lhe
slock exchange is done anonvnousIv and lhe najoiilv of lhe shaies Iisled al lhe
Ansleidan Slock Lxchange veie leaiei shaies, aclions undei piivale Iav vouId
le inadequale. As oideis aie invaiialIv pIaced lhiough (foieign) lanks, hov
vouId anv "injuied" pailv find oul lhal his specific counlei-pailv vas using
insidei infoinalion` Hov vouId he caIcuIale anv danage suslained` CIeaiIv
piivale Iav did nol piovide lhe piopei insliunenls foi counleiing insidei
deaIing.

Eurnµcan InItIatIvcs

The Iiench Oidinance 67-833 of 1967
8
appeais lo le lhe fiisl piece of Luiopean
IegisIalion againsl insidei deaIing. Ils piohililion of insidei deaIing vas nol
piinaiiIv designed lo piolecl inveslois, lul lo insliII inlo lhe oulside voiId a
ceilain neasuie of confidence in lhe Iiench capilaI naikels. As such, il vas noie
a pionolionaI neasuie, designed lo faciIilale lhe financing of Iiench conpanies,
lhan an insliunenl of ciininaI Iav.
9


In 1977, lhe Luiopean Connission pulIished a "Luiopean Code of Conducl foi
Secuiilies Tiansaclions"
1O
. The suppIenenlaiv piincipIe nunlei 9 of lhis Code
piovided lhe foIIoving:

"Anv peison vho cones inlo possession of infoinalion, in exeicising his
piofession oi caiiving oul his dulies, vhich is nol pulIic and vhich
ieIales lo a conpanv oi lo lhe naikel in ils secuiilies oi lo anv evenl of
geneiaI inleiesl lo lhe naikel, vhich is piice-sensilive, shouId iefiain
fion caiiving oul, diieclIv oi indiieclIv, anv liansaclion in vhich such
infoinalion is used, and shouId iefiain fion giving lhe infoinalion lo
anolhei peison so lhal he nav piofil fion il lefoie lhe infoinalion
lecones pulIic."

This piovision ieIales excIusiveIv lo diieclois and enpIovees of a Iisled
conpanv. Il seeks lo ensuie lhal such peisons iefiain fion liansaclions vhich
couId give iise lo suspicions of aluse of an infoinalion advanlage.

regulation".
8
Journal Officiel de la République Française (JORF), 29 September 1967
9
Prof. Dr. E. Wymeersch, in: Misbruik van Voorwetenschap, 1989, p. 57 - 58
10
77/534/EEC: Commission Recommendation of 25 July 1977 concerning a European code of conduct
relating to transactions in transferable securities.
2005] Insider Dealing: A Dutch Perspective 99



In 1979, lhe London Slock Lxchange decided lo inpIenenl ils ovn ModeI Code.
Again, lhis ModeI Code vas a code of deaIing inposed on diieclois and ceilain
enpIovees of Iisled conpanies. A veai Ialei, lhe Conpanies Acl 198O foi lhe fiisl
line inlioduced a piohililion on insidei deaIing.

Dutch attcmµts at sc!f-rcgu!atInn

UnliI lhe Iaiis, ßiusseIs and Ansleidan slock exchanges neiged lo foin
Luionexl, lhe Ansleidan Slock Lxchange vas opeialed lv lhe Associalion foi
lhe Secuiilies Tiade (Vcrcniging tccr dc |ffcc|cnnandc|). This Associalion vas a
seIf-ieguIaling, piivale enlilv. Lisled conpanies vouId enlei inlo a Iisling
agieenenl, puisuanl lo vhich lhev lecane suljecl lo lhe Iisling and issuing iuIes
(fcndscnrcg|cncn|), as anended fion line lo line. As a iesuIl, an infiingenenl of
lhose ieguIalions anounled lo a lieach of conliacl vis-a-vis lhe Associalion. Such
lieach of conliacl couId Iead lo a iepiinand, a fine, oi uIlinaleIv, lo a
leininalion of lhe Iisling agieenenl (i.e. a foiced de-Iisling of lhe conpanv).
These piivale Iav consequences of nol aliding lv lhe conliacluaI iuIes of a
piivale enlilv such as lhe Associalion veie iegaided lv nanv as "sofl" and
insufficienl safeguaids againsl iiieguIaiilies.

A code of conducl onIv appIied lo piofessionaI naikel liadeis and olhei
nenleis of lhe Associalion. In 1987 lhe Ansleidan Slock Lxchange inlioduced
ils ovn ModeI Code, a ieguIalion siniIai lo lhe ModeI Code deveIoped lv lhe
London Slock Lxchange. This ModeI Code vas lo ensuie lhal diieclois vouId
nol aluse anv infoinalion knovn lo lhen as a iesuIl of lheii posilions vilhin
Iisled conpanies lv diieclIv oi indiieclIv effecling liansaclions in lhe conpanv's
secuiilies.

FIrst µrnhIbItInn nf InsIdcr dca!Ing: artIc!c 336a Dutch CrImIna! Cndc

The alove nenlioned slock exchange ieguIalions appIied lo ceilain aclois on lhe
capilaI naikel such as liadeis and diieclois. The connon invesloi on lhe Dulch
capilaI naikel vas nol suljecl lo anv insidei deaIing ieguIalions. InleinalionaI
deveIopnenls seen lo have leen lhe ieason foi IegisIalive aclion lv lhe end of
lhe 198Os. In 1987, a liII vas pioposed, conlaining a piohililion of insidei
deaIing. Aflei (again) heavv delale aloul lhe desiialiIilv of a piohililion undei
ciininaI Iav, lhe Dulch paiIianenl enacled ailicIe 336a Dulch CiininaI Code.
The lexl of lhis piovision piovided as foIIovs:

1. He vho, having inside infoinalion , concIudes oi effecls a liansaclion
in The NelheiIands in secuiilies Iisled on an exchange supeivised lv lhe
Slale, viII, if a lenefil can iesuIl fion lhe liansaclion, le punished lv a
naxinun incaiceialion of lvo veais and a fine of lhe fiflh calegoiv, oi
lv one of lhese punishnenls
100 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:95

2. lhe sane punishnenl nav le given lo hin vho, having inside
infoinalion , concIudes oi effecls a liansaclion fion The NelheiIands on
an exchange eslalIished oulside of The NelheiIands, if a lenefil can
iesuIl fion lhe liansaclion.

3 inside infoinalion is knovIedge of a speciaI ciicunslance iegaiding
lhe conpanv oi lhe IegaI peison lo vhich lhe secuiilies ieIale, oi
iegaiding liade in lhese secuiilies:

a. in iespecl of vhich lhe peison vho has knovIedge of lhe
speciaI ciicunslance knovs oi shouId ieasonalIv suspecl lhal il
is nol pulIic and lhal il cannol, vilhoul lhe lieach of
confidenliaIilv gel oi have gol levond a ciicIe of confidenls: and

l. lhe discIosuie of vhich is ieasonalIv expecled lo have an
infIuence on lhe piice of lhe secuiilies.

4. The inleinediaiv vho, onIv disposing of inside infoinalion iegaiding
lhe liade, liades in good failh on lhe exchange al lhe seivice of cIienls, is
nol punishalIe.

Il is inleiesling lo nole lhal liansaclions concIuded oi effecled in oi fion The
NelheiIands nav le punishalIe undei lhis piovision. AII liansaclions effecled on
an exchange in The NelheiIands aie iegaided lo have laken pIace "in The
NelheiIands" and vouId lheiefoie le suljecl lo lhe piohililion of ailicIe 336a
Dulch CiininaI Code, even if lhe naikel pailv conceined vas al lhe ieIevanl
line Iocaled oulside of The NelheiIands. SiniIaiIv, soneone engaging in insidei
deaIing on a foieign exchange, acling fion The NelheiIands (e.g. giving his
insliuclions vhiIe Iocaled in The NelheiIands) vouId sliII le punishalIe undei
Dulch ciininaI Iav (ailicIe 336a (2) Dulch CiininaI Code), even if lhe Iavs of lhe
juiisdiclion vheie lhe foieign exchange is Iocaled vouId nol piohilil insidei
deaIing. In lhis nannei, lhis piece of IegisIalion acluaIIv soughl lo piolecl lolh
lhe inlegiilv of lhe Dulch and foieign financiaI naikels.

CrItIcIsm nn artIc!c 336a

A Iaige anounl of ciilicisn vas expiessed in lhe Dulch IegaI connunilv in
ieaclion lo lhis ailicIe 336a. Il vas consideied loo vague, loo lioad and Ieaving
lhe pulIic pioseculoi vilh lhe difficuIl lask of pioving lhal a ceilain
confidenliaIilv vas lieached. Tipping-off of a lhiid pailv vas nol expIicilIv
piohililed, even lhough lhis nav have leen caughl lv lhe lein "effecling",
vhich nav incIude diiecl and indiiecl aclions. The piovision vas aIso consideied
inadequale lecause an insidei vho advised a lhiid pailv againsl a liansaclion
2005] Insider Dealing: A Dutch Perspective 101


vhich lhe Iallei vouId olheivise have concIuded, vouId nol le punishalIe: lhe
lein "effecling" in sulseclion 1 coveis lhe peison vho nakes anolhei peison
concIude a liansaclion, lul does nol covei a peison vho does lhe opposile.
11


Eurnµcan DIrcctIvc

On 13 Novenlei 1989, lhe Luiopean CounciI adopled a diieclive designed lo
co-oidinale lhe piohililion of insidei deaIing lhioughoul lhe nenlei slales of
lhe Luiopean Connunilv.
12
This Ied onIv lo ninoi changes lo lhe insidei deaIing
piovision, such as lhe addilion of lhe lein "inslilulion" lo lhe phiase "speciaI
ciicunslance iegaiding lhe conpanv oi lhe IegaI peison". This addilion vas lo
asceilain lhal lhe piovision vouId aIso appIv lo secuiilies enilled lv enlilies lhal
veie nol conpanies oi IegaI peisons (lhe diieclive iefeis lo "issueis of
secuiilies").

HC5 casc

The nosl inpoilanl lesl of lhe nevIv inlioduced insidei deaIing piovision cane
vilh lhe HCS case. As lhe foIIoving liief oulIine of lhe case viII shov, il vas nol
a lvpicaI case of insidei deaIing and as a iesuIl, nanv expeils veie unhappv
aloul lhe pioseculoi's decision lo peisecule lhe nallei in lhe fiisl pIace.

Aflei lhe lechnoIogv conpanv HCS N.V. had ian inlo heavv vealhei, ils lhiee
najoi shaiehoIdeis nel in an eneigencv neeling vilh lhe conpanv's lanks. The
neeling discussed lhe possiliIilv lo fuinish addilionaI capilaI. OnIv lhen couId
lhe lanks conlinue lhe exisling ciedil faciIilies. Il vas agieed lhal a nev shaie
issue vas lo lake pIace in addilion lo vhich lhe lanks vouId piovide an
addilionaI suloidinaled Ioan. No decision vas ieached on lhe soil of issue
(pulIic oi piivale pIacenenl), vhich aIong vilh lhe issue piice vas lo le
deleinined lhiee davs Ialei. AII pailies piesenl al lhe neeling piefeiied a piivale
pIacenenl. Hovevei, lhev veie seeningIv aII of lhe opinion lhal lhe ieaI vaIue of
lhe shaies vas nuch Iovei lhan lhe naikel slock piice al lhe line. Il vas
lheiefoie (jokingIv) suggesled duiing lhe neeling lhal Mi. Van den
Nieuvenhuvzen, one of lhe najoi shaiehoIdeis of HCS, vouId have lo seII
shaies in lhe naikel in oidei lo liing lhe piice dovn.

The nexl dav, a piess ieIease vas issued lefoie slail of liading, nenlioning lhal
an eneigencv package vas aiianged foi lhe aiIing conpanv and lhal a shaie
issue vouId lake pIace. Il aIso nenlioned lhal "The condilions of lhe issue aie sliII
suljecl lo discussion. Iuilhei announcenenls viII le nade shoilIv." Whal il did
nol sav vas lhal lhe lanks and shaiehoIdeis vouId nol le viIIing lo pailicipale

11
Prof M.S. Groenhuijsen, Strafbaar misbruik van voorwetenschap en "Chinese Walls", Amsterdam 1991,
p. 44
12
Council Directive (EEC) 89/592
102 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:95
in lhe iescue allenpl shouId lhe issue piice le loo high. On lhe sane dav as lhe
piess ieIease, Van den Nieuvenhuvzen soId 4.1 niIIion HCS shaies, as a iesuIl of
vhich lhe slock piice pIunneled. The exchange gol suspicious and slailed an
enquiiv inlo lhe nallei, vhich iesuIled in an officiaI iepoil lo lhe pulIic
pioseculoi. Aflei an inquiiv lv lhe pioseculoi's office, ciininaI pioceedings veie
inilialed.

Van den Nieuvenhuvzen vas acquilled lv lhe Ansleidan Disliicl Couil in fiisl
inslance, vhich inlei aIia consideied lhal lhe non-pulIic infoinalion al lhe
disposaI of Van den Nieuvenhuvzen vas nol piice sensilive as lhe expeils
consuIled lv lhe couil couId nol sav if lhe pulIicalion of lhis infoinalion vouId
have diiven lhe slock piice up oi dovn. In facl, lhe couil-appoinled expeils
couId nol agiee on vhelhei lhe infoinalion vouId have had anv effecl al aII.
Iuilheinoie, sone expeils voiced conliadicling opinions aloul lhe desiialiIilv
of Van den Nieuvenhuvzen's aclions, vhich nav oi nav nol have leen in lhe
inleiesl of aII shaiehoIdeis in HCS. Neilhei vas il cIeai vhelhei anv
confidenliaIilv vas lieached. Aflei lhe fiisl judgnenl had leen oveiluined in
appeaI, lhe Dulch Supiene Couil (vhich onIv iuIes on poinls of Iav, nol on
facls), in a decision vhich cane as a suipiise lo nanv, quashed lhe appeaI
judgnenl, iuIing lhal il vas necessaiv lo shov lolh (i) lhal lhe non-pulIic
infoinalion vouId have Ied lo eilhei an upvaid oi dovnvaid piice novenenl,
and (ii) lhal lhe lenefil ieaped lv lhe peison effecling lhe liansaclion vas a diiecl
consequence of lhal liansaclion.
13
This couId nol le shovn lv lhe pioseculion,
hence Van den Nieuvenhuvzen´s acquillaI.

Il couId le said lhal vhal happened in lhe HCS case vas nol insidei deaIing lul a
foin of naikel nanipuIalion. This is anolhei foin of lehavioui, one vhich nav
oi nav nol le elhicaI, lul vhich in anv evenl vas nol piohililed in The
NelheiIands al lhal line.

Amcndmcnts tn thc !aw

The Dulch poIilicaI eslalIishnenl iegaided lhe oulcone of lhe HCS case as a
disappoinlnenl. MainIv as a iesuIl of lhe HCS judgnenl, lhe piovision
piohililing insidei deaIing (lv lhen incoipoialed in lhe 1995 Acl on lhe
supeivision of lhe secuiilies liade, lhe "Secuiilies Acl"), vas anended in 1999.
The effecls of HCS shov: The nev piovision specificaIIv slales lhal il vouId nol
le necessaiv lhal lhe ieIevanl non-discIosed infoinalion vouId, upon
pulIicalion, iesuIl in eilhei a iise oi a faII of lhe piice of lhe ieIevanl secuiilv.
Iuilheinoie, lhe need lo shov a lieach of confidenliaIilv vas ienoved.

As a iesuIl of lhese changes inlei aIia, lhe fiisl lhiee sulseclions of ailicIe 46 of
lhe Secuiilies Acl piovide:

13
HR 27 June 1995, NJ 1995 / 662
2005] Insider Dealing: A Dutch Perspective 103



1. Il is piohililed lo each and anv peison vho has inside infoinalion lo
enlei inlo oi effecl a liansaclion in oi fion The NelheiIands in:

a. secuiilies Iisled on a secuiilies exchange vhich is iecognised
|..! oi on an exchange vhich is Iocaled oulside of The
NelheiIands and vhich is aIIoved lv lhe aulhoiilies, oi
secuiilies vhich aie assuned lo le Iisled shoilIv on such
exchange: oi

l. secuiilies vhose vaIue is aIso deleinined lv lhe vaIue of
secuiilies nenlioned undei a.

2. Inside infoinalion is knovIedge of a speciaI ciicunslance iegaiding
lhe IegaI peison, conpanv oi inslilulion, lo vhich lhe secuiilies ieIale oi
iegaiding lhe liade in lhe secuiilies:

a vhich is nol pulIicIv discIosed: and

l. vhich discIosuie nav ieasonalIv le expecled lo have an
infIuence on lhe piice of lhe secuiilies, iegaidIess of lhe
diieclion lheieof

3. The piohililion of lhe fiisl sulseclion does nol appIv:

a. lo lhe inleinediaiv vho, onIv disposing of inside
infoinalion iegaiding lhe liade, liades in good failh on lhe
exchange al lhe seivice of cIienls:

l. lo lhe IegaI peison, conpanv oi inslilulion vhose enpIovees
vho engage in lhe concIusion oi effeclualion of lhe liansaclion
onIv dispose of inside infoinalion vilh iegaid lo lhe secuiilies
liade: and

c. lo lhe peison concIuding oi effecling a liansaclion vilh a
viev lo fuIfiIIing a due olIigalion vhich aIieadv exisled on lhe
nonenl on vhich he gol knovIedge of lhe speciaI ciicunslance
nenlioned in sulseclion 2


Al lhe sane line, in 1999, lhe IegisIaloi inlioduced a second piovision, ailicIe 46a
of lhe Secuiilies Acl, vhich conlains a piohililion lo lip-off lhiid pailies, oi lo
advise lhen lo engage in oi effecl ceilain liansaclions. This iepaiied a peiceived
gap in lhe eaiIiei slaluloiv piovision of ailicIe 336a of lhe Dulch CiininaI Code,
104 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:95
vhich did nol expIicilIv piohilil lipping-off.

Il shouId le noled lhal ailicIe 46 of lhe Secuiilies Acl does nol iequiie causaIilv
lelveen lhe inside infoinalion and lhe concIuded liansaclion. This neans lhal a
IegaI enlilv nav le in lieach of lhe piohililion vhen one diiecloi has inside
infoinalion iegaiding a secuiilv and anolhei diiecloi, on lhe enlilv's lehaIf,
puichases oi seIIs such secuiilv. The inside infoinalion heId lv lhe fiisl diiecloi
nav le alliiluled lo lhe enlilv, so lhal lhe liansaclion concIuded lv lhe second
diiecloi couId conslilule a ciininaI offence. This couId cIeaiIv cieale piolIens in
ieIalion lo najoi financiaI inslilulions vhich engage lolh in liading and olhei,
advisoiv oi financing aclivilies. This is vheie lhe exenplion of ailicIe 46 (3)(l) of
lhe Secuiilies Acl cones in. Il iefeis lo financiaI inslilulions vilh so-caIIed
Chinese WaIIs lelveen lheii divisions engaging in liading and lhose engaging in
olhei aclivilies vhich nav Iead lhe Iallei lo have inside infoinalion iegaiding
ceilain secuiilies. The liading divisions of such inslilulions aie exenpl fion lhe
piohililion, even lhough lhe ieIevanl inslilulion as a vhoIe nav le said lo
dispose of inside infoinalion.

Il is aIso ieIevanl lo nole again lhal ailicIe 46 of lhe Secuiilies Acl, Iike ils
piedecessoi, nav le said lo conlain a ceilain neasuie of exlialeiiiloiiaIilv. Lven
lhough in ceilain juiisdiclions insidei deaIing nav nol le piohililed, engaging in
liansaclions on an exchange in such juiisdiclion fion inside The NelheiIands
viII le consideied a ciininaI offence (even lhough, adnilledIv, lhe piioiilv given
lo pioseculing such offences viII le ieIaliveIv Iov).

PrnsccutInns undcr thc ncw rcgImc

The changes lo lhe insidei deaIing piovision veie neanl lo aIIeviale lhe luiden
of pioof foi lhe pulic pioseculoi. NeveilheIess, pioseculions since 1999 have had
nixed iesuIls. Theie have leen sone conviclions, and a lodv of case Iav vas
deveIoped conceining specific suljecls such as lhe avaid of enpIovee shaies
oplions.
14
Hovevei, one najoi case again venl viong foi lhe pioseculion. The
nallei vas conpaialIe vilh lhe HCS case lo lhe exlenl lhal, again, a "caplain of
indusliv" vas laigeled. This line, il vas Mi. ßoonslia, foinei CLO of IhiIips,
vho vas accused of having alused infoinalion he aIIegedIv ieceived fion his
pailnei, vho al lhe line vas al lhe supeivisoiv loaid of anolhei Iisled conpanv,
LndenoI. Davs aflei Mi. ßoonslia puichased LndenoI shaies foi an anounl of
LUR 5OO,OOO, il vas announced lhal a pulIic offei vouId le nade foi lhe
conpanv. Again, lhe case faiIed aflei a videIv pulIished liiaI, lolh in fiisl
inslance and in appeaI, lecause lhe pulIic pioseculoi faiIed lo piove lhal Mi.
ßoonslia had anv inside infoinalion. The Couil of AppeaI decided lhal lhe
ciicunslanliaI evidence piesenled lv lhe pioseculion, shoving lhal Mi. ßoonslia
hinseIf had laken lhe inilialive foi lhe liansaclion and had asked his lankei foi

14
Amsterdam District Court 11 July 2001, JOR 2001 / 162 (Content)
2005] Insider Dealing: A Dutch Perspective 105


"discielion" vas nol convincing.
15
This again shovs lhe difficuIlv such cases
piesenl lo lhe pioseculion (and, lo a Iaige exlenl, lo lhe accused, vho viII have lo
defend hinseIf lolh in couil and in lhe piess).


Currcnt dcvc!nµmcnts

On 3 Decenlei 2OO2, lhe Luiopean CounciI adopled lhe Maikel Aluse
Diieclive
16
. This diieclive conlains lhe nain piincipIes, vhich aie eIaloialed in
Connission ReguIalions vhich aie, fion 12 Oclolei 2OO4 onvaid, diieclIv
appIicalIe in lhe vaiious nenlei slales. On lhe sane 12 Oclolei 2OO4, lhe
nenlei slales of lhe Luiopean Union veie undei an olIigalion lo have
inpIenenled lhis diieclive in nalionaI IegisIalion. The NelheiIands did nol neel
lhis deadIine, lul diafl IegisIalion has leen senl lo lhe Dulch IaiIianenl. The
inpIenenlalion of lhe Maikel Aluse Diieclive viII iesuIl in a naikedIv diffeienl
iegine vilh iegaid lo insidei deaIing.

A fuII desciiplion of lhe Maikel Aluse Diieclive and ils inpIicalions vouId
exceed lhe scope of lhis ailicIe. Hovevei, sone poinls aie of pailicuIai inleiesl,
lhe fiisl of vhich is lhe veiv definilion of inside infoinalion, in ailicIe 1(1) of lhe
naikel Aluse Diieclive:

1. "Inside infoinalion" shaII nean infoinalion of a piecise naluie vhich
has nol leen nade pulIic, ieIaling, diieclIv oi indiieclIv, lo one oi noie
issueis of financiaI insliunenls oi lo one oi noie financiaI insliunenls
and vhich, if il veie nade pulIic, vouId le IikeIv lo have a significanl
effecl on lhe piices of lhose financiaI insliunenls oi on lhe piice of
ieIaled deiivalive financiaI insliunenls

The cuiienl Dulch iuIe iequiies lhal lhe ieIevanl infoinalion "couId have
infIuence" on lhe piice of lhe secuiilies. This seens easiei lo piove lhan lhe
"IikeIihood of a significanl effecl". This sliiclei iequiienenl nav give iise lo
equaIIv sliiclei denands iegaiding expeil opinions aloul lhe effecls of lhe
infoinalion conceined.

Iuilheinoie, il is inleiesling lo nole lhal lhe Maikel Aluse Diieclive inlioduces
a iequiienenl of causaIilv lelveen lhe inside infoinalion and lhe ieIevanl
liansaclion. The ieIevanl lexl of ailicIe 2 of lhe Maikel Aluse Diieclive piovides:

Menlei Slales shaII piohilil anv peison iefeiied lo in lhe second
sulpaiagiaph vho possesses inside infoinalion fion using lhal
infoinalion lv acquiiing oi disposing of, oi lv living lo acquiie oi

15
Amsterdam Court of Appeal, 10 December 2004, JOR 2005/39 (Boonstra)
16
Directive 2003/6/EC
106 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:95
dispose of, foi his ovn accounl oi foi lhe accounl of a lhiid pailv, eilhei
diieclIv oi indiieclIv, financiaI insliunenls lo vhich lhal infoinalion
ieIales

This nav conpound lhe difficuIlies aIieadv expeiienced lv lhe pulIic
pioseculion: undei lhe nev iegine, il nusl nol onIv piove lhal lhe accused had
inside infoinalion, il nusl aIso piove lhal lhe peison invoIved acluaIIv used lhal
infoinalion lv effecling lhe ieIevanl liansaclion.
17


Anolhei aspecl of lhe Maikel Aluse Diieclive is lhal il is siIenl on lhe nallei of
lhe diieclion in vhich lhe piice of lhe secuiilv vouId nove upon discIosuie of
lhe inside infoinalion. Il is iecoIIecled lhal, as a iesuIl of lhe HCS case, lhe
cuiienl ailicIe 46 of lhe Secuiilies Acl expiessIv slales lhal il is nol ieIevanl in
vhich diieclion lhe piice vouId nove upon discIosuie. In lhe Dulch diafl
IegisIalion, lhis phiase does nol ieappeai. Indeed, in lhe advice lv lhe Connillee
of Luiopean Secuiilies ReguIalois ("CLSR") il is slaled, in iesponse lo a queslion
vhen inside infoinalion is specific enough lo le ieIevanl undei lhe Maikel
Aluse Diieclive, lhal "lhe infoinalion is specific enough lo aIIov a concIusion lo
le diavn aloul ils inpacl on piices."
18
In ils Ieedlack Slalenenl, CLSR
eIaloiales on lhis (anended) advice, slaling lhal il "consideis lhal lheie is sone
usefuIness in ielaining lhe nolion of lhe diieclion of lhe inpacl on piices. ßul,
conveiseIv, CLSR concedes lhal lhis couId piovide an aIili foi non-discIosuie.
The advice has lheiefoie leen nodified lo iequiie lhe infoinalion lo le specific
enough sinpIv lo aIIov a concIusion lo le diavn aloul ils inpacl on piices."
19

Hovevei, lhe conliadicloiv expeil opinions in lhe HCS case shov lhal il is nol
aIvavs easv lo eslalIish (even vilh lhe lenefil of hindsighl) vhal inpacl ceilain
infoinalion vouId have had on lhe piice.

Il viII aIso le iecaIIed lhal in lhis ailicIe lhe evenls in lhe HCS case have
lenlaliveIv leen desciiled as naikel nanipuIalion, ialhei lhan insidei deaIing.
Such lehavioui is al lhe nonenl nol piohililed in The NelheiIands. The Maikel
Aluse Diieclive hovevei iequiies nenlei slales lo inpIenenl a specific
piohililion of naikel nanipuIalion. In lhis iespecl, AilicIe 5 of lhe Maikel Aluse
Diieclive piovides lhal ¨|n!enlei Slales shaII piohilil anv peison fion
engaging in naikel nanipuIalion."

AilicIe 1 of lhe Maikel Aluse Diieclive conlains a Ienglhv definilion of lhe lein
naikel aluse. In ailicIe 1(2) of lhe Maikel Aluse Diieclive a nunlei of specific
inslances of naikel nanipuIalion aie idenlified:

17
This requirement of causality also removes the need for a "Chinese walls" exemption as a trading
division of a properly partitioned (financial) institution should not be able to "use" any inside information
held by any of its other divisions.
18
CESR's Advice on Level 2 Implementing Measures for the Proposed Market Abuse Directive, December
2002
19
CESR's Market Abuse Consultation Feedback Statement, December 2002
2005] Insider Dealing: A Dutch Perspective 107



- conducl lv a peison, oi peisons acling in coIIaloialion, lo secuie a
doninanl posilion ovei lhe suppIv of oi denand foi a financiaI
insliunenl vhich has lhe effecl of fixing, diieclIv oi indiieclIv, puichase
oi saIe piices oi ciealing olhei unfaii liading condilions,
- lhe luving oi seIIing of financiaI insliunenls al lhe cIose of lhe naikel
vilh lhe effecl of nisIeading inveslois acling on lhe lasis of cIosing
piices,
- laking advanlage of occasionaI oi ieguIai access lo lhe liadilionaI oi
eIeclionic nedia lv voicing an opinion aloul a financiaI insliunenl (oi
indiieclIv aloul ils issuei) vhiIe having pieviousIv laken posilions on
lhal financiaI insliunenl and piofiling sulsequenlIv fion lhe inpacl of
lhe opinions voiced on lhe piice of lhal insliunenl, vilhoul having
sinuIlaneousIv discIosed lhal confIicl of inleiesl lo lhe pulIic in a piopei
and effeclive vav

Il is no doull a posilive deveIopnenl lhal naikel nanipuIalion is piohililed.
Hovevei, if lhe sonelines conliadicloiv expeil opinions in lhe HCS case aie a
foieloding of lhings lo cone, il ienains lo le seen if lhe pulIic pioseculoi viII
easiIv succeed in ollaining sufficienl pioof of lhe ciealion of "unfaii liading
condilions".

A finaI inpoilanl consequence of lhe naikel Aluse diieclive is lhe inlioduclion
of a iequiienenl foi inleinediaiies lo nolifv lhe conpelenl aulhoiilv of ils
nenlei slale, in The NelheiIands lhe AIM. To lhis end, AilicIe 6(9) of lhe
Maikel Aluse Diieclive piovides:

Menlei Slales shaII iequiie lhal anv peison piofessionaIIv aiianging
liansaclions in financiaI insliunenls vho ieasonalIv suspecls lhal a
liansaclion nighl conslilule insidei deaIing oi naikel nanipuIalion
shaII nolifv lhe conpelenl aulhoiilv vilhoul deIav

This iequiienenl iaises a nunlei of queslions. As discussed alove, il is nol easv
lo eslalIish vhelhei oi nol a liansaclion is concIuded "using inside infoinalion".
Neilhei is il sliaighlfoivaid lo eslalIish naikel nanipuIalion. Iuilheinoie, lhe
piovision does nol nake cIeai (and neilhei does lhe pioposed Dulch
inpIenenling IegisIalion) vhelhei a nolificalion nusl le nade even if lhe
ieIevanl inslilulion vouId iefuse lo execule lhe liansaclion. In such evenl, il
couId sliII le possilIe lo consliue an allenpl al insidei deaIing oi naikel
nanipuIalion, vhich aIso conslilules a ciininaI offence.

UnliI inpIenenlalion of lhe Maikel Aluse Diieclive, lhe cuiienl Dulch
IegisIalion discussed alove ienains appIicalIe and ieIevanl. Hovevei, accoiding
lo a joinl slalenenl of lhe Dulch Minisliv of Iinance, Luionexl Ansleidan, and
108 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:95
lhe Dulch ieguIaloi AIM
2O
, naikel pailies nav ieIv on ceilain exenplions foi
luv-lack piogians and slaliIizalion of financiaI insliunenls as Iaid dovn in lhe
Connission ReguIalion (LC) No 2273/2OO3.
21
This inleiin neasuie shouId
ensuie a ceilain IeveI of hainonisalion vilh lhe olhei LU nenlei slales.
22


Ceilain piovisions of a diieclive nav lecone diieclIv effeclive in lhe evenl lhal
lhe diieclive is nol inpIenenled in a lineIv fashion. Such piovisions nusl
alliilule iighls lo individuaIs and lhe conlenl of such iighls nusl le capalIe of
leing idenlified fion lhe piovisions of lhe diieclive.
23
Hovevei, lv a judgnenl
of Decenlei 3, 2OO4, lhe Ansleidan disliicl couil iejecled lhe fiisl (iepoiled)
cIains on lhe diiecl effecliveness of lhe Maikel Aluse Diieclive.
24


Cnnc!usInn

Duiing lhe Iasl fifleen veais, lhe Dulch IegisIaloi has allenpled lo cieale a
fianevoik vilhin vhich lhe pulIic pioseculoi couId successfuIIv acl againsl
insidei deaIing. The iesuIls have leen nixed. Ioi lhe line leing, insidei deaIing
in The NelheiIands is in a liansilionaI phase. Hovevei, vhelhei oi nol lhe nev
iuIes puisuanl lo lhe Maikel Aluse Diieclive viII aIIeviale lhe pioseculoi's
dulies is in doull. OnIv line viII leII.




20
Autoriteit Financiële Markten
21
Commission Regulation (EC) No 2273/2003 of 22 December 2003 implementing Directive 2003/6/EC.
22
some of which, such as the UK, are also late in implementing the Market Abuse Directive.
23
Cases C-6, 9/90 Francovich and Others v Italy [1991] ECR I-5357
24
Amsterdam District Court 3 December 2004, JOR 2005 / 13
A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OI
INTLRNATIONAL TLRRORISM
LLCISLATION

Iohn D. IickIes

The inleinalionaI connunilv is poised lo eslalIish a speciaI iappoileui of
lhe Uniled Nalions on piolecling hunan iighls in counlei-leiioiisn effoils.
Heie in Luiope, LU Iuslice, Iieedon and Secuiilv Connissionei Iianco
Iiallini has said he viII ensuie lhal fuluie pioposaIs lo slienglhen secuiilv
viII le veighed againsl lhe need lo piolecl fundanenlaI fieedons. On an
inleinalionaI IeveI, a snaII nunlei of slales, Ied lv China, Russia and lhe
Uniled Slales, aie coIIuding lo lIock lhe eslalIishnenl of an effeclive
nandale. Al lhe Luiopean Union lheie has leen a naiked faiIuie lo
seiiousIv addiess lhe hunan iighls inpacl of ils anli-leiioi neasuies,
eneigencv IegisIalion in lhe Uniled Kingdon has Ied lo lhe use in couil of
seciel inleIIigence evidence, polenliaIIv exliacled lhiough loiluie.

Hunan iighls exisl lv viilue of lhe facl lhal one is hunan and aie lheiefoie
enlilIed lo le liealed in a vav lefilling lhal slalus. Slales disagiee aloul lhe
piecise conlenl of lhis lodv of iighls and sone slales denv lhal lhese iighls
aie goveined lv inleinalionaI Iav. Theie has leen a change in lhe Iasl foilv
veais, slenning fion lhiee najoi piecedenls: lhe Nuienleig TiiaIs,
genocide, and lhe UniveisaI DecIaialion of Hunan Righls. This change has
noved inleinalionaI Iav avav fion ils liadilionaI, excIusive focus on lhe
slale lovaid a nev inleiesl in piolecling lhe individuaI lhiough liealies and
docunenls. Hovevei, lhe viII lo enfoice such Iavs iesls vilh lhe slales, and
lhis viII can le lenuous al lesl.
1


AilicIe 5 of lhe UniveisaI DecIaialion of Hunan Righls piovides lhal ¨No
one shaII le suljecled lo loiluie oi lo ciueI, inhunan oi degiading liealnenl
oi punishnenl¨. IieciseIv lhe sane piovision is found undei AilicIe 3 of lhe
Luiopean Convenlion on Hunan Righls. Undei AilicIe 11 of lhe
DecIaialion, ¨Lveivone chaiged vilh a penaI offence has lhe iighl lo le
piesuned innocenl unliI pioved guiIlv accoiding lo Iav in a pulIic liiaI al
vhich he has had aII lhe guaianlees necessaiv foi his defence¨. AilicIe 5 of

†John D. Pickles BSc (Auckland), law student at Birkbeck, University of London
1
Icons Project, University of Maryland, 2003
110 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:109

lhe Luiopean Convenlion slales lhal no one shaII le depiived of his Iileilv
unIess il is a IavfuI delenlion aflei conviclion lv a conpelenl couil, and lhal
anvone aiiesled oi delained shaII le lioughl pionplIv lefoie a judge oi
olhei officei aulhoiized lv Iav lo exeicise judiciaI povei. ßolh lhe
DecIaialion and lhe Luiopean Convenlion, undei ailicIes 12 and 8
iespecliveIv, seek lo ensuie lhe iighls of individuaIs lo iespecl foi lheii
piivale and faniIv Iives, hones and coiiespondence.

Waves of nev neasuies in lhe Uniled Slales in iecenl veais vioIale
fundanenlaI piovisions of inleinalionaI hunan iighls and hunanilaiian Iav.
These incIuded lhe aililiaiv and seciel delenlion of non-cilizens, seciel
depoilalion heaiings foi peisons suspecled of conneclions lo leiioiisn, lhe
aulhoiizalion of niIilaiv connissions lo liv non-cilizen leiioiisls, a faiIuie
lo alide lv lhe Ceneva Convenlions in lhe liealnenl of delainees heId in
U.S. niIilaiv cuslodv in Cula and eIsevheie, and lhe niIilaiv delenlion
vilhoul chaige oi access lo counseI of U.S. cilizens designaled as "enenv
conlalanls."
2


The inlioduclion of lhe Ialiiol Acl has given lhe Alloinev geneiaI
peinission lo delain non-cilizens foi as Iong as 7 davs on suspicion aIone.
He nav aIso denv non-cilizens, incIuding IavfuI peinanenl iesidenls,
ieadnission lo lhe U.S. if lhev aie deened lo have leen engaging in speech
piolecled lv lhe Iiisl Anendnenl. AilicIe 13 of lhe UniveisaI DecIaialion
of Hunan Righls piovides lhal ¨eveivone has lhe iighl lo fieedon of
novenenl and iesidence vilhin lhe loideis of each slale, and lhal eveivone
has lhe iighl lo Ieave anv counliv, incIuding his ovn, and lo ieluin lo his
counliv.¨

Undei lhe Acl lhe judiciaI supeivision of Iav enfoicenenl aulhoiilies´
suiveiIIance of leIephone and Inleinel use in anli-leiioiisn invesligalions, as
veII as ciininaI invesligalions unieIaled lo leiioiisn has leen nininized.
The IßI and olhei Iav enfoicenenl agencies aie enlilIed lo viielap aII
leIephones used lv anv suspecl vilhoul fuilhei aulhoiizalion fion lhe
judiciaiv. The U.S. goveinnenl nov has lhe aliIilv lo conducl seciel
seaiches, again in anli-leiioiisn invesligalions, as veII as ciininaI
invesligalions unieIaled lo leiioiisn. This aulhoiizalion gives Iav
enfoicenenl agencies lhe iighl lo seaich suspecls vilhoul infoining lhen oi
lheii iepiesenlalives. The aulhoiizalion aIso gives poIice lhe iighl lo seize
piopeilv in such seaiches vilhoul infoining lheii ovneis.


2
Human Rights Watch, In the Name of Counter-Terrorism: Human Rights Abuses Worldwide, 2005
2005] Terrorism Legislation 111
The U.S. niIilaiv is piepaiing lo issue a nev inleiiogalions nanuaI lhal
expiessIv lais lhe haish lechniques discIosed in iepoils fion lhe Alu
Chiail piison in Iiaq, and incoipoiales safeguaids devised lo pievenl such
nisconducl al niIilaiv piison canps in lhe fuluie. In Ieliuaiv 2OO2,
Iiesidenl ßush decIaied lhal Cuanlanano delainees veie nol enlilIed lo
pioleclions undei lhe Ceneva Convenlions.
3


Lach veai since 1997 lhe Uniled Nalions Connission on Hunan Righls has
passed a iesoIulion caIIing on counliies lhal have nol aloIished lhe dealh
penaIlv lo eslalIish a noialoiiun on execulions.
4
China has iecenlIv
anended AilcIe 12O of ils CiininaI Lav in iesponse lo lhe lhieal of leiioi,
incieasing lhe punishnenl foi peopIe vho ¨oiganise oi Iead a leiioiisl
oiganisalion¨. The nev cIause added lo AilicIe 12O does nol specifv a
naxinun punishnenl, lhus polenliaIIv naking lhe ''funding'' of ''leiioiisl
oiganisalions'' oi ''individuaIs engaging in leiioiisl aclivilies'' IialIe lo lhe
dealh penaIlv. ßased on pulIic iepoils avaiIalIe, il is eslinaled lhal al Ieasl
3,4OO peopIe veie execuled in China Iasl veai, aIlhough lhe liue figuies aie
leIieved lo le nuch highei. In Maich 2OO4 a deIegale al lhe NalionaI
IeopIe's Congiess said lhal "neaiIv 1O,OOO" peopIe aie execuled pei veai in
China.
5


IoIIoving lhe leiioiisl allacks on Nev Yoik of 11 Seplenlei 2OO1, lhe
Russian goveinnenl ie-calegoiized sepaialisl acls invoIving lhe use of foice
as "inleinalionaI leiioiisn," ieseiving lhe lein "sepaialisn" foi peacefuI
aclivilies such as expiessions of cuIluiaI idenlilv, ieIigion, Iileialuie,
associalion, oi iiles of passage.
6
The Ioieign Affaiis Connillee of lhe
Luiopean IaiIianenl has iecenlIv appioved a highIv ciilicaI iepoil on
Russia. The iepoil condenns vhal il caIIs Russia´s "conlinuing faiIuie lo end
IavIessness in Chechnva." Il noles lhal "unIiniled vioIence" peinilled lo
Russian foices "does as nuch lo faciIilale leiioiisn as il does lo conlal il."
7

Russia´s fedeiaI foices have delained and ¨disappeaied¨ lhousands of
Chechens vhon lhev suspecl of invoIvenenl vilh ieleI foices and loiluied
lhen in cuslodv lo ollain confessions and infoinalion. ßv caiiving oul
foiced disappeaiances, fedeiaI foices in Chechnva allenpl lo conceaI lhe
loiluie and sunnaiv execulion of lhose in lheii cuslodv, and lheiefoie
lenefil fion inpunilv foi such ciines. ¨Disappeaiances¨ in Chechnva aie so

3
Unclassified White House Memorandum February 7 2002
4
Amnesty International- The Death Penalty, 2005
5
Amnesty International- Facts and Figures on the Death Penalty, 2005
6
Human Rights Watch- In the Name of Counter-Terrorism: Human Rights Abuses Worldwide, 2005
7
Foreign Affairs Committee of the European Parliamen Report, April 26 2005
112 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:109

videspiead and svslenalic lhal lhev conslilule ciines againsl hunanilv: lv
sone eslinales lelveen 3,OOO and 5,OOO have ¨disappeaied¨ since 1999.
8


A significanl nodificalion in Russia´s IegisIalion on counlei-leiioiisn is lhe
2OO2 Iav "On Counleiing Lxlienisl Aclivilies." The Iav incIudes onIv a
vague definilion of exlienisl aclivilies. This Iav aIIovs a pioseculoi lo
suspend lhe voik of oiganizalions lefoie a judge has consideied lhe lasis
oi nolivalion foi lhe suil. When a pioseculoi fiIes a suil againsl an
oiganizalion cIaining lhal lhe oiganizalion is "exlienisl" undei lhe 2OO2 Iav,
lhe oiganizalion's aclivilies can le suspended lv lhe pioseculoi if lhe
pioseculoi's conpIainl aIIeges a lhieal of danage lv lhe oiganizalion.
RegaidIess of vhelhei lhe aIIegalions of exlienisn oi danage aie found lo
le liue lv lhe couil, lhe oiganizalion cannol funclion IegaIIv foi up lo six
nonlhs. If lhe couil finds lhal lhe oiganizalion's aclivilies fil lhe lioad
definilion of "exlienisl," lhe oiganizalion viII le Iiquidaled. Suljecling
hunan iighls oiganizalions lo lhis Iav vioIales lheii iighl lo fieedon of
associalion piovided foi undei lhe InleinalionaI Covenanl on CiviI and
IoIilicaI Righls and AilicIe 6 of lhe Luiopean Convenlion on Hunan Righls.

Undei Russian IedeiaI Iav 13O-IZ ¨On lhe Iighl Againsl leiioiisn¨, lhe
conducl of negolialions vilh leiioiisls cannol seive as lhe lasis oi condilion
foi lheii exenplion fion iesponsiliIilv foi lheii aclions. ßelveen 17 and 2O
Oclolei lhis veai in lhe U.K. lhe House of Loids viII heai evidence fion a
gioup of 1O leiioi suspecls vho cIain evidence gained lhiough loiluie
iesuIled in lheii aiiesls. These suspecls veie iniliaIIv delained undei lhe
2OO1 Anli-Teiioiisn and Secuiilv Acl.

This counliv´s nev Iievenlion of Teiioiisn Acl gives lhe Hone Secielaiv
lhe povei lo issue 'conlioI oideis' lo iesliicl lhe Iileilv of individuaIs. AII
lhe suspecled leiioiisls foineiIv heId vilhoul chaige oi liiaI in ßiilish high
secuiilv inslilulions have leen ieIeased and seived vilh lhese 'conlioI
oideis'. Sone of lhen had leen heId since Decenlei 2OO1 and sliII do nol
knov lhe giounds foi lheii delenlion. A conlioI oidei seveieIv iesliicls vho
a peison can neel, vheie lhev can go and aII cases so fai have invoIved
eIeclionic lagging. Wilhoul anv need foi a liiaI, conlioI oideis viII iange
fion iesliiclions on connunicalions lo house aiiesl. Undei lhe conlioI
oidei iegine, designed lo pievenl leiioiisl aclivilv, suspecls nav face a
nighl-line cuifev and aie iequiied lo slav al hone noniloied lv eIeclionic
equipnenl. Olhei iesliiclions incIude a lan on using phones and lhe
inleinel and on vhon lhose undei oideis nav neel oi aIIov inlo lheii

8
Human Rights Watch, Torture Worldwide, 2005
2005] Terrorism Legislation 113
hones. These oideis can polenliaIIv Iasl indefinileIv: lhe peison does nol
have lo le accused of anv ciine and does nol have lo le loId vhv he is
undei suspicion. Lxacl delaiIs of conlioI oideis inposed so fai have nol leen
nade pulIic lv lhe Hone Secielaiv.

Teiioiisn is on lhe inciease voiIdvide. When il cones lo fighling leiioiisn,
an in-deplh anaIvsis of ils oiigin is of paianounl inpoilance. Alove aII,
seiious IeveIs of aIienalion in socielv, vhelhei anong univeisilv sludenls,
lhe elhnicaIIv oppiessed oi anv gioup lhal feeIs sIighled, nusl le delecled
and heeded.
9
A heaIlhv socielv nusl incIude a conslanl sliiving foi sociaI
juslice, as leiioiisn viII feed on an unjusl socielv: lhe slienglhening of
denociacv is lhus one of lhe decisive pieiequisiles foi a successfuI fighl
againsl leiioiisn. Access lo lhe couils is an inheienl pail of conslilulionaI
denociacv. The Iegilinacv of lhe goveinnenl's secuiilv inslilulions is of
gieal inpoilance, lhe heighlening of lheii iepulalion lv lhe geneiaI pulIic,
lhiough lheii ovn peifoinance as veII as lhiough aII goveinnenl
inslilulions, lhe nedia and aII denocialicaIIv-ninded cilizens, is vilaI.
1O

The Independenl Lxpeil, nandaled lv lhe UN Connission on hunan
iighls in 2OO4 lo sludv vavs and neans of slienglhening lhe pionolion and
pioleclion of hunan iighls and fundanenlaI fieedons vhiIe counleiing
leiioiisn, concIuded in his iepoil lo lhis veai's session lhal lheie is piessing
need foi noniloiing undei a singIe nandale lhal has a conpiehensive
oveiviev of lhe ieIalionship lelveen hunan iighls and counlei-leiioiisn
neasuies. The chaIIenge is nov lo encouiage lhe inleinalionaI connunilv
lo adopl lhe nandale.






9
Hans Juergen Wischnewski, Lessons From German Counterterrorism, 1995
10
Judges speak out against erosion of independence by government, The Guardian, April 26 2005
* * *












































WHY IS SUICIDL TLRRORISM
INCRLASINCLY ßLCOMINC THL
TACTIC OI IIRST RLSORT`

Iasnine Chadha

IntrnductInn

In lhe 198Os lheie veie 31 suicide leiioiisl allacks, in lhe 199Os lheie veie
1O4.
1
Theie have leen 6O allacks in lhe fiisl foui nonlhs of 2OO4 aIone
accounling foi 8OO falaIilies.
2
Al Ieasl 19 specific oiganisalions using lhis
nelhod of allack opeiale acioss lhe voiId, affecling noie lhan 24 counliies
diieclIv and pulling aII nalion slales on lhe defensive. Teiioiisn has leen
idenlified as a lhieal lo inleinalionaI peace and secuiilv lv lhe UN Secuiilv
CounciI
3
and suicide leiioiisn has leen specificaIIv iefeiied lo in lolh
Secuiilv CounciI and CeneiaI AssenlIv iesoIulions and slalenenls lv lhe
UN Secielaiv-CeneiaI.
4


The leiioiisl oiganisalions lhal enpIov suicide leiioiisn do so as a iesuIl of
a ialionaI piocess of decision naking lased on a cosl-lenefil anaIvsis. The
decision lo use lhis node of opeialion is lhe iesuIl of ils peiceived success in
fuilheiing lheii ains. The queslion lhen is as nuch vhelhei lhe oiganisalion
lhal ieciuils lhe suicide leiioiisl can le deleiied fion sending hin/hei on a
nission as vhelhei lhe individuaI suicide leiioiisl can le deleiied fion
voIunleeiing his/hei seivices. Iuilheinoie, lhe najoi psvchoIogicaI effecl of
suicide leiioiisn IaigeIv accounls foi ils conlinued use and effecliveness in
gaineiing allenlion. The ease vilh vhich lhis node of allack has eiupled in
Iiaq denonsliales lhe insidious naluie of lhis gioving phenonenon. Hov,
aInosl oveinighl (in conliasl vilh lhe pioliacled IaIeslinian confIicl), do
nen lecone hunan snail lonls` Via lhe nedia, suicide leiioiisls see lhe
fiuils of lheii Ialoui, lhe ieluins of lheii (connunaI) saciifice, lul is lhis
pailicuIai node of opeialion a decisive veapon in shifling lhe laIance of

† LLB, M.A.
1
R.Pape, ‘The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism’ American Political Science Review, 2003
2
S.Atran ‘Soft Power and the Psychology of Suicide Bombing’, www.jamestown.org
3
Security Council Resolution 1373 was passed unanimously in response to 9/11 attacks and was one of
the most expansive resolutions passed imposing measures against all acts of terrorism throughout the
world.
4
See www.un.org/terrorism/sc.htm#reso
116 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:115

povei in favoui of veakei gioups and vhal, if anv, ciedilIe counlei-lhieal
can le nade againsl suicide leiioiisls`

Thc µartIcu!ars nf suIcIdc tcrrnrIsm

A conpiehensive definilion of leiioiisn as sunnaiised lv AIex Schnid
is:.an anxielv-inspiiing nelhod of iepealed vioIenl aclion, enpIoved lv a
seni-cIandesline individuaI, gioup oi slale acloi, foi idiosvncialic, ciininaI
oi poIilicaI ieasons, vheielv.lhe diiecl laigels of vioIence aie geneiaIIv
chosen iandonIv (laigels of oppoilunilv) oi seIecliveIv (iepiesenlalive oi
svnloIic laigels) fion a laigel popuIalion, and seive as nessage geneialois.
Thieal- and vioIence- lased connunicalion piocesses lelveen leiioiisl
(oiganisalion), (inpeiiIIed) viclins, and nain laigels aie used lo nanipuIale
lhe nain laigel (audience(s)), luining il inlo a laigel of leiioi, a laigel of
denands, oi a laigel of allenlion, depending on vhelhei inlinidalion,
coeicion, oi piopaganda is piinaiiIv soughl.
5


Moie specificaIIv, suicide leiioiisn is an acl of leiioi vheie lhe success of
lhe opeialion is conlingenl on seIf-infIicled dealh lv lhe peipelialoi. The
ain of lhe psvchoIogicaIIv and phvsicaIIv liained leiioiisl is lo die vhiIsl
sinuIlaneousIv deslioving lhe enenv laigel. These allacks aie nol lheiefoie,
lhe sane as veiv high-iisk leiioi opeialions vhich Ieave lhe peipelialois
onIv a snaII chance of suivivaI. A dislinclion has lo le diavn lelveen lhe
rcadincss lo die and lhe dcsirc lo die vilh inlenlion as lhe dislinguishing
fealuie.
6
The viIIingness lo kiII olheis lhiough one´s ovn dealh is a veiv
specific node of lehavioui.

HisloiicaIIv, lhe elhos of seIf-saciifice and nailvidon has nanifesled ilseIf
in nanv pIaces, in nanv foins. ßefoie lhe nineleenlh cenluiv, and lhe
advenl of nalionaIisn, anaichisn and Maixisl ideoIogv, ieIigion piovided
lhe onIv acceplalIe juslificalion foi leiioi and indeed vai.
7
The Thugs
leiioiised India foi neaiIv six hundied veais lelveen lhe sevenlh and
lhiileenlh cenluiies. Thev nade saciificiaI offeiings lo lhe Coddess KaIi (of
vai and desliuclion). The Thugs had no vish lo le seen oi knovn lo le
connilling lheii acls unIike lhe hashish inloxicaled Assassins, vho foughl
lo iepeI lhe Ciusadeis, lo vhon pulIic speclacIe vas aII-inpoilanl. In lhe
Iai Lasl, lhe ancienl Iapanese vaiiioi code oasnidc piesciiled scppu|u (iiluaI
suicide) as an honouialIe vav of dving foi lhe sanuiai vhose naslei died

5
A.Guelke The Age of Terrorism and the International Political System, Chap.2
6
J.Johnson and J.Kelsay Cross, Crescent and Sword, 1990
7
D.Rapoport ‘Fear and Trembling in Three Religious Traditions’ American Political Science Review,
1984
2005] Suicide Terrorism 117

oi faced defeal in lallIe. Lalei lhis vas luiIl upon in WoiId Wai II vilh
|ani|azc (divine vind) vhen piIols fIving pIanes vilhoul enough fueI foi a
ieluin jouinev, piopeIIed lhenseIves inlo enenv laigels.

Teiioiisn as a foin of poIilicaI vioIence lhal offends lhe noins and Iavs of
conlal vas enpIoved in lhe Iale 17OOs lv goveinnenls lo suppiess counlei-
ievoIulionaiies and dissidenls. IoIIoving lhe Iiench RevoIulion il lecane
associaled vilh lhe anli-slale connolalions of lodav, The 194Os vilnessed lhe
deveIopnenl of vaiious indigenous nalionaIisl and anli-coIoniaIisl gioups
vho leiioiised lhe coIoniaI poveis. These 'fieedon fighleis´, engaged in
sliuggIes of nalionaI Iileialion and seIf-deleininalion, veie lhe giealesl
pioponenls of leiioiisn vhich vas desciiled lv WaIlei Lacquei as lhe
'veapon of lhe veak´. Moie iecenlIv, lhis senlinenl vas echoed lv AldaIIah
Shani, Ieadei of lhe IaIeslinian IsIanic Iihad
8
gioup in Caza, vhen he said
of lhe use of suicide lonling in lhe IsiaeI-IaIesline dispule, 'We Iack lhe
ains possessed lv lhe enenv. We have no pIanes oi nissiIes, nol even
ailiIIeiv vilh vhich lo fighl.The nosl effeclive insliunenl foi infIicling
hain vilh a nininun of Iosses is lhis lvpe of opeialion´.
9


As Roleil Iape
1O
conlends, al lhe heail of suicide leiioiisn Iavs a slialegv of
coeicion. The sliucluiaI condilions of leiioiisn in geneiaI, aie lhe ieveise of
liadilionaI niIilaiv coeicion. Wilh leiioiisn lhe coeicei is lhe veakei acloi
and lhe laigel lhe sliongei. Suicide lonling is an allenpl lo iediess lhis
povei inlaIance lhough in facl il oflen has lhe opposile effecl of incieasing
lhe coeicive lehavioui of lhe poveifuI pailv. Suicide leiioiisn seeks lo
infIicl enough pain on lhe laigel socielv lo oveivheIn lheii inleiesl in
iesisling lhe leiioiisl´s denands. Indeed, lhis nodus opeiandi is a
pailicuIaiIv apl exanpIe of Ielei Kiopolkin´s leiioi as 'piopaganda lv lhe
deed´ vhose piincipaI oljecl is lo cause pulIic ouliage and geneiale
pulIicilv.

Il is veII-eslalIished lhal suicide leiioiisn is nol lhe voik of individuaI
iiialionaI aclois infIicling iandon allacks on lheii ovn inilialive, lhe naluie
of lhe lhieal is slialegic and oiganisalionaI. Accoiding lo Iape lhe nosl
inpoilanl indicaloi of lhe slialegic oiienlalion of suicide leiioiisls is lhe
lining of lhe suspension of lhe allacks, lased on decisions lv Ieadeis lhal
fuilhei allacks vouId le deliinenlaI lo lheii coeicive puiposes (foi inslance,
lhe suspension and ieinlioduclion of lhe in|ifada -liansIaled as 'shaking off´ -
in IsiaeI/IaIesline, and lhe cessalion of allacks lv lhe Lileialion Tigeis of

8
The Palestinian Islamic Jihad is not to be confused with Islamic Jihad (Hezbollah).
9
9
th
December 1994, Israeli TV Channel 1, p.99 ibid.
10
op.cit Pape
118 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:115

TaniI LeIan (LTTL) foIIoving lhe Seplenlei 11
lh
allacks). Lone individuaIs
do nol have lhe iesouices necessaiv lo caiiv oul such allacks unaided. The
lhieal lheiefoie enanales fion lhe oiganisalions vho ieciuil voIunleeis foi
lhe specific puipose of caiiving oul a suicide allack. Thev piovide, in|cr a|ia,
liaining, IogislicaI suppoil, lhe seIeclion of laigels and funding. Oflen lheie
viII le a veII-oicheslialed svslen of piopaganda and indocliinalion.

This papei viII seek lo shov lhal aIlhough lheie is a prina facic ieIalionship
lelveen lhe poIilicaI cIinale peivading a confIicl and lhe aclivilies of lhe
oiganisalion(s) invoIved, lheie is no cIeai-cul piediclaliIilv in lhe allacks. In
olhei voids, '.lhe idea lhal leiioiisn is a prccisc. nign|u ccn|rc||cd, a|ncs|
surgica|, slialegv is a ciueI iIIusion. Once a socielv slails on a spiiaI of leiioi
and counlei-leiioi, lheie nav le no vav of slopping lhe cainage´
11

(enphasis added). AIlhough lhe ieason/liiggei foi a specific allack nav le
IogicaIIv deduced aflei lhe evenl, occasions vheie an allack vouId le nosl
expecled nav nol iendei one and vice veisa. This couId le pail of a slialegv
of suipiise lv lhe leiioiisl oiganisalions lul il is noie IikeIv a iefIeclion of
lhe haphazaid and chaolic svslen of conpeling leiioiisl oiganisalions. This
is especiaIIv liue of lhe IaIeslinian silualion. The Sii Lankan and Chechen
diIennas aie easiei lo disenlangIe lecause lhev Iack lhe conpIex
peivasiveness vhich chaiacleiises lhe IsiaeI/IaIesline confIicl. Tvo sels of
nolivalions viII le exanined: lhose of lhe individuaIs vho voIunleei foi
such opeialions, and lhe nolivalions of lhe oiganisalions lhal can le diiven
lv diffeienl faclois al diffeienl lines, fion lhe ieIigious lo lhe nalionaIisl lo
lhe poIilicaI.


11
P.Wilkinson, Terrorism versus Democracy, p.219
2005] Suicide Terrorism 119

5urvcv nf suIcIdc tcrrnrIsm

FIgurc 1
97%
3%
Total attacks
Suicide attacks

FIgurc 2
48%
52%
Deaths from non-suicide
terrorist attacks
Deaths from suicide terrorism
As a node of opeialion, suicide lonling has pioved lo le veiv successfuI if
success is neasuied lv lhe nunlei of casuaIlies infIicled on lhe laigel.
Accoiding lo lhe US Depailnenl of Slale 1983-2OO1
12
suicide allacks
anounled lo jusl 3° of aII lolaI leiioiisl allacks and 48° of lolaI dealhs. The
nunlei of suicide allacks has incieased sleadiIv ovei lhe pasl decade and
nov nanifesl lhenseIves in eveiv conlinenl. The iise of suicide lonling is
especiaIIv significanl given lhal lhe lolaI nunlei of leiioiisl incidenls
voiIdvide feII duiing lhe peiiod fion 666 in 1987 lo 348 in 2OO1
13
. So-caIIed

12
cited in R.Pape 2003. Further information available at US Department of State www.state.gov.
13
U.S.Department of State, Patterns of Global Terrorism 2001, www.state.gov
120 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:115

¨second geneialion¨
14
oi liansnalionaI allacks oulside lhe innediale aiea of
confIicl aie a faiiIv iecenl deveIopnenl. The LTTL assassinaled Iiine
Minislei Rajiv Candhi in TaniI Nadu, India in 1991, and in 1992 and 1994
lonleis Iinked lo HezloIIah caiiied oul allacks in Aigenlina. The Lgvplian
oiganisalions aI Canal as IsIanva and aI Iihad aI IsIani have conducled
allacks oulside Lgvpl in lolh Cioalia and Iakislan. The aI-Oaeda nelvoik
allacked US enlassies in Kenva and Tanzania 1998, lhe USS CoIe 2OOO and
Nev Yoik Cilv 2OO1. In lhe fiisl six nonlhs of 2OO4 suicide allacks have aIso
occuiied in Saudi Aialia, Iakislan, Sii Lanka, IsiaeI, Uzlekislan and Russia.
The dispiopoilion lelveen lhe nunlei of suicide allacks and lhe nunlei of
falaIilies lhev iesuIl in is niiioied in lhe dispule ovei lhe Occupied
Teiiiloiies. Suicide allacks accounled foi Iess lhan 1° of aII IaIeslinian
allacks since Seplenlei 2OOO, vel aInosl 44° of aII IsiaeIi casuaIlies veie
kiIIed in such allacks
15
. The dealh and injuiv figuies as a iesuIl of suicide
lonling aie aslounding. Aside fion lhe Seplenlei 11
lh
allacks vheie a
handfuI of suicide leiioiisls nanaged lo kiII ovei lhiee lhousand peopIe, a
singIe ieguIai allack can cIain anvvheie fion 1 lo 1OO Iives. The aliIilv of
lhe lonlei lo infiIliale a lus oi naikelpIace and delonale hinseIf al lhe
nosl IelhaI nonenl aIIovs suicide leiioiisls lo infIicl casuaIlies on a
nassive scaIe. Chiis OuiIIen
16
poinls oul lhal in facl suicide lonlings do nol
iesuIl in significanlIv noie dealhs lhan olhei lvpes of leiioiisl allack.
Hovevei, lhev do lend lo occui in cIusleis oi vaves so lhe cunuIalive effecl
lolh in leins of line fiane and occasion adds lo lheii IelhaI and desliuclive
naluie.

Tvo of lhe nosl inpoilanl findings lv Iape
17
aie fiislIv, lhal lhe najoiilv of
suicide allacks aie pail of a Iaigei canpaign and occui in cIusleis ialhei
lhan as isoIaled oi iandon allacks. Theie aie sone poIilicaI evenls vhich aie
veiv IikeIv lo vilness suicide allacks. These incIude eIeclions, ninisleiiaI
visils and peace negolialions. Oulside and aiound lhese evenls suicide
allacks can occui foi anv ieason e.g. ievenge, ielaIialion, oi foi no specific
ieason al aII, and againsl a viiluaIIv open-ended iange of laigels fion
eIeclion iaIIies, lo fasl food ieslauianls, cafes and luses, lo enlassies and
niIilaiv lases. In IaIesline nanv gioups using suicide lonleis opeiale.
Wilh diffeienl Ieadeiships, and diffeienl goaIs and nolivalions il is nol
aIvavs possilIe lo discein a singIe, Iaigei canpaign olhei lhan lhe laigeling
of IsiaeIis. The vaiious gioups oflen seen uniled onIv lv a connon enenv.

14
R.Gunaratna, ‘Suicide Terrorism: A Global Threat’ Janes Intelligence Review 20
th
November 2000
15
A.Moghadam ‘Palestinian Suicide Terrorism in the Second Intifada: Motivations and Organisational
Aspects’ Studies in Conflict and Terrorism vol.18, 1995, figures from Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs
www.mfa.gov.il
16
C.Quillen, ‘A Historical Analysis of Mass Casualty Bombers’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 2002
17
R.Pape, 2003.
2005] Suicide Terrorism 121

The confIicls in Sii Lanka and Chechnva invoIve fai fevei gioups so lhe
sepaialisl canpaigns appeai lellei oiganised on papei.

SecondIv, lhe nosl soughl aflei goaI is lhe vilhdiavaI of lhe laigel slale´s
niIilaiv foices fion lhe nalionaI honeIand foi lhe puisuil of seIf-
deleininalion. Lveiv allack since 198O has leen diiecled againsl a
denocialic slale. The fiisl suicide allack lv a non-slale gioup occuiied in
Decenlei 1981 vilh lhe lonling of lhe Iiaqi Lnlassv in ßeiiul in vhich
lvenlv-seven died and ovei a hundied veie vounded. In ApiiI 1983 lhe US
Lnlassv in ßeiiul, lecane lhe fiisl Weslein laigel lo le allacked lv suicide
lonleis leIonging lo HezloIIah
18
. Il vas on lhe 23
id
Oclolei of lhe sane
veai lhal suicide leiioiisn lecane of najoi concein foIIoving a lvin allack
vheie HezloIIah lIev up a luiIding housing US naiines in ßeiiul, kiIIing
241 and ninules Ialei allacked Iiench peacekeeping lioops, kiIIing fiflv-
eighl. Wilh a lolaI dealh loII on a singIe dav ieaching 3O1 il vas cIeai lhal
lhis node of opeialion vas falaIIv inciedilIv successfuI. The vilhdiavaI of
Aneiican and Iiench lioops fion Lelanon vas peiceived as a slialegic
success lv lhe gioups. The 1983 allacks caughl lhe allenlion of lhe LTTL in
Sii Lanka vho have lecone lhe Iaigesl and nosl sophislicaled pioponenls
of suicide leiioiisn. SlalislicaIIv lhe LTTL have caiiied oul lhe nosl nunlei
of allacks lul pose a snaIIei lhieal lo inleinalionaI peace and secuiilv
lecause lhev iesliain lheii aclivilv lo a geogiaphicaIIv defined aiea.

Theie is a posilive coiieIalion lelveen lhe deleiioialion of a poIilicaI
silualion and lhe incidence of suicide lonling. The suicide facloi in lhe
IaIeslinian leiioi canpaign has had slialegic ianificalions on lhe IsiaeIi-
IaIeslinian peace piocess. When ieIalions lelveen IsiaeI and IaIesline
deleiioiale lhe popuIaiilv of gioups such as Hanas
19
incieases
2O
, as can le
seen lhiough lhe suppoil of lheii candidales in nunicipaI, piofessionaI
associalions, chanleis of conneice and univeisilv sludenl eIeclions. The
decision lo use suicide lonling is lhe iesuIl of a caIcuIaled and ialionaI
piocess lv oiganisalions designed lo le of lenefil lo lheii gioup and ils
cause. This pienedilalion is exenpIified in lhe IaIeslinian sliuggIe vilh lhe
in|ifadas. Suicide allacks occuiied lhioughoul lhe in|ifadas lul lelveen lhen
aIso. In facl lhe nunlei of allacks incieased giealIv aflei lhe signing of lhe
OsIo Accoids and lhe Canp David laIks and lheie vas a pailicuIaiIv
ieIenlIess vave of allacks in 1996.


18
Also known as Islamic Jihad the group seeks the creation of an Islamic republic in Lebanon
19
Also known as the Islamic Resistance Movement, the group emerged from the Palestinian branch of the
Muslim Brotherhood in 1987.
20
see www.jmcc.org/opinionpoll
122 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:115

The LTTL
21
has a noie disceinalIe pallein of lehavioui. SpecificaIIv
laigeling senioi poIilicaI Ieadeis (aIlhough infIicling nassive civiIian Iosses
aIso), lhe oiganisalion has a veiv specific goaI (il is a sepaialisl novenenl)
aIlhough lheie is nov evidence of inleinaI fiaclion. Accoiding lo Yoian
Schveilzei
22
lhe LTTL have connilled noie suicide allacks lhan aII lhe
olhei oiganisalions conlined. When a suicide lonlei kiIIed IM Candhi in
1991, India vilhdiev ils peacekeepeis fion Sii Lanka. Iusl lvo veais Ialei
Iiesidenl Iienadasa vas kiIIed in lhe sane vav. Having assassinaled lvo
incunlenl slale Ieadeis lhe LTTL had nade an infanous inpiession and
peace laIks iesuned vilh nev Iiesidenl Kunaialunga vho cane lo povei
on a pIedge lo end lhe vai. When lhe peace laIks coIIapsed a veai Ialei in
1995 lhe LTTL iesuned lonling. The allacks conlinued unliI 2OO2 vhen,
aided lv Noivav, a ceasefiie vas signed and lhe goveinnenl lan on lhe
TaniI Tigeis vas Iifled. The iesuIl is a povei-shaiing agieenenl vheielv
lhe TaniI ninoiilv vouId have aulononv in lhe noilh and easl iegions. Il is
as vel uncIeai vhelhei lhe Ione suicide allack of IuIv 2OO4 is a signaI fion
lhe LTTL lo end lhe peace oi vhelhei il vas lhe inilialive of sone
naiginaIised individuaI/gioup. The Kuidish Woikei´s Iailv´s (IKK)
suicide leiioiisl aclivilv againsl Tuikev has leen noie shoil-Iived. Il caiiied
oul fifleen allacks, a fuilhei six veie inleicepled, lelveen Iune 1996 and
IuIv 1999, unliI lhe oiganisalion´s Ieadei AlduIIah OcaIan vas aiiesled and
senlenced lo dealh (Ialei connuled lo a Iife senlence). Suicide leiioiisn had
disappeaied unliI Novenlei 2OO3 vhen svnagogues, lhe ßiilish consuIale
and a ßiilish lank veie laigeled.

One of lhe nosl disluiling liends is lhal lheie need nol le a pioIonged
confIicl foi suicide lonlings lo occui. Il is nol necessaiv foi a gioup lo voik
ils vav lhiough lhe hieiaichv of avaiIalIe neans of allack lefoie iesoiling
lo suicide leiioiisn, noi is in necessaiv foi a socielv lo le fiuslialed oi
dispossessed foi a sulslanliaI peiiod of line lefoie ils nenleis legin lo
voIunleei lhenseIves. The viiluaIIv oveinighl appeaiance of suicide allacks
in Iiaq since 2OO3 suppoils lhis. IiediclalIv a Iaige spale of allacks occuiied
in lhe iun-up lo lhe handovei of soveieignlv lo lhe inleiin Iiaqi goveinnenl
on Iune 28
lh
2OO4, oflen on conseculive davs. Suicide leiioiisn is no Iongei
lhe laclic of Iasl iesoil il once vas, il is incieasingIv a laclic of fiisl iesoil.




21
The LTTE is a very sophisticated organisation with 8000-10000 combatants and a core of 3000-6000
trained fighters. It has an extensive overseas structure providing financial support, weapons procurement
through both legitimate and illegitimate arms trading and propaganda activities.
22
Y.Schweitzer, Suicide Terrorism: Development and Characteristics, www.ict.org.il
2005] Suicide Terrorism 123

5uIcIdc tcrrnrIst nrganIsatInns: a mcthnd In thcIr madncss?

Suicide leiioiisn is a lop-dovn, nol a lollon-up phenonenon.
IndividuaI nailvis in seaich of a Ieadei can le dangeious lul fai
Iess so lhan chaiisnalic Ieadeis capalIe of peisuading foIIoveis lo
iisk oi foifeil lheii Iives.´
23


Civen lhal lhe lhieal enanales fion oiganised gioups ialhei lhan
individuaI fanalics opeialing on lheii ovn inilialive, lhe funclion and
nolives of lhese gioups nusl le exanined. Il is inpoilanl lo nole al lhe
oulsel lhal suicide leiioiisn is nol lhe looI of onIv lhe divineIv incIined.
AIlhough ieIigious and secuIai oiganisalions lolh enpIov lhe lechnique
lhev aie lound lv diffeienl vaIue svslens. ReIigious oiganisalions lend lo
le noie indisciininale in lheii laigels since lheii aclions aie leIied lv a
leIief lhal lhev have hoIv juslificalion and nav even le peifoining a dulv.
AIso, vheieas secuIai oiganisalions appeaI lo a consliluencv conposed of
acluaI and polenliaI svnpalhiseis, ieIigious oiganisalions have a viiluaIIv
open-ended calegoiv of laigels. The concepl of nailvidon is nol, hovevei,
unique lo ieIigious failh.

The suivivaI of lhe leiioiisl oiganisalion viII aIvavs le ciilicaI in
deleinining lhe laclics il viII use. Suicide opeialions appeaI lo lhese gioups
foi a vaiielv of opeialionaI ieasons nol Ieasl lhe piaclicaIilv of lhe nelhod
and ils lechnicaI feasiliIilv. A cosl-lenefil anaIvsis shovs lhe efficiencv of
lhe laclic. The lechnoIogicaI sinpIicilv, cosl-effecliveness, conlioIIaliIilv of
consequences, lhe ease of avoiding defensive counlei-neasuies and ils
noiaIe loosling naluie conline lo nake il a popuIai node of allack. ßonls
can le consliucled fion conponenl pails such as annoniun niliale,
acelone and niliogen gIvceiine vhich aie faiiIv easiIv avaiIalIe. Suicide
lonleis can pIan lhe lining and exacl Iocalion nuch noie accuialeIv lhan a
lonlei vho aIso needs lo pIan an escape ioule. In lhis vav lhe suicide
lonlei can ieach pIaces lhal aie olheivise inaccessilIe lo lhose living lo
keep lhenseIves in lacl and can cause naxinun casuaIlies lv delonaling his
expIosive al lhe oplinun line. Adan DoInik and AnjaIi ßhallachaijee
24

concIuded lhal lecause of lhe Iov cosl of expIosives
25
lhe cosl-pei-casuaIlv
ialio of a suicide nission is noie favouialIe lhan olhei nodes of allack

23
Dershowitz p.33
24
A.Dolnik and A.Bhattacharjee, ‘Hamas: Suicide Bombings, Rockets or WMD?’ Terrorism and
Political Violence, vol.14, no.3 Autumn 2002
25
According to a recent invoice found by Israeli troops during Operation Defensive belonging to the al-
Aqsa Martyrs Brigade the shield, electrical components and chemical supplies for a suicide bomb cost
$150. ibid. p.21
124 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:115

(aIlhough lheie aie olhei associaled cosls such as paving nonev lo lhe
faniIies of lonleis).

AII leiioiisl oiganisalions aie nolivaled uIlinaleIv lv advancing lheii
poIilicaI agenda. To achieve lhis lhev seek lo use pulIic opinion lo
piessuiise decision-nakeis inlo suiiendeiing lo lheii denands. The panic
and leiioi ciealed lv a suicide lonling is innense lecause deleclion is so
difficuIl and lheie is lhe peiceived deleininalion of lhe lonlei. Conslanl
feai aIso neans lhal lheie is an inveise ieIalionship lelveen lhe fiequencv
of allacks and lhe feai of lhe laigel popuIalion, aIlhough lv line lhe laigel
has lecone lhis desensilised lhe silualion viII aIieadv le despeiale. A
ialionaI feai is lhe possiliIilv of leing lhe viclin of an allack piopoilionale
lo lhe acluaI IikeIihood. IiialionaI feai on lhe olhei hand leais no ieIalion lo
slalislicaI piolaliIilv. In lhis vav leiioiisn 'uses lhe viclin´s ovn
inaginalion againsl hin´
26
. The slialegv is lased on lhe pienise lhal if lhe
laigel Ioses ils sense of piopoilion il viII lecone unalIe lo funclion as a
socielv as a diiecl iesuIl of an undeinined sense of secuiilv and viII in luin
exeil piessuie on ils Ieadeis. This is in accoidance vilh lhe enpiiicaI
olseivalion lhal eveiv suicide allack lo dale has leen againsl a denociacv.

The sinc uua ncn foi a suicide opeialion is of couise a viIIing suicide lonlei.
If lhe naleiiaIs foi lhe consliuclion of lonls, vhelhei lhev aie in lhe foin
of a lodv suil oi a noloi vehicIe aie nol an olslacIe, lhen peihaps lhe sheei
nunleis of lonleis needed foi a gioup lo conslanlIv caiiv oul suicide
allacks couId le a slunlIing lIock. ¨I have aIvavs dieaned of a land of
nen alsoIule in lheii iesoIve lo discaid aII sciupIes.No pilv foi anvlhing
on eailh, incIuding lhenseIves, and dealh enIisled foi good and aII lhe
seivice of hunanilv¨ lhe anaichisl announces, lul aIas, ¨I couId nevei gel as
nanv as lhiee such nen logelhei¨
27
. Todav, lheie is an alsuid nunlei of
peopIe viIIing lo lecone suicide lonleis. Nasia Hassan
28
inleivieved lvo
hundied and fiflv voIunleeis, incIuding a Ieadei of lhe aI-Oassan ßiigades
(lhe niIilaiv ving of Hanas) vho ieveaIed ¨.il is easv foi us lo sveep lhe
slieels foi lovs vho vanl lo do a nailvidon opeialion. Iending off lhe
ciovds vho denand ievenge and ielaIialion and insisling on a hunan
lonl opeialion - lhal lecones oui liggesl piolIen¨.



26
ibid. Dr.B.Ganor
27
J.Conrad The Secret Agent A Simple Tale
28
N.Hassan, ‘An Arsenal of Believers: Talking to the “Human Bombs”’, The New Yorker 19 November
2001, in A.Moghadam ‘Palestinian Suicide Terrorism in the Second Intifada’ Studies in Conflict and
Terrorism p.69
2005] Suicide Terrorism 125

Iiofessoi Haiiison
29
desciiles lhe ieIalionship lelveen lhe leiioiisl
oiganisalion and lhe ieciuiled as one of 'nuluaI lenefil´ deiived fion a
'conliacl´. The foinei gels ils oljeclives pionoled and lhe voIunleei´s
idenlilv is confiined in lhe connunilv as a nailvi. As lhe individuaI
leiioiisl vouId nevei knov vhelhei lhe gioup has ieneged on lhe leins
sone gioups have lhe piaclice of naking videos, laking phologiaphs and
viiling Ielleis lo disliilule aflei lhe lonlei´s dealh. UnliI such line lhe
suicide lonlei is a 'Iiving nailvi´. The oiganisalion is Iikevise assuied lhal
an allack viII le caiiied oul. The gioup needs such connilnenl if lhe
slialegv is lo voik. Il needs lo nininise lhe iisks of faiIuie, exposuie and
lhe vasling of iesouices. AiieI Meiaii
3O
adds lhal lhe individuaI vouId find
lhis 'conliacl´ inpossilIe lo lieak lecause gioup piessuie and lhe iecoiding
of lhe videolape seaI his fale. To have a change of heail vouId anounl lo
leliavaI.

The conlioIIing ninds of lhe oiganisalions deleinine lhe oplinun lines foi
conducling allacks. If lhe lining is deened lo le hainfuI lo lheii ains lhen
lheie viII le fevei, if anv, suicide allacks. Duiing a deIicale peiiod of
poIilicaI negolialions such as a peace piocess oi if lheie is a piesence of
niIilaiv foices on foieign soiI, suicide leiioi can have piofound negalive
poIilicaI effecls. Ioi inslance, Hanas successfuIIv deIaved lhe
inpIenenlalion of lhe OsIo Accoids, HezloIIah vas successfuI in ils
canpaign lo expeI lhe nuIlinalionaI foice fion Lelanon, and lhe LTTL vas
successfuI in pienaluieIv leininaling lhe depIovnenl of Indian peace-
keeping lioops lo Sii Lanka in 1993 and in lhe poslponenenl of peace laIks.

The undeiIving leIief of lhese oiganisalions nusl le lhal lhev sland lo gain
noie lv using lhis laclic lhan nol. Conpaied vilh olhei aggiieved gioups
lhe IaIeslinian cause has succeeded in gelling ilseIf lo lhe lop of lhe
inleinalionaI agenda. Il is difficuIl lo inagine vilhoul lhe iiluaI suicide
allacks, and lhe coiiesponding feai, lhal lhe IaIeslinians vouId have lhe
voice lhev nov have. Hoffnan iighlIv olseives lhal ¨il is peihaps nol
enliieIv coincidenlaI, lhen, lhal eighleen nonlhs aflei Munich lhe ILO´s
Ieadei, Yassii Aiafal, vas inviled lo addiess lhe UN CeneiaI AssenlIv and
shoilIv afleivaids lhe ILO vas gianled speciaI olseivei slalus in lhal
inleinalionaI lodv. Indeed lv lhe end of lhe 197Os lhe ILO, a non-slale
acloi, had foinaI dipIonalic ieIalions vilh noie counliies (eighlv-six) lhan

29
M.Harrison, ‘An Economist Looks at Suicide Terrorism’ 5
th
June 2003 available at
www.securitymanagement.com/library/Suicide_Harrison0803.pdf
30
Prof.A.Merari, Director of the Political Violence Research Unit at Tel Aviv University. Taken from
radio discussion between Prof.Merari and Dr.Eyad Sarraj, founder and Director of the Gaza Community
Mental Health Programme, April 9
th
, 2002 www.npr.org/news/specials/suicidebombers
126 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:115

|did! IsiaeI (sevenlv-lvo). Il is doullfuI vhelhei lhe ILO couId have
achieved lhis success had il nol iesoiled lo inleinalionaI leiioiisn. Wilhin
foui veais a handfuI of IaIeslinian leiioiisls.had achieved vhal dipIonals,
slalesnen, Iollvisls and hunanilaiian voikeis had peisislenlIv liied and
faiIed lo do: focus voiId allenlion on lhe IaIeslinian peopIe and lheii
pIighl¨
31
.

Il is lhis 'caiiol-slick´ appioach vhich AIan Deishovilz
32
ciilicises foi lhe
conlinuing disposilion of gioups lo use suicide leiioiisn. His aigunenl is
pienised on lhe olseivalion lhal capiluIaling lo lhe denands of leiioiisls
sends lhen lhe nessage lhal lheii laclics voik. 'The success of leiioiisn
anvvheie lieeds leiioiisn eveivvheie
33
.´. His concIusion foi lhe lesl vav
of conlaling leiioiisn is lo le alsoIule in lhe iesoIve nol lo concede lo anv
of lhe leiioiisls´ denands so Iong as lhev chose lo conducl such opeialions.
The Ialesl LTTL allack in Sii Lanka in IuIv 2OO4, lhe fiisl such allack in lvo
veais, Iends ciedence lo lhe facl lhal once leiioiisls leIieve lhis slialegv is
successfuI in gaining giound faslei lhan dipIonalic, peacefuI neans lheie is
no guaianlee lhev viII nol puII oul a loken allack lo keep lheii laigels on
lheii loes. Taigel slales aie afiaid lo concede lo leiioiisl denands lecause
undeislandalIv lhev do nol vanl lo send lhe nessage lhal leiioiisn voiks.
Thus lhe pIighls of lhe peopIes conlinue and in luin feed lhe leiioiisls vilh
iipe voung ninds and lodies lo coiiupl. Slales shouId nol le iesponding lo
Iegilinale giievances lecause of leiioiisn, lhev shouId le iesponding in
spile of il. The leiioiisls nusl le caived avav fion lhe popuIalion lhev
leIieve lhev iepiesenl.

IndIvIdua! suIcIdc bnmbcrs

As eaiIv as 1986 lhe Chanaian iepiesenlalive in a Secuiilv CounciI delale
viseIv poinled oul lhal '.lhe inleinalionaI connunilv, incIuding lhe
|Secuiilv! CounciI, nusl sunnon lhe necessaiv poIilicaI viII lo deIve inlo
lhe ieasons vhv lhe fiuslialions of lhe dispossessed aie venled in lhis
nannei. A gIil condennalion of leiioiisn aIone, vilhoul a scienlific and
inpailiaI sludv of ils oiigins viII nol, ve aie afiaid, eiadicale lhe
phenonenon´
34
. The lhieal lo inleinalionaI peace and secuiilv slens as
nuch fion viIIing suicide voIunleeis as fion lhe oiganisalions vhich use
lhen. So is il possilIe lo piofiIe lhe suicide lonlei` To anaIvse aII lhe
faclois vhich couId possilIv infIuence lhe decision lv soneone lo kiII

31
B.Hoffman, Inside Terrorism , p.75
32
A.Dershowitz Why Terrorism Works 2002
33
ibid. p.186
34
UN Document s/pv.2655/Corr.1, 18.02.86 p.31, www.un.org
2005] Suicide Terrorism 127

lhenseIves in lhe piocess of kiIIing olheis is levond lhe scope of lhis papei
given lhe inheienl suljeclivilv invoIved in such as assessnenl, lul suicide
lonleis aie ceilainIv as nuch a pioducl of lhe socielies and nvlhs lhev
giev up vilh as lhe ¨popuIai-cuIluie heio-voiship¨ lhev nov find
lhenseIves in.

Ofei Cioslaid
35
suggesls lhal lhose vho connil 'nuidei-suicide´ have a
psvchoIogicaI desiie lo le al one vilh lhe enenv, a foin of unificalion:
'Nov lhev aie equaI lo lhe enenv, shaiing one fale´.in dealh lhev have
allained equaIilv. The '.aggiession is diiecled lolh al lhenseIves and lhe
enenv, lhev veain foi enneshnenl vilh lhe enenv and Iack lhe viII oi
aliIilv lo sepaiale fion hin´
36
. The lvo necessaiv psvchoIogicaI condilions
foi suicide lonling eneige vhen lheie is a viIIingness lo kiII and a
viIIingness lo die. A Iong-lein counlei-suicide leiioiisn slialegv viII onIv
le successfuI if il ienoves oi ieduces lhe incenlives vhich encouiage
individuaIs lo voIunleei foi suicide allacks.

PrnfI!Ing thc 5uIcIdc Bnmbcr

A sludv lv Iosl, Spinzak and Dennv
37
ieveaIs fion lhe vievpoinl of
ieIigious and secuIai leiioiisls lheii cenliaI infIuences. Sonevhal
unexpecledIv lhe faniIv lackgiounds of lhe suljecls vaiied videIv and did
nol naleiiaIIv infIuence lheii decision of vhelhei lo join lhe gioup. The
singIe nosl infIuenliaI facloi vas lheii sociaI enviionnenl. As ieIigion,
socielaI appiovaI and schooIs veie highIighled as leing of najoi infIuence
lhese viII le consideied in luin.

Rc!IgInn: Onc man's suIcIdc bnmbcr Is annthcr man's martvr?

´|s|an cannc| cxp|ain |nc ac|icns cf |nc suicidc nijac|crs. jus| as Cnris|iani|u cannc|
cxp|ain |nc gas cnanocrs. Ca|nc|icisn |nc ocnoing a| Onagn. Tncu arc ac|s ocucnd
oc|icf. rc|igicus oc|icf. ou pccp|c unc |cng agc aoandcncd |nc pa|n cf |s|an.´
38


WhiIsl il cannol le aigued lhal pailicuIai ieIigions pionole oi suppoil lhe
kiIIing of civiIians il is undoulledIv a facl lhal nanv hisloiicaI and

35
O.Grasbad, Israel on the Couch
36
ibid, p.177
37
J.Post, E.Sprinzak and L.Denny, The Terrorists in Their Own Words: Interviews with 35 Incarcerated
Middle Eastern Terrorists Terrorism and Political Violence 2003
38
Z.Sardar ‘When the innocent are murdered, we all go into the dark with them’ The Observer, 16
th

September 2001
128 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:115

conlenpoiaiv leiioiisl gioups evidence a sliong ieIigious conponenl
39
. The
infIuence of lhe ieIigious inleipielalion of giealIv infIuenliaI and chaiisnalic
Ieadeis on vuIneialIe and oflen despeiale popuIalions cannol le
undeieslinaled. Lven lhough il is a ninoiilv of lhe ieIigious connunilv
lhal espouse fanalicaI leIiefs, lhe effecls of lhe vioIence lhiough vhich lhev
nanifesl lhenseIves aie feIl fai and vide. As noled lv Hoffnan
4O
, lhe
piesence of a ieIigious inpeialive vheie vioIence is seen as sone soil of
divine dulv oflen Ieads lo giealei lIoodshed and desliuclion lhan lhal
connilled lv secuIai leiioiisls vho aie lound lv a diffeienl vaIue svslen.
Ioi lhe Iallei gioups consensus and suppoil aie oflen piinaiv oljeclives, as
conliasled vilh ieIigious gioups vho lend lo concein lhenseIves vilh
appeaIing onIv lo lheii ovn connunilv. SecuIai oiganisalions aie noie
IikeIv lo laigel significanl individuaIs lo nake a pailicuIai slalenenl
vheieas ieIigious oiganisalions have a nuch videi calegoiv of laigels.
AIlhough ieIigion piovides a usefuI noliIisalion looI foi sone gioups lhe
piincipaI juslificalion of vioIence nav le a cuIluiaI and hisloiicaI peiceplion
of viclinisalion.

Il is nol possilIe lo addiess an individuaI´s nolivalion lo caiiv oul suicide
lonling conpIeleIv vilhoul discussing ieIigious nolivalion and
pailicuIaiIv IsIan, vhelhei lhe juslificalion is pienised on a nisguided
leIief oi nol. Il has oflen leen said lhal lo die foi one´s failh is lhe highesl
foin of vilness lo Cod. The Cieek void nar|ur neans vilness, as does lhe
Aialic void snanid. Aside fion lhe nodein dav confIicls invoIving
MusIins, suicide allacks aIso occuiied in lhe eighleenlh cenluiv in lhiee
MusIin connunilies in lhe Indian Ocean iegion: MaIalai Coasl of Soulh
Weslein India, Aljeh in Noilhein Sunalia and Mindanao and SuIu in lhe
Soulhein IhiIippines. Accoiding lo ieIigious lexl lhe fiisl acl of nailvidon
vas docunenled lhiileen cenluiies ago vhen lhe Iiophel Muhannad died
Ieaving lhe MusIin connunilv vilhoul a Ieadei. A caIiph, a lenpoiaiv
aulhoiilv lo guide lhe connunilv, vas seIecled lul unsuipiisingIv ieIigion
gave vav lo poIilics and vilhin foilv veais nuneious caIiphs had nanaged
lo assassinale lheii vav lo povei. IsIan had divided inlo oilhodox Sunnis,
vho accepled lhe ieign of lenpoiaI Ieadeis, and Shiiles vho leIieved lheii
Inans (Ieadeis) veie lhe descendenls of Muhannad. The IsIanic docliine
of nailvidon vas capluied in lhe aclion of Inan Hussein, lhe giandson of
Iiophel Muhannad in 68OAD. He, and his sevenlv oi so foIIoveis, faced a

39
None of the 11 identifiable terrorist groups in 1968 could be classified as religious, in the 90s at least
20% of the 50 known terrorist groups can be described as having a dominant religious component or
motivation from B.Hoffman, “Holy Terror”: The Implications of Terrorism Motivated by a Religious
Imperative’ Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol.18 1995
40
ibid. Hoffman
2005] Suicide Terrorism 129

foui-lhousand sliong ainv of veII-equipped soIdieis knoving lhal il vouId
cosl hin his Iife. The acl svnloIised a supiene viIIingness lo sulnil lo lhe
viII of AIIah and has lecone a paiadign foi Shi´a lheoIogv and spiiiluaIilv,
vhich has a pailicuIaiIv poveifuI nailvidon liadilion.

When nailvidon vas adopled lv lhe IaIeslinians in lhe 199Os lheie vas
lienendous delale lelveen IaIeslinian schoIais of ¨HoIv Wai¨. Suicide is
foilidden lv IsIan as an acl of veakness and offence, since aII Iife leIongs
lo AIIah and is nol foi noilaIs lo lake. Di. Hanza Muslafa, Head of Shaii´a
CoIIege al aI-Ouds Univeisilv and a nenlei of lhe IeiusaIen lased
Supiene IsIanic CounciI, is of lhe opinion lhal suicide is alsoIuleIv
piohililed: ¨AIIah has deleinined lhal vhoevei connils suicide viII end
up in HeII. Il is cIeai lhal suicide is unieseivedIv piohililed lecause his souI
is nol his piivale piopeilv lul leIongs lo AIIah. Theie aie lhose vho leIieve
lhal vhen suicide is connilled as pail of an acl of vai againsl lhe enenv, il
is nol foilidden, lul nosl leIieve lhal suicide is piohililed in anv case¨
41
.
ConveiseIv, lheie is a Iaige schooI of lhoughl lhal IsIan juslifies suicide
opeialions lhiough nailvidon vhich is lhe specific saciifice of lhe seIf foi a
nolIe cause and in fuilheiance of lhe viII of Cod. Sheikh Iliahin Madhi al a
seinon in Caza on 3
id
Augusl 2OO1 announced lhal ¨lhe Koian is veiv cIeai
on lhis: lhe giealesl enenies of lhe IsIanic nalion aie lhe Ievs, nav AIIah
fighl lhen.The peopIe vho aie lhe nosl hosliIe lovaid lhe leIieveis aie
lhe Ievs and lhe IoIvlheisls.Nolhing viII delei lhen excepl foi us
delonaling ouiseIves in lheii nidsl¨
42
. The inan of AI Azhai, lhe highesl
aulhoiilv in Sunni IsIan affiined lhal IaIeslinian iesislance is a foin of
Iegilinale jinad and nol leiioiisn
43
. The inleipielalion of lhe Koian and
nadi|n cIeaiIv vaiv depending on lhe souice ciled and even if one accepls
lhal nailvidon is a nolIe lhing lhis does nol equale lo acquiescing in lhe
kiIIing of innocenl civiIians. The poiliavaI of lhe IsiaeI/IaIesline sliuggIe in
equaIIv unconpionising leins fealuies in exlienisl Iudaisn. In ApiiI 1997
a Ievish Ralli announced lhal 'Suicide duiing vailine is peinissilIe foi
lhe sake of lhe vicloiv of IsiaeI. A nan vho voIunleeis foi such opeialions
viII le caIIed a heio and a nailvi´
44
. These soils of incilefuI slalenenls aie
unneivingIv connon and pailicuIaiIv infIuenliaI consideiing lhe ioIe of
cIeiicaI aulhoiilv in sanclioning leiioiisl opeialions. The fickIe inleipielive
expediencv dispIaved lv a seclion of ieIigious Ieadeis in sone pIaces shouId
Ieave lhe enliie ieIigious connunilv eveivvheie ieeIing.

41
Ha’aretz, January 23
rd
1995, taken from R.Israeli A Manual of Islamic Fundamentalist Terrorism 2002
42
A.Moghadam Palestinian Suicide Terrorism in the Second Intifada p.65 Studies in Conflict and
Terrorism 2003
43
The Jordan Times April 21
st
2004
44
p.105 B.Hoffman Sunday Times 13
th
April 1997
130 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:115


ReIigion is essenliaI in lhis conlexl as il foins pail of an individuaI´s idenlilv
and infoins his/hei leIief and vaIue svslen. MoiaI iesliainl and consliainl
aie in luin lied inlinaleIv vilh lhe aclions of an individuaI and vhelhei
(s)he consideis hinseIf juslified lo lehave in a nannei videIv peiceived as
levond lhe paIe. This is nol an exeicise of apoIogia. Il is hovevei, an allenpl
lo sliess lhal vilhoul undeislanding vhal iighlIv oi viongIv leIies a nan´s
aclion one cannol expecl lo cuil il effecliveIv.

Thc Imµnrtancc nf 5ncIa! Aµµrnva!

The vaIue of socielaI appiovaI is appaienl in lhe connunilies vhich
nanifesl suicide leiioiisn. In lolh IaIeslinian socielv and TaniI socielv
suicide lonleis aie gIoiified and haiIed as nailvis, lo ieIigion in lhe fiisl
case and lo lhe 'cause of lhe peopIe´, and lo lhe Ieadei hinseIf in lhe second.
In lhe cuIl-Iike LTTL VeIupiIIai Iialhakaian connands fieice IovaIlv and is
voishipped lo aInosl deilv-slvIe piopoilions. Indeed, IuIv 5
lh
is ceIelialed
as lhe Dav of lhe ßIack Tigeis (lhe anniveisaiv of lhe fiisl suicide allack
caiiied oul lv 'Caplain´ MiIIei vho kiIIed foilv Sii Lankan soIdieis in 1987)
vhen a nunlei a ceienonies aie peifoined incIuding honouiing lhe
faniIies of suicide lonleis and pulIicising lhe deeds of lhe ßIack Tigeis
(Karunpu|iga|). IopuIalions undei sliess have a lendencv of incieased gioup
affiIialion vhich affoids confoil, suppoil and seIf-vaIidalion and heighlen
sociaI cohesion and lhe acceplance of gioup oljeclives. A lIend of gioup
appiovaI and lhe feai of iejeclion encouiage confoinilv.

The econonisl Iiofessoi Maik Haiiison
45
leIieves lhal iesliicled
oppoilunilies foi nen nake lhen noie vuIneialIe lo offeis fion leiioiisl
oiganisalions giving lhen a pIace in connunilv hisloiv foi lhenseIves and
lheii faniIies. 'A leiioiisl faclion lhal conpeles foi povei in a connunilv
vhich is lolh oppiessed and oppiessive piovides voung peopIe vilh an
incenlive lo invesl in an idenlilv lhal is iendeied noie vaIualIe lv dealh´
46
.
Iiofessoi Haiiison suggesls lhal idenlilv is kev, vilhoul vhich one cannol
undeilake nanv of lhe sociaI inleiaclions vhich give oui Iives vaIue. In
pailicuIai ciicunslances an idenlilv nav le nade noie vaIualIe lv dealh
and devaIued lv Iife. Lach peison´s idenlilv is unique lecause of lhe
vaiialion in individuaI ciicunslances and lecause each peison´s choice is
infIuenced lv choices olheis have aIieadv nade. ßecause oi in spile of lhese
vaiialions, an idenlilv is a veiv piecious, enliieIv peisonaI lhing, and if
danaged oi deslioved il Ieaves a sense of iiiepIacealIe Ioss. Lach peison

45
op.cit M.Harrison 2003
46
ibid. M.Harrison
2005] Suicide Terrorism 131

vho chooses dealh of lhe seIf does so lecause al lhe given nonenl dealh
viII nainlain hei nosl vaIualIe assel, i.e. lhe idenlilv lhal she has seIecled
and invesled in lhiough hei Iife, lul Iiving on viII danage il iiiepaialIv.
Young peopIe aIieadv go lhiough a Iong piocess of painfuI choices lo
acquiie lheii aduIl idenlilies. In lhe fiaughl piocess of choosing lhev nav
seIecl incoiieclIv, oi choose one lased on incoiiecl oi Iiniled infoinalion.

Theie is no singIe piofiIe of a suicide lonlei. IeopIe fion aII lackgiounds,
of lolh sexes, of vaiving ages have voIunleeied lhenseIves foi a suicide
nission. Iuilheinoie, fion a psvchoIogicaI poinl of viev lhev have IillIe in
connon. Theie nusl hovevei, le sone connon denoninaloi vilhin lhis
gioup of peopIe lhal nakes onIv sone and nol aII nenleis of a popuIalion
voIunleei lhenseIves. AIlhough nanv peopIe expiess a viIIingness lo
connil such an acl onIv sone peopIe lecone suicide lonleis, nanv
leIieve lhev viII go lo paiadise vel onIv a fev lake lhe lask in hand. A iadio
discussion
47
lelveen AiieI Meiaii and Lvad Saiiaj cIeaied up connon
nisconceplions and ieveaIed sone inleiesling poinls. AiieI Meiaii has
inleivieved gaoIed vouId-le lonleis and lheii liaineis and has concIuded
lhal lhe sociaI and pulIic alnospheie is a najoi facloi in lheii ciealion.
Chiislianilv, IsIan and Iudaisn aII condenn suicide unIess il is foi
ideoIogicaI ieasons oi foi a sociaIIv appioved cause vheieupon lhev ieceive
honoui ialhei lhan pilv. Lvad Saiiaj has sludied IaIeslinian lonleis and
vouId-le lonleis and has concIuded lhal none of his suljecls vas nenlaIIv
iII oi psvchopalhoIogicaI, and noi did lhev fil lhe iisk faclois foi suicide as
geneiaIIv agieed lv psvchialiisls and psvchoIogisls. He is of lhe opinion lhal
lheii nolive is iooled in liauna caused lv sliess, peihaps as an indiiecl
iesuIl of an injuied falhei oi liolhei in lhe fiisl in|ifada (1988-93) oi lhe dealh
of a fiiend oi ieIalion in lhe piesenl lioulIes. This conlined vilh house
denoIilions, lhe vilnessing of paienlaI lealings, huniIialion lv lhe ainv
and lhe vioIence in geneiaI vouId iesuIl in liauna
48
.

A second ieIaled nolive is ievenge in lhe nane of faniIv honoui and
dignilv, lolh of vhich aie cenliaI in Aial psvchoIogv. The faiIuie lo lake
ievenge foi a viong Ieads lo shane, a shane lhal Aials have feIl lecause
lhev have leen unalIe lo defeal IsiaeI since 1948. Saiiaj aIso suggesls lhal
IaIeslinian voung peopIe nav le ieleIIing againsl aII foins of inposed
aulhoiilv incIuding lhal of faniIv and leachei. Thev nav le dispIacing onlo
IsiaeIis lheii unacceplalIe expiession of angei al lhe adveise ciicunslances
of lheii Iives. Ioi exanpIe, lhe lehavioui of angiv, exhausled falheis,

47
www.npr.org April 9
th
2002
48
see The Jordan Times June 2
nd
2004: ‘Trauma soaring among children – UN’ about children losing all
sense of normalcy UNWRA has released fresh statistics on children and intifada
132 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:115

leacheis vho veie sliicl discipIinaiians oi an IsIanic cuIluie lhal can
denand alsoIule conpIiance. Thev dispIace lheii angei onlo a sociaIIv
Iegilinale foci i.e. lhe occupving foice, in lhis case IsiaeI. Cioving up in an
aulhoiilaiian socielv iendeis lhe individuaI confoilalIe vilh dognalic,
unequivocaI opinions and an incapacilv lo deaI vilh choices (lhis
olseivalion fils veII vilh lhe econonisls lheoiv). The conlinalion of
ieIigious and oiganisalionaI faclois nakes lhis a highIv conpIex
phenonenon.

Anolhei inleiesling finding lv Saiiaj and one lhal has videi poIilicaI
ianificalions is lhal lheie is an inveise ieIalionship lelveen suicide
lonling and hope. IopuIai suppoil foi suicide opeialions faIIs vhen lhe
popuIalion is hopefuI of peace lul if il is in despaii lhen suppoil iises.
AppiovaI IeveIs foi allacks vaiv dianalicaIIv in iesponse lo lhe changes in
lhe poIilicaI cIinale, foi exanpIe, in lhe eaiIv davs of lhe OsIo Ieace Iiocess
IeveIs of suppoil veie Iov
49
.

Il is a nisconceplion lhal aII suicide lonleis aie naIe aIlhough lhe vasl
najoiilv of IaIeslinian suicide lonleis aie. Men aie pie-seIecled lv gendei
lo sone exlenl, as anvvheie in lhe voiId nen connil noie vioIenl ciine
lhan vonen and have a highei suicide iale. The secuIai gioups in lhe
MiddIe Lasl use vonen lul nol in equaI nunleis lo nen. In conliasl, lhe
LTTL uses vonen in 3O-4O° of ils opeialions and lhe suicide leiioiisl secl of
lhe Chechen 'ßIack Widovs´ conpiises enliieIv of fenaIes
5O
. Wilh lhe LTTL
and IsIanisl gioups lheie have leen suggeslions lhal vonen, fiuslialed
vilh lheii ioIes in socielv, nav le living lo piove lheii equaIilv vilh nen
and inciease lheii sociaI slalus, oi lo foIIov a palh diffeienl fion a
liadilionaI one in a paliiaichaI cuIluiaI fiane. Thev have nisinleipieled
nuideis as acls of enancipalion, 'il is nol a slep foivaid in feninisn lul a
slep lackvaid foi hunanilv´
51
. Iion an oiganisalion´s slialegic peispeclive
lhe use of vonen can le used lo foslei a peiceplion of ullei despaii. Thev
alliacl Iess allenlion lhan naIes, can conceaI lhe expIosives undei lhe guise
of piegnancv and can expIoil lhe ieIuclance of socielies in lhe MiddIe Lasl
and Soulh-Lasl Asia lo lodv-seaich vonen.

49
According to the Centre for Policy and Survey research: in 1993 65% of Palestinians in the Occupied
Territories were in favour of Oslo, and 57% were prepared to amend the PLO’s national charter to
formally acknowledge Israel’s right to exist. In 2002 70% of Palestinians believed that Ariel Sharon’s
plan to withdraw from parts of the Gaza Strip and some settlements is not serious at all to somewhat not
serious (Poll No.51, www.jmcc.org.) At this time 63.1% of Palestinians polled supported to some extent
the use of suicide bombing operations.

50
for more on female suicide bombers see Clara Beyler at www.ict.org
51
Donnelly ‘The Suicide Sisterhood’’ National Review Online April 26
th
2002
2005] Suicide Terrorism 133


EducatInn: Thc Effccts nf IndnctrInatInn (Pa!cstInc)

In IaIesline a nuIli-nodaI indocliinalion of chiIdien enanales fion officiaI
nedia, schooIs and ieIigious souices lhal aII deIivei lhe sane nessage of
fieeing lhe Iand lv jinad lo iecIain 'IaIesline´ fion lhe 'Zionisl enlilv´
lhiough a vel of indocliinalion and piopaganda. Lven a cuisoiv Iook al lhe
velsile vvv.pnv.oig.iI ieveaIs lhe exlenl lo vhich lhe confIicl peivades
aII aspecls of eveivdav Iife via aII foins of nedia. The effecl of lhis on lhe
voung is cIeai fion lhe coIIaled slalislics of lhe IsiaeIi Defence Ioice (IDI)
and Hunan Righls Walch (HRW) Repoil of 3O
lh
Seplenlei 2OOO-31
sl
Augusl
2OO2: lhe IDI Iisled 125 suicide lonleis lelveen 18-24 veais oId, 6 undei 18
veais of age: HRW Iisled 6O
52
.

When Lgvpl and Ioidan occupied Caza and lhe Wesl ßank foIIoving lheii
allack on IsiaeI lexllooks veie ciealed vhich diev heaviIv fion lhose used
in Lgvpl and Ioidan
53
. These fIalIv denied IsiaeI lhe iighl of exislence. In
1967 vhen IsiaeI oveiian Caza and lhe Wesl ßank and adninisleied lhe
leiiiloiies lexllooks veie iepiinled and anli-IsiaeI incilenenl vas ienoved.
Iholocopies of lhe ediled oul seclions, conlinued lo le secielIv ciicuIaled in
schooIs. Indeed in UNWRA schooIs (Uniled Nalions Woiking Refugee
Associalion) lhe oiiginaI unediled lexls conlinued in use
54
.

When lhe IaIeslinian Aulhoiilv assuned aulononous conlioI of educalion,
as pail of lhe OsIo Accoids, lhe deIeled pails of lhe lexllooks veie
ieinslaled conlaining anli-IsiaeI naleiiaI. This ian conliaiv lo lhe OsIo

52
D.Burdman ‘Education, Indoctrination and Incitement: Palestinian Children on their Way to
Martyrdom’ Terrorism and Political Violence 2003 p.106
53
ibid.
54
The textbooks created by Egypt and Jordan include:
Palestinian National Education, p.67-68, For First Grade: poems to be learned by rote, ‘My Homeland’:
‘…The youth will not tire, They desire to be free or perish, We draw our water from death, And will not
be as slaves to the enemy’
Our Arabic Language, p.64-66 for Fifth Grade: ‘Know my son, that Palestine is your country…that its
pure soil is drenched with the blood of martyrs…’ Question: ‘Why must we fight the Jews and drive them
out of our land?’
Eighth Grade: Regarding the denigration of the Jews: ‘Racism: Mankind has suffered from this evil both
in ancient as well as modern times, for indeed Satan has, in the eyes of many people, made their evil
actions appear beautiful…Such a people are the Jews…’ (In Islamic Education, p.95)
These concepts are also used in Arabic language and grammar exercises for instance, ‘Determine what is
the subject, and what is the predicate, in the following sentence is: The jihad is a religious duty of every
Moslem man and woman’. (from, Our Arabic Language for 5
th
Grade, p.167). For further information on
textbooks see ‘Report: Palestinian Authority School Textbooks’ by the Centre for Monitoring the Impact
of Peace (CMIP).

134 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:115

Accoids and defied lhe funding iequiienenls sel lv sone LU slales
55
. In
Seplenlei 2OOO lhe IaIeslinian Aulhoiilv Minisliv of Lducalion CuiiicuIun
Connillee piesenled lhe fiisl of a seiies of lexllooks vhich conlain anli-
Senile incilenenl in a sullIei foin. Iuilheinoie, veilaI inpuls lv leacheis
convev a nessage vilhoul loo nuch incilefuI naleiiaI appeaiing in piinl.

IaIeslinian Media Walch, an independenl IsiaeIi NCO, has anaIvsed
nevspapeis and leIevision piogiannes lolh lefoie and since lhe slail of
lhe second in|ifada (slailing Sunnei 2OOO) vilh disluiling findings.
IaIeslinian leIevision has nassiveIv escaIaled lhe anounl of piogiannes
and cIips advocaling lhal chiIdien saciifice lheii Iives foi lhe jinad. Thev
even incIude ieinaclnenls shoving lhe Iife of lhe nailvi in lhe afleiIife.
ßeaiing in nind lhal sludies of fiIn and leIevision in lhe US indicale lhal lhe
vieving of vioIence incieases lhe IikeIihood of aggiessive and vioIenl
lehavioui lhis is a cause of olvious concein
56
.

Divoicing lhe nolivalions of lhe leiioi oiganisalions and lhose of lhe
individuaI lonleis is nol an easv piocess lecause lhev necessaiiIv oveiIap
as lhev aie a pioducl of lhe sane connunilv. Since a gioup is a coIIeclion of
individuaIs lhose chaiacleiislics vhich evidence lhenseIves in an individuaI
viII lo sone exlenl le appaienl in lhe nake-up of lhe gioup. The soIulion is
lo eiadicale inlense iaciaI and nalionaIisl piogianning one-dinensionaI
leIief svslens vilh an educalion svslen lhal pionoles peace and
ieconciIialion incIuding lhe leininalion of incilenenl, ie-educalion and de-
condilioning lo neuliaIise lhe effecls of Iong-lein condilioning.

CnuntcrIng suIcIdc tcrrnrIsm

´Mucn as pccp|c ucu|d |i|c |c oc|ictc |na| idcas |itc cr dic as a rcsu|| cf |ncir inncr
ncra| rcc|i|udc. pcucr na||crs a grca| dca|. Gcrnan fascisn didn´| cc||apsc occausc
cf i|s inncr ncra| ccn|radic|icns. i| dicd occausc Gcrnanu uas ocnocd |c ruoo|c and
cccupicd ou A||icd arnics.´
57


Suicide leiioiisn is a unique foin of leiioiisn. Loss is suffeied on lolh
sides: lv lhe viclins of lhe allack, and lheii faniIies, and lv lhe allackeis
lhenseIves, and lheii faniIies. If lhe viII lo eiadicale lhis devaslaling

55
13
th
October 2001, European Parliament passed Amendment no.177 which specifies that appropriations
for funding can only be used for ‘projects supporting peace, understanding, reconciliation and the
breaking down of hatred’.
56
H.W.Kushner, small children trade baseball type cards of suicide bombers, scientific studies suggest
that props similar to baseball cards can lead to imitative behaviour in children see ‘Suicide Bombers:
Business as Usual’ Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 1996
57
History and September 11 by Francis Fukuyama in Worlds In Collision 2002
2005] Suicide Terrorism 135

phenonenon is Iacking lhen lhis unificalion of giief nusl le lhe lesl souice
of lhal viII. Measuies againsl lhis foin of allack nusl le diiecled al lhe
leiioiisl oiganisalions and lhe pooI of polenliaI suicide lonleis. The foinei
can le deaIl vilh undei lhe unlieIIa of counlei-leiioiisn neasuies ieIaling
lo leiioiisn as a vhoIe. The ends of leiioiisl aclivilv of anv kind do nol
juslifv lhe neans.

Theie aie lvo Iines of defence
58
. The fiisl Iine is penelialion of lhe leiioiisl
gioup and lhe Iasl is lhe haidening of vuIneialIe and IikeIv laigels. Since il
is exlieneIv difficuIl lo counlei suicide allacks once lhe ained leiioiisl is on
his vav lo lhe laigel, lhe lesl defence is lo ensuie lhal he is nevei unIeashed.
The calch-22 of counlei-leiioiisn is lhal lhe counlei-leiioiisls iisk leing
peiceived as an aggiessoi. To guaid againsl lhis slales nusl le caiefuI nol lo
oveislale lheii case. Neilhei a soflIv-soflIv appioach noi iepelilive heavv
handed shovs of niIilaiv nighl aie appiopiiale. Ralhei a nuIli-discipIinaiv
fianevoik vhich deaIs vilh lhe nanv pailies invoIved coiiesponding vilh
lhe degiee of lheii invoIvenenl is caIIed foi. To oveicone leiioiisn ve have
lo undeisland ils poIilicaI naluie and aIso lhe lasic ciininaIilv and
psvchoIogv invoIved olheivise lheie is a veiv ieaI possiliIilv lhal lhe 'vai
on leiioiisn´ viII inpacl dispiopoilionaleIv on Iov-IeveI opeialois ialhei
lhan lhe conlioIIing ninds.

Il is an enpiiicaI facl lhal (suicide) leiioiisls laigel denociacies. The Iogic
lehind lhis is lhal lv aiousing enough feai vilhin lhe laigel´s doneslic
popuIalion, popuIai soveieignlv viII pievaiI and lhe goveinnenl viII le
foiced lo change ils poIicv oi face Iosing eIecloiaI suppoil. This juxlaposilion
of veslein covaidice and lhe couiage of suicide leiioiisls is connonIv
landied aloul lv spokesnen of lhe leiioiisl oiganisalions. The Iogic in nol
laigeling aulocialic slales nusl le lhal lviannicaI oi diclaloiship iegines
iide ioughshod ovei lhe hunan iighls of lheii popuIalion lhenseIves so lhal
aIlhough exleinaI acls of aggiession vouId le unveIcone anv upiising fion
lhe viclin popuIalion vouId le unIikeIv lo Iead lo a goveinnenlaI change in
poIicv. To defend againsl oi pievenl suicide lonlings enliieIv vouId
iequiie an inloIeialIe suspension of civiI iighls. Heiein Iavs lhe denocialic
diIenna: hov fai can lhe civiI Iileilies on vhich IileiaI denocialic slales
piide lhenseIves le juslifialIv saciificed lo pievenl Ioss of Iife` NeedIess lo
sav lhe iesponse of denocialic slales nusl le consliained lv lhe iuIe of Iav
and noiaI Iegilinacv. This is vhv ieaI Iong-lein change can onIv cone fion
vilhin lhe socielies vheie lhe leiioi oiganisalions lieed. LileiaI
denociacies cannol loIeiale videspiead poIicies lhal offend lheii hunan

58
Rohan Gunaratna ‘Suicide Terrorism: A Global Threat’ Janes Intelligence Review 2000
136 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:115

and civiI iighls so il is in lhe inleiesls of lhese socielies lo heIp lhose socielies
fion vhich suicide leiioiisn enanales. The denocialic iesponse nusl le:
'We viII cieale a voiId in vhich lhe seduclions of dealh hoId no aIIuie
lecause lhe lounlies of Iife aie accessilIe lo eveivone´
59
. The leiioiisl gioups
can le divided inlo lhe secl oi cuIl-Iike gioups vilh inciedilIv sliong
affiIialion and IovaIlv lo singIe Ieadei, e.g. lhe IKK and lhe LTTL, and
gioups vheie lhe enliie socielv, oi najoiilv lheieof, suppoils such allacks
e.g. Lelanon in lhe 198Os and IaIesline lodav. Allacks cone ¨fion lhe
peopIe, foi lhe peopIe¨. Iian is an exanpIe of change fion vilhin, foIIoved
peiiod of piofound disiIIusionnenl. ¨The vai lhal nusl le foughl is one
lhal desliovs, fion lhe inside oul.¨
6O
. If allacks aie lhe iesuIl of poIilicaI
despeialion and Iegilinale giievance lhen a poIilicaI iesponse is necessaiv, if
lhev aiise fion lhe depiavilv of individuaIs innune lo ieason lhen lhev
nusl le deaIl vilh as ciininaIs.

The confIicls vheie suicide leiioiisn has eiupled diffei loo giealIv foi lheie
lo le a unifoin appioach lo lackIing lhe issue lul lheie is co-opeialion
lelveen lhe speciaIIv affecled counliies. Indian Ioieign Minislei Iasvanl
Singh sliessed lhal lhe lhieal of leiioiisn lo India slielches ¨aII lhe vav
fion lhe Soulhein Caucasus lo Weslein China¨ and added lhal ¨vhiIe lhe
lvpes of leiioiisn faced in India and IsiaeI aie diffeienl, lheie is enough
siniIaiilv lo neiil joinl counlei-aclion¨
61
. The inleinalionaI connunilv is
iapidIv leconing Iess loIeianl of lhe inleinaI exliusion of confIicls vhich
has chaiacleiised lhe Iasl fev decades of inleinalionaI ieIalions. The Sii
Lankan case shovs lhal lhiid pailv aclois, in lhis inslance undei lhe
inilialive of Noivav, can le nosl usefuI in negolialions. Noivegian
dipIonal Liic SoIhein nedialed lelveen lhe pailies vhich iesuIled in a
ceasefiie vhich look effecl fion Ieliuaiv 2OO2. The LTTL has ienounced ils
denand foi a sepaiale TaniI honeIand and is piepaied lo sellIe foi TaniI
leiiiloiv and poIilicaI aulononv ovei lhe leiiiloiv il conlioIs vilhin a
fedeiaI svslen. Sone degiee of negolialion is alsoIuleIv essenliaI. A non-
negolialing slance lv laigel goveinnenls onIv Ieads lo deadIock and
pioliaclion of lhe confIicl.


59
Benjamin R.Barber ‘Democracy and Terror in the Era of Jihadis’, in Worlds in Collision p.256
60
Ali Ahmed Said, p.178 C.Reuter My Life is a Weapon 2004
61
R.Paz. In 2000 the President Putin of Russia visited India and signed a Declaration on Strategic
Partnership between Russia and India. In 2001 the two states signed the Moscow Declaration of Russia
and India on Combating International Terrorism where the states affirmed that international terrorism is a
threat to peace and security, a grave violation of human rights and a crime against humanity. On 6
th
June
2000 the Russian Interior Minister told a press conference that he had signed two protocols of co-
operation between the Russian Interior Ministry and the Israeli-law-enforcement bodies i.e. the General
Security Service and the Israel Police.
2005] Suicide Terrorism 137

The aliIilv of leiioi oiganisalions lo ieciuil ieIies on lheii capacilv lo
pionole lhe idenlilv of lhe nailvi lv suppIving lolh niIilaiv neans and
lhe neans of dislinclion in socielv. The veakening of an oiganisalion and
lhe ienovaI of financiaI neans aie of ciilicaI inpoilance. Moie aggiessive
occupalion onIv ieinfoices indiieclIv lhe sane aclivilies il is designed lo
cuilaiI. In leins of niIilaiv aclion IsiaeI has a poIicv of laigeled
assassinalions, house denoIilions, and a sepaialion vaII. Living condilions
vilhin lhe occupied leiiiloiies aie shanefuI. The Iav of occupalion
denands lhal lhe Occupving Iovei acl in lhe lesl inleiesl of lhe popuIalion
vhich il is occupving. Duiing lhe OsIo Ieace Iiocess Iiving slandaids had
diopped lv 4O° as a iesuIl of IsiaeIi cilv cIosuies and lhe excIusion of
IaIeslinian voikeis. The silualion has deleiioialed fuilhei since lhe second
in|ifada as a iesuIl of cuifevs, lIockades and house denoIilions. IoIicies
shouId onIv le foIIoved if lhev voik
62
. If il couId le pioved lhal
denoIishing lhe hones of suicide lonleis (vho have aIieadv connilled
lheii deed) seived as a deleiienl lo vouId-le lonleis lhen peihaps a case
couId le nade foi execuling such a schene lul lheie is no such evidence. In
facl, il seens onIv lo loIslei lhe iesoIve of lhe IaIeslinians as a socielv and of
lhe leiioiisl oiganisalions vho can offei lo fund ie-housing of lhe lonlei´s
faniIv lhus pioviding an incenlive.

The exlieneIv conlioveisiaI sepaialion vaII has leen juslified lv IsiaeI as
necessaiv lo pievenl fuilhei suicide allacks. Il is indeed liue lhal lheie has
leen a faII in nunlei of allacks vilhin IsiaeI piopei
63
and fion Caza,
aIlhough lhe leiioiisl oiganisalions consislenlIv vov lo ielaIiale againsl
IsiaeI´s laigeled assassinalions. In spile of ciilicisn fion lhe IsiaeIi Supiene
Couil and a pionouncenenl of iIIegaIilv fion lhe InleinalionaI Couil of
Iuslice, IsiaeI insisls on conlinuing lhe piojecl lo conpIelion (even lhough il
nav ievise lhe ioule lo conpIv vilh lhe IsiaeIi Supiene Couil findings lul
nol vilh lhe ICI vhich decided lhal il nusl nol inliude inlo lhe Wesl ßank
as lhis vouId aIIov IsiaeI lo annex Iand capluied in 1967.) IsiaeI´s olslinacv
iegaiding lhe palh of lhe vaII and non-negolialIe slance onIv adds lo lhe
inpiession lhal lhe poIicv is a snokescieen lo peinanenlIv annex Iand
vhich convenienlIv and coincidenlaIIv can le conceaIed undei lhe
pioleclionisl guise of pievenling suicide allacks.


62
Israeli military commanders in Lebanon had ordered that a minimum of two people occupy every
moving car in the occupied zone on the misassumption that suicide bombers would not kill unwitting
passengers.
63
No Israeli has been killed in a terrorist attack in an area with the security fence whereas 19 have been
killed and 102 injured where the fence is not yet complete. See www.adl.org/Israel/court_of_justice.asp
138 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:115

As veII as a counlei-leiioiisn slialegv ained al lhe oiganisalions ve nusl
idenlifv vavs of ienoving oi ieducing lhe incenlives lhal induce sone lo
voIunleei foi suicide nissions. We need lo eiadicale lhe pionolion
canpaign foi suicide leiioiisn, eIininale lhe leaching of hale and lhe
pionolion of vioIence. The piocess of ieciuilnenl, indocliinalion and
ieciuilnenl nusl le confionled al ils oiigin. Ioi exanpIe lheie shouId nol
le posleis of suicide lonleis pinned up in pulIic pIaces in oidei lo
nininise lhe 'Weilhei Lffecl¨ lv vhich suicide lonleis lecones idoIs
vhon olheis seek lo enuIale. MiIilanl nessages in lexllooks have leen
Iegilinised lv fiequenl iefeiences lo lhe Koian. Ioi lheii pail pioninenl
IsIanic cIeiics shouId slop lhe pieaching of lhe HoIv Wai in seinons al
nosques and shouId ieluin lo lhe concepl of lhe jinad as a sliiving in lhe
vav of Cod lo ieach a highei spiiiluaI IeveI. This is lhe dulv of MusIin
ieIigious Ieadeis eveivvheie. If lhe giass-iools aie viclins lhen lhev nusl le
deaIl vilh as such. Teiioi oiganisalions nusl nol le aIIoved lo feed off lheii
despeialion. This is of acule concein vilh gioups such as aI-Oaeda vhich is
paiasilic, goiging ilseIf on exisling confIicls and sliuggIes. Il is uniling a
dozen nalions lhal have nolhing in connon olhei lhan IsIan. The nedia is
used as a pIalfoin lo disseninale lhe nessage of lhe leiioiisl oiganisalions
and lo spiead feai, lolh of vhich aie vilaI if lhe oiganisalions aie lo succeed.
The nedia nusl lake noie iesponsiliIilv foi lhe inages il poiliavs and le
vaiv of acling as a vehicIe lv conveving inages vilhoul piopei expIanalion
lhal nav le unvillingIv shaping pulIic opinion lovaids one side of a
confIicl. HezloIIah´s connunicalions slialegies and opeialions, foi exanpIe,
have lecone veiv sophislicaled. Il undeislands veII lhe inpoilance of
iepoiling in IocaI and iegionaI nedia. As one of ils cuIluiaI iepiesenlalives
pul il, 'CNN is noie inpoilanl lhan aiipIanes´.
64


CONCLU5ION

Suicide lonleis aie nolivaled lv anv conlinalion of ieIigious, nalionaIisl,
peisonaI and psvchoIogicaI faclois. The iiialionaIilv of lhe acl slens fion
lhose individuaIs vho voIunleei foi such nissions ialhei lhan lhe gioups
foi vhon lhev opeiale. The leiioiisl oiganisalions lhenseIves go lhiough a
noie ialionaI piocess. Thev chose suicide lonling as a laclic lecause of ils
cosl-effecliveness and nassive psvchoIogicaI inpacl upon lhe laigel
audience. ßv deliIilaling lhe socielv vhon lhev allack lhev leIieve lheii
denands viII le nel. AIlhough lhev shaie sone of lhe sane nolivalions as
lhe suicide lonleis, lhev aie in addilion diiven lv opeialionaI and laclicaI
consideialions. The oiganisalion viII uIlinaleIv adopl lhe lechnique vhich

64
Malek Wabdeh a Hezbollah cultural representative in C.Reuter My Life Is A Weapon p.73
2005] Suicide Terrorism 139

il leIieves viII nosl effecliveIv and efficienlIv coeice lhe laigel lo conpIv.
The nosl voiiving nev liend is lhe appeaiance of suicide lonling in
counliies vilhin vhich lheie is no confIicl lelveen anv lvo pailicuIai
pailies, foi exanpIe Saudi Aialia, and lhe lendencv of exleinaI gioups lo
caiiv oul allacks on lehaIf of an undefined connunilv, foi exanpIe aI-
Oaeda and ils associaled gioups. AIso, lhe facl lhal suicide lonlings
appeaied in Iiaq so quickIv iIIusliales lhal a pioliacled confIicl is nol a
necessaiv piecondilion and noi do despeialion IeveIs need lo le acule.

So is lhis a case of vinning lhe lallIe lul Iosing lhe vai oi has suicide
leiioiisn shifled lhe laIance of povei in lhe favoui of veakei gioups` Ioi
lheii pail lhe suicide lonleis of IaIesline seen lo have saluialed lhe shock
facuIlv of lheii laigel. The iesponse of lheii viclins is of appaI and disgusl
ialhei lhan svnpalhv lovaids a peopIe vho nusl le so hopeIess lhal lhev
aie viIIing lo kiII lhenseIves. Theie is no evidence lo suggesl lhal suicide
leiioiisn in ilseIf voiks lellei lhan olhei foins of leiioiisn insofai as laigel
lehavioui is conceined, aIlhough adnilledIv lhe use of suicide lonling has
diavn allenlion lo lhe pIighls of peopIes faslei lhan anv olhei foin of
iesislance vouId have done. Theie is ceilainIv sone fauIl-Iine in socielv lhal
cieales a posilive ieluin lo poIilicaI vioIence. Il is liue lhal sone laigels aie
easiei lo ieach vhen no escape ioule is needed and lhe nunlei of falaIilies
infIicled can le nuch giealei vhen lhe licking lonl can vaIk inlo a Iaige
ciovd and delonale ilseIf, lul has lhe cuIluie of dealh leen voilh lhe gain
affoided lo lhe 'cause´` Have lhe IaIeslinians lelleied lheii cuiienl silualion
noie lhan lhev vouId have done if lhev used onIv non-suicidaI foins of
allack` Have lhe TaniIs achieved lhe sepaialisl honeIand lhev have sliived
decades foi` Aie lhe Chechens having lheii needs addiessed lecause lhev
aie lIoving lhenseIves up on lhe dooisleps of lheii enenv` Inluilion vanls
lo sav ves, olheivise il vouId le iIIogicaI and iiialionaI and counlei-
pioduclive lo conlinue, lul lhe evidence does nol suppoil lhis. The LTTL
have sellIed foi a povei-shaiing inilialive ialhei lhan lhe sepaialisl
honeIand vhich lhev have leen sliiving noie lhan lvenlv veais foi. The
vai of alliilion in IsiaeI/IaIesline is a peifecl iIIuslialion of vhal can
happen vhen a slialegv is laken so fai lhal nol onIv does il faiI lo acquiie
vhal il seeks lul anv incuisions il nav have nade have leen foigollen in
lhe chaos and cainage lhal ensues. IsiaeI has loIsleied ils occupalion,
juslified iionicaIIv lv lhe need lo slop lhe suicide allacks. Il Iooks
incieasingIv as lhough lhe leiioiisl oiganisalions conlinue vilh suicide
allacks jusl lo piove a poinl i.e. jusl lo piove lhev can.

Suicide leiioiisn is a unique foin of leiioiisn lecause il is an asvnneliic
foin of psvchoIogicaI vaifaie vheie lhe peipelialoi pie-enpls anv
140 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:115

punishnenl vhich nav le neled oul lo hin lv laking his ovn Iife aIong
vilh his viclins. The inheienl inconpiehensiliIilv of lhe acl appeais lo
nake il inpossilIe lo piedicl and infIuence and enhances lhe feai facloi
enoinousIv. Long-lein soIulions lo eiadicale lhe phenonenon viII nol le
luiIl on conciele and sleeI fences noi viII lhev eneige soIeIv fion iound
lalIes lehind cIosed doois. The lesl vav lo slop anv cvcIe is lo eIininale ils
nonenlun. Il is analhena lo hunan naluie foi nan lo lake his ovn Iife and
vel suicide lonleis have lecone convinced lhal lhe onIv vav foi lhen
peisonaIIv, individuaIIv, lo heIp lheii peopIe´s pIighl is lo undeilake a
suicide nission. One can onIv vondei vhelhei, given lhe povei of
hindsighl, suicide lonleis vouId lake lhe sane palh if lhev couId see vhal
IillIe naleiiaI diffeience lo lheii 'cause´ lheii acls acluaIIv nake.




CA5E-NOTE

THL HOML SLCRLTARY´S IROIOSALS ON
HOUSL ARRLSTS

KeIechi Onveie

This case nole is designed lo seive as a conliilulion lo lhe delale ovei lhe
Hone Secielaiv´s conlioveisiaI pioposaIs foi house aiiesls and conlioI oidei
neasuies. Speaking in lhe House of Connons on lhe 26lh of Ianuaiv,
1

ChaiIes CIaike expiessed his inlenlion lo inlioduce execulive conlioI oideis
lhal can le issued againsl lolh ßiilish cilizens and aIiens if lheie is nol
enough evidence lo piosecule lhen foi leiioiisn.

The ialionaIe foi lhe slalenenl can le found in a Decenlei couil liiaI, in
vhich lhe House of Loids judged lhe UK´s anli-leiioi delainnenl poIicv lo
le unIavfuI (as in seclion 23 of lhe ATCS 2OO1). This neans lhal delenlion
vilhoul liiaI is unIavfuI, as il is lolh disciininaloiv- in lhal il appIies onIv
lo foieigneis- and dispiopoilionale lo lhe lhieal facing lhe counliv.

Mi. CIaike´s pioposed iefoins have ieceived sone sliong ciilicisn fion
lolh poIilicians and hunan iighls pioleclion agencies. Diane Alloll, Laloui
MI foi Sloke Nevinglon has said lhal ¨lo have individuaIs inleined in lheii
hones in lhe niddIe of connunilies in oui gieal cilies is, if anvlhing, noie
incendiaiv lhan pulling lhen in piison.¨ Kale AIIen, lhe UK diiecloi of
Anneslv InleinalionaI ienaiks 'Hovevei he puls il, lhe Hone Secielaiv is
giving hinseIf lhe povei lo pIace anvone in lhe UK undei house aiiesl,
vilhoul chaige oi liiaI, lased on seciel evidence´.

Aie lhese infIannaloiv connenls liue, heIpfuI oi even necessaiv` To find
an ansvei lo lhese queslions il is inpoilanl lo exanine lhe ieIevanl aieas of
leiioiisn Iav and hunan iighls and diav lhese fieIds inlo lhe conlexl of
ChaiIes CIaike´s connenls.


†Law Student, Birkbeck, University of London
1
(2005) Johnson, P.Telegraph, 8
th
March 2005 UK Terror suspects can be confined at home
telegraph.co.uk/news
142 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:141

IiislIv, in addiessing lhe Iav on leiioiisl aclivilies, ve nusl Iook lack lo
evenls lhal have Ied lo lhe Hone Secielaiv´s slalenenls. The Anli-Teiioiisn,
Ciine and Secuiilv Acl 2OO1 (ATCSA) vas passed as a iesponse lo lhe
Seplenlei 11 allacks. In his slalenenl ChaiIes CIaike iefeiied lo lhe
nuIlipIe allacks in Spain in Maich 2OO4, allacks al aI-Kholai in Saudi Aialia
in Mav, lhe allack on lhe AusliaIian enlassv in Iakaila, Indonesia, in
Seplenlei, an allack on an IsiaeIi-ovned holeI in Lgvpl in Oclolei, and lhe
allack on lhe US consuIale in Ieddah in Saudi Aialia in Decenlei 2OO4.´

As of Oclolei 2OO3 lheie have leen 456 aiiesls since Seplenlei 11 2OO1 and
five noie undei ATCSA. Sepaiale figuies Iaid lefoie IaiIianenl shov lhal
as of sunnei 2OO3, 29 peopIe had leen chaiged vilh leiioiisl offences and
11 had gone lo liiaI. Thiee peopIe had leen convicled of specific Teiioiisn
Acl Offences. In lhe Iighl of lhis infoinalion il seens lhal lhe Hone
Secielaiv nav have sufficienl ieason lo liv and inlioduce lhe nev poveis.
Opponenls nav sav lhal ve aie in dangei of ciealing a 'concenlialion-canp´
cuIluie, lul if lhese neasuies aie necessaiv, does il nallei`

Theie aie a nunlei of checks luiIl inlo lhe nev IegisIalion - undei Seclion
44 seaiches nusl le aulhoiised lv a senioi officei and appioved lv lhe
Hone Secielaiv. SecondIv, Loid CaiIiIe OC conducls an annuaI ieviev. In
his Ialesl iepoil, he concIuded lhe acl vas ¨voiking veII given lhe difficuIlv
of lhe issues vilh vhich il has lo deaI¨.

The UK is lhe onIv Luiopean nalion lo have suspended ailicIe five of lhe
Luiopean Convenlion on Hunan Righls vhich pievenls aililiaiv delenlion
vilhoul liiaI. Olhei counliies have lheii ovn counlei-leiioiisn Iavs and
lheie has leen a Iol of effoil al Luiopean IeveI, IaigeIv Ied lv lhe UK, lo
nake suie lhe doneslic Iavs aII speak lhe sane Ianguage. In lhe USA, lhe
ßush adninislialion von neai univeisaI lacking foi lhe Ialiiol Acl vilhin
veeks of Seplenlei 11.

Oiganisalions such as 'Hunan Righls Walch´ aie nol al aII enanouied vilh
lhe Hone Secielaiv´s aclions. This pailicuIai piessuie gioup pulIished a
nunlei of iepoils on lhe issue. The focus of lhis ailicIe viII le lhe iepoil
pulIished 16lh Maich lhis veai.

In lhe ailicIe, ßen Waid, speciaI counseI in lhe Luiope and CenliaI Asia
division of Hunan Righls Walch, slales lhal ¨lhe goveinnenl iefuses lo
acknovIedge a lasic liulh: punishnenl vilhoul liiaI is unacceplalIe, no
nallei vhal¨. The iepoil aIso noles lhal alsenl fion lhe nev Acl aie anv
neasuies lo faciIilale lhe pioseculion of leiioiisn suljecls, ignoiing lhe
2005] Home Secretary’s Proposal on House Arrest 143
delaiIed ieconnendalions nade lv lhe Iiivv CounseIIoi Reviev
Connillee (¨Nevlon Connillee¨) in Decenlei 2OO3, a veai lefoie lhe Lav
Loids´ judgnenl. The iepoil shovs genuine concein foi lhe veIfaie of lhe
accused.

The possilIe use of seciel evidence al cIosed heaiings in vhich lhe delained
peison and/oi Iavvei aie excIuded, vilh lhe slandaid of pioof leing veII
leIov lhal iequiied of a ciininaI conviclion, neans lhal conlioI oideis couId
le ciealed in pail on naleiiaI ollained undei loiluie fion Thiid WoiId
counliies. Accoiding lo lhe iepoil: ¨seciel evidence is a iecipe foi
niscaiiiages of juslice, seiious iesliiclions on Iileilv shouId le inposed
onIv aflei a faii liiaI¨.

The iepoil aIso picks up on lhe facl lhal lhe Iiine Minislei Tonv ßIaii has
iefused lo iuIe oul lhe use of conlioI oideis on pioleslois al lhe upconing
sunnil of C-8 goveinnenls in ScolIand in IuIv. Mi. Waid expiesses his
opinion as foIIovs: ¨The Iiine Minislei´s viIIingness lo conlenpIale lhe use
of leiioiisn conlioI oideis on pioleslois undeiscoies lhe dangei of lhis Iav¨.

The foinei Hone Secielaiv David ßIunkell MI gave a speech lo lhe
Haivaid Lav SchooI on lhe 8
lh
of Maich 2OO4.
2
Al lhe slail of his discussion
he slaled '.lhe dicholonv sone peopIe seek lo eslalIish lelveen lhe iighls
of peopIe lo le piolecled againsl leiioiisls and lheii iighl lo enjov
liadilionaI Iileilies is a faIse one. Il is nol a queslion, lheiefoie, of choosing
lelveen iighls, lul achieving a laIance vhich nainlains lhose iighls´. He
adds: 'Oui Loid Chief Iuslice, vho doesn´l aIvavs lake nv side, said in a
speech lo lhe ßiilish Acadenv in Oclolei 2OO2:

¨Theie aie piessuies ciealed lv lhe need lo piolecl lhis counliv fion
neiciIess acls of inleinalionaI leiioiisn. These piessuies viII lesl lhe
Hunan Righls Acl. ßul lhe Hunan Righls Acl is nol a suicide pacl! Il does
nol iequiie lhis counliv lo lie ils hands lehind ils lack in lhe face of
aggiession, leiioiisn oi vioIenl ciine. Il does, hovevei, ieduce lhe iisk of

1
(2005) Johnson, P.Telegraph, 8
th
March 2005 UK Terror suspects can be confined at home
telegraph.co.uk/news

2
(2005) Privacy International: UK announces house arrests and control orders
www.privacyinternational.org ; (2003) BBC News: Q and A: Anti-terrorism legislation
newsvote.bbc.co.uk; (2005) HL Paper 61 HC 389: Prevention Of Terrorism Bill: Preliminary Report The
Stationery Office Limited(2005) Ward, B.: UK : New Terrorism Law Fundamentally flawed
hrw.org/english.docs; (2005) Blunkett.D MP: Defending the Democratic State and Maintaining Liberty-
Two sides of the same coin? www.homeoffice.gov.uk/docs3/hs_speech_harvard04.html

144 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:141

oui connilling an 'ovn goaI´. In defending denociacv, ve nusl nol foigel
lhe need lo olseive lhe vaIues vhich nake denociacv voilh defending¨.

Mi. ßIunkell ieaIises lhal 'il is oflen aigued lhal lhe liadilionaI iighls
enjoved lv lhe cilizens of ßiilain and lhe Uniled Slales can le liaced lack lo
lhe Magna Caila-aIleil al lhal slage iighls foi a ialhei Iiniled sliala of
socielv!´ Mi. ßIunkell leIieves lhal lhe liggesl chaIIenge foi poIilicians lodav
is lo piolecl fieedons in lhe fai noie conpIex gIolaI enviionnenl in vhich
ve nov opeiale. He adds '. lheie is an added dinension lo lhal evoIving
piocess of laIancing iighls in oui ovn dav. And lhal is laIancing lhe needs
and iighls nol jusl of oui ovn cilizens lul of peopIe lhioughoul lhe voiId.
And in lhe sane as doneslicaIIv ve aie nov laIking nuch noie aloul iighls
aIongside iesponsiliIilies, so ve nusl do lhe sane in lhe inleinalionaI
conlexl. We nusl nol nake lhe nislake of lhinking loo nuch aloul puieIv
individuaI iighls and loo IillIe of dulv and iesponsiliIilv.´ David ßIunkell
concIudes lv expIaining lhe naluie of his ioIe as he vas lhen, Hone
Secielaiv. He undeislands lhal laIancing hunan iighls vhiIsl nainlaining
individuaI Iileilv is 'nuch, nuch noie difficuIl lo achieve in lhe nosl open
denociacies in lhe voiId. ßul ve aie lellei foi il, vilh a giealei and noie
voilhvhiIe chaIIenge.´ Whelhei he is iighl is a queslion lhal has vel lo le
ansveied.

In sunnaiv, vhal ve can see is lhal aIlhough lhe nev Acl seens juslified
undei lhe cuiienl ciicunslances, sone peopIe aie seeking lo disciedil ils
Iack of ¨noiaIs¨. Whal shouId le undeislood is lhal lhis Acl is onIv a fev
nonlhs oId, il viII le ievieved again nexl veai and in lhe Iong lein il viII
seive noie good lhan hain.

THL IUVLNILL DLATH ILNALTY UNDLR
INTLRNATIONAL LAW

Iiedeiique ßiel

The iecenl naIliealnenl of innales lv sone Aneiican and ßiilish soIdieis
in Iiaq has ievived lhe conlenlious issue of officiaI loiluie and, noie
geneiaIIv, lhe iighl lo punish. IhvsicaI loiluie is supposed lo have leen
lanned fion nodein socielies, vho aie infIuenced lv an LnIighlened IegaI-
poIilicaI cuIluie.

Accoiding lo lhe Iinked piincipIes of individuaI safelv and IegaIilv, as
enshiined in lhe Iiench ´Dcc|ara|icn dcs Drci|s dc |´Hcnnc c| du Ci|cucn´
(UniveisaI DecIaialion on Hunan and Cilizen´s Righls) in 1789, lhe iighl lo
punish shouId onIv le peinilled lo 'neuliaIize´ offendeis, vho nav le
chaiged and convicled excIusiveIv undei lhe Lav. In lhis sense lhe Lav is
expecled lo piolecl lhe lodiIv inlegiilv of anv hunan leing. Hovevei, as
lhe hisloiian MicheI Ioiiel
1
poinls oul in his papei '|c ccrps puni : Ie
cna|incn| scus |´Ancicn Rcginc´ (The punished lodv: ieliilulion duiing lhe
Ancienl Regine), lhe hisloiv and lhe undeislanding of lhe iighl lo punish,
and noie pailicuIaiIv lo caiiv oul slale kiIIing, shov lhal lhe Lav ilseIf did
nol aIvavs piolecl lhe lodiIv inlegiilv.

The dealh penaIlv and lhe use of loinenls have lolh exisled since Anliquilv.
As nenlioned lv WiIIian A. Schalas in his look The AloIilion of lhe Dealh
IenaIlv in InleinalionaI Lav, 'in posilive Iav, capilaI punishnenl can le
liaced lack as eaiIv as 175O ßC, in lhe |cx |a|icnis of lhe Code of
Hannuiali´
2
. Duiing lhe MiddIe Ages coipoiaI punishnenl vas lhe
punilive noin anong aII Luiopean counliies. Toinenls enduied lv ncnc
crinina|is veie supposed lo iefIecl lhe significance of pulIic ieliilulion. Al
lhal line, lhe nelhods used lo inpIenenl lhe dealh penaIlv ianged fion lhe
ciueI lo lhe 'iefined´: diovning foi aduIleiesses, fiie foi sodoniles, heielic
and peisons accused of naIeficiun as vilches, hanging foi connoneis,
decapilalion foi aiislocials and vheeI loiluie foi lhe nosl seiious ciines.
Iion lhe 16
lh
cenluiv onvaids a nonopoIv on lhe iighl lo punish vas

†Birkbeck College, University of London
1
See Le corps puni: le châtiment sous l’Ancien Régime by Michel Porret, in Sciences Humaines, Hors
série entitled Violences, No 47 Dec 2004/Jan-Febr 2004.
2
To know more about the history of the implementation of the death penalty in early times, see p.3 in The
Abolition of the Death Penalty in International Law by William A. Schabas, 3
rd
edn, Cambridge
University Press.
146 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:145

confeiied on lhe Modein Slale. IulIic vindicalion pievaiIed ovei piivale
ievenge, and expialoiv juslice iepIaced conpensaloiv juslice lased on lhe
|cx |a|icnis 'eve foi eve, loolh foi loolh´.

Hovevei, lhe LnIighlennenl induced pailiaI aloIilionisn. In lhis iegaid, lhe
IlaIian ciininoIogisl Cesaie ßeccaiia (1738-1794), vho pulIished lhe fanous
'On Ciines and Iunishnenls in 1764´, pIaved a fundanenlaI ioIe and
lecane a figuiehead foi aloIilionisls. His ain vas lo hunanize and
secuIaiize lhe iighl lo punish. In facl, he offeied lo codifv offences in oidei
lo conlain lhe aililiaiv povei of judges. He chaIIenged lhe 'assauIled lodv´
in oidei lo liing lo lhe foie lhe 'inpiisoned lodv´, asseiling lhe useIessness
of lhe speclacIe of suffeiing and inhunanilv of coipoiaI punishnenl.
ßeccaiia lhus denanded lhe aloIilion of officiaI loiluie and of lhe dealh
penaIlv foi connon offences.

Since lhe Second WoiId Wai, lhe iighl lo punish has aIso leen piogiessiveIv
ieguIaled and offsel lv inleinalionaI noins in hunan iighls. Despile a
piofound change in lhe vav lhe dealh penaIlv is peiceived, lhe delale on
lhis poinl sliII is as conlenlious, as veII as enolionaIIv and poIilicaIIv
chaiged. Hovevei, as il peilains lo juveniIe offendeis, a ceilain consensus
has eneiged againsl execulion, vhich is seen lo le in confIicl vilh a
fundanenlaI piincipIe of ciininaI Iav, naneIv punishnenl accoiding lo lhe
degiee of cuIpaliIilv, as sunnaiized lv Maiv Rolinson, UN High
Connissionei foi Hunan Righls in 2OO2: 'lhe oveivheIning inleinalionaI
consensus lhal lhe dealh penaIlv shouId nol appIv lo juveniIe offendeis
slens fion lhe iecognilion lhal voung peisons, lecause of lheii innaluiilv,
nav nol fuIIv conpiehend lhe consequences of lheii aclion and shouId
lheiefoie lenefil fion Iess seveie sanclions lhan aduIls´.

Does inleinalionaI Iav iefIecl lhis consensus` In olhei voids, vhal is lhe
slalus of lhe juveniIe dealh penaIlv in inleinalionaI Iav` To vhal exlenl
does ils ieguIalion undei inleinalionaI Iav conliilule lo lhe aloIilionisl
piocess` In oidei lo ansvei lhese queslions, pail I of lhis essav viII exanine
hov inleinalionaI Iav lackIes lhe issue of lhe dealh penaIlv vhen
addiessing juveniIes (i.e. leIov 18 al lhe line of lhe offence - and nol line of
lhe execulion), and viII piovide an oveiviev on lhe gioving lodv of
inleinalionaI and iegionaI Iav insliunenls and cuslonaiv inleinalionaI Iav,
lo shov lhal lhe dealh penaIlv foi juveniIe offendeis is unacceplalIe undei
inleinalionaI Iav.

Iail II viII le deaI vilh lhe ioIe of inleinalionaI Iav in conslilulionaI
inleipielalion. This viII focus noie pailicuIaiIv on lhe ieIalionship lelveen
2005] Juvenile Death Penalty 147


U.S. and inleinalionaI Iav iegaiding lhe execulion of juveniIes, a Supiene
Couil decision daled Maich 1, 2OO5 having oulIaved capilaI punishnenl foi
juveniIes, iuIing 5 lo 4 lhal il is unconslilulionaI undei lhe Lighlh
Anendnenl lo senlence anvone lo dealh foi a ciine connilled vhiIe
voungei lhan 18.

I - THE BAN ON THE JUVENILE DEATH PENALTY UNDER
INTERNATIONAL LAW


The piohililion of lhe execulion of juveniIes is iefeienced in a nunlei of
inleinalionaI liealies (A). Moieovei, levond lhe convenlionaI insliunenls
nov in foice, sone olhei eIenenls shov lhal cuslonaiv noins of
inleinalionaI Iav aIso exisl conceining lhe juveniIe dealh penaIlv, peihaps
even a noin of jus ccgcns, given lhe geneiaI acceplance of aloIilion of lhe
juveniIe dealh penaIlv (ß).


A - Thc µrnhIbItInn nf thc juvcnI!c dcath µcna!tv undcr IntcrnatInna!
trcatIcs

InleinalionaI convenlions, vhich aie linding upon lhe pailies, conslilule lhe
fiisl souice of inleinalionaI Iav accoiding lo AilicIe 38(1) of lhe Slalule of
lhe InleinalionaI Couil of Iuslice. In lhis iegaid, lhe inleinalionaI
connunilv of slales has adopled seveiaI liealies of voiIdvide (1) oi
iegionaI (2) scope, vhich expIicilIv excIude juveniIe offendeis fion lhe
dealh penaIlv.


1) IntcrnatInna! trcatIcs nf wnr!dwIdc scnµc

Thc IntcrnatInna! Cnvcnant nn CIvI! and Pn!ItIca! RIghts (ICCPR)

AilicIe 6(5) of lhe ICCIR piohilils lhe dealh senlence foi ciines
connilled leIov 18. Il piovides lhal 'Senlences of dealh shaII nol le
inposed foi ciines connilled lv peisons leIov eighleen veais of
age´.

The ICCIR vas adopled in 1966 and has 152 slale pailies. The USA
has enleied a specific ieseivalion lo lhe piovision of AilicIe 6(5),
ieseiving 'lhe iighl, suljecl lo conslilulionaI consliainls lo inpose
148 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:145

capilaI punishnenl on anv peison, incIuding such punishnenl foi
ciine connilled lv peisons leIov 18 veais of age´.

Thc UN CnnvcntInn nn thc RIghts nf thc ChI!d (CRC)

The CRC, adopled in 1989, specificaIIv piohilils lhe execulion of
juveniIes undei AilicIe 37(a) lhal piovides: 'Neilhei capilaI
punishnenl noi Iife inpiisonnenl vilhoul possiliIilv of ieIease
shaII le inposed foi offences connilled lv peisons leIov eighleen
veais of age´. 192 slales veie pailies lo lhe CRC al Iune 1
sl
, 2OO3,
vilh lhe exceplions of lhe USA and SonaIia
3
, vho indicaled lheii
inlenlion lo ialifv al a Ialei dale.

No slale pailv enleied anv specific ieseivalion. Hovevei, seveiaI
slales have nade geneiaI ieseivalions lo piovisions of lhe CRC,
vhich nav le inconpalilIe vilh Snari´a Iav oi vilh lhe leIiefs and
piincipIes of IsIan.

Fnurth Gcncva CnnvcntInn rc!atIvc tn thc PrntcctInn nf CIvI!Ian
Pcrsnns In TImc nf War

InleinalionaI hunanilaiian Iav aIso piohilils lhe use of lhe dealh
penaIlv againsl juveniIe offendeis. This is confiined lv lhe Ceneva
Convenlion daled Augusl 12, 1949, in AilicIe 68: 'In anv case, lhe
dealh penaIlv nav nol le pionounced againsl a piolecled peison
vho vas eighleen veais of age al lhe line of lhe offence´.

2) IntcrnatInna! human rIghts trcatIcs nf rcgInna! scnµc

RegionaI liealies have expiessIv foilidden lhe execulion of juveniIes as
veII.

AmcrIcan CnnvcntInn nn Human RIghts

In lhe Inlei-Aneiican svslen, AilicIe 4(5) of lhis Convenlion
piovides lhal: 'CapilaI punishnenl shaII nol le inposed upon
peisons vho, al lhe line lhe ciine vas connilled, veie undei 18
veais of age´. Al Iune 1
sl
, 2OO3, 24 of lhe 35 OAS (Oiganizalion of
Aneiican Slales) slales veie pailies lo lhis Convenlion, adopled in

3
Being added that Somalia had no recognizable government at that moment.

2005] Juvenile Death Penalty 149


1969. No ieseivalion lo lhe ieIevanl piovision has leen nade lv
slales vhose Iavs cuiienlIv piovide foi lhe juveniIe dealh penaIlv
4
.

AfrIcan Chartcr nn thc RIghts and Wc!farc nf thc ChI!d

'The dealh senlence shaII nol le pionounced foi ciines connilled
lv chiIdien´ undei lhe Afiican Chailei, AilicIe 5(3). Al Iune 1
sl
,
2OO3, 3O slales veie pailies lo lhis Chailei, vhich vas adopled in
199O. Theie is no ieseivalion on lhis poinl.

InleinalionaI liealies aie veiv videIv ialified. As poinled oul lv
Anneslv InleinalionaI in The excIusion of chiId offendeis fion lhe
dealh penaIlv undei geneiaI inleinalionaI Iav
5
, 'neaiIv aII slales in
lhe voiId - 194 in aII- aie nov pailies lo one oi anolhei of lhe alove
liealies. The figuie 194 incIudes lhe 192 slale pailies lo lhe
Convenlion on lhe Righls of lhe ChiId, pIus SonaIia and lhe USA,
vhich aie pailies lo lhe ICCIR. Il does nol incIude Taivan, vhich is
nol a pailv lo inleinalionaI hunan iighls liealies´. In addilion of
lhese convenlionaI IegaI insliunenls, olhei souices of inleinalionaI
Iav condenn lhe use of lhe juveniIe dealh penaIlv.

B - Thc µrnhIbItInn nf thc dcath µcna!tv undcr nthcr snurccs nf
IntcrnatInna! !aw

Il appeais lhal juveniIe offendeis aie excIuded fion lhe dealh penaIlv undei
cuslonaiv noins of inleinalionaI Iav (1). Sone aigue lhal a lan vouId
conslilule a noin of jus ccgcns, ieIving on lhe consensus foi aloIilion of lhe
juveniIe dealh penaIlv (2).

1) Thc custnmarv IntcrnatInna! !aw ban nn thc cxccutInn nf juvcnI!cs

Aflei liealies, cuslon is lhe second highesl souice of inleinalionaI Iav
Iisled in lhe Slalule of lhe InleinalionaI Couil of Iuslice. Accoiding lo
Lauience L. Rolhenleig in an ailicIe enlilIed InleinalionaI Lav, US

4
However, ‘at the time of ratification of the American Convention on Human Rights in 1981, Barbados
made a reservation to Article 4(5) of the Convention stating that ‘persons of 16 years and over … may be
executed under Barbadian law’. Barbados has since raised the minimum of age under national law to 18
at the time of the offence. Barbados has made no similar reservation to the relevant provisions of the
ICCPR (to which it acceded in 1973) or the CRC (ratified in 1990) - See The execution of child offenders
from the death penalty under general international law by Amnesty International, AI Index Act
50/004/2003, 18 July 2003.
5
See The execution of child offenders from the death penalty under general international law by
Amnesty International, AI Index Act 50/004/2003, 18 July 2003.

150 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:145

soveieignlv, and lhe dealh penaIlv
6
, a iuIe of cuslonaiv inleinalionaI
Iav has 'liadilionaIIv leen undeislood lo exisl on lhe lasis of slale
piaclice vilh a sense of IegaI olIigalion (cpinicn juris), geneiaIIv
iepealed ovei line lv a significanl nunlei of slales´. Theiefoie, cuslon
is evidenced lv lvo eIenenls: a videspiead oi geneiaI slale piaclice,
and a geneiaI iecognilion lhal lhis piaclice is a nallei of Iav (cpinic juris
lhal is lo sav 'accepled as Iav´).

Wilhoul doull lheie aie sliong indicalions of slale piaclice and cpinic
juris ieIaling lo lhe lan on lhe execulion of juveniIe offendeis. In facl,
lhe piohililion is nov enlodied in seveiaI inleinalionaI and iegionaI
hunan iighls liealies, and inleinalionaI hunanilaiian Iav liealies as
veII. As pieviousIv nenlioned neaiIv aII slales have lecone pailies lo
one oi anolhei of lhese liealies vilhoul naking anv ieseivalion lo lhal
piohililion.

The lioad ialificalion of lhese insliunenls is a sliong sign of an
inleinalionaI consensus lhal lhe juveniIe dealh penaIlv nusl le lanned.
In facl, lhese liealies, and noie pailicuIaiIv lhe aInosl univeisaI
Convenlion on lhe Righls of lhe ChiId, have encouiaged nanv nalions
lo change lheii Iavs, iaising lhe age al vhich lhe dealh penaIlv can le
inposed lo 18. Accoiding lo Anneslv InleinalionaI, since 1989, al Ieasl 5
counliies, vhich ielain lhe dealh penaIlv, have changed lheii Iavs:
ßailados, China, Iakislan
7
, Yenen and Zinlalve.
In anv case, execulions of juveniIe offendeis aie de faclo exlieneIv iaie.
In 2OO3 Anneslv InleinalionaI said lhal il had iecoided 2O such
execulions in five counliies since 1994.
8
Moieovei, duiing lhe
exaninalion of lheii iepoils lv lodies in chaige of noniloiing lhe
inpIenenlalion of lhe InleinalionaI Covenanl on CiviI and IoIilicaI
Righls and lhe Convenlion on lhe Righls of lhe ChiId, slales vhich have

6
See International law, U.S. sovereignty, and the death penalty by Laurence E. Rothenberg, Georgetown
Journal of International Law, Georgetown University Law Center, Spring 2004, available at
www.findarticles.com
7
Pakistan ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990.On the 1
st
of July 2000 the Juvenile
Justice System Ordonnance came into force. It abolished the death penalty for people under 18 at the time
of the offence in most parts of the country but did not include North-West areas (the Provincially and
Federally Tribal Areas). In December 2001 President Musharraf also commuted the death sentences of
125 inmates convicted of crimes committed as children. However, according to a communication released
by Amnesty International, this Ordonnance was repealed by Lahore High Court last year. As a result,
child courts should be suppressed and the juvenile death penalty reestablished. See Pakistan: Death
penalty for juveniles reintroduced by Amnesty International, press release, AI Index 33/025/2004, 9
December 2004.
8
See The execution of child offenders from the death penalty under general international law by
Amnesty International, AI Index Act 50/004/2003, 18 July 2003.
2005] Juvenile Death Penalty 151


execuled juveniIe offendeis have oflen denied such execulions oi have
avoided nenlioning il.

As evidenced lv lhose eIenenls, lhe use of lhe dealh penaIlv againsl
juveniIe offendeis is cIeaiIv piohililed undei cuslonaiv inleinalionaI
Iav. This is aIso confiined in lhe aclions of inleigoveinnenlaI lodies
lhal have iepealedIv caIIed foi lhe excIusion of juveniIe offendeis fion
lhe dealh penaIlv and have aIso slaled lhal using lhe juveniIe dealh
penaIlv is conliaiv lo cuslonaiv inleinalionaI Iav.

The Uniled nalion has issued vaiious iesoIulions in lhal sense.
Moieovei, seveiaI of lhen have leen vilhoul a vole, iefIecling a sliong
consensus anong slales. In Augusl 2OOO, as a iecenl exanpIe, lhe
Uniled nalions Sul-Connission on lhe Iionolion and Iioleclion of
Hunan Righls adopled ResoIulion 2OOO/17 on The Dealh IenaIlv in
ReIalion lo IuveniIe Offendeis, vhich condenned ils use as 'conliaiv lo
cuslonaiv inleinalionaI Iav´ and caIIed on ielenlionisl slales lo change
lheii Iavs as soon as possilIe and in lhe nean line 'lo ienind lheii
judges lhal lhe inposilion of lhe dealh penaIlv againsl such offendeis is
in vioIalion of inleinalionaI Iav´.

These iesoIulions, even non-linding, lheiefoie iefIecl lhe acceplance of
lhis lan as an inleinalionaI noin. As a iuIe of cuslonaiv inleinalionaI
Iav, lhis lan on lhe use of lhe juveniIe dealh penaIlv is linding on aII
slales excepl lhose lhal vouId have 'peisislenlIv oljecled´ lo lhal iuIe
9
.
Moieovei, lhis lan couId aIso le iegaided as a jus ccgcns iuIe.

2) Thc cmcrgcncc nf a j nnrm cnnccrnIng thc cxccutInn nf
thc juvcnI!cs

A noin of jus cogens, aIso knovn as a peienploiv noin of geneiaI
inleinalionaI Iav, is a iuIe of inleinalionaI Iav, vhich is linding on aII
slales vhelhei oi nol lhev aie pailies lo inleinalionaI liealies lhal
enlodv lhe iuIe. Undei AilicIe 53 of lhe Vienna Convenlion, a jus
ccgcns noin is 'a noin accepled and iecognized lv lhe inleinalionaI
connunilv of Slales as a vhoIe as a noin fion vhich no deiogalion is
peinilled and vhich can le nodified onIv lv a sulsequenl noin of
geneiaI inleinalionaI Iav having lhe sane chaiaclei´.


9
A state that has persistently objected to a rule of international law is not bound by it so long as the
objection was made ‘consistently and uninterruptedly’ - See UK v. Norway, International Court of Justice
(1951), ICJ reports 116, p.138.
152 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:145

As aIieadv poinled oul, lheie is a gioving inleinalionaI piohililion of
lhe execulion of juveniIes. Vaiious oiganizalions have adopled an
officiaI posilion againsl lhe use of lhe dealh penaIlv againsl peopIe vho
veie 18 veais oId al lhe line of lhe ciine. Iailh Ieadeis and
inleinalionaI lodies have aIso opposed il, al nalionaI and inleinalionaI
IeveI, lv appioaching lhe juveniIe dealh penaIlv as a vioIalion of hunan
iighls
1O
.

In Oclolei 2OO2 a iegionaI judiciaI lodv, lhe Inlei-Aneiican
Connission on Hunan Righls (IACHR), found in Dcningucs t.US
11
lhal
lhe piohililion againsl lhe execulion of juveniIe offendeis is a jus ccgcns
noin. Il heId lhal 'a noin of inleinalionaI cuslonaiv Iav has eneiged
piohililing lhe execulion of offendeis undei lhe age of eighleen veais al
lhe line of lheii ciine´ and lhal 'lhis iuIe has leen iecognized as leing
of a sufficienlIv indeIilIe naluie lo nov conslilule a noin of jus ccgcns´
12
.

As lhe IACHR expIains, noins of jus cogens 'deiive lheii slalus fion
fundanenlaI vaIues heId lv lhe inleinalionaI connunilv, as vioIalion of
such peienploiv noins aie consideied lo shock lhe conscience of
hunan kind and lheiefoie, lind lhe inleinalionaI connunilies as a
vhoIe, iiiespeclive of piolesl, iecognilion oi acquiescence´. The lan on
lhe execulion of juveniIes is incieasingIv leing desciiled as a noin
linding on aII slales, vhelhei oi nol lhose slales aie acling as a
'peisislenl oljecloi´ lo il. Hovevei, one slale peisisls in asseiling ils
slalus of peisislenl oljecloi lo lhis veII-eslalIished piohililion of lhe
juveniIe dealh penaIlv and iejecling il as a peienploiv iuIe: lhe USA.

II - thc Imµact nf IntcrnatInna! !aw nn thc U5A rcgardIng thc cxccutInn nf
juvcnI!cs

Despile a gioving consensus againsl lhe use of lhe dealh penaIlv againsl
offendeis leIov 18 of age, lhe USA acknovIedges execuling juveniIe
offendeis and cIains foi ilseIf a iighl lo do so (A). Hovevei, inleinalionaI
Iav noins have nade lheii vav even in lhis ielenlionisl slale. As a iesuIl,
lhe conslilulionaIilv of lhe juveniIe dealh penaIlv has iecenlIv leen
chaIIenged lv lhe Supiene Couil decision daled Maich 1, 2OO5 (ß).

10
‘International law has expressly determined that the death penalty, specifically, the death penalty and
life imprisonment without possibilities of release for crimes committed while a juvenile, is a human rights
issue’- See Juveniles and the Death penalte by Lynn Cothern, November 2000, available at:
http://www.ncjrs.org/html/ojjdp/coordcouncil/
11
Case 12.285, Report No. 62/02, Inter-Am. C.H.R., Doc. 5 rev. 1 at 913 (2002).
12
See IACHR, Report No 62/02, case No 12.285 Michael Domingues v US, 22 October 2002, available at
www.cidh.oas.org.
2005] Juvenile Death Penalty 153



A - Thc cnnstItutInna!Itv nf thc usc nf thc juvcnI!c dcath µcna!tv In thc
U5A

The USA ielains lhe juveniIe dealh penaIlv againsl offendeis aged 16 oi 17
since lhe Supiene Couil had iuIed in 1989 lhal il is nol unconslilulionaI
undei lhe Lighlh Anendnenl (1). Such a ielenlionisl posilion is
inconsislenl vilh lhe inleinalionaI lan on lhe juveniIe dealh penaIlv and has
pIaced lhe USA undei incieased sciulinv and piessuie fion lhe
inleinalionaI connunilv (2).

1) Thc U5A rctcntInnIst µnsItInn

The juveniIe dealh penaIlv has leen used since lhe ciealion of lhe USA.
Thonas Ciaungei, lhe fiisl juveniIe knovn lo le execuled in Aneiica,
vas found guiIlv of lesliaIilv in 1642 and hung in IIvnoulh coIonv,
Massachussells. Since lhen, aloul 361 juveniIes have leen execuled foi
ciines connilled as juveniIes. Anong lhen 8O ° had leen convicled
foi honicides
13
.

Todav, juveniIes nav sliII le suljecl lo capilaI punishnenl in lhe Uniled
Slales. Hovevei, in lhe 198O´s, lhe US Supiene Couil vas iepealedIv
asked lo iuIe on vhelhei lhe execulion of a juveniIe offendei vas
peinissilIe undei lhe Conslilulion, noie pailicuIaiIv undei lhe Lighlh
Anendnenl, vhich piohilils anv ciueI and unusuaI punishnenl as
unconslilulionaI. ßelveen 1983 and 1986 lhe Supiene Couil lelveen
iefused lo considei lhe conslilulionaIilv of inposing lhe dealh penaIlv
upon a juveniIe. In facl, il vas nol unliI 1987 in Tncnpscn t. O||ancna
14

lhal lhe Couil agieed lo considei lhe specific issue.

To decide lhis eighlh anendnenl case, in vhich Thonpson, al lhe age of
15, had pailicipaled in lhe nuidei of his foinei liolhei-in-Iav, lhe
Couil used an anaIvlicaI fianevoik lhal incIudes lhiee ciileiia. A
punishnenl is ciueI and unusuaI if:

• il is a punishnenl oiiginaIIv undeislood lv lhe fianeis of lhe
Conslilulion lo le ciueI and unusuaI:
• lheie is a socielaI consensus lhal lhe punishnenl offends
civiIized slandaids of hunan decencv:

13
See Streib report, 2000, mentioned in Les mineurs délinquants et la peine de mort aux Etats-Unis by
Isabelle Cesari, Editions Nicolas Philippe, 2002.
14
Thompson v. Oklahoma 487 US 815 (1988).
154 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:145

• il is (i) giossIv dispiopoilionale lo lhe seveiilv of lhe ciine oi
(ii) nakes no neasuialIe conliilulion lo acceplalIe goaIs of
punishnenl.

The conslilulionaIilv of lhe juveniIe dealh penaIlv vas lhus decided
in lhis case in 1988
15
. The 5-3 decision vacaled lhe defendanl´s dealh
senlence, lul onIv foui juslices agieed lhal lhe execulion of a 15-
veai-oId vouId le ciueI and unusuaI punishnenl pei se (i.e. in aII
ciicunslances). Il vas heId lhal il vas inconsislenl vilh slandaids
of decencv and faiIed lo conliilule lo lhe lvo sociaI goaIs of lhe
dealh penaIlv (ieliilulion and deleiience). This 'evoIving slandaid
of decencv´ diclaled lhal lhe execulion of 15-veai-oId and voungei
offendeis vas unconslilulionaI undei lhe Lighlh Anendnenl. The
Tncnpscn t. O||ancna case lheiefoie Iiniled lhe scope of lhe dealh
penaIlv iegaiding juveniIes.

In 1989, in S|andfcrd t. Kcn|uc|u
16
, lhe Supiene Couil iuIed, in a 5-4
decision, lhal lhe Lighlh Anendnenl does nol piohilil lhe dealh
penaIlv foi ciines connilled al age 16 oi 17. In lhis case lhe
pIuiaIilv of juslices iejecled lhe lhiid ciileiia of lhe lesl, naneIv lhal
lhe punishnenl is dispiopoilionale lo lhe seveiilv of lhe ciine and
nakes no neasuialIe conliilulion lo lhe deleiience of lhe ciine.
The Couil focused on lhe evoIving slandaids of decencv in socielv
and found lhal lhe execulion of 16- oi 17-veai-oId offendeis did nol
offend socielaI slandaids of decencv.

As a iesuIl, 19 oul of 38 ielenlionisl slales aIIov lhe juveniIe dealh
penaIlv, and lhe USA has execuled noie juveniIes ovei lhe Iasl
decade lhan anv olhei nalion of lhe voiId. Since 199O lhev have
caiiied oul 19 oul of 39 execulions on juveniIes voiId-vide. Civen
lhis iecoid, lhe USA has lecone lhe nain vioIaloi of lhis
inleinalionaI Iav.

2) A µnsItInn IncnnsIstcnt wIth thc IntcrnatInna! ban nn thc juvcnI!c
dcath µcna!tv

AIlhough ils conslilulionaI inleipielalion cIeaiIv infiinges inleinalionaI
Iav, lhe USA did nol denv il al lhe inleinalionaI IeveI. Ioi inslance,
aflei signing lhe InleinalionaI Covenanl on CiviI and IoIilicaI Righls
(ICCIR) in Oclolei 1977, lhe USA lhen ialified lhe ICCIR in 1992 lul

15
Ibid
16
Standford v. Kentucky 492 US 361 (1989).
2005] Juvenile Death Penalty 155


vilh a specific ieseivalion lo lhe piovision of ailicIe 6(5) of lhe ICCIR
excIuding juveniIe offendeis fion lhe dealh penaIlv.

This ieseivalion slaled 'lhal lhe US ieseives lhe iighl, suljecl lo
ConslilulionaI Consliainls, lo inpose capilaI punishnenl on anv peison
(olhei lhan a piegnanl vonan) duIv convicled undei exisling oi fuluie
Iavs peinilling lhe inposilion of capilaI punishnenl, incIuding such a
punishnenl foi ciines connilled lv peisons leIov eighleen veais of
age´. Hovevei, al lhe line of signing, eIeven counliies oljecled lo lhe
USA´s ieseivalion, and in 1995, lhe UN´s Hunan Righls Connillee, in
chaige of noniloiing conpIiance vilh lhe ICIIR, asked lhe USA lo
vilhdiav ils ieseivalion. The USA decIined lo do so as il disagieed lhal
cuslonaiv inleinalionaI Iav eslalIished a cIeai piohililion of use of lhe
dealh penaIlv undei lhe age of 18.

CeneiaIIv speaking, lhe USA conlends lhal even if cuslonaiv
inleinalionaI Iav lanned lhe juveniIe dealh penaIlv, lhe USA vouId sliII
nol le lound lo end capilaI punishnenl lecause of ils slalus as a
peisislenl oljecloi lo lhis inleinalionaI lan. Hovevei, lvo eIenenls
lend lo undeinine such a posilion: Iiisl, ils oljeclion lo lhe lan on lhe
execulion of juveniIes has nol leen consislenl and uninleiiupled.
Anneslv InleinalionaI Iisled seveiaI US slands, vhich disquaIifv lhe
USA foi lhis exenplion:
17
Second, lhe aigunenls pul foivaid lv lhe US
seen Iess ieIevanl since lhe piohililion of lhe juveniIe dealh penaIlv has
leen iecognized as a jus ccgcns noin lv inleinalionaI lodies and has,
lheiefoie, lecone linding upon aII slales, vhelhei oi nol lhev have
leen a peisislenl oljecloi lo il.

In lhis iegaid lhe NapoIeon ßeazIev case, laken lo lhe Inlei-Aneiican
Connission on Hunan Righls IACHR in Ieliuaiv 2OO2, is pailicuIaiIv
ieIevanl. NapoIeon ßeazIev vas execuled in Texas on Mav 28, 2OO2 foi a
ciine connilled in 1994, vhen he vas jusl 17 veais oId. This olviousIv
ignoied a fundanenlaI piincipIe undeiIving lhe inleinalionaI lan on lhe
execulion of chiId offendeis, naneIv a voung peison´s polenliaI foi
iehaliIilalion and change.

The IACHR condenned lhis execulion in a decision pulIished in
Ianuaiv 2OO4,
18
in vhich il concIuded lhal lhe USA has vioIaled an
inleinalionaI noin of jus ccgcns piohililing lhe execulion of anvone

17
See The execution of child offenders from the death penalty under general international law by
Amnesty International, AI Index Act 50/004/2003, 18 July 2003.
18
See IACHR Report No 101/03, case 12.412, 29 December 2003, available at www.cidh.oas.org
156 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:145

undei 18 al lhe line of lhe ciine. Il expIained lhal a jus ccgcns noin is
one lhal is linding on aII counliies, incIuding lhe US, and one fion
vhich lheie can le no deiogalion. Theiefoie, lhe Connission cIained
lhal NapoIeon ßeazIev´s faniIv shouId le piovided vilh 'an effeclive
ienedv, vhich incIudes conpensalion´. This case, lheiefoie,
conliiluled lo inleinalionaI condennalion of lhe juveniIe dealh penaIlv,
vhich iecenlIv Ied lhe US Supiene Couil lo chaIIenge ils conslilulionaI
inleipielalion.

B - Thc abn!ItInn nf thc dcath µcna!tv fnr juvcnI!c nffcndcrs as a rcsu!t nf
a U5 5uµrcmc Cnurt dccIsInn

InleinalionaI Iav noins have olviousIv nade lheii vav and infIuenced lhe
conslilulionaI inleipielalion of lhe US Supiene Couil iegaiding lhe juveniIe
dealh penaIlv, as evidenced in lhe decision pionounced in Rcpcr t.
Sinncns
19
in Maich 2OO5 (1). ßv oulIaving capilaI punishnenl foi juveniIes
and lheiefoie, conpIving vilh inleinalionaI Iav slandaids, lhis Iandnaik
decision couId have videspiead ianificalions foi lhe fuluie of capilaI
punishnenl (2).

1) Thc ChrIstnµhcr 5Immnns casc
20


This case addiessed lhe conslilulionaIilv of lhe juveniIe penaIlv in iespecl of
lhe Lighlh Anendnenl. The appeaI slens fion lhe case of Chiislophei
Sinnons, vho is on dealh iov foi lhe nuidei of his neighloui ShiiIev
Ciook. He connilled lhis ciine vhen he vas 17 veais oId. In 1993, he lioke
inlo hei house, kidnapped hei, lound hei and lhiev hei off a liidge.
Iioseculois said he had pIanned lhe luigIaiv and kiIIing of ShiiIev Ciook,
and liagged lhal he couId gel avav vilh il lecause of his age.

In 2OO4 lhe Missouii Supiene Couil oveiluined his dealh senlence, finding
lhal il vas unconslilulionaI lo execule lhose vho veie 18 al lhe line of lhe
ciine. This decision vas appeaIed lv lhe slale of Missouii. On Ianuaiv 26,
2OO4, lhe US Supiene Couil agieed lo ievisil lhe decision il nade in S|anfcrd
t. Kcn|uc|u in 1989 aIIoving lhe execulion of peopIe foi ciines connilled
vhen lhev veie 16 oi 17 veais oId. On Maich 1, 2OO5, lhe US Supiene
Couil iuIed 5 lo 4 in favoi of Sinnons, finding lhe appIicalion of lhe dealh
penaIlv lo lhose leIov 18 veais of age unconslilulionaI undei lhe Lighlh
Anendnenl.

19
Roper v. Simmons: US Supreme Court, case No. 03-633, 1 March 2005
20
Ibid

2005] Juvenile Death Penalty 157



ßv slaling on lhe conslilulionaIilv of lhe dealh penaIlv undei 18, lhe US
Supiene Couil had lo ansvei lhe foIIoving queslions: hov lo define lhe
concepl of ciueI and dispiopoilionale punishnenl` ShouId lhe Lighlh
Anendnenl le consliued diffeienlIv vhelhei lhe age of lhe offendei` Does
a socielaI consensus exisl againsl lhe execulion of juveniIes` Iuslice
Anlhonv Kennedv, viiling foi lhe najoiilv
21
, poinled oul lhal nedicaI and
sociaI science evidence has shovn lhal nanv juveniIes Iack lhe naluiilv and
inleIIecluaI deveIopnenl lo undeisland lhe consequences of lheii aclions.

He viole in lhe opinion foi lhe Couil lhal 'fion a noiaI poinl of viev, il
vouId le nisguided lo equale lhe faiIings of a ninoi vilh lhose of an aduIl,
foi a giealei possiliIilv exisls lhal a ninoi´s chaiaclei deficiencies viII le
iefoined´. He aIso said lhal 'lhe age of 18 is lhe poinl vheie socielv diavs
lhe Iine foi nanv puiposes lelveen chiIdhood and aduIlhood. Il is, ve
concIude, lhe age al vhich lhe Iine foi dealh eIigiliIilv oughl lo iesl´.

Iinding lhal juveniIes aie 'calegoiicaIIv Iess cuIpalIe lhan aduIls´ lhe dealh
penaIlv lheiefoie is a dispiopoilionale punishnenl foi offendeis undei 18.
Iuslice Sandia O´Connoi dissenled, aIong vilh lhe Couil´s conseivalives,
Chief Iuslice WiIIian H. Rehnquisl and Iuslices Anlonin ScaIia and CIaience
Thonas. Hovevei, Iuslice O´Connoi fiIed a sepaiale dissenl, aiguing lhal a
lIankel iuIe againsl juveniIe execulions vas nisguided, saving lhal 'case-lv-
case deleininalion of a voung offendeis´ naluiilv is a lellei appioach´.

In concIuding lhal lhe dealh penaIlv foi ninois is ciueI and unusuaI
punishnenl in vioIalion of lhe US Conslilulion, lhe Couil aIso ciled a
'nalionaI consensus´ againsl lhis piaclice, vhich has eneiged since 1989
vhen il iuIed lhal lhe execulion of juveniIes undei 18 vas conslilulionaI. To
do so, lhe Couil veighed dealh penaIlv Iav againsl vhal a 1958 iuIing
caIIed lhe 'evoIving slandaids of decencv lhal naik lhe piogiess of a
naluiing socielv´ and Iooked lo slale IegisIalion and juiv veidicls lo decide
vhelhei a 'nalionaI consensus´ has deveIoped againsl a pieviousIv accepled
piaclice. Iuslice Kennedv added: 'Oui deleininalion finds confiinalion in
lhe slaik ieaIilv lhal lhe US is lhe onIv counliv in lhe voiId lhal conlinues lo
give officiaI sanclion lo lhe juveniIe dealh penaIlv´. Iuslice ScaIia dispuled
lhe facl lhal a 'nalionaI consensus´ exisls and said lhal lhe najoiilv opinion
vas lased on lhe 'fIinsiesl of giounds´. Moieovei, he fiinIv insisled lhal lhe
Couil shouId considei US Iav excIusiveIv in oidei lo inleipiel lhe

21
The four liberal justices who joined Justice Kennedy are John Paul Stevens, David H. Sauter, Ruth
Bader Ginsburg and Stephen G. Breyer.
158 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 1:145

Conslilulion. Hovevei, lhe Supiene Couil decided lo lake guidance fion
lhe vievs of foieign couils and IegisIaluies.

2) Thc abn!ItInnIst sIgnIfIcancc nf thc 5uµrcmc Cnurt dccIsInn

The US Supiene Couil decision viII olviousIv have significanl effecls.
Il canceIs lhe dealh senlences of 72 nuideieis vho connilled lheii
ciines as juveniIes and aie on dealh iov in 12 slales. Theii senlences
viII le connuled in Iife inpiisonnenl. This iuIing aIso conlinues lhe
couil´s piaclice of naiioving lhe scope of lhe dealh penaIlv. In facl, as
ChaiIes Lane viole foi lhe Washinglon Iosl, 'il is lhe second line in
lhiee veais lhal lhe Couil has caived oul a nev calegoiicaI exceplion lo
lhe dealh penaIlv, having lanned capilaI punishnenl foi lhe nodeialeIv
nenlaIIv ielaided in 2OO2´.
22


In joining lhe inleinalionaI consensus iejecling lhe juveniIe dealh
penaIlv, lhe USA gained a noiaI iehaliIilalion and ended ils
inleinalionaI isoIalion on lhis issue. In facl, piioi lo lhis decision, lhe
USA vas one of a fev olhei counliies in lhe voiId, incIuding Iian and
Saudi Aialia, in vhich lhe juveniIe dealh penaIlv is IavfuI. The USA
lhus slood piaclicaIIv aIone and ils posilion vas Iess and Iess lenalIe.

As Iuslice Kennedv said, 'il is piopei lhal ve acknovIedge lhe
oveivheIning veighl of inleinalionaI opinion againsl lhe juveniIe dealh
penaIlv´.

The Couil has lhus laken inlo consideialion inleinalionaI liends,
scienlific evidence, and appeaIs fion vaiious ieIigious, hunan iighls,
IegaI and chiId advocacv oiganizalions, vhich shov lhal socielv´s
ieconsideialion of lhe juveniIe dealh penaIlv has penelialed lhe Couil.
ßv conpIving vilh inleinalionaI hunan iighls slandaids, lhe Couil has
alove aII ieaffiined lhe ioIe of inleinalionaI Iav in conslilulionaI
inleipielalion. InleinalionaI hunan iighls Iav iecognised lhe
fundanenlaI diffeience lelveen chiIdien and aduIls. US conslilulionaI
Iav nov does lhe sane.
The nosl significanl effecl piolalIv is lhe facl lhal lhe Supiene Couil
decision opens lhe dooi lo lhe aloIilion of lhe dealh penaIlv pei se since
nolions of decencv aie evoIving and couId Iead lo lhe end of lhe
piaclice. As Iuslice ScaIia noled, 'aII lhis viII iesuIl in chaIIenging lhe
acceplaliIilv of lhe dealh penaIlv´. Iion lhal slandpoinl, lhe US

22
5-4 Supreme Court Abolishes Juvenile Executions by Charles Lane, Washington Post, 2 March 2005.
2005] Juvenile Death Penalty 159


Supiene Couil decision shouId lheiefoie le a coineislone in lhe
aloIilionisl piocess, in vhich inleinalionaI Iav pIavs a fundanenlaI
ioIe.

Cnnc!usInn

The fighl foi aloIilion is nol ovei, pailicuIaiIv as il peilains lo ninois: Iiisl
of aII, in sone counliies vheie lhe dealh penaIlv is piecIuded, juveniIe
offendeis conlinue lo le senlenced lo dealh, nainIv lecause lheii age has
nol leen deleinined lecause lheie is no liilh iegislialion svslen oi no
ieIialIe liilh ceilificale, oi lecause sone couils do nol lake sufficienl caie lo
deleinine il. Then, aloIilionisls shouId pav allenlion lo a possilIe 'side
effecl´ of lhe iecenl US Supiene Couil decision. Wilhoul doull, il Iinils lhe
scope of lhe dealh penaIlv, vhich cIeaiIv lhiealens lhis punishnenl pei se.
Hovevei, once sliipped of ils exliene aspecls, and naiioved lo specific
cases fion vhich calegoiies as ninois aie excIuded, lhe 'caived oul´ and
'civiIized´ dealh penaIlv couId lheiefoie le iegaided as acceplalIe. Such a
dangei shouId nol le undeieslinaled. Moieovei, vhal iecenlIv happened
in Iakislan, vheie lhe juveniIe dealh penaIlv vas ie-eslalIished in 2OO3,
shouId seive as a vaining lo aloIilionisls nol lo lake lhe dianalic piogiess
lovaids aloIilion foi gianled and lo ienain valchfuI.

In facl, coipoiaI punishnenl Iives on in socielies vheie judiciaI and ieIigious
fieIds aie sliII oveiIapping: Iian, Iakislan and IsIanic counliies iuIed lv lhe
C´naria Iav.
Wheie ieIigion encioaches on lhe penaI nallei, and ciine is vieved noie as
a sin lhan a sociaI offence, juslice expialoiv is sliII in foice. IulIic ieliilulion
and nuliIalions aie sliII iegaided as Iegilinale: sloning againsl aduIleiesses
oi decapilalion vilh lhe salie againsl ciininaIs, scouiging, elc.

The nexl lallIe shouId piolalIv le lo cIain lhal lhe dealh penaIlv is a foin
of loiluie. Iion lhis poinl of viev, ßeccaiia´s viev is sliII cuiienl since il
cIained lhal lhe secuIaiizalion of lhe penaI svslen conliilules lo sliip lhe
iighl lo punish fion lhe lailaiic and aichaic use of lhe punished lodv.

* * *
* * *
* * *
* * *

LONDON LAW REVIEW
Volume 1, June 2005, Issue 1
Foreword

This first issue of London Law Review is the start of an ambitious project with highly commendable objectives. It aims to provide students with the ability to submit for publication papers on a diverse range of legal issues, and so to enhance international academic literature with enduring excellence. It further aims to generate revenue to plough back into legal education. To do either would be an achievement: to do both, a fine achievement indeed. As reference to the papers in this first issue shows, the title “London Law Review” conceals a diverse international content. Highlights include papers on international terrorism complemented with an array of scholarship about Alternative Dispute Resolution, mediation in particular. These latter have a full European and international spectrum on a range of dispute resolution procedures which have gained increased prominence at a time when the cost and other strains of adversarial litigation accumulate. The international content is maintained with a paper about privacy and confidence relating to the media: the European theme with a paper on Insider Trading in the Netherlands. I am delighted to express my support for the launch of this publication; to congratulate all those who have contributed to its initial success; and to give every encouragement for its future establishment as a prominent source of legal academic excellence. Anthony May Royal Courts of Justice London

LONDON LAW REVIEW
Volume 1, June 2005, Issue 1
First Published in 2005 by LONDON LAW REVIEW 27 Old Gloucester Street London WC1N 3XX UK © London Law Review 2005 All rights reserved. Copyright for individual articles generally remains with the authors. ISSN 1747- 9436 (Print) The content of this journal does not necessarily reflect the position or views of Lord Woolf or the London Law Review.

Printed by Brunel University Press Uxbridge UB8 3PH UK

F. Lord Justice ANTHONY MAY EDITORIAL Looking toward the future of the LLR ARTICLES Mediation Opportunities in the EU and Internationally KARL MACKIE Proposal for an EU Directive on Aspects of Mediation PROF.LONDON LAW REVIEW Volume 1. June 2005. Hon. MARIANNE ROTH Med-ARB Hybrid: A Viable Solution? ANDREW BURR Mediation: Moving to a more Flexible Access to Justice PAOLA FERRONI Is ADR a Viable Solution or Simply Second Class Justice? T. ANDREW DE BEAULAC Injunctions Against the World PAUL DOUGAN Insider Dealing: A Dutch Perspective DIRK P. Issue 1 CONTENTS FOREWORD The Importance of the Law Review Rt. MEERBURG Critical Analysis of International Terrorism Legislation JOHN PICKLES Why is Suicide Terrorism Increasingly Becoming the Tactic of First Resort? JASMINE CHADHA Home Secretary’s Proposal on House Arrest KELECHI ONWERE The Juvenile Death Penalty Under International Law FERDERIQUE BIET 1 5 27 49 59 69 95 109 115 141 145 .

Remittance must be made by British Pound Sterling drafts payable to London Law Review or via the website (http://www. academics and members of the judiciary.uk Copyright: Copyright © 2005 by the London Law Review.lawreview. The Journal is printed by Brunel University Press in Uxbridge. UK. Scholarship Committee : The committee will be made up of various legal practitioners. the new address must include the postal code. Address changes or other requests for subscription information should be directed to the Business Manager. December. Manuscripts: The LONDON LAW REVIEW invites the submission of unsolicited articles. and (4) The London Law Review is notified of its use. London. Those letters that are selected for publication will be edited with the cooperation of the author. WC1N 3XX.org. Publication number is ISSN 1747 9436 (Print). Please provide an old mailing label or the entire old address. All subscriptions will be renewed automatically unless the subscriber provides timely notice of cancellation. and book reviews. If you are interested in becoming part of the scholarship committee then please email: Editor-in-Chief @lawreview. We cannot guarantee that letters received will be published. June 2005. (2) the author and the LONDON LAW REVIEW are identified. Claims: Domestic claims fro non-receipt of issues should be made within 90 days of the month of publication.uk) through a secure PayPal account. Address changes will be effective within three months of notice. Inquire for multivolume prepaid rates and agency rates. Subscription requests received after the first issue of a volume has been printed will run for four issues of that volume. London.lawreview.org. Editorial and general offices are located in the Monomark Building. The LONDON LAW REVIEW is published quarterly (June. The address for overnight deliveries is: LONDON LAW REVIEW. essays. the regular back issue rate will be charged for replacement.uk . London. Pieces herein may be duplicated for classroom use. September. Manuscripts can be submitted online at http://www.org. Payments in cash cannot be guaranteed. 27 Old Gloucester Street. Manuscripts cannot be returned unless a self-addressed. unless otherwise indicated by the subscriber.uk. Production: Citations in the Review conform to the BIG OSCOLA 2002: The Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities. 27 Old Gloucester Street. Internet Address: London Law Review’s home page is located at http://www. WC1N 3XX.lawreview. Correspondence should be brief and should be addressed to LONDON LAW REVIEW. provided that (1) each copy is distributed at or below cost. thereafter. overseas claims within 180 days. postage-paid envelope is submitted with the manuscript. UK.org. March) by the London Law Review. WC1N 3XX. Subscriptions: A year subscription for Volume 1 is £48 payable in advance (add £10 for foreign surface mailing). (3) proper notice of copyright is affixed to each copy. Issue 1 CORRESPONDENCE The LONDON LAW REVIEW invites letters in response to scholarship appearing in the Review within the current year.LONDON LAW REVIEW Volume 1. 27 Old Gloucester Street.

Lord Chief Justice of England & Wales Lord Woolf Executive Editor-in Chief Paul Dougan Editor-in-Chief T. Hon. Issue 1 MASTHEAD PATRON Rt.LONDON LAW REVIEW Volume 1. Pickles Editorial Board Production Editor James Doheny Articles Editor Research Editor Julie Wright Suzanne Alyamani Comments & Notes Editor Business Editor Rebecca Frankel Ruth Pogonowski Akar Kayma Luba Fjordorova Isaac Fabelurin Sharon Ajakaiye Carla Ballard Julian Torres Tim Finch Sarah Earl Aliya Syzdykova-Baxter EU & Constitutional Editor Tina Green Frederique Biet Rukia Dames Umsilla Moodley STAFF Steven Hanson Denise Williams Greg Reynolds Kelechi Onwere Nicole Abraham Asim Gaba Edward Glen Barbora Hamblin Guillaume Lecat Norma Burke Justin Richards Heike Hamercher Henry Male Nicola Sawyer Robert Bruce Erica Novium Carl Latchford . June 2005. Andrew de Beaulac Managing Editor John D.

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Two practitioners articles. or if you are interested in submitting an article. The articles in this issue demonstrate just how diverse and exciting the area of international law and dispute resolution can be.LONDON LAW REVIEW Volume 1. essay. including a piece by Frederique Biet. I hope you will find this new arrival on your desk both informative and helpful and that you enjoy reading this issue of the London Law Review. Executive Editor-in-Chief T. Issue 1 EDITORIAL Welcome to the first issue of the London Law Review. If you have any comments or questions. Dirk Meerburg from De Brauw Blackstone Westbroek Advocaats in London provides an extremely interesting analysis of insider dealing in the Netherlands. We are committed to providing our readers with broad coverage of timely and important legal issues. though a central aim of the Review is to provide a platform to enable students to further their academic writing skills through interaction with and publication alongside these legal academics and practitioners. It is envisaged that the publication will become a forum for contributions both from academia and the legal professions. Chief Executive of CEDR and Andrew Burr from Atkin Chambers in London. June 2005. Paul Dougan. and we appreciate the continued support and advice of our patron. placing it in a wider context. while Jasmine Chadha addresses the international threat of suicide terrorism. and the hard work of the law review team. Lord Woolf. Editor in Chief LONDON. provide thoughtful insights into the present state and future of dispute resolution here in the UK whilst Professor Marianne Roth and Paola Ferroni look at similar developments in mainland Europe. JUNE 2005 . Andrew de Beaulac. written by Karl Mackie. The issue concludes with our student-written articles. please do contact us. The editorial board would like to thank all of the authors for their contributions. a quarterly journal devoted to timeous and critical analysis of contemporary legal issues. speech or other work for publication. looking at issues surrounding the juvenile death penalty.

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r 1. and Director of Studies for Negotiation and Management Skills programmes for the Commerce and Industry Group of the Law Society of England & Wales. Professor Mackie is a mediator and Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators. A barrister and psychologist by training. E Carroll and K Mackie. Part 1 CPR volume 1. ! ! * ( + ! $ + $ $ & / % % #( ( ! ) (0 # " #$ $ $ ( * ! 1 "! * % ! + # $ #( !*$ * ! ! ! % !* % $ ! $ & ! + # *!! !* !* # $! * $ ! ! ! !%$ ! ! % " ! + * !* ! % ! % * ! ( ! *! !* ! % % # #!% !$ $ # !* * ! ( & !( ( ' + " $ ( ! " ! $ ! % *! !*' ! !* ! !! " ! ! !$ ! " !& $ ) !+ ( (' $* !+ ! ( ) ' !+ ! # ! % " ! " " % ! ! !* " ! $ & ! " !* ! ! ! ! ) ! # $ % # ! ! 3 !! % ! ! ! ! ! ! ' 4 !$ ! ! % ! " & 2 † Karl J Mackie. 1999. the courts are obliged to ‘encourage the parties to use an alternative dispute resolution procedure if the court considers that appropriate and facilitating the use of such procedure’. ! & !*( ! $ ! ! # " ! % * ( ! $ %!! * ! . Honorary Professor in Alternative Dispute Resolution in the Faculty of Law of University of Birmingham.! ! ( ! " * ! #!% % ! % ! ! ! $! ! ' ) ( ! ! ! ! ! % % ' $ ! " ! # ! $! % & ! !* ( ! + + ' ! ! !! " ! ' + % ' ! . Kluwer Law International. .4(2)(e). 1 According to the Overriding Objective of the Civil Procedure Rules in England and Wales. founding Chief Executive of CEDR (Centre for Dispute Resolution) in London. 2 For a review of typical international cases mediated through CEDR see the appendix of International Mediation: The Art of Corporate Diplomacy.

Slovenia. !$ $ ' * '% ( ! 4= . 1: 1 !( " + ( * $ ' + # % !* % ! ! !3 $ ! " & ! " (+ ! $ ! ! ! # $* ! ! % % ! " $ $ !0 1 % % ! % " $ % *! & !% ) !* !$ ' ! !+ !$ !$ ! + ! + (& $ ! % # ! !%$ ! ) ! $! + ! ( $* ! ' + " # ! 5$ + + ! $ !* * ( 6 * ! ' ! $ !* $ !! & / ! !% $ % ! 3# !$ $ ! ! % !* ' % $ % ! ( ! % ! 7 !8 / & ! ( ! ! #$ % *$ ! % ! *!* % !' ! $ ! ! # ! % & / !*( !+ * + ! $ !. Poland. Hungary. Malta.9 :'+ ! 9 $ !.'+ = $ !. ! ! ! !* % % $3 % $ 3 . ! " % ! ( #! " !" " ! % !* ( " $ " !* ! ! ! ' ! $ !* ! ! !* ! + $ ( & %! !* 3 The EU Mediation Atlas: Practice and Regulation. 8 June 2000 . Estonia. 3 May 2002.LONDON LAW REVIEW [Vol. Appendix 1 comparative tables on the new member states: Cyprus. !* ! $ $ ! ! % % $3 % $ 3 $ & + % !! ! $ '! !* 3# !$ & !$ # % $ ! $ ! % : $ < ! ! & % $! !*'. COM/2002/0222 final/2 6 Directive 2000/31/EC on Electronic Commerce. Latvia. 18 July 2002 5 Proposal for a Regulation concerning jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and in matters of parental responsibility. Lithuania. ! 2 ! '> *$ ' ! ! % ! ! & " $* $ ! " ! % !+ ! ' ! ! + ! " * 2 ! ! $ ! % ! ! $3 % $ 3 $ . Czech Republic. 4 Directive on Legal Aid. ! % ) ! ' !* ! ! % % ! #$ # !$ ( ' !+ + % *$ 3 ! ! $ * ! %# & ! * " ( ! ! $ % + # ( % ! ! !! $* "! $* ! !*# * % * ! ! !% ! " $ $ ! . Slovakia.

* $ ! Meditation-Opportunities ! ( %$ % % 1% ." + D 7 8 % % ! ! $ % ! ! ' " ( % $ ' ! ! !! & *$ " C $! & Green Paper of 19 April 2002 on Alternative dispute Resolution in civil and commercial matters. ! $ % ! ! ! ! ! % ! " !& .uk or call +44 (0)207 536 6000. !' . ! $# ! !. '! ! ? ! ' "* $ ( % # ! !# & " " $ ! % ( + $ !( " " ( " !& $ ! + ! ! ! ! ## *$ ( ' + ! %4= 6' ! = $ % $ ! !8 ! ! $ ! + $ ! . e-mail info@cedr.< 3 # $ $ !" " !.2005] 0 & ! 7 4= 4' = ! " $ ! & # (. . ! $ + ! ! # " $! ( ! % *$ 3 ( + " $ % % " ' ! % & % % " #( $ !. $ ! ! ! $ ! *$ ! $ % ! ! " #.co. . " ! " $ $* ? ! @ +8 ! $! # % !$ ! " ! ! #** !* ! 4= 6 + ! = ! ! * $ !. % + !A B + ! ! ! ! +% ' . !0 $ $ ( "1 ' $* ! % % $ # (' *! ! ! !$ % & % ! % ! # + ! $ ! !' ! ! ! $ + % 0! !% ! (' !% ! ! ! 1 !$ ! 3# & + * ! # * $! % ( " ! ! ! ! * + !* ! ' . ! $ * ! ! ! % $ !. COM (2002) 196 final The EU Mediation Atlas: Practice & Regulation published by LexisNexis UK can be obtained from CEDR. %. ! ! " ! % $ ! % $ ' $ * ! %# '! % ! % % *$ !& . %.

1: 1 • ! !* ! % # % % + % ! + ! % ! % ! !* % ! !*' % ' $ 3 % ! ! " !+ ! !* ! % % ! ! * ! !* ! ( % $ ! ! $ $ !% ! ( " #! * ! + % $ $ " ! !# & % " *$ ! ! % ) !* ! !( % % # % $ ' $ " # ! "! & % $! '! ! + ! " ! " (+ ' % % $* & ! ! + $ !* ! " $ ( $! " $ !& ! $ * ! % * $! ! !* % # '+ # ! " !* ! ! ! !* $ + %! $ & . = ! ! ! ) ! " ' " ! + $ ! !$ ( ! * *! ! !! $! * ! + 8 " 'E & % % ! %# ! " '+ # '! $ !! % " !* * ! $ + ! ! $ & $ ! ! ! $ # !* ! % ' ! ! ! ( % % & ! # (% $ ! ! + %* # !! " ! " !% !* !& !* .4 • • % (+ $! $ ! ! ! LONDON LAW REVIEW * [Vol. ! !$ !* # !* * % " ! ! $! ! !* ! ! ! ! ( ! " ( ! !* + # ! $ ! ! " " ! % ! ! ! ! ! $ $ ! !& ' 4= < .

COM (2004) 718 final. + & † Doctor iuris. 2 Proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and the Council on certain aspects of mediation in civil and commercial disputes of 22. Austria.! " #$ %& " ' ' &$ "# # ( )' " * $ + + . 533-36 (1997).at. 126 JURISTISCHE BLÄTTER. (8th ed. No.bka. Vom Anwalt zum Schlichter. See Roth & Markowetz.int/eur-lex/lex/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2004/com2004_0718en01. LL.gv. No. (Harvard). 2004. Section VI of the Mediation Act concerning educational establishments and mediation courses went already into effect on January 1.Ein Überblick über die neuen Bestimmungen. in BECK’SCHES RECHTSANWALTHANDBUCH 251 et seq.# ( ' + # " # ( ' " $ + '# " '# # $' 0 $ ! " ($ /1 '( " ' . 1 See Preamble. Paris Lodron University Salzburg.pdf.. . 2004/0251 (COD). Bundesgesetz über Mediation in Zivilrechtssachen ." 0 " $ 0 + % + / #$ $ + $ $ 0 # "& ! " " $ " " $ + + ' 12 & # '( + . Federal Law Gazette (Bundesgesetzblatt. 49 DEUTSCHES ANWALTSBLATT 533. 578 (1999)." . School of Law. http://www.ris. 1. Vice-Dean and Professor of Law. 296-302 (2004). infra note 2. 2004). explanatory memorandum to the proposed directive. Grilli.. http://europa.) I 2003/29. Steinbrück. 6 of the proposed directive. abbreviated BGBl. )! " # # " $" "% $ # $ "# $ / # % #.M.10. 49 DEUTSCHES ANWALTSBLATT 574.& " $ #$ $ # $ +# # 32 4/3 2 # ' ( & ( 1&32 5 " 2 # ( #0 +# 6 7 ' " $ " ( $ + $ 0 /8 #% # & .2004. Anwälte und Gerichte. 3 Act on Mediation in Civil Matters (Zivilrechts-Mediations-Gesetz) 2004. infra note 2. Mähler & Mähler.1.eu.3. Wirtschaftsmediation und außergerichtliche Konfliktlösung—Chancen für Unternehmen.

2." # ( # $ + + % " $" " . $ $" " % %/ + # ( # " " # + 9 '! '( $ % $' 0 + * " '( ! " & $ + # $ $ $ 0 '#% 6 /7 & " # $' 0 $ " # "# # % #( 0 # # "$ " $ " "%% & ' % 6 /3/7 / " ! " " $" '! $ 0 ($ $ + * # (& ' + # $ ( " # (& + #$ " # "# 0 " ! " #$ % 6 /7 / % + 6 /1/7 & $ "' . $ " " #0 # 1& $ /1 # $ $ #. 1: 5 .1.6 #0 # %"# $ $ '( ( LONDON LAW REVIEW . 1. 24 Supplements to the Stenographic Minutes of the National Assembly. See Explanatory Notes to Government Bill. XXII." # $ &0 $$ $ 6 /1/7 / "# $" $# + . No. supra note 2. hereinafter EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP (Erläuternde Bemerkungen zur Regierungsvorlage." # $ "# $" & #( $ % $$ 0 $ % &" $ $ :( 0 % " (& $ $ # #$ %* # ( " "# ' + # " /4 + % $ $ +# ' ' / % # 0 # # $ + "#( # 0 # " $" # # (& " ' # ' $ % /5 4 5 Explanatory memorandum to the proposed directive. 24 der Beilagen zu den stenographischen Protokollen des Nationalrates. XXIIth Legislative Period.$ " 0 [Vol." ! " #$ % 6 /3/7 & # $ 6 /8/7 / $ $ + . 0 + & # " $ / " / % 9 $$ $# . .

6 See Roth & Markowetz. at § 3.2005] ' " $$# # . 1. ¶ 1. 22 ADR & THE LAW (forthcoming 2005). ." # 1&$ # /3 / $ $ # & + # $$# # ( "% # % # ( % $ #% # $ "# # ( $ )' " & $ + # $" / " # $ 0 "# # 0 $ # # #% # % # 0 $ '# ( % $ + $ + / & " # ( 0 "# ' ( " 0 # # $ + + & " 0 "# "%% $ # (& $ % #+ )' # & /%/& $ 9$# & $# & $# $ " / + & $ # $" % # + $$# '# ( + $ &0 "# " )' # "% $# " $" ' "# # 0 '( + / " & 0 + &0 "# " " $ $# # 0 # # " $ $# ( %"# ( 0 + "# '" /< " > & >? / & '" $$# %= # # & . at 19.# + # " ( %"# + # " + ! " +# # # " " ' = +# # + Gesetzgebungsperiode). supra note 2. The Austrian Law on Mediation in Civil Matters. An Overview of the New Provisions. No." + $ + #% # / $ "# & 0 # .# " # # .$ " & ' # # $ Meditation Directive # " ( % % $ $ " " " " 0 0 #0 $ / # & / "& $" /. 1. Hoffmann. supra note 3. 8 See Austrian Mediation Act. No." # ( # % +# + . Der aktuelle Beitrag—Mediation. 7 Explanatory memorandum to the proposed directive.2. 63 ÖSTERREICHISCHES ANWALTSBLATT 361-62 (2001). %$ & % 7 # ' # " +# #% # $"'# $ .

supra note 5. at 20. 1: 5 #$ % + # '#/@ 0 + & 0 $ "# #% # $" A0 + 0 A "'! +# " ! " / % $" + $$ + # $ $ " $# / " # 0 "# # $ # # " ( ! " + " / # & 0 + & " % %'" % 0 # + ## 0 $ %/ & . $# ( " " " 0 "# ' +# /12 $" $ ($ $ $ 0 + $ % 0 '( $ $ #/ 7 $ " $ $" # '( ' '( # '( 0 $ ( $" & % # $ & "%% #0 6 #3# ! " ($ 0 .8 $ %& # ( 0 0 ( ' LONDON LAW REVIEW [Vol." + # '# ! % " "' + $ + + 0 "# ' #+ " / & " ) . See EBRV 24 BglNR XII GP..# " & $ $ % . & 0 ' " '( ! % " " & + '( $ $ + / = ( $ > ( $ 0 ( $ $ 9 " % . 2003) (explaining the settlement of public law disputes through mediation). ." #/ 7 " & % # $ ( $ ( ' $$ 6 # 3 # ' ' 10 See generally MEDIATION IM ÖFFENTLICHEN BEREICH (Ferz & Pichler eds. $ + '( $ $ + 6 '#& / ? $ $ #/ 7 # & $ '( ! % " # $ 0 " + #$ % .# " $& $ $ ( " # " $" & 0 #% #( ' # % / "& ' $ %& '" & " $# & .

MEDIATION: STRUKTUR. Ganner.2005] $$# 0 $"'# 9 % 1& $ Meditation Directive % # + & " 0 $ $ # /1 + # " ( (B #( # 0 $ #( # / # + "& # # " #% " $ '( $ + " 0 #% # '# $" & #( # $ $" # "# ( % # " 0 9 /11 " ( $ 0 + % # $ " # 0 C" " ' 0 # % # " # + $ '#/13 0 " ' . 56 ÖSTERREICHISCHE JURISTENZEITUNG 710. Vertragsgerechtigkeit durch Mediation. RECHBERGER & SIMOTTA. 13 See EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP." Cf. supra note 5. BREIDENBACH. See. GRUNDRISS DES th ÖSTERREICHISCHEN ZIVILPROZESSRECHTS 438 (6 ed. "& &. 712-14 (2003). supra note 5. 12 11 . 14 See Judgement of July 15. Code of Criminal Procedure (Strafprozessordnung) § 72 (with respect to the criminal sector). CHANCEN UND RISKEN DER VERMITTLUNG IM KONFLIKT 4 (1995). at 19. at 19. e.g. OGH 1 Ob 161/97a (unpublished).. 1997.! %& " ' " ' # " $ # /1< # 0/18 " & $ ( % + # " $ %$ + + # " ( ." + ( & % $ + % # $ # #$ " $ $ $ + # " # (/ ' + # + 0 " %+ % 0 #/14 # 0 + & + # $ $# ! % " "$ # % / & # #0 # $ (9 ! " 9 = "%% > " # + + ( + % + # " #% # " /15 #(& # #0 # % = > " " & $ % " ' " '( " # / '# (& $ ' " #! ' " " $ $ / . 2003). supra note 5. Austrian Supreme Court. 16 See Judicial Service Act (Richterdienstgesetz) § 57. This statutory definition is in harmony with conventional definitions of mediation found in the literature. Oberster Gerichtshof." ' $ + " % / 1. Jurisdictional Norm (Jurisdiktionsnorm) § 19. EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP. Cf. at 19. 15 See EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP.

Commission Staff Working Paper.eu. supra note 2." # / + $ '( $ + % # $ ( # ( $" $ . http://europa. $ "# ' " $ '#% ( $ + # " $ $ # 0 $" " $ $ .int/comm/justice_home/ejn/adr/adr_ec_code_conduct_en.'# . See also infra III.int/comm/justice_home/ejn/adr/adr_ec_annex_mediation_en. ¶ 2 of the proposed directive and infra III.eu. SEC (2004) 1314. 14 ECOLEX 745. . 20 See Article 3. Initiativen der EU .10 $ "# & " #( " LONDON LAW REVIEW " " $ $ . 22.2004. at 20. Annex to the proposed mediation directive. http://europa. 19 The European Code of Conduct for Mediators was presented by the European Commission on 2 July 2004." [Vol.pdf. See Kollros.1. For its drafting history see Mähler & Kerntke. 7 ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR KONFLIKTMANAGEMENT 151 (2004)." # ( 6 '( " # " * '#% 6 1/7 / " * + 3/7 / # 8& $ /1 $ $ # + $ 17 18 See EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP.Verhaltenskodex und Richtlinienvorschlag." # ( % %" %% '( "'! + " 0 + " 0/1? % # 0 '( ( + '# ( " $ " ' ( )' " $ /32 $ + 9 % .# " ( & $ #( # # (# " ' $ + # " $ "& # + #0 " # # 0 + & & '#% ' "$.1. Die Rechtsstellung des Mediators nach dem Zivilrechts-Mediations-Gesetz. 745 (2003). 1: 5 % 0 "# ( " #( "# & %+ " '(0 9 " " % + D / . supra note 5." #( # " $ E (3& 2 1@ "# 32 4/ + 9 / # $"# (& # " "# & + $ ! " #( $ % $$ * + " + # $ 0 $ $$# $$# .pdf.10.

bka.) I 2003/111.2005.% & &$ + $ $ + +# " # 8&$ # ( $ $ + (% # $ # ") ) " .gv. 0 # # & #9 $ * $ " '# " "% " & 21 Federal Law Gazette (Bundesgesetzblatt. abbreviated BGBl.at.2005] Meditation Directive " ' 0 + % % $ " ( ( + " ' "% # # .ris.01. . in force since 01. $# # ( " 0 ! " " $ ! " $"# ( "'! ' ! " #$ " #% # $ #( & $ "# " ' # + & "# $ + " % " $" $ + 32 $ 4& $ ! " #$ 32 8 2 ) " +# * (& 0 # " / ' /1 '( %/ + " $ . http://www." / " # $ (&0 11 $$ $ & + $" / " $ + " $ # $ '# ( " % # % + $" / $" $ " ( + '#% $ 0 # ' "/ " # $ "# # " '# ( 0 $$ $ ! $ '# ( # " ( # . # " " ! % " 0 % % B $ C # $$ $ '( & "%% 32 4 2 # +# $ " " $ + 31 + 0 ##% # + % + % 0 " / / 1 . .0# % / ( + & 0 + & $ % 0 " #( + # " &" # " ' $"# ( " $$# '# # # 0/ " # % # 0 "# ' + # + & # 8& $ /3 $ $ #.

¶ 3 of the Non-Contentious Proceedings Act. 23 § 29 of the Non-Contentious Proceedings Act.12 " % " 0 "# $ & $ . 1: 5 " ") ) " #+ # % '( #( $ 0 + &# # "# $ + ( $ " ## 0 0 # + # ! "# $ $ ' "# # ( / "& %# (/ " ( +# $ " "# # 0 ( ( $ $ # + $ 1/ ( " % % # #% # ." # ( + . $ '( # $ # #0 $ # + # ( / " " % $" " $ $ $ " " ( + #$ + # " E ( 3&32 4 "# 2 " $ &" ( & % $ + % #. . § 177a. &" # $ + /33 [Vol. ¶ 1 and 2 of the Austrian Civil Code for proceedings on the attribution of parental responsibilities and § 108 of the Non-Contentious Proceedings Act for contact proceedings. 24 Supra note 19. $#& " / & # ( $ " $ %-( $ + 0 # # ( " $ 34 $ 22 § 13. $ '# % + "$$ "# ' " $ ." $" & + / # " " "& # 4 & ' " % + #$ " '( % + & " ( 0 # # + ." # ( # + / # $ # + # " ( $ + % ##+ # 0 # & # % $ + 3/ ' '# $ 0 0#' # . ' # ( $ / $ # ( " % #) %"# ( ##+ # "% & . $ % /38 $ % LONDON LAW REVIEW ' % % $"'# .

32 See EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP. at § 8.mediatorenliste. supra note 5. 5. see Austrian Mediation Act.nsf/docs/home." # ( + "# ' " $ + #) %"# ( " D + '( % # % & %"# % % " # " 0 E " # # / # $"'# '( # #( # /3. 2.cils." #0 $ # % .justiz. No. at § 9." % $ $ # " ( # " %$ " 0 $ .2. No. ¶ 2 and § 30." # ( ! '# % # + # # E " 0 + ' % 0 % 3< D & # ( % # $ $ $ + '( " *3? % . No." 85 & $ ( #% & For a discussion of the European Code of Conduct‘s provisions in comparison with the Austrian Mediation Act see Pitkowitz. 34 See Attorneys Act (Rechtsanwaltsordnung) § 5. 27 Id." $ 13 # (& /35 + "% # 4 $ $ #$" $ #) %"# & 0 % $$ $ $ #( " $" $ & # + # % % ' . 4. . # # # ( $ " ' $ $ + 0 . Rights and Obligations for Mediators under the Austrian Law on Mediation in Civil Matters. 30 Roth & Markowetz. http://www." # # & " 0 ( # '# ( " /81 % . 31 See Austrian Mediation Act. supra note 5.2005] $$ $ & Meditation Directive & % $ & .GERMAN ARBITRATION JOURNAL 81. No. 26 http://www." / " " .htm.at/mediatoren/mediatoren. 1-4.net/iblb/index. ¶ 1. $ 3@ "( ( +# #$ % #0 % # ( + $ # % '#% " &" "( " $ '" " #% # . supra note 3. ¶ 3. at 24." & 0 $$ $ &# ' " #% # + /82 " # # ( 0 0 ' % # ( %& #( . 28 See EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP. 3 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS LAW BULLETIN (2004). Die neuen Mediationsregeln der EU . 3 ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR SCHIEDSVERFAHREN . 29 See Code of Civil Procedure (Zivilprozessordnung) § 320. at 23. Code of Criminal Procedure (Strafprozessordnung) § 152.Ist Österreich noch Wegbereiter?. ¶ 1. at § 3. 88-90 (2005)." #88 84 $ #% "$ & " ! % & " (& 25 " ' + 3? + $$ $ %" ( . 33 See Judicial Service Act (Richterdienstgesetz) § 57. $ /83 :( % & .gv. See also discussion infra Part IV. supra note 3. ¶ 1.

43 Id.# # 0# % & '" # ." " % & " # + &$ "# # ( % $$# ( $ 0 . ¶ 3. 4 and § 11. ¶ 2. supra note 3. case analysis. No. 4. ¶ 1. 42 Austrian Mediation Act." @& $ /1 % ' % # /8@ # # + ( / ( & '" # ' . See Psychologists Act (Psychologengesetz) § 10." % #' # # / # & $# 0 ( " % " '#% 41 " 32 0 % # ( " & $ # ( $ 0 %& # # # # % /43 ." ## . 41 A mediator is obliged to take at least 50 hours of training in a five-year period in the form of technical seminars. at 24. supra note 3. 1: 5 '( "' % #% # (& & /%/& $ $ ' $ $ # 12 $ / 1& & . 1 and § 117a. ¶ 3. 38 EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP. ¶ 2." (& $ ( . / LONDON LAW REVIEW " 0 + $ 9 $ /8< #0 $ ( 0 $ # ( ' $ + " 0 # + [Vol. No. workshops. $ & 0 + &$ "# # ( $$# 0 . at 17. 40 Austrian Mediation Act." # # ' $ #F # # % #' / #' #' / .14 $( .0# % " # $ # ( &0 # " $ ( #% # # ( $$# ." + # ' % '# E " /48 0 35 36 37 + "# # # # $ . supervision in his or her occupation. . supra note 5. supra note 3. at § 10. $ 0 $ $ + # %& " #)$# ( %/ " # 0 #% # ' + # 0/8? $$# 0 9 # #(. ¶ 1." # *" $ % ' 8. at § 14." # ( " & % ' " % #( ' # $# # ( " " # '( # . No. or similar activities. 39 Id. #/ $ . at § 13." %0 0 # 0 " ' See Notaries Act (Notariatsordnung) § 11.0# % -# # % # 0 9 9 . $ % & 0 % /42 % 0 # % . at § 11. See Austrian Mediation Act.

$#& # $# ( %& "# & & & % . ¶ 2. ¶ 2. 1. . 2. 47 Id. 1." # ( $# % $# 0 + " $ % " / $ $ #$ " # ( $" # # % & ( #0 # # % " / # (& ( % % ' "% & " % & # % # + #$ (0 (/ # (& " 0 $ % # ( $" % # % $ '# ( " /4? + # " .2." .$# $ & '" ( + $" # $ ( # ' #" +# # ( # $ % " ." # 74. supra note 5." 6 . 46 Id. See also id. No. 48 Explanatory memorandum to the proposed directive. supra note 3. at § 29. at 24. See Austrian Mediation Act. at § 29. No." &$ "# # ( $$# ) $ + ## 0 . No." # % /45 " $ # ( $ % "$ 0 0 -& # " % $ $ "$ + & $ " ." # % % " 7 D # # D$ ( #( (D # #% # .1.2005] # /44 Meditation Directive 15 3@&$ / 3 & #$ % . ¶ 1. at § 29." " ' ' 0 $ ' 0 # % $ + % $ & ( # $ " # 0 & # " ' " 44 45 See EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP. / " + #$ ( #(& # # E " " F " %"# 0 # $ + % "# %0 " # /4< % # # " & $ & " & ' ' 0 * # #0 + / # " " ( "#( # ( " ! " % ." 32 2 82 2 %" $$# ) $ & 2 32 12 2 %" / #$ & " " " .0# % #0 % # ! *$ " & & $ D' " 6 $ "# # . supra note 2." ( % % % . at § 4. ¶ 1 (stating that this Council is to be set up to advise the Federal Justice Minister on mediation matters).

supra note 18. 2.% # % '# )' " &0 $ (9 # " ( $ ( # #0 " -& # 5& $ / 1 $ $ $ + $$ $ $ " 0 '( '# # ( *52 " # # % '( '# ! % " & " $"'# # % ' '( 0 ' # ( $"'# " . Comments on Article 5." " ( " '# + . Ibidd.16 # &" . 1: 5 % #0 " # % % + %' "' . No." ! " # "'! $ / "& $" # " % + 0 '# " $ ! " #$ % 0 / % / % # #$ # & # 0 ( $ / % ' 0 # " + 0# ' # " '( + " #(' # / # & ." LONDON LAW REVIEW 0 '# ' % # $ [Vol." # '( # ($ " " ! " ." "# & " " " ( ! % " " ( " $ 0 ..0 # $' 0 $" % . ." 0 # " % '# + $ % &' ( # $" & % ' $ "# + (' " '# %+ &$ ( $ ! " #$ " /4@ & '# " % '" $ ! $ % $ + ' ' '# ( % $ " #% # (& $ $ + '# #% # 0 ." $"'# " ( $ /51 (& /%/& Ibid. Commission Staff Working Paper." & "$ $ + # $ "# " / ." ( & ' ( ## 0& ' # % #0 / $ + # 0 # $ $ # ( #0 0 + &0 49 50 51 $ " '# ( # / $ $ '# ( # ( 0 0 ( .

. ¶ 1 lit. Article 57 in connection with Articles 38 ff. 56 § 3 of the Austrian Notaries Act (Notariatsordnung). 805/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 creating a European Enforcement Order for uncontested claims. L 12/1. No.2005] . 2201/2003 of November 2003 concerning jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and the matters of parental responsibility. 2001. ' # '" # 0 "$ + '# ( # & 52 53 Ibid. a and d." * $ $ % $ 1/ % * " # '( "' " % % & % '( "' 0 ( % " " '# % &0 ! % " %"# # $ $ ' 0 " + % . OJ of April 30. See Regulation (EC) No. 44/2001 of December 2000 on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters." + " 17 ' # (& $"'# '# ( " ' ( ( '( /53 ' " " " #( # '# # ' 0 " $ $ % " " ( # ' " 0 & 0 + & . OJ of January 16. 22. 54 See Council Regulation (EC) No. 2004. 24 and 25." # # ( # %0 # /54 %"# $ + #% * # $ '# ( % ' 0 $ ' " $ ( # ' 0 " + %' $$ + $"'# " (/55 " * # $ & + - ( /58 # + # (& :" # %"# '# ( $ :" # ' $ # '# ' '( " + + ( $ # '# ( (' ' $ 0 "' % '# # " /5. No. Preamble. Articles 3. + " : % $ % % $ " $ + ' Meditation Directive $ ( 0 $ $ # . 17 of the Austrian Enforcement Code (Exekutionsordnung). OJ of December 23. 1347/2000. L 338/1. 55 Council Regulation (EC) No. L 143/15. repealing Regulation (EC) No. 2003." #+ # / " + " # 5& $ /3 ' " 0 $ . § 1.

2006). ENTWURF EINES NEUEN SCHIEDSVERFAHRENSRECHTS 113-15 (Rechberger ed. 59 UN Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards.2 + 0 + " $ '# . § 1.1 ) $ $ 9 ( # " % 0# # ' -$ # " $ & "" # " $ . CHANCEN UND RISKEN DER VERMITTLUNG IM KONFLIKT 288-89 (1995).26/8/Rev. 60 § 204 of the Austrian Code of Civil Procedure (Zivilprozessordnung).18 0 ' '# " #0 LONDON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 53. Vol. 16 of the Austrian Enforcement Code (Exekutionsordnung). 2002). No.1. 67 ÖSTERREICHISCHE RICHTERZEITUNG (1989) No. in PRACTITIONER’S HANDBOOK ON INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION 574 (WEIGAND ED. XXVII. 745-46 (2003). 2002). " " #0 # % "% '#& " " $# % " % /. Article 58 of the Brussels I Regulation." " /. Country Report-Austria. See Judgment of 25 January 1989. 14 ECOLEX 745. See Liebscher. 1 of the Proposal for an Arbitration Law Amendment (Schiedsrechts-Änderungsgesetz 2005. 85-90 (2005) (ignoring the European Enforcement Order Regulation). abbreviated BGBl) 1961/200.Ist Österreich noch Wegbereiter?. E/Conf. 62 See Kollros.. See OBERHAMMER.1.GERMAN ARBITRATION JOURNAL 81. Austrian Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof)." ! " #$ % &0 " ( $ % #( . No. 57 .. BREIDENBACH. Veröffentlichungen des Ludwig-BoltzmannInstituts für Rechtsvorsorge und Urkundenwesen. June 10. expected date of entering into force: 1. No. Die neuen Mediationsregeln der EU . New York. UN-Doc. 58 § 605. 61 But see Pitkowitz. $# & ' 0 / ! " # % #( %"# % # $ § 605.3 % $ $# $ ( " (& 0 '# % -( + % & $ % #( $ / 0 + # 0 % $ & & + # ($ # (/ '# ( "' . 1958. 1: 5 5< ## 0& # 5? '# # ( % & 0 " & '" # #( " # 1@5? + % % ' # 0 6 0 G = + > /5@ 7 $ + % # % '( ' # '" # 0 + & # & ( " '# $ ' $ # $" + & + % " ' &$ # / # $ '# ( + # '# ! " #$ %* $ $ ( " # % + % '# " # /. Austrian Federal Law Gazette (Bundesgesetzblatt." # ( & . 3 ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR SCHIEDSVERFAHREN . 2 of the Proposal for an Arbitration Law Amendment (Schiedsrechts-Änderungsgesetz 2005.1. Die Rechtsstellung des Mediators nach dem Zivilrechts-Mediations-Gesetz.2006). expected date of entering into force: 1. MEDIATION: STRUKTUR.

2.. Comments on Article 6.2005] #( / ' " '($ $ + + $ + $ $ % # $ $ $ '# ( $ 1/ % /. which would be made mandatory if it were to be laid down in law (possibly subject to if the parties have agreed otherwise). supra note 18. $ $ '# '( $ $" D '( $ ( ( " $ # '( $ ( '( ## ( $ / D 0# % # D $" $ + $ % $ 1 ( + #! " + # ' # # # # / $ # " % $ 1 # " % # $ $ # $$# # ( '( & $ " " % $ ! " 1& + #" Commission Staff Working Paper. Commission Staff Working Paper./ + #0 * # . 2.. No. .8 # 0 # . The protection of confidentiality outside any subsequent judicial proceedings does not call for a regulatory intervention. No.4 % Meditation Directive $ + '# % %"# $ # (& # 0 % "$& #( 9$ /. Comments on Article 6. supra note 18. and there is not sufficient public interest to establish binding rules on this issue at Community level. It is purely a question of a contractual rule." $ + # 0 %+ # # 19 ' " $ / $ + # #( %"# + #! " # & 0 # # + & ( + ($ # # % % ( $ "%% # + # + +#! " ( %% #$ # 0 %* # D % %+ 67 + '( $ $ (0 0 # % $ # 6 '7 67 D 67 67 $ $ 67 3/ + 8/ ' $ + 63 64 0 $ .

at 30. . mediation law and rules see van Ginkel.5 $ $ $ 0 % "#& " %"# " % /. Die Rechtsstellung des Mediators nach dem Zivilrechts-Mediations-Gesetz. supra note 18. Comments on Article 6." 6 '7 + % .pdf. 66 Commission Staff Working Paper.org/english/texts/arbitration/ml-conc-e.20 '#/ + 67 .S. 2. / # %0 # (& $ # ! " #$ % + 0 ' #( 65 General Assembly A/57/17. $ + ' # 12 # /. 1: 5 # "# $"'# $ # (& $ "# 0 # $ + % ( $ & % 8 $" 0 '# / # # "# & ' " & + (% $ # $ # " 0 % "( #0 ( + '( 9 "( "$ # #0 " + '( ' / # $$# 0 # ( 0 '# .. http://www." .. The UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Conciliation.$ . 14 ECOLEX 745. For a critical analysis of the UNCITRAL model law in light of U. 67 See EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP. & 1?& . 745-46 (2003). & + LONDON LAW REVIEW # &" ." # $" $ % (' $# [Vol.uncitral. 1-65 (2004). Kollros. No. A Critical Appraisal. $ $ $ %$ + # # 0 " # (& $$ $ + % % /. 21 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION.< $ + " 0 # # ( % # ( # '( " & 0 # # ( " $ . supra note 5." " $ ( # $( 67 4/ "'! $ + ! " $ #% $ $ # #$ % $ 1&3 % # / 5/ "'! $ % $ 1& + ! " #$ % ' + %' " # .

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GESETZESTEXT UND KOMMENTAR. MEDIATION. 85 (2005).GERMAN ARBITRATION JOURNAL 81." %+ ( + % % #+ +# #$ %/ & $ . § 31 Austrian Mediation Act. at fn. FERZ/FILLER. $ "# ' ." LONDON LAW REVIEW + / [Vol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§ 31 of the Austrian Mediation Act.22 % $ # ( . . See also Pitkovitz. 2.Ist Österreich noch Wegbereiter?. Die neuen Mediationsregeln der EU ." ' # ( . 3 ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR SCHIEDSVERFAHREN .

/ $ + # #0 * # $ $ "$ . #% # # " + & $ /<< # # % # # "#& $ + # ' 0 $ 33& $ /3 + # . at 31. 301-302 (2004).Ein Überblick über die neuen Bestimmungen. Roth & Markowetz. $ 0 ' ' "% + # "$ /1 $ + " %"# 33& $ # 0 (* % % % . 2002). Bundesgesetz über Mediation in Zivilrechtssachen . at 31. does not affect current case law under which mere settlement negotiations only suspend the expiration of the period of limitation until the end of negotiations plus a short grace period. however. 301-302 (2004). DER ZIVILPROZESS IN DER PRAXIS 71 (3rd ed. HOLZHAMMER & ROTH. See EBRV 24 BlgNR XII GP. supra note 5. BÜRGERLICHES RECHT I 206 (12th ed. $# # $ " # '( % ( "$ " $ $ $' 0 $ % $ & "$ # #0 ( " " " % '( # & # " # # ( '( # /<5 $ # /<.% # " %" & $ " #0 % $ 0 # " + $ " %/ # 0 # # 0 0 # # ( % 0 ' ( + " %"# 23 & " + # 0 ( # %& . 126 JURISTISCHE BLÄTTER. Roth & Markowetz. 1999) (providing examples on the suspensive effect of settlement negotiations and references to case law). See generally on the suspension of limitation periods KOZIOL & WELSER. supra note 5. 296. 77 See EBRV 24 BlgNR XXII GP. 2004). " " Meditation Directive # <&$ / 3 " 0 " % " $ $ $ % & " 0 " 0 % # / $ $ + + .Ein Überblick über die neuen Bestimmungen. ¶ 1 of the Mediation Act. 126 JURISTISCHE BLÄTTER. DEIXLER & ROTH. 296. # &+ ( " # ( % % / # # ( 75 The suspensive effect applies to statutes of limitations as well as to so-called preclusive periods. . Bundesgesetz über Mediation in Zivilrechtssachen . 76 § 22. BÜRGERLICHES RECHT 93-94 (6th ed.2005] # & " $ # $ .

24 '( . 0 0 # %" ' " " 0 " ' # 78 See Austrian Mediation Act. + 0 # (& % LONDON LAW REVIEW /<? :( 0 ( $ # "$ '( " ' # ( 0 / # # % / $ " 0 " " % # #0 ( % / & 0 + & $ # . 1: 5 $# # (/ ' 0 $ $ + 0 "$ $ # " " & % # ' "% % ) + 0 # " " ! " $ ' $" + $ + .# " +# # # [Vol. $ #0 0 $ $ + & # %"# "$ # & " #0 # $ ( $ $ % "$ # $ & % " # 0* # (& $ " # ( . * + $ $$ $ $ $ $ 0 0 " ' + # " #$ / +# " % %/ "# / # " &0 "# + ( % $$# 0# + # " $$ $ # &' $ $ # 0 $" " '! + * # '( $ % " # $ ' 0 & 0 + & $ # ( 0 '# (* % & " #0 $# ( $ $ + " % (# % "'! + " #( & "# / (' # $ 0 $$ D " $ #0 $ + # " ' %# (/ # + # " $" 0 # # ! " ' 0 . at § 22.$# 0 # (0 " #( # " 0 %% "$ + & 0 + & ( " # ( " " ( '#% " # 0/ 0 # $ . supra note 3. ¶ 2. .

" $ $ $ + #% $ " / (' ( &0 " " #0 " &'" # " " $ %"# % " $ :" # %"# / # & # % " # ' # # 0 % &0 ' 0 G + % 0 / +# # & " ." # ( $ # " Meditation Directive + 0 # # & " "% + 25 #+ # % # & % # ( #( # . # ( . $ "# / :( .% + # '# % # (." / " $ $ + $ " 9 # "# . " 9 $ ' + %" $ "# $ 0 $ $ + &0 % % % "% & " $# 0 .2005] : $ $ $ $ (* & / ." # ( "$ '( -( " ." # '($ + % $ '# # % # 0 # + # #% # ( # $ $ ' # ." " $ $ # " % #( "$ #0 $ + # %"# + % % # "# $ . % % # #0 # ( "#( # + & + "% # % '# # " ( " & # ( 0 # # (' & + ' # # # ' ' # 0# # $# & $" / 0 + " + + & # # #& # ( # " + "% " $# $ + $ $ 32 8 " 2 # % ." # $ 0 # $ $ + / &0 % #0 " ' + / + / # + .

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to consider precisely where that concept fits into the general dispute resolution landscape.MED-ARB: A VIABLE HYBRID SOLUTION? Andrew Burr†† Introduction This article sets out first. . in an advisory capacity with regard to ADR and sits as adjudicator under the TeCSA rules. to provide a working definition of the concept “Med-Arb”. reduced stress compared to litigation Settlement conference Neutral performs case evaluation and advises as to probable result. Acts generally as advocate in litigation and arbitration. 1 Atkins Chambers. Barrister specialising primarily in domestic and international construction and technology disputes. to provide a short history of its use (including a bibliography of the available literature). assists in negotiations † Andrew Burr MA (Cambridge). thirdly. reduced stress compared to litigation Mediation Mediator assists parties in negotiations and facilitates settlement Less direct and indirect cost. and finally to consider the various pros and cons of Med-Arb. TECBAR and COMBAR. reduced stress compared to litigation Negotiation Parties attempt to reach joint settlement Less direct and indirect cost. Member of Midland and Oxford and European Circuits. A dispute resolution roadmap Low cost. secondly.

Mediation is the least adversarial whilst litigation is the most so. If no settlement continues to arbitration Structured adversarial case presentation. time-consuming and as costly as many cases put before the courts. or court ordered Summary jury trial Voluntary. voluntary. is often regarded as cumbersome. Dispute resolution methodologies Alternative dispute resolution (ADR). .28 Less direct and indirect cost. contractual. Structured proceeding if case goes to arbitration Med-Arb Mediator assists parties in negotiation. confidential assisted negotiation. hears summary case presentations and issues non-binding decision Private. voluntary. But parties that enter into ADR often enjoy a more economical resolution and a speedier determination of the issues in dispute than if the case was litigated. touted as the fast and cost-effective solution to litigation. assists with discovery plan. case management and settlement Structured adversarial case presentation. reduced stress compared to litigation LONDON LAW REVIEW Early neutral evaluation [VOL. or court ordered Arbitration Arbitrator presides over case and issues a binding award subject to court review Structured adversarial case presentation Litigation Judge hears case presentation and issues binding judgment subject to appeal Figure 1 : Explanation of dispute resolution methods. The selected method should obviously match the perceived needs of the case and of the particular clients. 1:27 Evaluator narrows issues. or court ordered Mini-trial Panel hears summary case presentation. neutral panel member may assist with settlement negotiations Structured adversarial case presentation. voluntary. or paid jury.

Early neutral evaluation . Settlement conferencing A neutral and impartial legal professional hears both sides of the case. whilst also taking into account the personality of the parties. Mediation does however increase the likelihood of settlement. facilitates communication between the parties but has no decision-making authority and cannot give legal advice. Each process has its advantages but also carries risks. Since it is based on voluntary disclosure of information and good faith of the parties discovery may need to be undertaken. Mediation Mediation is recommended when the parties’ emotions or positional bargaining have restricted their ability to negotiate but they do not wish to hand the decision-making to a judge or arbitrator. conducts an informal assessment and negotiation session and then may advise the parties on the law and precedent relating to the dispute and suggest a settlement. The mediator. a neutral and impartial third party. Proper use requires a thorough analysis of the case. It is inappropriate if the case requires precedent-setting issues for judicial opinion and may not be successful if the mediator’s attitude or style is inconsistent with the needs of the parties. The objective should be to employ the least expensive and intrusive method to achieve the most positive result for the client. There are risks involved in settlement conferences as some element of trial strategy may be disclosed or compromised in the process. The following summary adopts a “trickle-up” approach. The difference between mediation and a settlement conference is primarily one of style: mediation uses facilitative bargaining techniques and settlement conferences use directive and reality-testing techniques. the parties’ needs and the potential methods of resolution. vexatious would-be litigants are unlikely to be content with a straightforward mediation process. Negotiation Negotiating a settlement is an efficient and cost effective way to resolve disputes as settlement is reached without the expense of a neutral third party but may not be appropriate if one of the parties is in a position of power or control over the other.2005] MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution 29 Figure 1 above highlights the available methods of dispute resolution which are examined in greater detail below.

the neutral evaluator requires considerable time and effort to study the case and the parties are left asking why they should pay both an arbitral tribunal and a neutral evaluator to do more or less the same work. 1:27 The parties’ perception of the dispute and their expectation with regard to the final decision are a major factor in the parties’ determination to continue with proceedings rather than accept settlement. Early neutral evaluation (ENE) is non-binding and confidential evaluation process conducted in the early stage of a lawsuit by an experienced litigator. The risks of using mini-trial include possible disclosure of trial strategies and the added expense and delay if a trial is required. a neutral and an official with settlement authority from each party listens to the evidence and conduct settlement negotiations. The objective here is to provide litigants with a jury verdict to help them facilitate settlement and can be an effective. In complex cases. but they can be an efficient and cost-effective method of resolving complex litigation disputes. assist in settlement.30 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. Clarification of the dispute can make a decision to reach settlement. Mini-trial In a mini-trial. mediation and adjudication to facilitate settlement with the objective of achieving settlement between top decision-makers of the parties. The minitrial combines elements of negotiation. assist in case planning and management and. low-risk method to obtain a case assessment on which to base settlement negotiations. but who should provide clarification? Neutral evaluation is the recommended tool for promoting a settlement. if appropriate. A neutral evaluator is either appointed by the court or the parties and intervenes in order to narrow the issues. Med-Arb Med-Arb is a process whereby a neutral third party is employed to first serve as a mediator and then as an arbitrator if mediation fails to resolve the . ENE though does have its drawbacks when combined with arbitration. Summary jury trial Summary presentations in complex cases are made before a jury empanelled to make findings which may or may not be binding and is the only ADR method providing for case presentation before a jury.

2005] MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution 31 dispute. Although arbitration is less formal than court proceedings it is still adversarial. the parties can move to arbitration to reach a binding decision. Arbitration’s objective is to reach a final and binding award. There are risks involved in that the parties may not disclose facts to the mediator if there is a possibility that he will become arbitrator. However. the arbitrator or judge makes a decision in accordance with the law. The arbitrator’s duty is to make a binding decision. Essentially. Arbitration One or more neutral and impartial expert third parties hear and consider the evidence provided by the disputing parties and issue a binding or nonbinding decision. Med-Arb provides leveraged mediation and when used successfully the parties rarely go to the arbitration phase. but the mediator has neither duty nor authority to do so. voluntary agreement or court order. In arbitration and litigation. If the arbitrator sees potential for settlement he may recommend the parties make an attempt at conciliation. whereas mediation’s intention is to bring the parties to a binding agreement. mediators are able to promote settlements which go beyond the confines of the contract and the parties are subject only to public policy in reaching an agreement. The arbitrator’s decision may be legally binding on the parties and is enforceable by any court having jurisdiction. Differences between mediation and arbitration Whether parties enter into arbitration or mediation is largely determined through contractual obligation. The practice of such recommendations is current in the national courts of a number of countries as illustrated below: . The process works best when the parties are of relatively equal bargaining experience and when the efficiency of Med-Arb outweighs the strategic effect of the mediator’s anticipated role change. The decision can be non-binding and advisory only if the parties agree in advance. It is cost effective since the same neutral can decide the case and it can help the parties preserve their relationship by promoting communication and settlement and using arbitration only to decide those issues upon which settlement cannot be reached. although this is not an automatic outcome of the process. This process is a combination of mediation and arbitration and has the benefit that if mediation fails.

1:27 Country England Practice The Commercial Court issued a Practice Statement where if the judge feels the action or issues are appropriate for an attempt at ADR settlement and the parties have not previously done so. But is such a combination possible? Judges in common law countries are not permitted to become involved in settlement facilitation. but in civil law countries. success or failure. That same party however may be less successful on other issues that have yet to be decided. The parties believe that having engaged in arbitration the arbitral tribunal should settle the dispute and resent the perceived attempt of the tribunal to transfer its task to a mediator. The effectiveness of a partial award can be questioned since it treats only part of the dispute and favours the party with the stronger case concerning the issues decided. An arbitral tribunal may decide certain critical issues in advance of others and if the parties do not reach agreement the task of a mediator may be used by the partial award.32 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. s/he can invite the parties to set ADR procedures in motion and adjourn proceedings to enable the parties to take such steps Judicial mediation where the court appoints “médiateur” (consultant/expert) to discuss the case with the parties outside court. without releasing information about the content of the mediation or the parties’ position Annexed mediation is a frequent feature and is sometimes required by law France United States Figure 2: National court practice in recommending conciliation This mediation window is met with favour by some arbitration practitioners but is rarely used in international arbitration. Is Med-Arb possible? The most efficient combination of arbitration and mediation is when the same person acts both as arbitrator and mediator. The mediator reports the result. the position varies: .

Starting conciliation proceedings. . and fundamental differences in. It is necessary for the arbitrators and counsel to proceed with caution when conducting Med-Arb and when settling procedural aspects of such combination. but not others Not permissible France Italy Mexico Sweden Switzerland Turkey Figure 3: Civil law countries’ approach to Med-Arb There is therefore a variety of. The following should be taken into consideration when a case in arbitration moves to mediation: (i) (ii) Idea of settlement discussions. which is reflected in the cultural differences regarding arbitration and dispute settlement procedures in general.2005] Country MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution Position 33 Austria/ Germany Brazil Judge can stay any stage of the proceedings to see if an amicable settlement of the dispute or any contentious issues can be resolved Section 125 of the Code of Civil Procedures expressly proscribes conciliation between the parties as a judicial duty Mediation is expressly mentioned as one function of a judge No provision exists in civil law Combination is not permitted. attitudes towards a combination of arbitration and mediation. Conflicts arise where parties of different cultural background and different experiences meet in international arbitration. Conciliatory efforts are performed by a court official different from the judge trying the case The law requires courts under certain circumstances to promote settlement but in practice judges are reluctant to get involved in settlement attempts by the parties The practice is known is some cantons.

(ii) Starting conciliation In view of the differences between arbitration and mediation it is important to distinguish between the two. At this time. When the arbitrator commences mediation. [VOL. (iii) Participants The mediation process must be supported by a full arbitral tribunal. and if so agreed the arbitrator may meet the parties separately. Meeting parties separately.34 (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (i) LONDON LAW REVIEW Participants in the mediation. all points giving rise to the conflict and differences in Med-Arb must be clarified. Meetings should be attended by decision makers within the organisation and that those involved in the origin of the dispute should be discouraged from creating a negative impact when their own responsibilities and emotions are involved. that in case settlement fails arbitration may proceed before the same arbitral tribunal and that participation of the arbitrator in mediation is no grounds for the parties objecting to that person as arbitrator. 1:27 Settlement discussions The arbitral tribunal must not engage in settlement attempts without the parties’ prior consent. . Methods and scope of the discussion. all parties should be made aware that they are entering a new stage of the proceedings. It is worth considering confirming that settlement is made at the request or express consent of the parties. If the tribunal is prepared to assist the parties in their settlement attempt at a later stage in the proceedings the parties should be made aware of this from the start and be allowed to express reservations. It must be cautious when raising the idea of assisting the parties in their settlement attempts and be aware that the parties have conflicting expectations and interests. even if the attempt is envisaged only for a later stage. Arbitrators should leave no doubt about their willingness to decide a dispute and all issues which the parties fail to settle. After the conciliation. Settlement proposals. that if agreed the arbitral tribunal is required to make a settlement proposal.

Pressure on the parties in their efforts to reach a settlement should also be avoided although some situations may be justified. for example: Germany Hong Kong India Switzerland USA Against Positive reaction Not permissible Not uncommon but controversial Against (v) (vi) (i) The objections raised concern: the effectiveness of conciliation and private meetings if the mediator later has to decide the case as arbitrator (providing the parties agree. Settlement proposals Is it admissible or suitable to make a settlement proposal? The specific request or authority must be given to the mediator before such a proposal can be made.g. to avoid the risk of a negative outcome. and continuation of proceedings after a failure of settlement attempt and use of confidential information obtained by the arbitrator in private meetings. e. Meeting parties separately This aspect of mediation raises the most serious objections to the arbitrator’s settlement efforts. duration. cost. Post conciliation If mediation is successful. There is widespread opposition in common law countries to private meetings with parties.2005] (iv) MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution 35 Method and scope The arbitrator may give an indication to the parties of the views that might be taken when deciding the case but avoid any exaggeration. it is advisable to record the settlement. The parties may agreed on an award by consent which is enforceable like any other award. for example. it cannot now be argued that it is inadmissible for a mediator to continue as arbitrator). where the solution to the dispute in a decision based on law may not make commercial sense or the value of the dispute is out of proportion to the costs. (ii) (vii) .

The table below examines the rôles of mediation and arbitration and how Med-Arb is formed. Mediation The traditional role of the mediator is that of a person engaged to assist the parties in reaching settlement without conferring decision making powers on him. the parties can continue to arbitration. arbitration will normally have to continue. bringing evidence and argument they believe is needed to support it. The tribunal then decides the dispute. arbitration and Med-Arb . In mediation taking place outside of or pending litigation or arbitration the mediator looks for elements beyond the dispute to enlarge the scope of a possible settlement and create grounds for the outcome to satisfy all parties. Med-Arb The scope of the dispute before the arbitrator places constraints on the mediator’s efforts. The starting point of mediation is a dispute. Arbitration The traditional western form of the arbitration process is a two-staged process whereby the parties present their case. All is not lost however since the mediation may have produced clarification on certain points which may be used in arbitration and the task of the tribunal may be reduced to a choice between the last two offers made in mediation. It should also be decided if a new argument or evidence may be presented or if the tribunal must decide the case as it stands at the end of the settlement attempt. The third party intervening to bring about settlement is expected to be a professional and unrelated either to the parties or the dispute. 1:27 If mediation fails. As a result. settlement efforts by the court or arbitral tribunal differs in scope from the mediator’s acting in a manner unrelated to pending court or arbitration proceedings Figure 4: Differences between mediation. Med-Arb harnesses the benefits of mediation with the comfort of knowing that should agreement fail to be reached. Why choose Med-Arb? In essence.36 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL.

effective communication. but Med-Arb allows the parties to achieve early case resolution with huge cost savings Med-Arb less biased and ritualistic than arbitration and covers more human elements such as politics. cultural differences. especially international arbitration. provide creative solutions and can give a reality-check to the parties Arbitrators can be too passive or make procedural orders by rote with little or no regard to cost to the parties of compliance Cons Confidentiality Separate party meetings The parties fear abuse of documentary disclosure especially if the dispute proceeds to arbitration and confidential information has been given to the mediator The largest barrier to adopting Med-Arb as one party may fear confidential information may be released to the other party during settlement discussions.2005] Mediation MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution Arbitration Med -arb 37 Unable to reach settlement Settle and issue non binding agreement Figure 5: The Med-Arb process Pros and cons of Med-Arb Pros Cost Creative solutions Building trust Style Arbitration. as opposed to litigation-relevant selection of facts Effective mediators help to structure negotiating teams and negotiations. is expensive and complex. The solution here may be to suggest that the mediator should forget what he has heard in the confidential meetings or that the mediator should decide whether information obtained during settlement discussions prevents him from continuing as arbitrator .

also the easiest and quickest to answer. In other words. the Labour Relations Code of British Columbia.1 Employment and labour relations: see. Professor van den Berg (for one) strongly disapproved of the process and memorably described it as “talking with two tongues in cross-cultural confusion”. namely: • • • A solution to what? Is there only one form of this hybrid? When. for example. 3 Please see page 231 of ADR Principles and Practice (second edition).org). This paper proceeds upon the basis that we are here concerned with the satisfactory resolution of substantial commercial disputes in the most speedy and cost-effective manner. we should also bear in mind that. by Henry Brown and Arthur Marriott QC. The solution here may be to suggest that the mediator should forget what he has heard in the confidential meetings or that the mediator should decide whether information obtained during settlement discussions prevents him from continuing as arbitrator Some recorded examples The title to this paper obviously raises a number of sub-issues. . less than ten years ago. the Institute of Family Mediation and Arbitration in the United Kingdom. for example. why and in what solution viable? In this regard.38 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. for example.arbitrators. perhaps.2 Matrimonial differences: see. Described in Med-arb: Fraught with danger or ripe with opportunity?. the Association of British Travel Agents/ Chartered Institute of Arbitrators Med-Arb scheme for tour operators and travel agents. by David Elliott (1996) Arbitration 175. A solution to what? The first sub-question seems to the author to be the most important and. are ignored for the purposes of the present discussion: • Consumer affairs: see. the following arenas. 1:27 discussions. in particular.3 • • 1 2 Launched in May 2003: see the website of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (www.

the case (or any unresolved issues therein) can then be submitted to the arbitrator for a binding decision. apply? 4 5 Please see footnote 2 above. coupled with limited argument. mediate. start arbitration proceedings and allow for mediation at some point during the arbitration. they preside over an information exchange as between the parties. by Professor Pieter Sanders (1996) Arbitration 168. if unsuccessful. Another med/arb variation growing in popularity is mediation. Please see page 174 of Cross-border arbitration. if mediation fails.a view on the future. addresses the problems of confidential (and unfavourable) information by having two different people perform the rôles of mediator and arbitrator. then return to mediation. or rules. Jointly. if unsuccessful ask for an “advisory opinion” by the mediator. This particular paper concentrates primarily upon the second of the above alternatives (namely allowing for the use of mediation in the course of ongoing arbitral proceedings) and that is what it will do. Professor Pieter Sanders has charmingly described this “mediation window” As the ‘intermezzo’. . unless either party vetoes the opinion within a limited period of time.2005] MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution 39 Is there only one hybrid? There are many variations on the theme. As with all modern forms of dispute resolution. sometimes called “co-Med-Arb". As David Elliott stated in an article published some eight years ago:4 “An increasing number of variations on the med/arb process are emerging: • mediate first and. arbitrate.” • • • • A further variant. following which the mediator turned arbitrator must choose one or other of the offers. followed by a final offer by each side. mediate some issues and arbitrate others. mediate. If mediation fails to achieve a settlement. it is therefore always necessary to consider the method appropriate for any given set of circumstances. then arbitrate some unresolved issues. which is binding as an award.5 What relevant laws. after which the mediator works with the parties in the absence of the arbitrator.

Section 27 of the New South Wales Commercial Arbitration Act 1990 Amendment. one party was Japanese and the other American……. Section 2B of the Hong Kong Arbitration Ordnance 1990’ Article 38(4) of the Japanese Arbitration Act.7 as follows: …. why and in what circumstances is the solution viable? A review of the available literature reveals a limited number of specific examples from different jurisdictions of the practical application of MedArb.. at pages 9 to 11 inclusive. . Article 1043 of The Netherlands Arbitration Act 1996. In addition. 7 arbitrators acting as mediators. by Haig Oghigian (2002) Arbitration 42. expressly stated their intent to continue their business relationship and……they had no intention of terminating their relationship……. Other helpful examples were also gathered together in the extremely comprehensive paper delivered by Michael Schneider to the ICCA Congress in Seoul in 1996 . Article 13 of the WIPO Mediation Rules. at pages 44 to 45. 6 Combining arbitration with conciliation. by Michael E Schneider (1996) ICCA Congress Series no.in the three instances where I have employed this concept. the parties. each of which is cited at some length below. though in significant commercial dispute. various statutory provisions permit the same individual to combine the rôles of mediator (or conciliator) and arbitrator. Section 17 of the Singapore International Arbitration Act 1994. • When. 1:27 Around the world.6 The Canadian experience Haig Oghigian reported in an article published in 2002. These include the following examples: • • • • • • The Bermuda Conciliation and Arbitration Act.in all three cases. 8. the following exemplify particular rules which specifically permit similar provision: • Rule 11(5) of the Rules for International Commercial Arbitration and Conciliation Proceedings of the British Columbia International Commercial Arbitration Centre..40 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL.

First. to one degree or another. because I now knew the soft spots of each party’s case and could move them towards seeing . without ruffling feathers or risking the possibility that someone could claim bias. motivated much more purely to avoid a win/lose situation and to focus on compromise to achieve settlement.2005] MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution 41 It dawned on me that the most effective way to disarm a possible challenge to my ability to maintain my impartiality in both roles. At the same time. proclaimed a winner and a loser. In all three cases the matter was successfully mediated and settled. Of course. I would be prepared to attempt to mediate the dispute between them. During the post-arbitral mediation. I might say that the parties were much more focused during the mediation part of the process. this resulted in less grandstanding and belligerency. the envelope.the meetings began much in the same way as a full blown arbitration hearing begins. My arbitral award was already on the table and. At that meeting I placed an envelope on the table which contained two copies of my full arbitral award. of my duties and office as an arbitrator. in the adversarial sense. Particularly where the parties apparently expected to continue a business relationship. arb/med rather than med/arb…. my rôle as a mediator became liberated and empowered. I informed the parties that I was now fully discharged. I adjourned and went off to prepare a formal arbitral award. after all. Empowered. I then suggested that if they both wished and both agreed. at any point either party could end the mediation. advising the parties that I wished to meet them the next morning (or in one instance the following) to provide them with my award. The rules were that they had to agree to this in writing and all of us (each party as well as myself) would. as arbitrator as well as mediator. the longest three) in the context of a hearing. There was a clear atmosphere. In all cases. at any time. be free to stop the proceedings and call for a termination of the process. was to switch the order of my functions. to put their case in its best possible light. the parties eagerly accepted the suggestion for mediation because neither party wanted to see what the envelope contained. In all three cases. Liberated because I could be assertive (in a positive sense) and somewhat opinionated. answers and dialogue followed (the shortest period was one day. this all or nothing solution was judged to be better avoided if possible. because they felt that they had been given a full chance. signed and sealed. After free and full questions. and vacated. with briefs prepared in advance of the hearing date and full formal presentations by the parties to the single arbitrator.

The pleadings showed disputes about the date for completion. by Michael Thomas CMG QC (1992) Arbitration 29. success is almost dependent upon it. we decided to convene a meeting for directions with an agenda. bring out the interests and weaknesses of the parties in order to expand the dialogue and achieve settlement. on the contrary. in an article. and waiver and so on. .” In this Canadian example of Med-Arb. Each party had appointed an arbitrator. to lay the groundwork for the subsequent adjudicatory phase of the process. the parties may well use the process to present their position not with a genuine view to achieving a settlement but rather. After directing pleadings. The sum claimed approached US $1m and there were counterclaims. The Hong Kong experience Michael Thomas CMG QC has recorded. In short. I was able to play a much more effective rôle as a mediator where I was vacated of my responsibilities and duties as an arbitrator and could. The real driver here appears to have been the ultimate wish of the parties to continue their commercial relationship. tactically. by agreement and voluntarily. the time and cost of arbitration is not therefore avoided.8 his following experience in 1992: An overseas party claimed liquidated and unliquidated damages from a Chinese party for a delay in completing a building project. when and by whom it should be undertaken?’ 8 Mediation at work in Hong Kong. 1:27 a possible compromise solution with a free hand and foreknowledge. A final advantage of this modus operandi is that it avoids another common problem of Med-Arb: if it is understood that the mediator will become the arbitrator in due course. and they in turn had appointed me as the third.42 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. possible extensions. why time slipped. In essence I was able to avoid the risk of bias. Among the topics we raised in advance was ‘whether there should be any formal or informal process of mediation or conciliation prior to the hearing of the arbitration. and if so.

however. that the following factors almost certainly assisted his task in this particular case: The dispute was not overly complicated.9 as follows: 9 The rôle of arbitrators as settlement facilitators. The Singapore experience Michael Hwang SC reported to the 2004 ICCA Congress. that I could contact or meet with the parties separately or together (and without lawyers) at my choice. This. is an example of a relatively inexperienced Oriental party being guided to a mutually satisfactory solution. both parties asked if I would be willing to mediate. and that I should continue to act as the third arbitrator if mediation failed. The minute of the agreed outcome of discussions provided for a ‘standstill’ in the arbitration for two months pending my efforts to conciliate. A good deal of my input was to counsel them frankly on their case.” The learned author notes.2005] MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution 43 At the hearing. Finally. I said I would if we could agree a procedure. by Michael Hwang SC (ICCA paper. It happened to be at the figure which beforehand I had privately indicated to the paying party as my best guess of the lowest figure that the other party would be likely to accept in settlement. perhaps. and where it might come unstuck. The Chinese party was unfamiliar with Hong Kong arbitral procedures. The other party may have benefited from hearing a little world-weary advice to contrast with its own lawyers’ ebullience. rather than a case of any more general application. and that my fees (on hourly rates quoted) would be costs in the arbitration. . 2004). The paying party may have been assisted in obtaining clearance from higher authority to settle because it had my approval as a reasonable outcome. and drawing attention to the wider commercial interests that made a settlement desirable. a settlement was concluded. that everything said or done for the purpose of conciliation could not be referred to at the arbitration. at page 12. I thereafter spent some hours in conversation with the parties separately trying to convey to each of them where I saw the strengths and the weaknesses of their case. and was not at first represented by a local lawyer. After some hours while I remained ‘in waiting’ and they separately reported progress to me by telephone. I saw them together before sending them off to discuss the matter between themselves.

At the start of the hearing. The German arbitrator then proposed a settlement on the basis that the Chinese party should recover 60% of that part of the loss within the purported limit and 40% of 60% (i. The tribunal also gave an indication of what it thought was the loss suffered by the Chinese party. The tribunal was careful to make it clear that the preliminary indication was not conclusive and was merely based on the evidence and arguments that had been given at that stage. it was decided that the tribunal would give the parties a preliminary indication of the merits of the case at the end of the Chinese Claimant’s case. a settlement was reached which did not deviate too far from the starting point. 1:27 The only known case of Arb-Med in Singapore took place at the SIAC and involved a Chinese party and a German party. The tribunal eventually indicated that is thought that the Chinese party had a 60% chance of succeeding on its claim for breach of contract. the tribunal considered that the Chinese party had only a 40% chance of succeeding on the issue of whether the Germans were entitled to rely on the contractual provision limiting their liability. and whether or not the Germans were entitled to rely on a contractual provision which limited their liability.44 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL.” . the German arbitrator suggested that the parties should settle and asked whether there was anything that the tribunal could do to assist the parties to reach a settlement. The tribunal was made up of three arbitrators. Subsequently. and it had to decide: (a) whether or not there was a breach of contract by the German party.e. Lastly. a Chinese and a Singaporean. eventually. a German. (b) if so. the quantum of the loss suffered by the Chinese party. 24%) of that part of the loss exceeding the purported limit. The settlement figure proposed by the German arbitrator was then used as a starting point for further negotiations and.

I must confess. in a second stage of separate discussions. (d) following which the full Tribunal would meet again and examine the situation. 10 Described by Joerg Risse at the Heidelberg meeting of the European Branch of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators. in case no agreement was then reached. and formed a certain idea of the respective weaknesses in each side’s argument. however. One special and perhaps unique example comes to my mind. between stage (e) and (f) and if I remember correctly. in May 2004.2005] MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution 45 This is therefore an example of parties being helped to find the “zone of possible agreement” (ZOPA). 11 The rôle of arbitrators as settlement negotiators. as well as of the inevitable risks involved in such a rôle. they had a preliminary discussion of the merits. The Swiss experience Professor Pierre Lalive observed to the same audience. with each Party separately.only the broad lines of which need be described here. would deliver an award. they asked the Tribunal to issue a consent award (‘Sentence d’accord parties’). The learned author notes. It is nevertheless an interesting illustration of the various possibilities offered of the arbitrator in his rôle as settlement facilitator. it cannot be proposed as a model. (c) then. at page 12. 2004). . as follows: • Whilst the circumstances of the case might have justified this complex procedure.11 as follows: My own experience of such a situation is very limited. of a rather complex case in which the parties and the Tribunal finally agreed on the following ‘quasi-conciliation procedure’ during the arbitration. by Professor Pierre Lalive (ICCA paper. (e) then the Chairman would meet. alone. and it clearly does not allow general conclusion. In the (unique) case I have in mind. the Parties settled directly. then it was decided: (a) that each Party would confer separately with the Arbitrator it had nominated. (f) following which the whole Tribunal would meet with the Parties and later. and report to his fellow-Arbitrators. each Party would confer separately with the Arbitrator nominated by the opposite party. After the 3 member-panel had read the memorials and heard oral arguments.10 by a careful sub-division of the issues and a detailed consideration of the risks affecting each. (b) following which the two Arbitrators would report to the Chairman and confer on the possibility of concessions on each side.

and • 12 13 Please see footnote 10 above Summer 2004. the English adjudicator whose conduct and decision was the subject-matter of the decision in Glencot Development and Design Company Limited v Ben Barrett and Son Limited.12 having first explored the underlying contractual and factual background. the helpful list at pages 11 and 12 of the paper by Michael Schneider (footnote 6 above). Lithuania 14 [2001] BLR 207. particularly with regard to consumer disputes and utilities issues. . the arbitrator or adjudicator must be appropriately ‘qualified’ for the task. in the particular fast track statutory circumstances under the MGCRA). parties should be required to enter a written agreement which identifies the ground rules and the rights. a mutually satisfactory resolution could almost be achieved without the necessity for a formal decision (and. also. On the assumption of the appropriateness of the approach in question for all or part of the dispute: • • when shifting from one process and one rôle to another the parties should be fully aware of the implications. or litigation). subject to the fulfillment of the key criteria. 15 (2001) Arbitration 221. perhaps. His article. There is little doubt in my mind that. the necessity to enforce the same). of the parties. This impression is reinforced by the author’s experience in teaching courses on dispute resolution. subject to any subsequent arbitration. in Vilnius. See.46 LONDON LAW REVIEW Some personal observations [VOL. Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 (HGCRA) (a rôle which results in a binding and generally enforceable decision in construction disputes.13 Conclusions In 2001. 1:27 Particularly when sitting as adjudicator under the Housing Grants. if not impossible. or limitations on them. the author frequently feels the urge (which is invariably repressed!) to explore with the parties the ZOPA. were appropriate agreements between the parties to be put in place (which is difficult. the short answer to the question posed in the title of this paper is yes.14 posed the question “Should an arbitrator or adjudicator act as a mediator in the same dispute”.15 concluded as follows: “With (adequate) safeguards in mind.

2005] • MED-ARB: A Viable Hybrid Solution 47 the arbitrator or adjudicator must ensure that there is clarity as to the direction of the process. The author is extremely grateful to Alison Pannell of Leeds for her invaluable assistance in the preparation of this article. suggest that this conclusion is correct.much remains to be done for the accomplishment of this challenging task. at page 15. As we say in England: “Plus ça change. with the following words written by Michael Schneider in 1996.major effects must be made to familiarize (international) arbitrators with the particularities of proceedings which incorporate elements of conciliation……. plus c’est la meme chose”! 16 Please see footnote 6 above. however. together with my own personal observations. I close. again subject to the various criteria suggested above.” The various International experiences which have already been recited. * Originally delivered as a paper at the colloquium entitled “Les Arbitres Internationaux” and organised in Paris in February 2005 by the Centre Français de Driot Comparé.16 which still remain apposite: …. .

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.($...int/en/Info/eurocouncil/index. 8 See Presidency Conclusions of the European Council meeting held on 15 and 16 October 1999 in Tampere. flexibility of the procedure. to establish minimum standards ensuring an adequate level of legal aid in cross-border cases throughout the Union as well as special common procedural rules for simplified and accelerated cross-border litigation on small consumer and commercial claims..# .*) ( $ 1 $" . Alternative. " ! ! .."#$ " + 2 .' " $ 0 $ # . on the basis of proposals by the Commission. extra-judicial procedures should also be created by Member States”. * ." . " . where it is stated that: “The European Council invites the Council. 11 2004/0251(COD).# 0 "$( ' # ( -$ " ! 3 .67 ?B 7 ! ..( "" ( 4 ( 1 ( .1 .htm 9 COM (2002) 196 final of 19 April 2002. ."#$ " + 1 ' * 0" C " . 0 + ' .eu.*) ' ($ ' . . as well as maintenance claims.' # # " -+ ( ! .."#$ " $ (! -( ++ ( . The conclusions are available at http://ue. ' ( ( 1 ' " # ( -$ #' " ( * ( + #$ " )2 *$ ' 4 $-.$ ( -* ' ( "$ " ' + "$ " * 3 .$ " ( * ( " $ . .$ "' . low costs sustained by the parties. .# ) ( ""$+ . / + -2 . " $ # ! 1 . $ ' +# ( 0 ! + " 0 " .::: ' $ # $ ( =2 # . /* $" ( ?."#$ "2 "$..' " 7 -1 ' 0" + 2 0 ( ."A $D ! ( A ' 0 + ( * ( -$( .-2 ' ($" *) # " ( * +# " ( $ .' +* " ( !2 / 4 ( # ( -$ " 0 $. " + # ( -$ " .( ++ ( + "2 ($. ")" + ( " .71 ' # # " $ .$ . A " ( " * + ! ( ' " + * ." 7 The main advantages leading the development of ADR are summarised in the Green Paper of 2002 and include: wide access to justice. . -1 E ' 0 ( ( ! 2 ' " .( "$+ . :1 ' # "$+ + " .(! ."#$ " $ . D ' ( / 0 4 ( # ( . and on uncontested claims. by encouraging Member States to collaborate in this respect and by verifying the most important aspects of the issue.# ' ( 0 / 4 ( $! + ' -" 0. " . ' # "1 " $" .)2 $" ( 67 62 7 ' $ # + + "" #$* "' # ! . + # )+ . 10 The Green Paper is not a particular type of recommendation. .# )1 " ' ( / 04 ( # ( . confidentiality..' "#' 0 ## ( .. but shows how the European Commission seeks to take stock of the status of ADR in Europe.0 0 0 +" ' +* "1 "# (0( )2 ' # ( -$ " ( * "$*4( ." ( $ $( . 0 ! + ' -" 0.*) ' ($" 1 # .' 4 $-. 0 ( .*) ' ( $ ' . .*) ' $ # + + "" 67 8. ' .

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+ # 0 "" 3 ' +* "1 ' $.' ( .)2 ' + ## + . + + $+ ( + + ( # ( ""2 ' 3 ) "# ( " 0 (! # ( -$ 1 ( .' ## * ! ) . " $" ."#$ 2 . ' ' "( # 0 ' ( (! ! 0' 4 $-. ' "' # * .# )1 ' 0+ ( * ""$+ ." D111B ) # ( ""2 ' . ( ( 6 1 &+ ($..67 ?B 7 ! ...0 ' ## ( 0 .4 ( $$ " (! ( # ( . ' ($" 0' 4 ( $" ' ..' ( ( 0' + ( ! . ' + )2 ' ( $ " ! !-. $ .' ( '# " ! " + (* ."#$ " .*) ' # # " (!1 )" " 0 ' # ! " " ( ' ( ! ! " .*) ' + 1 ' 15 16 Point 1. + # " .*) ' -# ) ( ' .*) ' .* "$*4( ." 0 ' / $" 2 . ' . ' "$*" .* . ' +A 1 ' ! 0' $ # + + "" ( + # " ." ! 2 .' # ! " " ."" 0 . . ' ' .' # "# ( ! " 0"$( ""1 $ ' + ( 2 "' $ . 0 + . -0 " 0D + A ." ! "3"1 ## $ " # 6 1 &# ! .@ 1 ' + ( * ( -$( . ! G + 0 .'" .. + .# -( * .! ' # "" * ) 0" $ " ! ! . + ..2 . # (# " 0 ' $ # # ! " "1 ) "# ( . " . 3 " ( "" )2 .# + "' $ ."#$ 2 ' 4 $-.0 0 $ " ...# )0 + ' .? "' # * . ' # (# 0# # )2 ' $ # + + "" + .$ .' 0 ' # ( -$ . ."#$ 2 ' ( " " .3 of the explanatory Memorandum of the proposed Directive."#$ "2 ) + . 0 + ." ""$ .(" .D + A 1 ( ..' ( ..( !2 0' # ( . 0 +* A 1 $ ' + 2 * 2 + *$-"+ "( + "2 ( "$+ ' ( +# "( + "2 / ' # + 2 # ( "" " -+ " .5 5 ( ""5* + "1 ' .' ( . 0 + ( ++ ($."$" * * ! $ ) "# ( -2 .3 ( $ ' )# 0."#$ "" " . + ' " + 0 ' .*) ' . Recital 8 of the proposed Directive.*) ( $ # "( * .*) * .*) ' # "2 "$." .' "$ ( .1.' ' ' # ( "" " . $-* ( ) ' .' ' . 3. " + ( ""5* ." " * "' .' .) # # ) # (# "1 # ( 2 $ ( . ' ' ! $ 0' ' # " . /* $" ( ?< ( ( 0 ( .

1.2. 9 " # !. ' .' ( ' ( ' '" * * $.=1 $) 67 82 " 3 .-" ." . ' ' "( # 0 ' (!1 "$( ' ( " "2 " ( ' ! .. "# $ ' ' ## ( 0 "' $ .." + 3" ( " + "$ . " ## ) .D111B 0 ( # "$ " ! G ' ' + )2 " ( ! .. .$ 0' + +* "$ # # )# (# .' #$* ( 0' # 2 .! #+ 0( .# ' ! + ' -" 0. . * 0 .' ! .2 ' +* " "' $ . " ."#$ " $ + 0 ! $ *)1 # 067 6 + 7 ( ' 2 .# + ( $ "2 . ' >$ ) 0+ 1 ' # # " ($ .' * 0 ! + ' -" " ( " . )2 ' # ( "" " 0 + "! $ )2 . ' 7 ! ( 0 ' ""$ -. * 0 -+ $ ' ' 4 $-.$ 5 ) ! "2 ' $ # 17 18 ' See point 3."#$ 2 # " .*)+ " .. '$ # 4 ( $$ " # ! ." ' ! " $-A ' .' ## " * ## $ . .' .# + (+ "0 + ' ($ ' ' " -) / + .$ 4 $-. ' ( ( " (" 0' $+ (" 2 ! # " $" + " ! ' . See recitals 12 and 13 of the proposed Directive." ' .* ( " . $ " "$ + + $+ >$ )" . ' . ' ' ( "" ) # 0 "" # " "3 " ( + # ) .' ' * 0 0 4 ( # ( ..0 ( $ ! * .' # ! $ + ) 0 ' # )2 ' $ # + + "" # "" .' + # + + "$ " . "$( ' # !" " "' $ . " $ ( ' ' # 067 61 ( .! . ' ' # # " (!1 " "$ 2 ( <16 " " ' 2..0 + ) ($" *0 ' ($ 2 ' +* " ' . ")" + " 0" + +* " -) # !.*) +* "2 .C A ' . # "1 ' . 7 "$## " 0 .# . 0 D' $" 0+ ( + #$ " ) "$*4( " ( " ( ! "A D .# ( -$ ."#$ 1 -2 ' 4 $-. 3" ' 0 ..54 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL.' ' .$ " " ( (# ' .1 of the Green Paper of 2002 and the “Summary of responses to the Green Paper on alternative dispute resolution in civil and commercial law”. 1:49 $ "$ ( <1. (+ . 3 )* -$( .' ( >$ # " # (# 0 + ! + . # " ! * ' ' 0 /* ) 0 ' + # ( "" .' # "( )# . ' $" 0+ 1 " . .' ( ' * "# ( .* .' 0 ( "" ( 4 ( "' $ $" * + -1 ( 8 0' # # " (! " * .# 0 ( " " * $. + " ! ( "1 . * 1 ' $ # + + "" (+ ( +# + " . " .' ($" " *." 0( -$( ..

' !.*) ( $ .! *) + " ' 4 ( # ( . counting from the date when one or both of the parties or the mediator declares that the mediation is terminated or effectively withdraws from it.' $ # ( .( ' *! + . ! .4 ( # ( .' ( ( " $ " ' "" + + 1 '" #$ # " 2 ( @ .*)# ' " ' ( $ " 0' + 19 20 http://europa." "$"# " 0 ) + + " .*) 0 .$ " ' -+ "" * ) 0 ! ."#$ ( ( " ' "$*4( + 0' + 1 ' " ( " .# + " >$ .pdf. .## + 0+ "2 # (# " 0 ."$+ " 0 + ' # 67 .(.' . " $ "' # * .' ' $" 0+ " . ' . Mediators. as well as any person involved in the administration of mediation services.! -$ + " ( ! $ ). + ' # # " # !."1 ' $0 + !. Article 7.. except when it concerns a period within which an action must be brought to prevent that a provisional or similar measure ceases to have effect or is revoked.! . "$( # !" ' ( "."#$ .2 provides that “Where the mediation has ended without a settlement agreement.*) ( $ ' ($" 0 4 ( # ( . "" ( # *) ( # "1 ( ! " 2 ' " + ) 0' + .' ' *.(( + + 1 " ## ( * 3 -" 0+ (! .' ( ' .( 2 + # ) ( 0) ".( (! 4 ( $# ( .' ( ' + ' -# -2 ' # # " + " "# ( 0 $ (.' ' $' . + 1 .( ++ ( + "1 "# ( " ( ! ' (($."1 # ( $ 2 " + ) !. . The period shall in any event extend for at least one month from the date when it resumes running. + 6.( ($. /* $" ( ?? + + "" 2 ""$ .:1 ' ( " " $ $+ * 0 # (# " . '$ " + .. " ' + ..( ( * . ( .int/comm/justice_home/ejn/adr/adr_ec_code_conduct_en. the period resumes running from the time the mediation ended without a settlement agreement.' " 0# " ($" + 2 ' # / "" # .*) ' ## ( ( C16 ' # .-+ "" * 1 ' *! + " ( " "$*4( " + / # ( "2 ' + " + # 0 ..' ($" + ."2 .( ( " (" ( $+ * >$ . shall not in civil judicial proceedings give testimony or evidence regarding any of the following: (a) An invitation by a party to engage in mediation or the fact that a party was willing to participate in .eu.' ( ' ( ( " ' ( "" ) +# + 0 ( " + .( ( ! ..-2 2 ."2 $.*)# " ' ( $ " 0+ 2 ' # # " " + .1 ( .” 21 Pursuant to Article 6 “1.*)+ 0 " . 0' 1 ( .0( -$( 0 + ". 0 ( 0)2 ..67 ?B 7 ! .' -+ "" " + .( + # ( . + 2 # ( ""2 " + 0 "1 "$ .0 # "( # '" * .# .

" '"# 0 0' + ! .. (e) The fact that a party had indicated its willingness to accept a proposal for a settlement made by the mediator."# . ' ' # "1 ! " ."#$ "2 '"-! #. ## ( '2 -$( . + 2 . 3 # # " -2 ' $ # + + "" ( "..( * ) 0 ' ."#$ " $ ' ! ' .)2 #$ "$ ( ( ?2 ' " + ." ' .# . + 0 ( * 1 ' 0 (+ . (! . (c) Statements or admissions made by a party in the course of the mediation.' # ( "" " ' 7 ' (! .( "" ) -$( # ( -$ ' +* " ( $.. (d) Proposals made by the mediator. ."' .."( ! ' mediation.' + ( $-* . 2 and 3 shall apply whether or not the judicial proceedings relate to the dispute that is or was the subject matter of the mediation. evidence that is otherwise admissible in judicial proceedings does not become inadmissible as a consequence of having been used in a mediation”. + ( .>$ ) "" " ( *)+ "2 ' ! ( ! . .' . if such information is offered as evidence in contravention of paragraph 1. such information may be disclosed or admitted in evidence (a) to the extent required for the purposes of implementation or enforcement of a settlement agreement reached as a direct result of the mediation.0' + ( * ( 0+ 4 $-.' # !" " .*) ' # 067 6 ' " * 7 +# + .*) ' # # " ( ! 067 81 F ! ."2 ' +# 0 "$ . in particular when required to ensure the protection of children or to prevent harm to the physical or psychological integrity of a person. ( + (. . Paragraph 1 shall apply irrespective of the form of the information or evidence referred to therein.# 0 ( " + . Nevertheless." # ! 4 ( $# ( ..*) ' 4 $-. (b) for overriding considerations of public policy.)2 ' ( + >$ + " 0 '" ! ( >$ ' 0 . 1:49 ! . (b) Views expressed or suggestions made by a party in a mediation in respect of a possible settlement of the dispute. + ( -* . / + . The provisions of paragraphs 1. ! + ' -" 0 . ! 0 (! " + "# ( " 0 1 ' $ # . # # " "0 " . 5. ." 1 ' # # " (! .' ' $" 0+ 1 ( . * # ! .*)# ' " ' .# . ( ) # .0$ ( $# ' . 3. 4.## ( 2 ($. 0 . Subject to paragraph 1. (f) A document prepared solely for purposes of the mediation. The disclosure of the information referred to in paragraph 1 shall not be ordered by a court or other judicial authority in civil judicial proceedings and. 0 + ! $ 0' . *) ' $ # . + 1 ( .( ++ ( + "1 ' . ' . 0 + ." ( "$+ . 2.*) ' $ # " $ " . . or (c) if the mediator and the parties agree thereto..(" 2 $ ' ( " $+ ) ' 0 + *) ( $ #$* ( $ ' ) ' . that evidence shall be treated as inadmissible.."#$ " + H ! $ ) ( $ " 2 ( 0) ' # ( -$ .." 0 +* "1 + " '$+ * * .56 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL.$ ' + 2 ## " ' ' " " ..

'" ! -2 $" .67 ?B 7 ! . /* $" ( ?C '" ( ( ' " ' ' ' .' 0 $ .$ 0 +* "1 ' .! #+ $ 0 ' + ' -" ! '+ ' ! " -( # ( " 0 +* .$ -+ 0 /* ) ' $" 0+ H ' "$* . "1 ' .

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Volume 1 of the White Book (2003) DCA department for Constitutional Affairs, see http://www.dca.gov.uk/civil/procrules_fin/contents/parts/part01.htm 4 Halsey v. Milton Keynes General NHS Trust [2004] EWCA 576 5 Ibid

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! & &+ .. & & !& & " +! % * & $ & ! %& & + ) . %& + # ! +.. * *& + ) *$ & . *& + *)& & +% & . . ) &! &) ! & ) # $ ! & & . * + ! 3! & $ . M.ac. ! )! ! ) . 1 Foucault. The Journal of Information. & * + 0 $ ) $ &! * * & + ! !.1 2 * * ! & + + !& $. UK.$ ) . + ! * & & ) & !* & . +% ) ! & .!+ & & † Address for correspondence : School of Law & Social Sciences.! " $ ! # % $ &( ' $ & & & $ & *& + # $ + .) ++ ! . ) ! -. S. . Discipline and Punish (1975) 2 The author recommends the seminal article by John Cahir : 'Understanding Information Laws: A Sociological Approach'. * &+ 56 ! % + & . Middlesex UB8 3PH. . & & + * + .& & 4 -& * .dougan@brunel.uk. Uxbridge. Law and Technology (JILT) 2002 (3) 3 Lash. at 73 . London: Sage. Some of the material on the Maxine Carr case is published in the July 2005 edition of the Entertainment Law Review. ) * ) + !& . $ %%& ! & *& + + ! + # % % & & & & + . (2000) Critique of Information. & &+ ) $ %& ! + + & & & %& & !+ & &% . ! $ & ! * *& + *& + . * * ++ * *& + . *& + . &% ! & & !/ *& + % + & & * & $ !& . Brunel University. ! $ ' ! %& &*7 $ ) * -& . Email : Paul. The author would like to thank Dr Claire Valier of the University of London for supplying the author with some material included within this piece and for her invaluable support.

1010. 609. * 3 & . ) . 195 5 Young A 1996 Imagining Crime: Textual Outlaws and Criminal Conversations London: Sage.70 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. * ! -. . & -. . ! &! ! . & ! & *3 & ! -& ! & & + & & $ .& ! ! .' ) &) & % * &$ $ %% &" $ * ' &*. & * 3 8 * + * & 7 & . Times Newspapers Ltd [2001] 2 A. !) * *& + . %& ) + & # * & -& .+ & & &$ & * * & * ! + *7 & %& ! ! ! & && % * & & * + ! * & !! + & .# & ! & & * (==< . ! & ++ & !) .$ 8 + ! ! ) ! &+ # %& & " % & ' & $ ! . & + * & ! $ $ ! "# ) !+ & ! . 123 8 A v. (1999) 3 W. Reynolds v. & %& & .& & ) ' ) !.' + : % % ) ! * &+ ) * &-& * *! .C. + $ )& $ . + % & . ) & * 3! ! 8 + ! & $ + * % +% &!$ $ .K. 1:69 %& % ) %% *& 8 & ' & & & . [1999] 4 All E. * % -& ! & & ! & ! %% & * " 3 $ &!' ! + . !& & >* * & * + ! $ . & &% & $ .& & ) .R.R. (QBD) Queen's Bench Division. (1996) 22 E. & .& >+ ! ! * &3! & .*& & . 4 5 6 7 Carr v News Group Newspapers Ltd. + $ % $& -. + % . +% * & (< * &% ) + ! 3 & %& ! * &% & &! ) & & %& * ! +..R. %& ) 7 * & & .R.!!& ! + & ! & %%& . B Plc and Another [2003] Q.. !) ++ ! & .H. 127. Goodwin v U. + ! .L.9 * $ )& & -& ! ! + $ " & *! : . 24 February 2005. $ # ! * * ..B. unreported. Chapter .

% + ! ! . ! & !+ & # * " % &(6 ! .R. otherwise information available to the press would dry up. 289 [2001] E. it was held that contempt of court restrictions on freedom of expression were allowable only if it answered a “pressing social need”.H. 2001 Daily Telegraph. * *! E /B A $ ++ ! &. January 16. 81.S.%& &" ) . March 28. ! .L.R.* & B (=C = %%& * ) * ! + ! $ ! + ! -. * * & .R. ! )! ! &! . ! +% $ & ! &) ! * + % * & $ . & (=D (/ * % &.L. 223 9 B.+ # $ + & + * *! E !A 6B & $ & ! * + & .$ & &+ ++ $. 982 [2002] 1 F.C. * &! + & + . . ! # & & *? & .: . the case made it clear that freedom of expression would not be justified in all circumstances and must be “proportionate to the legitimate aim pursued”. The UK Government’s disclosure orders therefore breached the journalist’s Article 10 rights. & * 3 ! * &-& * *! . (==@ A 4 5 .+ ! & & %& % * &% ) + & (< % $ & *"& ! + * 7 * %& '% & &. 1996. ? & 4&* & % * *! . 11 Goodwin v UK (1996) 22 E.C.R. & %.R. January 9. 26 [2001] U.L.R.B.R.R. * ! %& * &+ ! ) $ ! & & % $ &.M.R.H. &. ECHR.C. *+ $ % & * & $ -& * *! ! : . &% & + )! %& ! & *3 & & (( && .5 $ *! %& %&) . 10 .H.R. 123. $ & ! 1998 Chapter 42. *& ) ' & & % 8 $ + + ! $ + %& ) .L. $ ! -& * 9 *! .' & %& *-& * *! &: &! + ! * ! -. &% & (< ! (==. 245. United Kingdom (1979-80) 2 E. The Times.H. 40 Times. 1 B. 2001.R.R. The Act entered into law on 21st October 2000. 12 Coco v A N Clark (Engineers) Ltd [1969] RPC 41 at 47 –48 per Megarry J 13 Douglas v Hello! Ltd [2001] Q. Sunday Times v. ! & % + &%! & * ! ) %+ % & * : .= ) .K. the court ruled that the Article 10 guarantee required protection of journalistic sources. 967 [2001] 2 W. 543 [2001] F.2005] Injunctions Contra Mundum 71 & & & & % * ?$ + ! ! & ! -.R. 289 [2001] H. & $ & & $ &%&3 ! !! +%.R.H.&+ ! + . $ &+ ! !& + ) .R. 9 [2001] 1 F.R. =.* & -& * *! + $ 2A (B + & ++ ! + ! & . Schedule 1. 992 [2001] 2 All E.

195 paragraph 7 of the Council of Europe's resolution 1165 of 1998 16 Thomas v News group Newspapers Ltd. & @ ) * .$ ! & ) $ ! ) ! . &+ & # & *& ! & + ! 7& * + & & *& & # ! ) % * ! $ *-& * *! !+ & ! % . 1:69 *) & * && .B.* ! * + & + & & $ % .* & $ * &$ ! & + +.5 . & ) [VOL.. & %& $ ! * & *& && * + & !. 2001. -& $ & + & !+ +. * & + ! & *+ ! & * + & & + % ! -. Article 3 (prohibition of torture) and Article 8 (right to privacy).. The Times. .& * &. B Plc and Another [2003] Q.* & ) & . 908 18 Minors receive special protection against publicity backed by the laws of contempt of court. $ % . & & + 3 -& & ' . $ .$ & & %& ! -. + * &) & ** & (9 % .. $ )& ! * . ! & ) LONDON LAW REVIEW $ %& % $ &+ & * & # 3 $ . I # & * + I & > & ! .72 %&) .& * + ! ! ) 7 % ! ! ! %& . 3 ! + % %& ! .(C. & % $ & (@ . * &! & * ! 7 . * *& + ? & ! * 3! + 1 "# + * *& + ! *& & . -& !& (==C & & *& ! & & *& + $ ! ! ! . 4 ! & & + . News Group Newspapers Ltd [2001] 1 All E. )H -3 & G -. ! H. & ! + & % . & ! & $ & & ! & 5 & $ & 4 %%& ) ! & 3! + !& $ %%& ! " # & #' & + % && % & *% * & '& * &+ %. & * * * * &. &+ $$ & $ 14 15 A v.$ ? & ! *: $ %% & (.R.. F !* *$ % . & % * $ & % +. CA 17 Venables v. * $ *& ! ) %+ ! 7 % !& + 3 & ! -.* & & %%& ) * &% & !* ! F $ % . July 25.% &%&) ) % . 19 The injunction was granted due to the effects of Article 2 (right to life).! + F & !G . &! + F . & . & % & % & & . * &*& ! -& * *! & &) # (= ! 3 & & & .

! % % & !& %& & . . +% . & %& .+ + ) * &%&) . & !. * )& & $ ! & ) *& & $ * ) .2005] & . $. < !.L.!F ? & .$ %& * ! + * & & & $ + 3& . $ ) * ? & 3! + ! + C . 2001. Beckham v MGN Ltd.3 * !.M.+ & & ! $ ! * & & + & %&) *.R. $'-.// )!! + ! 1 %&) . News Group Newspapers Ltd (2001) E. + 3& .F & $ ! % -. & .K . & .# &! * !! -. %& $ -& + * *& + $ + ! # $ . /< 6 < . K K $ & & .%&) & % *! + ! & + & + % . $ * ! ! & $ & * & + * + %.# ! & %&) . $ * $ !+ %. & ! &+ ! * & & ! * " ) . 957.+ ? ! 18 1 !. !& > %&+ ! $ $ ) & # $ + ! ! & + . Heather Mills v.+ . unreported. ? ! ! & &$ & & +!*& & ! & * + . $ % ! & . I 1 $. $ ! %% & F -& . %& ! ! % * % &% * + %3! + /6 $ ) & & .3! + - Injunctions Contra Mundum 73 $ ( ) % $ & %% & . +% * +% ! & &! & %%& . J . & -.> 7 % . June 28. ! 3 $ . ! ! . & & !!& * ! * * 3 * )! * & $ ! . & & & & & . & ) &) & . 2001 . [2004] UKHL 22 23 on January 30.* & ./< * & 3 % * ' %% 4 & * & * #& & & + 5$ /( $ & # * & $ + & % * + ! &* + .. ... & * ) . ! % * 3! !2F % $ + ) & * ! + * 7 & %& %& ! * % .& ! $ %%& ! + %. % * $ & ! &* ! + %! & ! & & %.F 20 21 22 Sir Paul Macartney’s wife.1 & %&) . ! !F + 2 + !& !! F . !2 F )& . ( -& & /< ( . . per Eady J.

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iv 1373 .

! & % & ! *& . + # )& * * !+ ! $ & ! . $ % & $ & * $ $ + !. & * (==6 & 26 ) * & . & *& + & . & !) + * ++ & ++ $ # % ++ !& . ! $ .* & & . *% & ) )! + 3 & + * . + +% %& ! & * . &! $ % % &+ & # ! %& &.! $ %%& ) &* $ * & . &$ & %& ! & ! ! ? & I& ! %&) .F & $. # K * +% & : 24 . & && ) & !. % . )& + -& ! ! %& & ) . & ! ) 1/D ++ & !) 3 & $ $ % . Author of ‘The American Century’ . ! !# $. & 7 !. !& .$ . % $ & +7 * + ! > + * * &! ! 7 ) + ! * ! + & * ! + & ! &! + 3 & & ! *% ! .$ * & > ! +%.2005] *+ !& ! Injunctions Contra Mundum 75 ! %&) .+% ! ! -.. ?+ + ! $. ) . + 8 $ & $ ) $ %& . + ! !& + . + * )& . + !& ! : & . % -& ! & &+ . & & . $ . $& ! . + . !* & * *& + .' &. $ & . !. ! -& . & %& ! ! + $ ! ! F% ) F + -. & + ! .! +. %& + ! & & & .& * &. & * & $ *& + & !2 F + %& . * $& * + ! % + & )& 7 & >! %%& .F - & *& " * +% ' . . + . .* & $ ! ! )& & ) & . 7 & % ) ! $ & 3! + & %& ! %&) . & ! + . ! + O 5 + ! + % + * # ! + ! & *& ! .. !2 ! F * * ! + * & * 7 %& . % .% & .+ . & + $ + *! . !) & + ! ! * & ! & % $ %& & ) .

Mark Stencel and S. New York.& *$ & ! + " * + ' &" + 3 & +' . + & + ! & $ *$ * > ! 7 % * ! * * . & ! 3 ! +' .. Feeding Frenzy: How Attack Journalism has Transformed American Politics. & 7 &. 2 + * & + ! + & ) % % !+ /< < . & & ! ) ! ! % >$ & + & 3 & + % + & &! & 8.>& %& & + + ! +% " &+ & > & -+ & '& & & & * & * )& . * * !+ ..! !$ & & $ & ! +% * & !) & &) . & & & $ + & >%& * . Peepshow: Media and Politics in the Age of Scanda.! $ ! + $ ! * ) ) 3 & + !3 & $ 3 & ! -. & . *& ! *. 1991.+ * )&! ! * % '+ ) ! ! * + & * % + + ) .!&) -. Sabato.# + < * $ )& . $ . *& .1. Sabato. % & * . . & & & %& * $ !+ & " K . p. & ! &! .. ! -. 27 28 Such as This Week and World in Action on ITV and First Tuesday on Channel 4. # * !$ & ! !I & ./C %& + ! $ )& + $ & + .76 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 3 & .& & ! ! " % & ) '/@ %% ! & +% & & &) $ * & . ! & & ? &. ! % $ ! &.' % *% %& & . 2000.. ) 7 & & + + ! & ) . + : + % .+ * & : * & )&+ . + $!& *% $ $ & ) %& ! + & & & ) &! & &) . Larry J. .% * + & (=9< + !! * (=D < & *" %! 3 & +' & $ %& $ & & ) + # . 1:69 &: &+ & + + + ) * & & * & %& & + + * ++ & -& ! !. -& ! + & +% ) ! & ! )& + !!& . Robert Lichter. $ & 2 ! 3 & % $ : + !& + & $ + ! %& ! -& ! *& $ !! # & # * ! * K & ..+ * * ! & ! & * ) ! . Free Press.& & ) 3 & &! & & ! . & % ! * + & &+ + !! * (=C < $ & ! & *& " #. Oxford. Rowman & Littlefield.. Larry J.

! + + ! + ..& $ % # * &+ *I& $ ) & ) * * + & .. * + +.. &! ! &.! $ $ " * & *% -%! ! ) + & % & ! + & . 21-2..*& *& !2 +% * + !3 & # $ ! + % G % H! & & . ‘The Scorn of the Literati’. ! $ ! &$ .E + * % - 29 30 31 February 1.& & & % . * &I & . & # * & $ . + & ! ! )! .! * !& & % * ) . 4 June 2001.% & ! & ! % ! !: $ +% $ %&) ) + # & ! & . . &* & * ! & % $ & . & %& & + ! ! + E % & . 1999.! & + & & & !% ! &# $ + * ! * !% ! &! . 7 +% & ! & (=== $ .6( & .. + ! ! %& + ! %& & & +% * -3 * & & ! %% & & .) % ! * ! >+ & . John Lloyd. : $ #! $ & + ! & ! !+ & ! ! % + ! . ‘The Lying Game’. % #* & % % $ % .# % &. & ! + & . & . $ +% ..' . New Statesman. 2 !.2005] Injunctions Contra Mundum 77 &. Observer.+% & !& &.. !& $ & & II ' % & *. & * ! * . % ++ )& ! *+ & .6< ! & /< ( < & ? . 24 October 1999. . + + & % ! & . ! $ . .I & & ! "# %& 1 * & % & &. !& .. p. ! * & . ! . pp.! ! !& % ! ! ! & /= + . + ! % ! K *& !& ! &! .% % ' + &. ! &! &. Andrew Marr. ) %%& % ! % %& * . %& + ! # -& ! & & !& & .30.I $ ! + $ ) > !! & + $ .

* +% ! + ! * && ' ! # !& $ & * &. + & +%. + ! ! ! ! *& + . +% &! * &$ & ! ! * -& . ! ! + * + & + ! . $ $ &! + +% * E )& & & $ &$ ) &! ! * .. % . ) + )! *& $& !& . . * & & 3 & + $ $ %% * + &. * )! $ ) & !& .! & & % % % ' ! $ & &+ ! ! &+ . & & $ . 1:69 ! % & ! &! )! ! & + + %& ) * & . % & & 3 & %& ! $ & ! &+ ! & -) E )& .78 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. & !& & > & * II I& + ! % $ + ! . ) 7 ! $ & & ) 3 & ! && .. ‘For Good or Ill? The Role of the Modern Media’. * ) % . I + 3 & + + *& . & ! * + *+ & & .6/ I& &*& & &$ $ &! $ 3 & & * + & *& ! + ! & + &! ! %% & +P * & &7 & * * ).* $ * + ! % ! % % & 32 John Birt.' + ! + .+ % $ $ + ) & & !! & * + & + ! . & & & $ & ! & +% &) ! " & * . . Independent Newspapers Annual Lecture. # ! *& ! + + & ! ! & $ ! & * & %% & + ) * & ! )! .' K ! + & ! .$ &* !! % + ! ' )& *% + .' $ ) % *2 ) & + % # *& % % . %%& %& . *3 & . % # * $ + ! " & ! &+ . ! . L << < D < !) * % & O ) % &. Q . + -& & .% & . Trinity college Dublin. %% + 3 & . 3 February 1995.

the ‘tariff’ is the minimum terms of imprisonment before murderers are eligible for parole.& * & ! ! &*> * . .! * & + ! * )& + . & & ! * % *+ & % !% % % ) .+ ++ ! .& ! * & % $ & * + ! ! & . and Morgan. &+ * .'& # $ & &+ & . + & & ) * & + . %& * . # ! ) + & & ! ) + & &+ ! & ! . & *& %& * *+ * !& * +% & % * * $ & ) ! * % + ! + ) % . R. ! %& $ % . J. % $ & *& + .+ +% & ) ! ! )! * !& ! * & * $ * *& &2 * * $ " % . $ # $ & * !& * ++ . which would establish notification measures when murderers are released.6C & !: . &* & . (1973) Folk Devils and Moral Panics St Albans: Paladin. in Clarkson.'$ 7 &) . ++ !* 33 34 Urry (2000) There have been campaigns and provisions to make the identity and whereabouts of obscure criminals who are released after serving sentences for serious sex offences a matter of public knowledge (Megan’s Laws.! !! * + & + * ) . Lord 1998 Politics. T.2005] & + Injunctions Contra Mundum 79 * ! ! )! -3 ) + % 7$ . the State and Law and Order London: Macmillan.. C. ‘Vengeance. " *%& % & . S. . (1995) ‘The philosophy and politics of punishment and sentencing’. !!& !. Sarah’s Law campaign). (2000) Cultural Criminology and the Carnival of Crime London: Routledge at p.* ! + ) & * )& % .11 .! % $ & %& * + * &+ $ + ! " % ) *' . Bottoms. & 6@ + !& + ! ! ++ %& '. + & 7 % ! %& % % ) + + ! !% & & ! +% . S. ! ! + ! ! . C. A.+ ) + & & + ++ ! ..$ & &!&) & & !& $ . (1978) Policing the Crisis: Mugging.. The Politics of Sentencing Reform Oxford: Clarendon. + + * ++ !* * )& . Jefferson. There is also a campaign for the Voto-Tedesco Community Notification Law in New Jersey.+ & ) ++ ! . 3. .). A.. &* % % ! *& & ! % 7 ! % . and Roberts. * .. (eds. T. Clarke. Hall. + &% & ) & %& * & & $ % % & . Windlesham. * &+ . M. 38 Presdee. Critcher. Victims and the Identities of Law’ Social & Legal Studies 6 (2): 163-189 37 See Cohen. and Populism Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. 36 Sarat... Punishment. 35 In the UK. & * & $ + & + * ! & .

6= & &+ ) &*& ! $ $ + + ! & & !!* ! & + !+ & &% ! & * ! + -.& %&) . and Thornton. $ " & R & .' ! & ! &. * &+ ! & . ! ) % . ++ * ) . 42 th 4 January 1996 43 19 Nov 1996.R.& $ ! LONDON LAW REVIEW & & *& ! + ! * &%& * -. ex parte StewartBrady [1997] E. (==. CA judges upheld PCC decision.: . %& . % * I& !. 185 44 12th January 2000 40 39 .96 & .+ 7 + & &7 [VOL.$ & ! ! * &3 ! &) $ * ! ! & % & % & !9/ I& !. McRobbie.2001.& + >% . ‘Scandal as Myra Meets TV Bad Girl’ News of the World 1.! I& !. $ ++ ! &+ 7 ." ! & %& ! " 3 *! & %&) . 41 See for example.& ! . A.* ! & + * & & & ! ! 9< & & & +% ++ ! & & *%& * + & !! + & %& * +.' & ! % &% ! % & & !. ! & ! I& !. & !. +% ! & +% ++ A B$ &3 ! +% . R v Press Complaints Commission. ! . % 7& ! $ & + & && $ & ! ! !.7. 7 & * ! & & %& . . The article reported that the actress who played unpopular warder ‘Bodybag’ in ITV’s show Bad Girls was filled with revulsion after a brief and seemingly impromptu meeting with Myra Hindley in her cell at HMP Highpoint. * ) .+ * . " + & + & && $ ! ' # * + & ! % & ! $ % $ + $ ! $ * $ & + 7+ + &.M.' . !-3 * % .9( I& !. " ! -. .7. % . *+ 8 " & + & & &' ! I& !. & * & I& !.: . % ! * $ %%& !* ' I& !. 1:69 * ++ & ) . +% ! % &% % ! .. % $ & # I& !. %% & ! 7 & ! !" >* ! * * ) ! + & & &I& !. S.5 . ! % *I& !. ! * & * ! & %&) . $ !&) ! &% & *& ! % ! & %& ! * & &# . p.L. (1994) ‘Moral panic for multi-mediated worlds’ British Journal of Sociology The regulatory body for the media in the UK.80 %& . I& !. ! %&) ! + * & %&) . & &99 $.+ : ++ % .

*& $ *& ! ! % .$ & + . & ! & #% . -. . & . & (D * * + & & &+ & & + ! & + . . # * & *& %& # &* &+ . & & . ! ) % * *! + ! & & * + ! & % ! $ % ! ) & + 7& * + & +. I& !. Another adjudication stated.. 45 46 Ashworth Hospital v MGN Ltd [2001] 1 All ER 991. % & & * % & & %& * &+ ! % * & !* $ %& + & & . ! ! ! +% $ . ! %& ) ! &+ * + %& * & ! * && % & & ) % &* * &+ . &3 ! ! !3 ! ! & I& !. ! % &% ! % . )& . the Commission said. * : & % + ! -.98). * & ..' + % $ + ..99).9D % $ * ! &! *+ %& !+ & % ! + * & ! !! & .*& . $ & # & (=C C %& & + & && )! I & $ K # $ ! # * + * + %& * & * + & * & &+ . ‘none of these articles attempted to portray the downsides of a life of crime.9C *) * & . ) ) !. ) " * +' $ *& * ! -.7.9. 1. + " ! > $ + > *& & %&) . & ) + ! ! * +% & ) + * ! .2005] Injunctions Contra Mundum 81 & % .& ! . they glorified the way in which various crimes had been carried out and the people who did so’ (Complaint of ‘A man’. * + & +% . Stewart-Brady v Express Newspapers plc [1997] EMLR 47 In an adjudication which upheld a complaint about payments for a magazine article on the Krays. + & $ & ! & & &+ . I& !. $ & & &# $ & % +% . ! *& .' I& !. & ! $ ! % . ++ * + & &> * & &+ -. # $ %%& & + + * ! $ & ! &! $ $ % & & ! . ‘the glorification of the crime is more of an affront if it is done for gain’ (Complaints concerning payments for stories from convicted criminals 1. ! + %& + ! & %&) .! + +.% !!& + & * % & ! I& !. & & &! ! ! ! . of the impact on the victims of those convicted on them… On the contrary.1. %& + ! . ! & *& ! & ) .

$ ! % . %& ! ! & .%& & !& .$ * !+ !& #3 & + * &) $ * ) & . $ )& *# ) ! %& & ! 3.%& . $ )& & * ! 7& * ) * & ) & ++ $ + ! -.! * + & + ! % & ..& * [VOL.! & * &+ ! & !. ! !& # * * . %& )! $ $ & ) % . $ % % & +. & + &. 48 R v West (Rosemary Pauline) [1996] 2 Cr. 1:69 + . ! )! %& & ) ! %% & & & ! & * # !.& * & &+ .! -.+ *& & . ' I& ! ++ $ & & ) * * &+ & & ! ! + ! .. *& + & & '& ++ $ 3 & & & ! 7 %& & ) $ & + + ! & & . + &. !) + * & & *3 . & & ) !* !. ! ! %&) %& & * . & ! & % ! & $ ! ! & ) + & && ) .+ *& + & %& &+ %& ! . & *? & ! )& & ! ! $* % . + %& * * + & ) ! * ! & !! * %& $ *& + * * & ) % . & * %% & ! ) ! %& & + ! & ++ & . % $ $* .# . ! & $ $ * ! ) $* .9@ %% " *$ # ! % ! & # $ .Q & $ # + & . &% & &3 ! & + %& & ! . App. 7 % $. 8 * % .' $ ) & .+ *$ -.82 LONDON LAW REVIEW + % *) !+ +. 374 . & & ** ! + * 7 & %& % . %% ! & ) & ! %& > & %& )& ! %& 3 ! ! & ! %& !% ! & &3 ! $ *& & & $ ! & )! .& * ) * ! ) % ! *& & -.$ + ! & 3 & * + %& + + ! & % # ! %& && ) ) * + & . +. $ !.# 3 & ) %& & . * +% . ! * && ) $ * : * % . !-3 7 ) % . R. (==D + & .

& )& %% .! * &% . %& . & 7 % ! + . # ) & !.%& ! -.: & & & ! .9= 3 -. & ! !! ! %& &! & * + % . !3 ! * ! * & %& $ + $ . 3 & ! -.& * + &) & &! .. .& *$ . *& ! * . *& + ! ) # : ! ! % * &-& & & & ! ! &+ .' & ) + ! & % & ! : $ $ )& & # + # * & !+ * & % . & + *& .. ! . ! ! * ! & ! &* + . /< 9 $ < & ! &1 ! & .% % $ ! $ & * & $ *+ . 49 $ + # . ) & ! &! & ! -.* $ & & %& *& & ) * * 9/>+ .2005] Injunctions Contra Mundum 83 (==D *& $ * * & ! ' -& & +% ! & $ ! ! & $ !! % &% ! + %& ! . $ % %& ! ! : *& & & ! Contempt of Court Act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

% # &# & & ! # + +. 54 hence applying the jurisprudence of Glaser v UK [2000] 2 FCR 193 and the House of Lords decision in Douglas v Hello! [2003] EWHC 786 .* > & ! * A ) . 154 and Barclay v UK (1999) no.L. .! +% & & . $ ! &!* & & %% & * % &. O’Brien and others [2003] All ER (D) 282 (May). ! $ + ! -. %% LONDON LAW REVIEW ) ! * & 3! + +% $ $ ! -. + -& * && !& & @ * ) . & ' & %& & ) * %% $ & ! & $ & ! * & # * & 3 & &! .< I & !) %! ! I .! % & !& &% ) + A B ! %& *& ! *+ & & ! .R. + ! & $ & &# & & !. ! * & %& &* + & & #$ ! + -& * &% ) + & /A %& *& *B . 1038. +$ %% & ! -.+ ! )! .& & + &.B. 52 Under Article 8 ECHR 53 The deliberations on this point in the leading case of A v B Plc [2002] EWCA Civ 337. [2001] W. [2003] Q. [VOL. & % . ) 3 + ! .! % * &.$ ) & & ! " &K .' . ! *$ & & ) % ) .R. & $ & ** .-.& ! &' & & & & ! /< 9 $ + ! < !& ! + $ * *! & & .9 * %&) $ & )& (/A >A 6B 9B * & (< A& ! + * 7 * %& B$ 50 51 !& &) & & ! +% & & & ! * Venables and Thompson v. %& B. ! ) ! !! . CD 105 (dealing with admissibility) and other authorities (Winer v UK (1986) 48 I.84 * !& * !. &+ & .R. %. * & $ ! * & %& & &#$ ! %. )! !! ! %% & $ % & )2 %& & * + & % * & ! * & + ! 7 %& * -. . !$ # * &% & ) ! * & * ! & . X (a woman formerly know as Mary Bell) and another v.35712/97 (admissibility only)).R. * 3 * $ & * &.6 & % &.H.( %& ! ! . 1:69 & ./ %& ! ) ! ' %&) .& * $ &) + . ! & D 6B * A ! ! + % -. Newsgroup Newspapers and Associated Newspapers Ltd. & %&) $ . 195 (CA (Civ Div)) appear to be inconclusive and largely ignore European jurisprudence in the cases of Spencer v UK (1998) 25 E.

!+ ) & . * & : + * ! .+ % + * 55 American Cyanamid Company v Ethicon Limited [1975] AC 396. Injunctions Contra Mundum ) & * . ! & & @ . the Court must be satisfied that the claim "is not frivolous or vexatious.5 & ! ! ) 4 & # *& &$ & !.& * %&) .) 3 .D # . & $ + * ! & )! *% & & + & %& &* + % & & & * .+% % %.+ %& $ . in other words.& * + !+ & & $ -& ! * & &.. . that there is a serious question to be tried" 56 see A v. Traditionally.2005] & * ! & 3 % &+ !& + ! ' * ! & +. 195.+ 3 . + ! $ 3 * % .+ & . Butler-Sloss.& !. ! &6 !& + . $ & .+ ! * & $ ! ! * & %% ! +.!. 57 The Mirror appears to enjoy printing some of the most violent and brutal hate messages found on the Internet discussion rooms.' $ & &/ &+ ! &: & & $ &) * *& ) ! . 3! + & $ & ! ! &! ) % % % & .' & # $ && & ! $ . During the Thompson and Venables trial. They included: “I do hope she gets what’s coming to her”. &% ! ! &. by the end of the year”.! -. & '& % & &' * & & $ & & ! ..B. said that she was uncertain whether it would be appropriate to grant injunctions where only breach of Article 8 was threatened. .' # &5 . %& % !! $ 3 &# $ $ &)& . “I would kill the evil bitch” and “This bitch should be dead and I believe she will be. + * & & %& & +% &! & *+ # & .C.! )&+ ) *& & & +% ! * %% + ! & %&) . *& !% & * & + ! .+ + . ! + + %% & ) * & * 3 . *" & + . )! * & " & * ! + -' I & )! * + ! $ & % % $& # ! !' # & ! 4 * %& %% & ! ! &! ! & * & % . B Plc and Another [2003] Q. 85 ' ! && &* ! & & * !$ %& ! ! $ & & 3 ) & *2 + * 7 %& ! % .& + & . P. +% & & $ ! ! & % . & !& . if there is any justice in this life.

&# & !* & * &: &+ *& & * *& 3 $ !+ *& >& & * &: &+ *& & * 3 * # !$ & +% !J . & & & + +% ! J %& . & & %& . p. 23. + &+ $ +% & $ + &D< . ! 3) ! 7 % + && ' * * $ & ' -. $ + ! 3 & $ & * & + ) *+ .2001. 59 58 . .2001 ‘Touch and Go: The Start of a High-Risk Experiment in Rehabilitation’).@ %& 3 ! ) ! $ + ! $ ) & .+ 7 $ )&$ & ! 3! + * .+ .6. debate still rages…’ (The Times. !& * + ! & &% *& + $ ! % .’ Ent LR 2001 12(6).+ 3 $ %& . % ! & ! -. & % & % * & & * $ + # & $ + ! $ * ! / 0 * >% & ! & #2 See the excellent article by Jo Knowles. ‘Crime and Punishment: Maxine Carr and other 'evil women'’ See the note by Rico Calleja. ! " I &8 ! ' * .'( .! -. !! $ + & + * + &. $ & ! !& %& & . + ! + . The headline ‘MARKED MEN’ is from the Sunday Times (24. 1:69 .* * $ & & !. but rather come from a broadsheet: ‘While liberals worry that the release will make the youths dead men walking.$ ! 3 . + * & &+ -& +% ! &. . & . hunted by vengeful attackers.$ & ! &! $ & .& ! (@ $ ! ) !! .6.11). & *+ % * $ # ! $ %%& ! !& + . ‘Confidentiality and Freedom of Expression.) & & $ + ++ ! $ + %* & & .# $ ! .86 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. & & + ! ! &. & J $ & " & '$ & & + . & ! 3& ! + . & ) & ) .= 9 .)! & ) & # *) %& & + ! * + . 8+ + ! " & !+ + # D " !+ ! $ # . + + &! ! ) %& + % !$ & + ! + ) !% .$ & *& ) %& &+ ) & &$ ! . & % ! #.* $ + . : & $ & & + -. 190191 60 she provided a false alibi for Ian Huntley by lying to police about her whereabouts at the time the tenyear-old girls were killed 61 These two ‘poetic’ appellations do not emanate from the tabloids. $ & ! $ !># & % & & $ + % 2 .-.*& & * & & ! &.! ..

D. bosses…’) 63 Bingham. (2000) The Business of Judging Oxford: Oxford University Press at p. & % * + .'? & I ! + * & ! % *(==@ " + * + + & && & . p. $ % ) . &! !.331 64 BBC2 ‘Eyes of the Detective: The Murder of James Bulger’ 65 Acland.$ ># $ &$ ! .2005] Injunctions Contra Mundum 87 J .: .D & ) & &+ .& ! .'+ + ' %& ! ' .! . & . . : . ) -3 ! -& % ** + & & . !& * & + %% + + -.A B .! " ! >* & J>+ & & + > ! . + $ 1 !% ! * $ $! . C. + ! & ! & $ & ! $ . & %& ! . children.+ .47 66 See Young A 1996 Imagining Crime: Textual Outlaws and Criminal Conversations London: Sage. $ .'/ & !& + 7& + ! % & & * + & & + %& * +% && % .+ . Spectacle: The Cultural Politics of “Youth in Crisis” Boulder: Westview at p. . T. & ! & * . & + . # $ ! !. $ # * + & * $ $ ! -! * ) + * + . (1995) Youth. Chapter 5 . ! & ! &) & * . " &+ + * I &# $ ). $ . & + ) * + ) & &+ ! + & & ! & + .2001. Murder. ! ! I & * + & & &+ & !& ! .' &+ I &# & ! ! -.* $ !. . &$ & # %& + ! " * & + '* * $ .! & : .R.' &.6 ‘Can Bulger killers’ secret be kept from their future wives. + ! .*& $ ) $ % $ & ! * & .& ! & ) $ & 3& ! & %& + * & . * & * % ) & . ! & ! &.DD * &+ & * + 3& & J %% %& . +% ! J ) ! &.. & .. D & & " ! * .! & * !) ! 62 News of the World. & + *% + !& &+ $ +% && . ! + & *& . & A B ! ) A ! B $ * & .! & *) & . 24. A 8B + . D 9 # 3 & ! &.! $ $ ># $ ! + ) + . #.6.& ! ! &+ ! ! & &+ &%& * & 7 & % '6 . * &% & %& # $ + . ! $ % & " + & & * ! % & ) ! -.

S.a critical comment on key provisions relating to children in the Crime and Disorder Act’ Child and Family Law Quarterly 11 (3): 209-221 73 See Barker.the concept of childhood in the punishment of young offenders’ Child and Family Law Quarterly 10 (1): 77-87. and Jenks. (1994) ‘Some Mothers Do Ave Em: Backlash and the Gender Politics of the Underclass Debate’ Journal of Gender Studies 3: 317-331 72 See James.) Thatcher’s Children: Politics. See also Young A 1996 Imagining Crime: Textual Outlaws and Criminal Conversations London: Sage. S. and Roseneil. !& . . " + & ' ! ") * # ' @ & . M. & & !! & $ & . Ill Effects: The Media/Violence Debate London: Routledge . The Photographic Image in Digital Culture London: Routledge. !* ! $ & # $ ! ! ! I. 1994 Making Monsters London: Vintage 71 See Mann.$ & 37 % ! $ * -. Fionda.$ ) + !) + & ! ! > !. $ )& + * & & ! # &) & ! * &% & & & !%& + " I & # &' . 1:69 D % % " !+ + & ! !& ! . L. (1999) ‘Much ado about nothing.).! % ! ) $ . J. #! 3) &+ .C( +% !J $ & ! & + & % & 3) &+ $ + ! +% & & .$ & + ! - + & !+ # B %& !$ & ! !& &+ . M. ! $ ! *! . (1998) ‘R v Secretary of State for the Home Department ex parte Venables and Thompson: The age of innocence?.93. ! % & )& ! & & * !* ! & $ ! *& *& ! % .& %. ! & ! % & + *& +% !J !! )& . M. (1996) ‘Public Perceptions of Childhood Criminality’ British Journal of Sociology 47 (2). ) * & .). + ' + &$ &> & &! . J.! + &+ ++ ! -. A. * + !* 67 68 .D= Q& ** & + $ & ! & ** & * ! * ! !C< ! 7 % * &+ 7 %& ! ! %! ! &% * (==< $ + & & . B. & $ &% & * Sunday Times 21.'C & + + * & *& %% & . and Petley. Buckingham. (1995) ‘Surveillance. (1996) Moving Images: Understanding Children’s Emotional Responses to Television Manchester: Manchester University Press .88 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. C. %% & ! & $ + % ) &. (ed. * &3 ) 3 . See Franklin. & -. Childhood and Society in the 1980s and 1990s London: Falmer 69 See Kember. and Petley. A. (eds. J. K. Technology and Crime: the James Bulger Case’ in Lister. (1996) ‘Killing the age of innocence: newspaper reporting of the death of James Bulger’ in Pilcher and Wagg (eds.C/ % + 2 ( 7 ! ! *& ) + *+ .*& + & & + .! * !.D " -. and Morris. & ! !& ++ ) &+ .2. & + ! >% + $ & % ! & $ %%& ! ) & +% ! -. Chapter 5 70 See Warner. & & $ $ ! &. D. Gelsthorpe.C6 +% !J A ! .

* &! $ ! $ . 229.! ! % * * +% !J . & ! & & $ %%& %& & + ) & * & & * . 684 (July 27. .+ ! ++ & ! $ & & && + .+ & % . & ! -.C. 3 $ & * ) * ! &+ !. Col.. .) $ ! . & & %& . * & %& ! & * + *+ .+ & ! -. 76 V v United Kingdom (and T v United Kingdom) 2000. $ ) ) $ ! $ . ! $ $! .# *& & .!! $ !& *(<. +% !J . & & . +% !J ..' + ! + ) ) &+ .C.& ! & .$ & !.: ! %& . % $ & #! ! * +% $ !$ & # . % & -3 * + & & * 3 3! + * 7 & & * # & % $ & $ ! * ! &.' &* ** * . 7 ! *& ! & . I agree with Ralph and Denise Bulger that the boys who killed their son James should stay in jail for LIFE.? & ! *? &) &* * .. Vol. % I &$ : ! %& ) !E" $ ! & +. & !+ > & .+ . %& + ! # & %) * * + && ! & %.& * % ! . ' %& >%& * &+ * + + ! 7 & % &. + 74 75 The coupons stated. 18.2005] I & Injunctions Contra Mundum 89 &* + . + + . H. . ! &* & + ! & & ) 7 % ! !& ** ! & *7 %& &% !. $ # . + * -. & . ' -& +% $ $ ! .. & . Thompson & Venables (Recommendations as to Tariffs to the Secretary of State for Home Affairs) [2000] s. & $ & ! + & & 7 . + . *& + ) ! ! $ ++ !+ & & ! $ !* . & ! " ) ..& % & !. .& ! & & %% & & . 1993). . ‘Dear Home Secretary. % ! ! # */C 6< @ < % ! /<< < < % * + & & ! & . *& $ ! % ! ) ! !! & &*CD * %& $ & ! & & .C9 ! *& % + &$ ) . + ! $ .+ . # % $ & $ & $ ! . & ! -.’ Hansard. . + + * # ! ! %% & ! & + +.! " ) %& *& & !+ & $ -. $ +% ! -.

4 & ! %& !5 + ' *! . (/ * + # % %& ) *& $ (/A >A & 6B 9B & ! *& & & +% ! 3 ! % & (< (B A " & ' & . %% +%.90 !* * LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. &. 1:69 & ! & + *+ ! * ! + ! & ) & + 1 & ! ) %& && & ! +% & * & ** ! + * 7 & %& . This considered Interim injunctions and the threshold test which has to be satisfied before a Court may grant an interim injunction under Section 12 of the HRA. including the prohibition on the use of one party’s convention rights to injure the convention rights of others. and are not capable of derogation.) 3 + & . The rights under Articles 2 and 3 were also relevant. & *& ! & ) ! + + ) !3 * & & # * !! . The judgment appears to have reversed the perceived dilution of s12 (3) and to have put some substance back into the provisions of s12. .$ & # . 79 The Express called the ruling "an abominable crime".(/ & & ! & $ & & ! &*& ! !.* $ & $ C ) & O= + & & 77 &+ ! -. & ! & $ .+ % &* + & . with very serious consequences to claimants if they were breached.)! *$ . & % &.%& & !.” 78 Cream Holdings Limited and Others v Banerjee and Others [2004] UKHL 44. %& 7 % : + ! . The qualification of the right of freedom of expression included the protection of information received in confidence so that you cannot have regard to Article 10 without having regard at the very least to Article 8 on privacy.& 7 - * Butler-Sloss said at the time : “the qualifications set out in Article 10(2) were as relevant as the rights set out in Article 10(1). * % & % * +% & %& * % * & 3! + $ %% & ! % & &) & & !!$. (< /B A & .$ & * %& : %% + ! '& & * $ 3 7 &. the Mirror called it "a sorry day for the freedom of the public to receive information" . & ' %% & $ ! & + * % % & & ) . ) 3! + *! & * 3 &: ! 4 % & %& + + % & !5 . I & 3! ) " & & ' " & ' * ! + * & 7 %& + $ & * ! !! * * * .CC $ * *& & & . + %& . $ )& & (< /B * A ! ( % # *" : * ' & ! & & ! * & . + ! ) ! & $. %% . + ! * & * & & (< .& ) ! %& + !) * + & *& + ! & . *& 3 . & ! &) & * & & ! + .

2005] & . ! $ -& & &*& & ! & - A front-page report in the Sunday Express informed readers that magazines like Spain’s Interviou. % & + * $ &! & ' 3 . % ++ ! + " & * & ..!& $ * + & * -& +% ! *& . *& " 3& ! * $ * ! ! .'( $ ! # % ! & & $ # ! $ . & & # *& + 3! & .@< + * & & -3 &% & ! * ) . * *& ! & ) * & .% $ & * $ !) * *& + .6.Q & $& + . %& ! 3! & &$ . + $ % + $ & K ! ! + & * & % *& + +% ! J .2001 ‘We’ll show Bulger faces’)..#. ) .+ * . * +% !J & ) & )! & A B 3 . $ & &% 3 & %& ! . %& ) $ . * & !& $ .! * & + * $ * !+ .+ & ..6. representations which would ‘slap a £50. &% & 3 * ) . . $ * %& % -.000 price on their heads’ (24.$ & ! -.. 81 ‘Editor probed over Bulger story’ Evening Standard 23. + !. &+ % !& !! . ) ! @ & & ++ .' & & .! % I& & .. Italy’s Espresso. & & ! 3 ) & * & % * J % & * . ! ! * *& + -. & : & & 80 + & & . " &) ' ++ ! & + . * & . $ 91 ) ! $ $ $ .+% * * . ++ & $ ! + 3 * ) . $ &. *! *& + .$ % * 8%& + . ) ! & .+ . 8 ++ !& & !* %& ) 3! $ Injunctions Contra Mundum % * + * & -.2001. + K ! *& + +% !J ! -& + . Germany’s Stern and Bild.% ! & * %& $ ! ) $ ! * %& . & $.. . Gente and Oggi and Japan’s Focus were offering large sums of money for photographs of Thompson and Venables.

" $ +.html is the address of a petition posted by ‘Marie Gloria. & * % -. + + ' !* !! %%& ! ' % ! .$ % ! %&) %& 7 + . %& O && % & & & !. & . Akdeniz. ! !$ % ! $ + & . ‘Who cares if they were rehabilitated.92 *! ! &! & LONDON LAW REVIEW ! [VOL. * -& +% . *% % & + . C. ! + & . &* # . +*& )& * -! * &. $ * !$ $ && & $ %& ) . (2000) The Internet. ‘Where are they? Tell Me! I have always wanted to track down and kill a baby murderer’ (UK). 1:69 $ ! & & & . Florida. 84 ‘Editor probed over Bulger story’ Evening Standard. & ) +. Messages posted by signatories include the following: ‘Attack these 2 monsters as soon as their photo is released to the public’ (USA).* & ! * ! + * & > % $ + + . ‘Unforgiven: The Boys who Murdered James Bulger’ . ! # & * + '@9 . ) ! ! % ! @ . 23.& ! ! & 7 +% % & * * & & $ $ & !* + & & ! ! . & $ ! ! %% ! * * %& & ! + & +% ! % &! ! + . Threats are also made against Thompson and Venables’ family and lawyers as well as Lord Woolf. kill 'em anyway… I hope you hunt them down and rape them’ (US). Law and Society London: Longman http://www.& % & %& * ! % . (eds.. D. & *& & I & ! & .& $ -" % ! *& + & * +% !J . Walker. (2000) The Ethics of Cyberspace London: Sage Chapter 6.2001. % & $ )&$ & + &% & & & 82 83 ! See Hamelink.$! . Y. C. and Wall.).% % %& ! . & & + I & & * + % & Q & + .@/ * & + .. % * & ++ . %& & % & ! $ % ! & ! & .+% %& & -& # 3 ! .com/Jamie91/petition. USA’ which demands for the release and anonymity rulings to be undone. & * & !. & ! $M !.J.+ ! & !$ + + &+ . & . * ! )! .6. *&& + ) ! !& . # ) * -.petitiononline.Q & ? & Q !+ ! ! -& ! 3 ! #! $ %%& 7 % . ! !* * 3 & ! & J + !. 85 Channel 4 Dispatches.+ ! *& %& * & * !& * % .@6 $ ! % % +% . ) + &.

& & . ! . & ++ & !) . ! & %& * + & &+ ! ) * * * + & && ! & %O & * & %% *& )&+ & !& * * . $ ) & .& . ) %& ) %& &% # .. ! -* * + & ) . +.$ %& * + $ & * & # # ! % $ + ! . + !! & ! + .&% & * &+ ! &+ 3 & % ... * %& . * *& &% & 3 & !* * ) . + & . * # * )&+ %& ! & ) + & * & .& & ) ** ! + * 7 & %& % .2005] Injunctions Contra Mundum 93 ! ! & & & .' 3 $ !+ %& ) ! ) # *7 3 &3 & ! .< & + . + ! $ & * ) . * & & . .*& ! % .! % * * >& . & &+ * * $ ! & . !! & & " ! & +' * ' !D ' < & *3 & & .* ! . !& % . " '+ & . + *& & + & . $ & + + +% +% + . & & ! + & & 7 ).$ $ 7& + .+ * * ..

*** .

% " * *% # ! 7 . " #& " # (.. Schriks.# # " %# ' ! % (* .# -% " %+ ! &% % . %& ! -%# . & " .A. % *" " ! ! "# *" % % .C. & !%+ ! ! "# "#( " "& " # %+ " # % % . p. #&# " % & ! % ( ' "&& % ! +% " % *" +"& % . #& " %+ "&& !$ + / # ( "&/ !)*" ' #/ & # &% ! ! . %& " " % '# # % " "! " %! & ! %* &% %+ & ( % "# + %*"!"( &% ! ! " % -% . Meerburg Advocaat De Brauw Blackstone Westbroek.C." " "!( " "& % +% %* + ' % ! %+ &% % ." (" " ." ( % " ! .F. % % † Dirk P.% ! & % %+ " &% . + & # "&& . & %+ & .H." ( + % " " %# ! * %*# ! " % " % * # % # "# " ! # # &% . in: Misbruik van voorwetenschap. ! " #' " " $ % !% !# (".% "# . " " # + " %+ ! %* " ".( ! "# "#&".% " " % % 1 " &% . " # (' ( " ( %+ *% # 1 ! & % !0 # &" + % 234 # 5 # " +"& " " # 54 & ( ( &% %. "# % ) " % %" ! %+ # !&% .# +% &" "& % . 1989."! " " "# ++ & % + "# %+ + * & (' " . .# %( %+ # ! &% . #&' *% # "." .* #. 11 ." ( 5 % ! %*" ! &% + ! "# &"# !" &% + ! "# +% " " (" ! ! "# & " +% " % +% . "& & # ! *" " # % " " ! 6 !% ' ! ! "# *" &% !% !' + % "&& .! ! "# $ % "#% &"# ! # ! "! ' % % "#( " # " )* # # +" #" % % . ! %& !" ! ! "# . Verstappen and P. #& +% " % * & ' + "! 2 ! " .% " %* ! ! % "& * .". London 1 Percival v Wright [1902] 2 CH 421 2 L. %* # ..% % " ! ! "# % " %+ % .%& (. %."& ( % " . -" "++" +% ." !+% " * # % ! % # # 7 % % ." ! ( (* % ! ! % ""& ! " ( ! ." ( "! % " " &% . % ..

+% " % & " & # " % %+ .% " &% . . %+ ! ! "# # #&' . p. & *% # ! " ! +#& % %+ &% % & -"# %+ # -" " : *" "#% " " "#%* # ! ! "# ( . H. Manne. Berkman and A. ibid.# %( &% # ." ( % # "&& ! "#( ( # 3 < # " ! # ! ! ++ & # % " # * " !" " % % %& 8 " & " "#( # "& % 0 ! ( " #' &% . 4 G. Other insider dealing rules may be found in the Williams Act 1968 and the Insider Trading Sanctions Act 1984." %* 7 1 !7 . Rietkerk." ( %+ . * & # " % *% # ! # & . & . % % % ! ! "# % *" % # ( .. 182. %. #&' % ". % "& % Section 10(b) of the Securities and Exchange Act 1934 provides that the executive can issue regulations to prohibit certain manipulations.( # !' % # +. Consequently. p.% !' ( & # # % ' 23." ( ( " .96 & %" ! 8 " & "!" 8 " & # " ! & .! " %%! *% ! & " ! " ++ & # * "& " ! *" != % '# "*( " ! " *% &" ! ( ! ! "# ' " " "& ++ & ! * % . Handel met voorwetenschap".% %+ % .# " ( " *" " # (" %% . # " # ! ! % &% " " "#. % % " % !-# %. in 1940 SEC rule 10b-5 was introduced." (' % & "(% &% & &%. Prof.3 " +# ! & ( & . Herst.C. & %+ % +"# * # ! .% %+ ! +% " % &% # "& "#( ! # + # # " . " %+ !"( " ! % & # & ! " &# ! % # + % %+ & " % # ( ! ! "# ' % "#( # ! & &% . 1966. Effectentransacties door ingewijden.. 21 5 Berkman and Herst. & + & +% & % "#( # + &" ++ & % ! % #-" &% # " ! " (% ) &" ' %" " % %* " . Insider trading and the stock market. NV 1988. which forms the basis of most actions regarding insider dealing in the US." ( % % & * # + "! . " 8 " & # " # % " " ! 8 " & $ %* % 8 !" ) ' %# ! *% # " +% " . NV 1984.# "& " % & (" ! " # ( %+ & # *" " ! ( % &% % $ % # ! " ! # * " ) " " "& % ++ & ! ( .% " ! "# & %& LONDON LAW REVIEW & 239: 9 &% " ' # -# # " ( %* % %! & [VOL." ( * % %+ " % * ( ! "! # * % # ( %! & ! " " # . 1:95 %.C. . % ! . " %+ ! +% " % $ !" ( % # # %+ & % * %' !% %' .

" (' % " " % % %# % " !' ! & !% % (% # # " '* # ! .#&" % %+ 5 .% " &# . Staatsuitgeverij. % %+ % ! ! "# ..% %+ % % 8 .% 8 & " #.# "( .% %+ % .# .% ! 8 *" % * # &% ! ( "# # # " % % # %+ + & % % . & . % " # ". the government mentioned that the reasons that the Commission report did not lead to legislation were "the complexity of the issue and doubts about the feasibility and urgency of a legislative .% &% (" " #' % % 0 . 4.#. %.#. In 1987.% ! % ! ! "# '* % ( % # # ! " # %+ " &% . "# " + # ! " ! ( "!-" " &% !" ( " & %+ +" % " # % " .% & &% !! +%#%* # 8 2 & % &% 23@9 ! ! . ! ! ! " # " &". report concerning abuse of inside information . ibid. p." &". %.! &# ! +% " % " " % # %+ + & % % . %."& % @ " 6 7 +% " % 7" !' " *% " # %+ " # #%' * # % +%#%* ! # " # ! "# ( Dutch Company Law Commission." )% . in the explanatory memorandum of the bill which would lead to a prohibition of insider dealing under criminal law. !. #& ! &# % ' *# # . & %+ & "+ .% % * ." ( "* % %+ 23@4 %! & " .%++ *% # % ! . "# " # &% .% *" " (# # . Prof Manne. ! (" "8 %+ *% ( " .. %. % " ! " "8 + %+ 24 '4 4 % %+ " "8 4 4 %+ +% " % %+ + 1 !' + %( "8 " % % % " 24 '4 4 % " 4 4' &% " % %+ . %+ % ' * & &" " % " # &% ! ! % "( +# & ! . "# +% %+ % % $ # ! &% .#+ !. "( + # ! #."! ! ( " "& % " " .2005] Insider Dealing: A Dutch Perspective 97 " " ! +% " % " ( +% *% # . "# "( & . % * % " ". %. " " ! !" " +% ". %+ % 7 *" ! ! % *" " " " . The Hague.%+ ! ! "# " " *% %+ &". "#! .% ' % "# %! ' .% 0 " % &% %+ "++" .% " ! ! "# % . " %+ " +% " % " % % ! .. " ! + " * &" ' %* &% # ! ? 1 (> .# " ! ! % % " # -" +% " % " + & % % . " ( " % * ( ! ! "# &% ! !" " .

" % # # % " " " ! ! "# . % % . E. %. ". #& 7 . & % %+ " %+ " +% " % "!-" " regulation". & + & &% . %.." ( *" ! +% " % > %* *% # ! &"# # " ( !" " & " " !> # " # ( "* . p.+ % %+ %.. % % % "# " '! ! % +"& # " + " " %+ & "## 3 "* 23@@' & ." ' %. % % %+ ! ! "# *" &% ! . 29 September 1967 9 Prof. 1:95 %#%* # . -" # " "! "* " %& 8 " & !% " % ( % # ! (" "1 (%+ % " # !" !" %& 8 " & * " " ' "& % ! ."& % " .# %! %+ % ! & +% 3 %+ %! 7 (. %+ + % +% +% " % &% .% &% & ! ! " ! ! "# "( ! " #' 8 .. & . + %+ # # " " & ! % . in: Misbruik van Voorwetenschap.*" " %# % &% # % ! +% ! .% " ! %. 1989. 8 Journal Officiel de la République Française (JORF).% ' % & " " %+ &% + ! & & &". %+ % % &" ( % ! ' * & % .% # " 8 &# . " ! "# *" % % ! *% # " ! & ' *" % %+ & &% . % * % &% % ..# %( %+ " # ! &% ." ( % " & .. "# " .! ! %. % % " "( . -" # *% # "* ! "! / " %! " -" " # .% % %+ +% " % ' 8 & ." ( + ! % ! " . & A " ( !! " % %* . & %+ %. 57 .% %+ " . Wymeersch.. ." ( % % " & % %" ( %+ "# % " ' * & .58 10 77/534/EEC: Commission Recommendation of 25 July 1977 concerning a European code of conduct relating to transactions in transferable securities. " " "& % +%#%* # % 724 % .# % ! & % ( " ! . -" # ! ! % .# " (.% ' "+% % ! ! & % * . Dr. " & . #& " ! * & # " % " &% .98 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. -' % # + " ! + % &" ( % '! &# % ( ! & # " ( " "& % (' * & & +% " % !' " ! % # + " + % ! +% " % % " % . % + " +% " "& % * & &% # ! % . + # &% # % " ! ! * *" +"& & "( % " # # . # !" 7 . %. %.! ! "# & < ! " & ?@. % & . #&" % %+ % % 0 .99 %+ 23?@.. +% &% ! .# ! ( "& % $+% ) " ' %* *% # " ( 7 1 !7 . " # ! ( ! %.

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nsider Dealing: A Dutch Perspective % !% %& 8 " & %! # %! *" " &%! %+ # ! &% .% $" " ) "-(! " " % ! " # ( %+ " .. %. -" ( ! &% . ! (" "8 &" & " % %+ *% ( " " ! " + %+ + + &" % (' % (% %+ . ! " !' " + ' % # " # % " (' " % %+ # " $ " +% & ! ! .

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

# "& ! ! !"( # " . & " *" " " ! " %# ! %+ ' *% # ". %.% " &% 8 *" % " .3' %.. 44 Council Directive (EEC) 89/592 . %.( " (. & " + ." (0 " "!! % "#&"." 11 12 Prof M.. Groenhuijsen. " % & #"!%.% &" * &" +%#%* # + % # %+ &" * # %*' *" % # ! ! "# " ! " " #' " ( 8 . "# < # ( &% # ! +"& # *" " ! " " * " % * & " *% # . " . ! " ! & . & *" % .% *% # !"#% ". -" # # ("# %+ %.' (* " *" & # %* +% $1 % # () * (D ' % %+ " " %! + "1 % ( #( % + & ! "!! % % ! ) * & ' # . % $ ! & + % 7 ! % " %+ ! "# 7 . % " "# -"# %+ " %& ."& " *" " " ! +% " # &% . %. Strafbaar misbruik van voorwetenschap en "Chinese Walls". % * % !% . " # " % ." . " "! &% .# "& & %# ( &% .# "& %* . % 22 %.% ! " %. &"#&" %+ " % .&% &# ! !' *% # % ! 7 ++ & 7 & % 2 &%. " . #& % . p. Amsterdam 1991. % & % 0! & % % ." % # "# .# ! "& "#% % ! " 7 &% ! % %+ " # # 1& % ! & % " % & *# # "! % # A " (7 !! % "( *" " " " ! " %# ! *% # % ! *# # % .# "& %! " !# %" "!! % "# $. & "# *" % " %+ % ." & . % * % " &% &# ! " " "& % ' !% % &%. % % %+ ! ! "# % % % ( 25 #!% # % ( % & " % ! " "!! % %+ 7 % 7 % . %.! .. #" *" ! +% " %+ "! ' % " &( .2005] * & Insider Dealing: A Dutch Perspective 101 # " *% # % ! * ". -" . * "." ( " ! " " " *% # " .# % & ( ! ( . & !%* "! " &( " 8 !"(' " .% " %+ *# ( %! & ! ! ! "# .% # ! # ." % " %# ! " ! & ! .! " ! & % *" "& ! % % %+ "# % * ." # " ! ! "1 % % % "-( * " ' * &% . % 7 "!! % .% < 29 %&%.% ' & & & " & " & " " * % &% & 7) % & 23.S." ( % # "#. + !" .

#& .% ! ".& % " ! " !" #! " %++ & "# . ! .% ! 8 . % " (' / " ! ".% ! " "( +% % ' & . %. ."! " ( ++ & " "# ! # &% # % " % ' % 8 .. #& +% " % *% # ". % !%* +"& ' &% . 1:95 & " .. #& +% " % " * (D *" % . #&" % ' # " % " +"# %+ # .! " & 13 # %+ & " & . "# ' & . & .% & % ' & " ! * (D E "&/ "# &% # ! " ! " * " ". % " % ! " #( %+ " ! * (D 0 "& % ' * & "( % "( % "%+ "# # " %# ! *" &#" * " ( &% + ! "# ( *" "& ! + + 1! "! %! ". %.% " ! 233= & % . ! ( .% % .% .! "#"' + & % %+ " &# :? %+ HR 27 June 1995. & + &"#( " # " *% # % ! & "( " #-" % .% .. NJ 1995 / 662 .% & % + " / " ! ." 8 .! %& .% %+ # "*' % % +"& ) ' " ! & % * & &" " " .. % & % 0 %++ & ' & "# %& ! . "# 1! ' # " *" & "( % %* % $ ) " % . & . & %% < " !"(" %# 2 # % !: # " '" " # %+ 8 " & % .102 LONDON LAW REVIEW # ! * * & ( ( (D ! [VOL.% . * " ! * (D *" "&/ ! ( !" & % + " & ' * & "#" &% ! ! " % . % $* & % # ( # % .. ! % * +% " % *% # "..% "# %+ " ! &% #! ( &% &% # % "( + ! . -% & ! &% "! & %. % ++ & " "& % *" " ! & &% / & %+ " " "& % 29 &% # % ! %* ( . #&" % %+ +% " % *% # ! ". & %' " !$ ) " + ".*" ! % !%* *" ! ..% ! ! "# $ ( &% .% ' % * & % . % .# / ( % " ' . %. & %+ #-" & ( % ' ! % %* " "& %+ &% + ! "# (*" %.! &# ! % +% " % *% # !' . & .". ! &" *" %+ " " .% %+ & "! ' 7 & & 7) *" " ' ! ! 2333 ++ & %+ %* * . #" ' " ! * & %& .%# &"# " # " !! % &% %+ &" " " " # " " ( # %+ 1! ' .#! % ! " . # % " " % +% %+ "( % &"# ' * & " ( *" # ! " " " % ! ! "# ".

* % + ## + # " ! % # " % * & "# "!( 8 ! % % % * & % %*#! %+ .! %+ " &# 99?" %+ & "# %! ' ." (% % * % &% &# % % ++ & " % %+ ! +% " % * "! % % # "#." ! " . & .% ' " &# :?" ".# ( ! % +% " % 8 " & " ! " ( * %' % # ! .. %.2005] 2 . % &% &# ! % ++ & " " "& % * " . ' " !# ".& %+ &# C % ' &% . & "#& & % ' %* & " & & "! # % " ! ( -"# %+ 5 ! +% " % %*#! # "# . #&# (! &# !C ! % " "( " % " # ( %+ & 8 & ! % .. % " % %+ + . % ' &% .% % %! & !" &% !. % * % " ++ & " " "& % % +% ! +% # ! " 103 " % % " & FG % # !% " & 8 " & * & &% ! % " 8 " & * & # %&" ! % ! %+ # ! " ! * & " "#%* ! ( # " % ' % & * & " " ! % # ! % # % ( & 8 " & C % & & * % -"# % ! ! "#% ! " %+ " .%++ ! ." '% % " " "& % .% % % ." (% "! "! & "* & % ." %+ * & ! &# % +# & % ! & % %+ 9 .% ( %+ "! "! ' "! %%! +" % .# %( "& % & & % . & % "# ' 2333' # # " & ' * & &% " " % ++ & & " % (.% %+ "! C ! " " .% %% Insider Dealing: A Dutch Perspective ! % "& " ! " (. %. & "# & & " & % ! & % 5 " %+ "!". * % " % # (! . & & % !% % ".

&.! & . .+% " "& % " ! "! " ! " +% 14 &' # % "# ( !' " # ! " .# %( " "1 &" " " * % * % +% .% % * % ! &% " ! +% " % "! " & (" !" % ! &% ' % (0 "# +' .% (% + " & "& * 8 .%++ [VOL." '* %" *" " ..! + % # ( ." " # * &" % 8 " ' " " ' " 7&".% " "! " ! % " % "& * & "( # "! # " % "! +% " % " ! & " & "! ! . % %+ " &# :? $9) )%+ $ & & &% + % + " & "# % * %. &+& 1& & " "*" ! %+ .% %+ & % " 8 .% " "& % % " 8 " & & 1 !& % + % ! * # &% ! !" & # "# %++ & $ % ' "! !# (' %. & " % # # & & ( ! +% " % # ( ! + ! &% "( " ! % (' % " " "& % &% &# ! ! ( &% ! ! & % &% # &% ! "& "# %++ & &% # &# " # ! (& " .# (. . .% * " % "# .% %+ ! +% " % "#% # -" % % " " " " &# :? %+ & .. %" B%% " "! " ( ! +% " % % %+ .% % ' % # -" % " " * %# "( "! % ! . % & & %++ & * # # # . % & % # '. JOR 2001 / 162 (Content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msterdam District Court 11 July 2001.# ! &% & %." (' ! %# "( "+ B%% " . % 2: %* . "# &" ' .% ( %" !%+ " % # ! &% . ! ( . ! & % ' "( " ! % &% " " & " " %+ 8 " % & " 1 !& % ! ! "# "( % . % & % +" #! % .% & % %.

JOR 2005/39 (Boonstra) Directive 2003/6/EC . %" "( % ++ & %+ " % % " %+ &" "# ( * # -" 8 %+ " &# 5 %+ " ! " % +% " % & %! & " ! #-" & . % & % $" !' % " # " 8 ' % "&& !' * % * # ". . ! " & .#&" # < 54 5' 4 %.# ' * & " # %" ! " # % " * & " ' + % 25 <& % 54 : % *" !' ! & # 4 ( -" % " < " 25 <& % 54 :' 4 " %+ %.% ! +% " % ( "&/ % ! . 7# # %%! %+ " / "#( # & ! +% " % &% & % ' / " "& % # / & %+ & + &" ++ & 7 " ! "! ! " # -" & %.*# # # " " !# ++ (! * " ! % ! ! "# ! + # ! & .(! + % %+ ! +% " % ' " &# 2$2)%+ " & 2 7 ! +% " % 7 "# " # +% " % %+ " .2005] Insider Dealing: A Dutch Perspective 105 2= 7! & % 7 *" % &% ." ( ++ & % . % # " (. & . / % " % " % 7&% # "! % .# ! ! & " % "## # % " # ! !! % " ! "!# ' ! "+ # # % " " % & " #" . " % & # "!%. % .% 15 16 + ! % &% ! +% " % + % " %+' % ( ( % "&/ % Amsterdam Court of Appeal. * % . +% " * & % % + &" . & %+ % + " & "# % % # ! ! -" .! " "# ..' % .&% " " ." " ".#&" % *% # ! 8 ! & &%. & " " % "! . " % * ! " % #" % % ". & %+ 8 .& " " %* ! ++ & #( & &" . % %+ # " & . %." ! .% # !+ ! # % + &% " ! .# " % %+ " & . ) 9 & & ..% " %+ . #&' *% # ! # # % "." & # " ' + %+ * & .2? % % ". %+ " &# %* .+ " & "# " & & +# & 7 % . 10 December 2004. #&' # " '! &# (% ! &# %% (' %+ + " & "# % %% % % + " & "# " !* & ' + * "! .

& ! ( % % # . # % " ! " + ! % %+ %+ ..% ! &# ! % %+ ! +% " % &%# & ! " ' " " # # %+ &" ' & " &# :? %+ & & 8 . % &" %* " % "# *"( " ( % " # $ ."& % . # " ( " % # -" * & ! & % . & 7 2. & * # "#% # &"# ! " # " &# &" "" -# ( ! & !" " " . # % ' " " " ! ! "# & ". & %+ " & " # % " %+ & % * & . & %+ & ( *% # %. &+& . 1:95 ! . December 2002 19 CESR's Market Abuse Consultation Feedback Statement."& % . & + & " 17 This requirement of causality also removes the need for a "Chinese walls" exemption as a trading division of a properly partitioned (financial) institution should not be able to "use" any inside information held by any of its other divisions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ecember 2002 ..# " . # % " . %. " !% % ". 18 CESR's Advice on Level 2 Implementing Measures for the Proposed Market Abuse Directive. % # " ( ." # -" " "& "!( 8 . %( " "&& .% ! # ! " " & %* / " % .& ( % %. & B ' &% # (' &% & ! " &% # .. &' &# = %+ " & ."& % .' &% "! & % ( 8 .# % "#%* " &% &# % % ( # ! "* " % .. %-! " "# +% % .

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nsider Dealing: A Dutch Perspective 107 .

#%+ " % " % * % " . %%+ & 9' 54 :' 4 &# " % ! & ++ & - "( &% ! & # ++ & ( " ! " # +" % ( & . % " " ! " #D % %+ + " & "# " % % # % $ ) % 55@9I54 9 52 " 4 " & " #.! "# " ! + !+ % . are also late in implementing the Market Abuse Directive.108 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. %." # # ! !% < # ( *# # # # .59 %* . % & % &% # ! && ! ! "# # "8! % # ! " " " % "#. %.% %+ " ! & ! & % .5: + " # ++ " (" ' & # #% " " " *% * * & . such as the UK. 23 Cases C-6." "( # % & ( (.# " % ! . 9/90 Francovich and Others v Italy [1991] ECR I-5357 24 Amsterdam District Court 3 December 2004.% ! &% %+ & &". #& ." # %+ % %+ ! & .' ( " 1 ! !" ! & &% 1& ! + $ . JOR 2005 / 13 . " % " & .' * # . "& . " %* .% & %0 20 21 22 Autoriteit Financiële Markten Commission Regulation (EC) No 2273/2003 of 22 December 2003 implementing Directive 2003/6/EC.* # "# . 1:95 " 8 .% !) %+ " & . some of which. % +% " # ! !%* " " % # ! " 55 54 & #% " ' " . ! % & " " + #( "& " " # ' ! ! "# % % * .

$ . ( $ ( $ # & $ ! . % ! ! % 2 $ $ " + $ $ 3 & ' % !%0 #! 5 ! # + 4 # ! $ .+ . # ( $ .$ (! " $ ( . "% & ( ! $ ( %! & % $" & ( $ $ " ( ($ %" .$! !( ! * . ! & ! # # ! % .! & & ! $ & $ . 2003 . . & ! . + .$ .' * . University of Maryland. Pickles BSc (Auckland).& ! . University of London 1 Icons Project. . law student at Birkbeck. $ " ! &*! ( # -$ 4 ! + ! $( $ ( " # & ! $! $ 6 & *! ( ' $ 22 & ($. % ( & + ( & 0 # $ 1 ! % ( $+ $ ' &*! ( ( . . ($ $ ( -$ +# " / $ !( ( % / ## ) ! & & & ( ! " & $ + ! $ & & & $ & ! ) ! + ! ! & ! *! # " ( $ %". #!% (! "& $& 5 3 & ! †John D. # & & ( % # . "& $ + / ! . ' ! " # $ % # $ # ( ! ( ! ! #+ ' ! + $ $ ! " $ .+ ! % & + $ %" $ + !$ ( % % $ ! # ' % ! " $$ ! ( # & ( " ( ' $ .

" ! (" ( ( =$" ! # + !$ ( ." "+ !$ ( . 7 2 Human Rights Watch.& $ ! & %" # ! + $ $ $ $ % % !( # # "%& 0 !$( & & ! 7 $ %" .110 ! # ! " LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 8 $ ! # + ! $ 29 $ : . ! $ ! 7 ( ( ! # . / 0 !$ # . % " $ $# ( & # ! # ! 7 & " %$ %" " ! $" !% $ . ' ! ( ! &' . ) & - ! ( .+ $ # $ & . 2005 .% (( ( # 26 & ' 4 . & $! (( ( ( ! $ % $ . & $ ! % $# . # !$ $ ! & ' $ ! ( $ $ & " ) + 7 $ $ ( " $ ! & ) 7 &$ 7 + + + & ! $ " . + $ ! & + & 0 !$ & # $ !# ! & . ! & ( . 8 # 0 !$ & # # " + ( # " 7 7 " $ # -$ $ . ! & ! 7 (.$! # & $& " . In the Name of Counter-Terrorism: Human Rights Abuses Worldwide.# ! ."+ ! ( & $ .& # ! $ $ $ . > + 7$ # . % " ( ) ( + . % <9 $! # * $ " & $ $ " ' "$ $ < ) ) & # $ %" & *! ( $ ( ! "5 ' $ !. 1:109 # # ." ( & $ % $ & + $ .$ & % " . ! & ! ! 7 ' (. & ( $ ! $ %" " ! # .

2005 7 Foreign Affairs Committee of the European Parliamen Report. # ( ! ! 3 4 5 Unclassified White House Memorandum February 7 2002 Amnesty International.( ! && < < # <& # & ! ! / # $ "+ ( + ! + + &# ( & & & ! # ## .2005] ' / # Terrorism Legislation 111 ( ! # & %! . ! $$ $ 29@ $ # & " #! + ! # " ( C! $ (C &C C & C C C C $ . # & + #! & # # . " ! # & .$! C C (( ( C % C #!% # % + $ "8 $ # . 2005 Amnesty International.. $ # " # # ( ! .$ # ! % ! " 9@ 9+ @ .Facts and Figures on the Death Penalty.$ ( " # ! # $ ! > < ! (& ! $ . % & $ ! $ ! $" % & $ & 8" " ( ! & $ $ ## + &$ & " # ! $ ! " / ! & ! $"+ $ & % & & #! "& ! 4 ## 5 " ! ) ( +< 7$ & ( D " .$ $ $ 4$ ## $5 ! $ & . / ! $ " + !( ! &(! % ! ( 9@ B @ $ ( ( $ < " 2@ @ <# # +@ @ / ! $# " *! % ( $ & 22 # % 9@ 2+ @ .In the Name of Counter-Terrorism: Human Rights Abuses Worldwide.The Death Penalty. . ( (- . April 26 2005 . 2005 6 Human Rights Watch. " < < ! $<# $ = ! & < $ ! & $ % < ! > &$ & . 4 ( $ 5 .. "% ?! $ $ %# ?+ $ # & (! $ $ $! "# # & ! ! $ 8! $ $ ! $ 6 ! $ " $ " $$ ( 2AA= ! ' ( $ ! ! - # # ( / ! ( $ # 6+B@ # @ % .$ # C 3 $ B % / ! " 29@ & .

# -$$ & ! $ ( $ D & ! # ! ' $ $! & ( / # & % " ( !# & 2@ ! $ @ ) 9@ 2 $ .(! ! # !$ " # ! $ $ % ! ( <! $ 9@ 9 .112 . " ( $ & . ( & ! ! ' $ $ ( + $ ( $ # . .$! ! # $ & " $. # ! & ( 7 ( ( 7 </ ( 7 C % ! # $ $ %" # ! C # ( &$ ( ( $ &."+ ! # "& ( ) ! &. ( ! $ & $ $ " .$ # $ $ " % ..4$ ## ! . $ . C $ C & $% $ % 9@ 2 $ @ $ .$ . ( $5 ) [VOL.% $ $ . -$ & ! # . % ! ( ( 7 . & (* " # . 8 Human Rights Watch. 2005 . ! ( 8 ( ! " ! .+ @ # ! & %" ( 7 $ ( &! $ ( " & !# / & % $ ?! $ $ !%0 ( ( & $ & $ *! ( ( 5+ % $ & # % "& 8 . ! C $ C % " & $ . 1:109 ! "E %" 2AAA : & $& ! > ( . -$ ( $ !( ! ! # . ! "> . # + . "$ $! $ $ ! " . LONDON LAW REVIEW 6+@ @ @ " $ 3+@ @ @ ! . 26@ F 4 ) ( - ( 9@ 9 @ .$ (( ( . ! $ $ " . ( &/ % ! %" ! + ( 7 & ! & ! & $ ( 7 C $& & </ +< ( 7 . < ! ( / < $& & / . 2= $ 9@ '. & ( 7 %& 0 !$( & ! . ! " $& + $ . $ ?! $ " $ %" ?! # !$ % ! ( # $ $ . Torture Worldwide. * ! & $ .

$. $ " ( !# & " " ! !$ $ $$A 0 ! + .# ?! ( ! $ " ( " & (C ( # + ( ( & #! !( . Lessons From German Counterterrorism. 1995 Judges speak out against erosion of independence by government. April 26 2005 . $ . & $ ! 0 ! $ " ! & $ . ! + $ $ $ ") $# $ / # + $ $ %" ' ( 9@ B @ !$".. " % $ # % ! $ & " ! $ ! # / $ $ #!% %" * .. ! ( ! ( . ! ( $ # $ )$ # ! " & " ## & + %+ " !$ + % $ $ (& ( ( & & &( ! ! ! & #!% + (2@ + ! ( # $ $ .2005] Terrorism Legislation " $$ & " &( # (! ( $+ ! "E & ! # & ! " %" ( !( $$ 7 $ $& # "E # % $ & 113 $ $. " $ & ( # & ! ( $& $ ! & + !$ $ # " C $ & (! $ ( $ . ! ( # ( # $ ! ) ! " ( 9 10 Hans Juergen Wischnewski. # & . ( &# ! "+ . & #% . The Guardian.

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' 3 '( $$)$ ( / $$ 1 $) . 3 # ) ( )' ( 4 1 "# 1 3 -2 )$ # 3 ! 5 (1( )$4 ) ' 4 ) )1 ( )5 $ * ( $) %)$3 + 1 ( 4 )$ 1 2. M.!"# $ % $ & '( $$)$ ( + * !!# $ % $ # . '( ( 1 '$ $ 4 $ 8' ) '( % $ )$4 ) $ ( $' '( $$)$ ( / $$ 1 $) 4 9 $) ) % $ .htm#reso .( ) ' 3 ( 1( +/' = $ 5 $ ( $ ) )1)5 $ ) '3 ( . ( )' $ $ (3 6 5' 4 3 3 ) ) 1 . / 0# ( * 1$ 1 )'$ ) )1 2# .Pape. www. $ 4 .A.org 3 Security Council Resolution 1373 was passed unanimously in response to 9/11 attacks and was one of the most expansive resolutions passed imposing measures against all acts of terrorism throughout the world. ( . 1 4$ $ 4 )% % ( ) )1 ( * $'5 $ 8 ) $ )' '$ )1 4$)% 4 5 ) ) . ‘The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism’ American Political Science Review.)%+ 3 ) ). 4 See www.$$)$ / 1 $ ) $ ) 35 ( ( 6 /6 '$ ( 6 '$ & '( $$)$ / 5 (1( 36 $ 1 $$ 3 ) /) )' (3 ( 6 )' (3 '$ $ 3 /3 $ )3 ) 6 ' /6 ( $67 $ $ 3. 2003 2 S.Atran ‘Soft Power and the Psychology of Suicide Bombing’.$ . ( $ ) % 5$) $ ( <3 ( 1 (= ) ) 3 + /( ) ' $ /) / > + '( $$)$ 1 $' )1 $ 3 /)'$+ $ '$ )1 $ .org/terrorism/sc. 1 R.)3 ' $ 4 9 $ $. $$)$ )$4 ) 53 ' ( )6 $$)$ ) ) $ '3 )1 $ ) 35$)( )1 ( ) * 4/ ) ( 7/ 1 ) 3 6 ( ) )' ) )1)5 $ ) $ '3 )1 5 $( .'$ $ )$ + :)$ 5 6( )3 )4( 3 1 ( )1 1 '( $$)$ 3 $4 3 ( )' 6 ( 1 )$ ( ) ' ' 1 (.un.jamestown. . % 5) 1 4 / 3 ( )1 † LLB.

1:115 /3 ( )' $7 $ ( 5$ ) . Crescent and Sword. ) 3 ( 5 /3 :' 1( ) 1 6 ( )$ $$)$ % $-D '4 $$)$ 1 )$ $3 ? ' $ 6 6 $ / % .Rapoport ‘Fear and Trembling in Three Religious Traditions’ American Political Science Review. )3 ( 7 / ( ) ' ( ) 5$)( / % $$)$ . . )'$)$ ( 36+ 3 ) )1 37 ( 1( 1 $ $ 6$ ) 1 3 1 6 53 ( + 61 )$ 1 )$ ( '$6+ . 5 $ 3 =. 1990 D.Johnson and J.Guelke The Age of Terrorism and the International Political System. 1984 . $ ( '$ 6 ( 1( 3)1 $ 4 ) $ 1 ) E 3 . $4 )1)55)$ ' 6= )$ 3( . Chap. $6 4 7$ * $$)$ )5 $ ) % ( 3 .116 5)% $ ( / LONDON LAW REVIEW 1 . ( + 3 + $4 $ ' ) 5'3 $4 . $6 5 (1( ) )1/ . )1 ) 3 + $( $? )3 )46+$ 34) 5$).Kelsay Cross. 4 4 $ )$ $ 7 . 1 ) )1 $$)$ ' $ /6 3? ( @ A ? 67 5 $ 4 ) )1$ 5 .)1 % $ $'( ) = '4 )% )/ )$ * )% ) / ( ) 4 $ ( ' 3* )? ( +% ) 1 )'4 )$ 5 3 $' $ + ) % ) 5'/3( 5 ( ( % 3 37 5)$ 3 $ + ( 5 % $$ )$ ( ) 5$ ( / $ . ' ( .)$4 ) = . 3 . )$ 6 /)3( $4 =1 $) $4 5)5'3 ) + $.$ ' 3 '( = ) )'$ /3 % 6 )1 6 4 1 )$ '$ % ) $ 5 6 7 A.$ 5$ 6 6 .)3 ( ) + 53 )6 /6 7( 3 . =+ '$ 4 = ) $4 )1 $$)$+ $4 )1 + )$ $4 )1 )+ 5 4) % $ )+ ( $() + 5$)5 4 ) )$ 5$ $ 3 )'4 -B 6 )$ 5 (1( 36+ ' ( 3 $$)$ ( )1 $$)$ % $ '( ( )1 )5 $ ) ( ) 4 ) 37 1 ( 1 3 /6 5 $5 $ )$)1 5 6( )3 )4( 36 3 5 6 ( 36 $ 3 $$)$ ) % 3 '3 )' 3 6 $)6 4 6 $4 ( $ ) * $ 1 + )$ .)'$ )1% * $ 4$)'5 4 '( $$)$ % +1 6+( $ [VOL.2 J. 5 $5 $ )$ )3 6 3 ( ( )1 '$. ' 3 4$)'5 )$ + ()$+1 )$ )6 ( (( $ +$ 3 )$ 5)3 ( 3$ ) +% $ /6A $ ( $4 )1 .)3 ( $ 4 $ 36 3 () $ ) 3 . 3 3 () )/ $ % / % ) ) % ) 4' 4 1 '$ -0 %3 4 3 ) *3 ) $ 3 $)'4 ) C )% .

1 $' 1 )$ 1 ( 4 3 $ % ' )13 ) 65 )1)5 $ ) C -! )/ $ < 5 # ( ) + $ )1 ' ( $$)$ 36 $ 46)1 ( $() ) $'( '$ 3( ) ) )1 $$)$ 4 $ 3 $ + $ . % =% $ '$ :)'$ 6+ 5$)5 3 3 )$ 1 ( Suicide Terrorism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cit Pape . 5'$5) . 9th December 1994. . / . p.3 )5 )1.99 ibid. $ )1 $ ) 3 3 $6 ( $() ) $$)$ ( $( $ ) % * $ ()$ $4 $) 4 $. ) 6 $4 - $$)$ 1 )$ )15)3 ( 3. $ # ) '55$ ( )' $7 $ .)3)% 4 3 $ ( . )3 ( )1 1 )$ 3 % )1 ( / % ) 53 )6 3 D# /64).1 ) )$ '5 ) $ $) '( ) )1 7$ 3 F * $ 3 3 9< + ( ) )1 ( /6 * /$ ) 8 9 .+ )1 $ $ 4( )$4 ) 3 ( )$ 4 ) < 5 ( 5)$ ( )$ )1 $ 4( )$ ) )1 ' ( $$)$ 4 )1 '5 ) )1 ( +/ * ) ( ) /6 3 1 '$ $ ( %)'3 / * $ 3) $ ( $(.2005] 1 / 3.' ( /) / 4 5 )$ $ 5)% $ / 3 ( )'4 1 ( )1 )55) 1 ( )1 ( 1 $ 4 ( $(. Israeli TV Channel 1.)'$ )1 ) 5)% $1 5 $ 6. op. '3 '$ ) $ (+ 4)1C 17 4 $ )1 10 The Palestinian Islamic Jihad is not to be confused with Islamic Jihad (Hezbollah).

p.1 $ % 3 / % 37)$( 3 3 $ 6 )15$)5 4 )($ )55$%3 3 * ) )% 3 )'4 $ $ 3 ) 5 / % 5)3 ( 3( 3 5 $. Terrorism versus Democracy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ilkinson. /6 1 $ 1 1 ( )$ 1 $ 1 +1 $) $ 34 )' ) ) 3 ) 5)3 ( 3 - 11 P. ' 3 % ) .)3 + $ . ) )1 )$4 ) ( / $. $ ( )'3 / 5 $ )1 $ 46 )1 '$5$ /6 $$)$ )$4 ) /' )$ 3* 3 $ 1 ( ) )1 6 3 5 G$ ( ) ( 6 )1( 5 ) 4 $$)$ )$4 ) 5 ( 36 $' )1 3 <3 ' )$ * ( 3 $ $ ) 43 / ( ' 6 3( * ( 53? ) 5 $.)3 ' $ 1 )$ 5 (1(5'$5) )1( $$6 4)' '( ( *65$). = . =1 3 )3)% 4 5 /$ ( = ) * . )1 )$4 ) .

2005]

Suicide Terrorism

119

3%

Total attacks Suicide attacks
97%

48% 52%

Deaths from non-suicide terrorist attacks Deaths from suicide terrorism

) )1)5 $ ) + ' ( /) / 4 5$). )/ . $6 '( 1 1 ( '3 '( ( '$ /6 ' / $ )1 ( ' 3 1( 3 ) $4 ( )$ 4 ) ( 5$ )1 !"&72# 2 ' ( # ( * )' ):' &H )1 3 ) 3 $$)$ 3 ( * ,"H )1 ) 3 ' / $ )1 ' ( ( * ( $ 3 ). $ 6 5 ( )% 1 3 . . $6 ( ) $ )1 ' ( /) / 4 5 ( 36 4 1( 3 4. ) 3 ' / $ )1 $$)$ ( %)$3 % 1 3 '$ 4 3 5$) 1 $) 000 !"D )&," 2# &- )7( 3 # 3
12 13

cited in R.Pape 2003. Further information available at US Department of State www.state.gov. U.S.Department of State, Patterns of Global Terrorism 2001, www.state.gov

120

LONDON LAW REVIEW

[VOL. 1:115

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
14 15

R.Gunaratna, ‘Suicide Terrorism: A Global Threat’ Janes Intelligence Review 20th November 2000 A.Moghadam ‘Palestinian Suicide Terrorism in the Second Intifada: Motivations and Organisational Aspects’ Studies in Conflict and Terrorism vol.18, 1995, figures from Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs www.mfa.gov.il 16 C.Quillen, ‘A Historical Analysis of Mass Casualty Bombers’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 2002 17 R.Pape, 2003.

2005]
( 1( ) 3 5$ ( $ 5 4

Suicide Terrorism
* 55 $ / ( 6 $ )$4 .)3 1 $ 1 % $ 4$)'5 . ) 5 5 $-

121
)

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

18 19

Also known as Islamic Jihad the group seeks the creation of an Islamic republic in Lebanon Also known as the Islamic Resistance Movement, the group emerged from the Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood in 1987. 20 see www.jmcc.org/opinionpoll

3 3 ) 3)= + )$4 ) . ' 6 . )'$. www. weapons procurement through both legitimate and illegitimate arms trading and propaganda activities. It has an extensive overseas structure providing financial support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he LTTE is a very sophisticated organisation with 8000-10000 combatants and a core of 3000-6000 trained fighters. 5$ ). 6 4 '$* 6 / )$ )$ 73. 4 %) ( / ' 3 $ 1 )' 5$ ) 5 ( 3 $ ' * % % <$ E' $ ' 4 % ) ( ) 5)% $ ) 53 4 ) % $5 ( 3 ( 35 * )3 6 $3 $ !!B $ ' /) / 4( ( * ) ' ' 32# 2 % # + /6 )$% 6+ ( 1$ % 4 4). * 6 # 4 31 $) ) 5 ( )$ % $ % .org.)3 ' $ 3 . ') ) 6 )$ $ 4) 6 ' ( $% 3 $ 3 ) '( ( )1 '3 2# . Suicide Terrorism: Development and Characteristics. (.Schweitzer. $ 4 6 ) $ $ 8 4).' %) 6 $ 3 $ <$ <$ % *3 3 % 6.<EE= '( $$)$ (.5 (1( 36 3 $4 4 )$ 5)3 ( 33 $ . 1:115 2 )$ ( $ /3 5 $ )1 / . $ )1 ). ( )1 $ 31 ( ) .il .+)1 ) ( # ) ( . 22 Y.( $$ ( + 1 * '$ $ ? % $ $( 5 +/ % ' !!0 )' 11 '3 !!!+' 3 6 )$4 ) C3 $ / '3 3 (3 % $$ ( ) . = 3 )'4 $ )% . $ ) ' 2" 2# .ict. ( ) )$ ' ( ( * 3 3 ( % G $22 ) $ )$4 ) ( / ) ' ( /) / $ *3 < 3 !! + % $ % 5 (* 5 $ 1 $) $ * .( )$ 4 ) )$ $ ( .

' ( )5 $ ) 3 55 3 ) 4$)'5 1 )$ . ( (' ) 3 / ( ' )1 3 ( )1 ? ) . )3 :' 1( ) 6 6 .3 6 ' 34)' )$4 ) ) / )$ ( $ $ $4 ( $ () $ / 3 /6 /31 6 . ' 31 ( )5 $ 4 ) $ )% .21 24 23 . ibid.14. ) 1 +( $)3 /3 6 )1 ) 3 ( ) 8' ( + )1 . . .2005] Suicide Terrorism 123 '( $$)$ )57 )% + ) /) ) 7'5 5 ) ). 3 )1 $$)$ )$4 ) % 3 3 6 / ( (3 3 % $ 4 ( ( % 3 ' .33 A. vol.+ 1 () ' ) . $+ )5 7 ' 8' )$ 34)' 1 '$. ( ( (' ? ' ( ' 3 /6 ) 4 ? ) .Dolnik and A.' ( 6 /) / $ ( 53 4 ?(3 )( ) '( )$ ( '$ 3 ( 6 /) / $ % ) 3) ) 53 ( 5 $)' % 6 '( /) / $ ( $ ( 53 ( $ ) $% ( ( /3 ) ) $6 4 ) * 5 3 . 3 /3. )1 4$)'5 ' / ? 5)$ ) ) )' '( $$)$ ) ))3)1) 3 6 . -C . Rockets or WMD?’ Terrorism and Political Violence.)'$ /3 ) $ ) )1 ( * $ Dershowitz p. $ 1 $) )$4 4$)'5 $ $ . ‘Hamas: Suicide Bombings.) 4 1 .3 Autumn 2002 25 According to a recent invoice found by Israeli troops during Operation Defensive belonging to the alAqsa Martyrs Brigade the shield. ( )' $7 '$ )$ 3 /)) 4 '$ ( / ) ) * 5)5'3 $ ) )1 ( ) / *( / ( ) $'( 1 $) ( 5) ) 5$ '( ) ' $ + ( ) $)4 43 $ 6( % ( $ 1 $3 6 3 . $ 6 )1)5 $ ) 3$ ) ) 3 5$ ( ( 3 6 )1 ) ( ( 31 /3 6( 7/ 1 ) 3 6 )% 1 ( ( )1 1 6 (( ( )3 )4( 3 53( 6+( 7 1 ( . electrical components and chemical supplies for a suicide bomb cost $150. 3 ( 6 3 3 )'4 $ 34)' ( $ )$4 '3 ) /) 53 )6 ( 8' 6 $ /)' /6 1 $ 1 . 2B )% ) 53 ( 75 $7( ' 36 ) $ ) )1 ' ( ) )$ 1 . 53 )5 ' )3 * : 3 ( $: 2. $ ' 36 3 ( 4)$6 )1 $4 ( ( 5 )1 $ 6$ ) ) ) + )% . ' 3 $ 6$ $( )1 3 $ ( / 4 $)' /' 1 $ 3 ) ( $ (3 $ ( 5 /3 )15 $ ' 41 3 $ ) )3)% 2& $ *)$ 1 )$1 $ 3. / 5 $1 )$ 4 ' 63)+% $ ( $ )$4 '3 ) 55 3 ) ( ) ' ( ( 5) 6 ) )1 (' 3 5) 36 5 $ +$ 34)' )$4 ) . no.Bhattacharjee. p.

$ $ 3 ) 5/ % 1 8' ( $ 6 )1 ( * 1 $ )1 $4 5)5'3 ) + 3 )'4 /6 $4 /( ) ' ) %3 3 3 $ 6/ 5$ $ ) 31 $ 5) / 3 6 )1/ 4 . ( $ ) 3 )/ ( + 3 5$ 5 $ ' / $ )1 /) / $ 1 )$ 4$)'5 ) ( ) 3 ( $$6 )' ' ( 6 ( ( * )'3 / ' /3 4 /3 *.) 1 $ 3) $ .) 6+ $ / '$ ' / $ )1 2" 5 )53 % 3 4 ) / ( 3 ) ' ( /) / $ $ $. $ 4 2D 6 $ '( )4 $J . 3 1 4)) )$ 3 3 ) $.Moghadam ‘Palestinian Suicide Terrorism in the Second Intifada’ Studies in Conflict and Terrorism p.Hassan. 3 $6 % 4 )1 =% ) $ . in A. 3 I A 61 ' ) % 5 )$ $ 1 /)6 % ) % )$ ) ) $ 6$ ) )5 $ ) 4 )1 1 ( $)% % ) $ .124 .$$ ) 31 $ ) ) $ / $ )$ 3 ) ) ( 3 5$)/ /3 6% 6 $$)$ F ' . ( )1 ' 6J $( )' ( + /' 3 + ( I )'3 . 3 6 $ % )1 / )1 / )3 ' $ $ )3 ) ( $ 3 ( . '3 3 /6 6 .I )( .69 . Dr. 4 $ 3 ) 4) ' /) /)5 $ ) L /( ) )'$ /44 5$)/3 J - 26 27 28 ibid. 3 $'53 A ) 5 6 1 )$ 6 4 $ + (' 4 3 3 + .)3 ' $ + (' 4 3 3 $ )1 3 7K $4 . ) .Ganor J. The New Yorker 19 November 2001.Conrad The Secret Agent A Simple Tale N.( )1 ( 5$)5)$ ) * ) ( ' 33* 3 )) . 6 * ) ' 5'/3( )5 ) ) 5$ '$ ( ) 7 *$ ) '$$ $ 4 ) $ 5 ( $$)$ ( $ /6 ' ( /) / 4 / (' () ) 1( 1 '3 $ 5 $( . ( 4 $ 5)3 ( 3 4 . 1:115 ) 6 ) 3 $$)$ 3 )$4 ) $ ) . ( C )% 20 4 ) 4 C$ 46 / ) 5$ 1 $4 3 ) )15$)5)$ ) % 3/( 3 ) ' /3 ) 1 ( ) ' )( 6 $ ( $ '3 )1 ' $ )1 ( 6 '$ %3 3 '$ ? $ 5$ '$ ) 3 $ ( )$ ( ( % 5$ ( 3 )/ $. $ ) )1 /) / $. 3 )'4 $ $ ) 1 3 )1/) / $ = - LONDON LAW REVIEW $ )( ( ) '( 56 4 [VOL. ‘An Arsenal of Believers: Talking to the “Human Bombs”’.) ( . % %) ' $ 116 . $6 ' ( ( ) * / 4 )( ( $ 61 )$ ' ( )5 $ ) )1( )'$ % 3 4 ' ( /) / $3 1 $ 31 )$ ( ) $'( ) )1/) / +% $ 6 $ 1 )$ )1 /) 6 ' )$ ) )$ .B.

npr. 2002 www.org/news/specials/suicidebombers . $ ' $ ) 3/) 6/6 )1 !D# < + )7 ()$+ 1 )$ 3 53 ) ($ 3 ) % )$ ( )' $ .)( $ 3 ( ( 6 ) 3 + + 4 ) 1$ ' ( < C 3 $+ $ $ 1 +% .$ 3 $ $ &# F) $ ( C 5) /3 )/$ */ ( ' 4$)'5 5$ '$ ( $ ( )$ 4 )1 . ( 4 )1 $ %)'3 )' ) / $ 63 ( $)3 4 ) 3 )1 )$4 ) $ )5 ' 1 )$ ( '( 4 ) ( .)3 ' $C 6 ( 1$ ) ( ) ' 6 $ 6$.Eyad Sarraj. 5)3 ( 3 1 ( 1 )$ (+ '( 1 3 ( '36 36 53 ) )1 3 ) ( )$ + G 3 % ( /)3 '( 1 ( '3 5 '3 ) 31 )$( 1 $) / )+ % ( 5 4 ) ? 3 '( 1 ( '3 5$ '$ 3 $ 6 4 53 )6 )1 5 (7 * !!& 5) 5) )15 ( 3 * * 5 4 $))5 ) $ ' $3 4 / 3 1)1 6 )$4 ) ' / 6 )4 )$ /6 ' 4 (( ). Director of the Political Violence Research Unit at Tel Aviv University.Harrison. ‘An Economist Looks at Suicide Terrorism’ 5th June 2003 available at www. ) 5 3 1 .1 * 4 )/ $ 1 ) '3 $ $ % 3 / 1 % $+ 1 6+ ' ( 3 ( . 6 )% . 1 $) F) $ (C ( 1 )$ $ 4 )/: ( . ' 3%)'3 1 % 4 )1$ )'$( . 6 I 5$ 5 ) . ) $ $ 3 /3 6 )$ 3 1 $% $ 6 < % 4$ 5 ( 3 )/ $. '3 $$)$ %)'3 .) . Taken from radio discussion between Prof.securitymanagement. 5$)1 )' 4 .A. . 4 67 ? = 29 M.pdf 30 Prof. founder and Director of the Gaza Community Mental Health Programme.Merari. 5$) ) . ) + * 4 5 ) )4$ 5 %$ 43 $ ) $ /' 1$ /) / $C 3 '( ' ( /) / $ F .com/library/Suicide_Harrison0803.2005] Suicide Terrorism 125 <$)1 )$ $$ ) 2! (/ $ $ 3 ) 5 / % $$)$ )$4 ) $ ( $' ) )1 F ' ' 3/ 1 C $ .) 5 $ % ) $ 44$ .Merari and Dr.'$ 4 * 3( 5 $ ) )1 5)3 ( 3 4) ) '( 5 ( 5$)( )$ 1 $ 5$ ( )1 3 $6 1 )$( ) 1 4 )3 ' ( )$ + $$)$ ( . $ * )% % $ 4$)'5 $ 4 ) $ ) 4$)'5 . 4 $ 6$C 3 )$4 ) 3* % '$ ( % 3 / ( $$ * 3 )' 4$)'5 '( ( ) 1 $ 46 ) %)$*) $ * )11 3 + ? '$ '$ 5) . 5$ ( ( )1 * 4 . April 9th. 4$)'5 <3 (' '( ( 4 4 3 ) 1 )5 )1 $ ) 3 4 1( 1 '3 ) 4 % )' $ ' 3 '( ( + * ( )$$ 5) 4 1 $+ <3 %)'3 .)1 1 $ 4 3 )/ $.

Inside Terrorism .+ 6 # 1$ '( ( * %) 6 $ +3 ( $ ( ) 1( ) ( $$)$ /3.$4 $ 1 $ )( ( ) ) $$)$ / (' ' $ /3 6 6 ) ) % ) 4 $$)$ %)$* ' 534 )1 5 )53 ( ) ' '$ 1 $$)$ % $ 5 6)' 4 /) )( )$$'5 )'3 ) / $ 5) 4 ) 34 4$ . 18. 67 %)= )'/ 1 % '3 $ < ( )'3 ( . 1:115 . '( ( ) $ )$ ) $ ) 3 $$)$ 1 6 $ )'$ 1 )1< 3 '3 $$)$ A ( . p.) 5) /3 ) 5$)13 '( /) / $ ) 3 6 3 3 1 ()$ % ( ( )'3 5) /3 6 1' ( 3 ( ) /6 ) ) ) *3 3 31 32 33 B. ) ( 5 '3 4 ) )1 $$)$ 4 $ ( ( %)$*.Dershowitz Why Terrorism Works 2002 ibid. $3 6 !"0 $ 5$ .02. www. $43/ ( ) ) )1 $$)$ 3 +% )' ) ( 1( 5 $ 3 ' 6 )1 ) 4 $ % 3 )+ % 3 $ 1 + $ ( $ &.75 A.F '( ( )1 $$)$ ( (' ) 1 ) 3 )$ / % 6 6% $ /$ $$)$ .31.1. 5 ) ) C$ ) $ ) 35 ( ( 6 '$ '( 1 $) % 3 4 ' ( .Hoffman.2655/Corr. $ 46 '( 1 ( '3 4 4 4$)' 1 $ 53 ) ( 5 (1 + '3 $ ) 4' $ 6 % 3 ) 5'3 )' 3 3 )* ( )* 5 * $ $4 ) $ ) . p.186 34 UN Document s/pv. . ) ) 6 )1 $$)$ C )3 4 ) 6 ( ) ) ( '( '( )5 $ ) ) 3 ( * $ * '3 2# . ( 6 )' (3 / '$ % 3 5) 6 )' F A $ ) 3( ) ' 6+ (' 4 3 M ( 6N )' (3 ' ' '$ + ) ( $6 5)3 ( 3% 3 ) 3 3 . % 53 ) +3 )//6 ' $ %)$* $ 5$ 3 $ 6 13 ) )@ 1 ' %)$3 )( ) ) <3 5 )53 & 534 J - &2 $ F $$) 7 ( 55$) ( % ( 3 ( *C $ )% G ( ( 1 )$ ( ) ' 4 5) ) )14$)'5 ) ' '( $$)$ $4' 5$ ) )/ $. % 61 $) 5)5'3 ) 6 6$ 5$ /3.86 p. $6% $ &&A C )1( / ) 4 $$)$ )/ / )3 ' $ )3 ) ) ( ( . ) $ ) % 6 1 $ ) )1 $' 5) $ .org . + $ M N $ 3 .un.126 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL.)3 3 ' $ 1 $) )$4 ) % ( ' . ( / ( ' )1 $$)$ + 6 )'3 / $ 5) 4 5 )1 $$)$ ' / ( $.

6+ 6 6 $ 1 )$ % 6 3( * % 3 )$ 3 &0 /3 6 ) 5 $ 1 $) C%) ( $6 5 6( )3 )4( 3( ) ) 1 )$ ' ( /) / 4 $4 % $ %3 4 3 ) *3 3 %3 4 3 ) . 5$)( )1*3 4 ) $ 3 / 6) ( )5 )1 55$ 4.3 47 $ ( ) )' $7 ' ( $$)$ $ 46 % 3 ) 3 3 6 / '( 1 1 $ ). 3 ( ))3 % $ 4 34 / 4 )1 :)$ 1' ( 3 % 3/ ( 3 ) $ '$ ! " " ! 3 ( ) / *3 4 )1 (. % ( ( )'$ 4 . %5) )1 $ 34)' ( $ '3 $$)$ $ ( $ 3 1' ( 3 ) % ' ? ( 3 5 6 1 3 /( 6 *4$)' )1 '/: ( . 16th September 2001 .177 37 J.Sardar ‘When the innocent are murdered. ' 3 ).2005] Suicide Terrorism 127 3 . 3 3 $4' ' 5 $ ( $ $ 34) '3 )'/ 3 6 1( # "$ 5$) ) )$ '55)$ 6 )$ ( 3 35 36 O. $ % 3 6 ) $ 36 1' ( 3 3 $ ( ) )1 % $ ) :) 4$)'543 ) 1' 3 3 1 ()$ % $ )( 3 . 1 $ $) / $ &B '44 5 6( )3 )4( 3 $ )/ ) % 6+ 1 )$ )1 ' 1( ) @ F )% 6 $ 8' 3 ) 6+ $ 4 ) 1 C A 6 . $) $ 34) + )( 3 55$). 8' 3 6F 44$ A ) $ ( /) 3 .Sprinzak and L. 6 . '( +/' ' ( /) / $ $ ( $ 3 6 '( 5$) '( )1 )( 6 6 4$ % '5 % I 5)5'3 $7( '$ '3 $)7%)$ 5J 6 )% 1 3 . ) % )( ) F '$ $7 ' ( C . Israel on the Couch ibid. p.)3 ' $ 1 '( )$ ( * ' 6 /6 <) + 5 G * 6&D $ . )$ $ '( ( '3 ( . The Terrorists in Their Own Words: Interviews with 35 Incarcerated Middle Eastern Terrorists Terrorism and Political Violence 2003 38 Z.Grasbad. $ '/: ( . 3 1 $) .Denny. we all go into the dark with them’ The Observer.Post.)3 . E.

3 6 ' )$ 3 $ 4$)'5 ( ) ' '55)$ $ )1 5$ $6 )/: ( . $ 13 1 $ % ) /6 )1 1 5$ ( )1 $ 34)' 5 $ . 4 '3 ( ) ' 6 % )' 3 $( 35 + 5)$ $6 ' )$ 6 ) 4' ( ) ' 6+% 3( /' ' '$5$ 43 $ 34) 6 4 . ( $) 4$ 34 )' ( 5) ) 1' ( )1 3 $ 34)' $5$ ) )14$ 3 1' 6 3 3 ( $ ( 3 $ ) .( )$ 4 ) $ 34 )' ? ( 1$ ( )1 $ 6$ ) % )( ' $ ( '$ 4) % <$)5 ' 3 . 1:115 &!( ) 5)$ $6 $$)$ 4$)'5 .3 . ) ) ( $$6 )' ' ( C ) 6 ( ' 4 $ 34 )' ) .. + ( $ ) % $ 34 )' 4$)'5 % ) ) ( ($ ) 3 . $ .)3 4 .128 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. “Holy Terror”: The Implications of Terrorism Motivated by a Religious Imperative’ Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. )'4 )$ 6 )1 $ 34)' ( ) ' 6 5)' 1 ( 3/ 3 1+ 1 ( )1 1 .( )- ) 5) /3 ) $ . % $ .'3 $ /3 )1 5$ 5)5'3 ) ( ) / ' $ . 6 )$ ) 1 3 $ +1 ( )3)% 39 None of the 11 identifiable terrorist groups in 1968 could be classified as religious. ) /) / 4 ( 53 3 % )' '3 6 $ :' 1( ) 5$ ) 4' 5 $ ( $3 3 +% )1 / ) 1 ) C1 )$ 4 / 3 1)$ ) )$ )1% ) ) $ * %)$ % + ) 1 $ /( %)$ 1 $) ) $ 6 ( 1( ) 3 . '3 ) * 5$ ( $ '3 % $ $ 34)' )$4 ) .)3 ( $)'4 % ( 6 . ' 1 '3 )/3 ) ))31 ) )$ 4$)'5 5$ (5 3:' 1( ) )1. % 6 ) 5)3 ( % 1 6 6 $ ' $)' ( 35 )$ 4 ) $ % 6 ) 5)% $.Hoffman.)3 ( 6/ ( '$ 3 '3 )$ ( 35 $( 5 ) )1. ' 6 )1 3 ) 4$ $ /3 )) $'( ) ( ) /6 ( $ $$)$ '3 % ) $ /)' /6 1$ 1 . ' 3 + '( ( * 3) )( '$$ ( 4 ( '$6 $ '3 ( ) ' ( $ 4) @ 3 / $ ) )1 )' $ + : )$ $ ' $ ) '3 ' )' $ < 355 . vol.# + 1 3 .3 $ =% $ ( )1 ' 3 ( )($ )1 $ 6$ ) % ( 5 '$ ( ) )1 ' + 4$ ) )1 <$)5 ' 0"# + . Hoffman . ' 3 ) . )3 ( ) )$ )1 .18 1995 40 ibid. '( % $ ( 4)$6 )1 $4 3 )'4 $ 34) 5$). ) )$ ) )? ' + % ) ( 5 ( $ 4 )1 5)$ 33 $ + % )/ 3 . % 55 3 4 ) 3 ) 6 $ )% ( ) ' 6( $ )$4 '3 ) $ )$ 3* 3 ) $4 6 4 1( . in the 90s at least 20% of the 50 known terrorist groups can be described as having a dominant religious component or motivation from B.

Israeli A Manual of Islamic Fundamentalist Terrorism 2002 A. $6 ( $ 3 ) @ 4$ )1 3 ( ) $ % + 6 3 3 14 A 5 )53 % ) $ ) ) 3 )% $ /3.. taken from R.Hoffman Sunday Times 13th April 1997 . ) 1 )$/ +/' ) / 3 .$ $ % <)3 6 A ) 4 %3 3 $ ? 5 1 ' ( )$ . January 23rd 1995.2005] Suicide Terrorism 129 1 )'$7 )' $) 4 $ 6)1% 37 8' 55 3 )3 $ * )% 4 %)'3 ( ) 31 ( 6 /)3 '5$ %3 4 3 ) '/ ) % 3 )1 3 3 3 /( ) 5$ 4 1 )$ C )3 )46 5 $ ' 3 6+ % ( 5 $ ( $3 '3 65)% $1 '3 $ 6$ ) $ )$ 6$ ) % )5 /6 <3 !!# $ % $ )' / / % <3 ( )3 $ )1I )3 6 $J ' ( 1 )$/ /6 3 ( )1% * )1 ( + ( 3 31 / 3 4 1 3 ) ) 3 3 ) 1 )$ )$ 3 ) * .( )$6 )1 $ 3 % ) .65 Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 2003 43 The Jordan Times April 21st 2004 44 p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oghadam Palestinian Suicide Terrorism in the Second Intifada p. $6% $ $ 3 441 42 Ha’aretz. % 3/ (3 )$ )1 ( 1 '3 $ 3 3 $) $ 6$C ' $.$ ( ) '( % 3 3 33 ( $ 3 '( ' $ $.

. ( 6)1 ( $ 4$)'5 1 3 ) % ( 1)$ ( 1 + '55)$ 1 1 ) )$ 37. ) . )1 $$ 53 ( /3 3 ) ( 5$ ) 45 46 op. 3 1 6# . = ( ) $ 3 :' 1 1 )/ . '3 % $ .Harrison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cit M. '3 C 6 1 )$ 9 $/31 .B / 3 .3 6 ' .( ' )$ 5 )1 . 3 1 $ )1$ : ( ) ( )'$ 4 ( 1 ) )$ 6( ) ) <$)1 )$ $* $$ ) . )'$ 3.Harrison 2003 ibid.$ ) . 5$). 6 $ $ )$ . 3 ' 5 $ ( $ ($( '3 ' ( 6 6/ )$ .0 ( . $ % 3 5 $( . 3 1 ) 4 )( 3( ) ) ( 5 ( )14$)'5 )/: ( . $6 5$ ()' + $ 3 5$ ) 3 6 4+ 1 4 )$ $)6 3 .3 ' /6 31 ( 5$ )C 6 ' 8' / ( ' )1 . M. 3 $ 6 .% = <)5'3 ) ' $ $ . 3 /3 /6 ' . 4 53 ( ( ) ' 6 )$6 1 )$ 3 . ' 3($( ' ( / (' ( 5 $ ) C ( )( 1' ( /6( )( ) $ 3 . .F $$)$ 1 ( ) ( 5 ) 1 5)% $ )$ ( ) ' 6 % ( /) )55$ )55$ .130 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 6 / 6) 5 3) ? $( )1 5)3 )4 )% .

. ) )'$ $ $ 5 6.)$ ? 53+ / . $)) $ ' (' /6 $ +5 $ 5 $ ( $ '3 )1 :'$ 1 $ )$ /$) $ 1$ . / ' /3 ) 1 $ 3 ( !.)'$ )1 4$6+ ? ' 1 $ + 47 48 www.D / % ' $ 3 $ $ 6 $$ : ( $ 3 '5 ( ) ) ( (5 ) ) $ . ( ) . 3 /3 ' +.)3 ' $ 3 1 . 6 5 )53 ? 5$ %3 4 3 ) .< )53 1 $) 3 / ( 3 *4$)' + )1 /) ? +)1 . $6 4 4 . 4 )1 1 3 ) )'$ 6 4 6+/) )1% ( $ ( $ 3 $ / 5 6( )3 )4613 '$ ) * $ .6 3( . !""7!&=)$ $ )$ $ 3 ) 5$ $)'/3 ( / ) % )' )1 1 )3 ) + % 4 )15 $ 3/ 4 + ' 3 ) /6 $ 6 .org April 9th 2002 see The Jordan Times June 2nd 2004: ‘Trauma soaring among children – UN’ about children losing all sense of normalcy UNWRA has released fresh statistics on children and intifada . )$ '( ) . $ . 4 ) % 3 3 4 $$ 5 $ /3 6)' 4 5 )53 3 $ 6 4) $)'4 3 4 5$)( ) )1 5 1 ( )( ) '3 ( $ 8' $ '3 1 '4 5$)( )1( )) 4 $ 6 6 3( ( )$$ ( 3 )$ ( )) ) / 6+ ) ( )$$ ( )$ 3 1 )$ )$ ) 43 5$)13 )1 ' ( /) / $. $)'4 $ 31 +/' 3. 3 ) $ 4 5) .3 )'4 .6 $$ : ' <3 /) / $ %)'3 7/ /) / $ ( (' ) 3 ) )1 '/: ( % 36 3 3 )$ 5 6( )5 )3 3 )4( 3 + )$ 61 $ * 1 ()$ 1 ' ( )$ 4 $ 36 4$ 3 /65 6( $ 5 6( )3 )4 )1 )5 ) $ ) . 4 1 )$ %$) 4 3 ) + $ / . % 6 .". % 4 )3 %)'3 7/ /) / $ $ $ $ ( (' ) 3 )( 3 5'/3( )5 $ :)$ 1 ()$ $ ( $ )$ 6+ 3 ' 3 ( 3 ) '( ' 3 1 )$ )3 )4( 3$ ) )$ 1 )$ )( 36 55$). $ ($( ' ( )1 $ 3.'$ $ )$ +1 $) 5 6( )3 )4( 35) )1.$$ : 3) '44 <3 6)' 4 5 )53 6/ $ /3 4 4 3 31 3 )$ )1 5) ' )$ 6 (' 4 3 )11 3 6 ( $6 6/ 53 ( 4 ) ) $ 3 $ ' ( 5 /3 ? ( 5$ ) )1 4 $ .2005] Suicide Terrorism 131 % ) ( )) )1 3 ) 1 )/ (' 4."( ) $ 3 ) .npr. ) %3 3 $ ) . .)3 ) '( ( )3 ) 6 5 )53 / ( ) '( /) / $ + 6 ( 6% 3 4) )5 $ 3 6 ) 3 1% * 6 * . $+/ ) ( ) ) ) )$ % * )3 ) 6 ) 3 3 / $ )1 5)5'3 ) 4$)'5 )15 )53 ' $ 3 . )3 ( 4 $ 3%)'3 $ '3 $ ' .$ 3 $ $ $. 13 / ( ' 6 . 3 3 ( ) )$ ' )% .$ ) /3. ( ' % $ '5) 3 6$ ( .

$ 8' 3 6 % ( $ $ )( 3 ' + )$ ) 1 3 )3)% 5 1$ 1 1 $) $ ) 3) 5 $ $( 3 ( '$ 31 '3 $ 6 . $5$ '$ $ ( )1 (5 ) +F ) 51 )$% $ 1 /' B 5/ ( *% $ 1 ' )$ 6C . ) 1 % 3 % 3 ( ) ) )$6= ( / ) ) )1 $ 34)' )$4 ) 3 1 ()$ * 4 3 ( 53? 6 ) 5 ) )) $ $ 4 1 4 /6 $$ : ) % $ 5)3 ( 3 $ 1( ) $ .<)5'3 $ '55)$ 1 ' ( )5 $ ) 1 3 % )$ 3 )5 1 )1 5 ( /' 1 '3 5 $ '55)$ $ 5)5'3 ) 55$).)( 3 )5 ) (5 ( 6 ) 3% ( )( .$ $ 3 ) 5 / % '( /) / 4 )5 .$) )$4 ) C $ 4(5 $ 5 ( . 33. www. and 57% were prepared to amend the PLO’s national charter to formally acknowledge Israel’s right to exist. 1:115 % )% $ $( (53 $ )$ 3 ( ( '$ '3 ( / )3 ' ( 53 ( ) 6 53 ( $ 4$ ) ) )( 36 3 34 1 . 3 1 )$ ( . ' )1%) ( / ' ) 1 $ 5 $( 5 ) )1' $ ) 5 $6 $ (3 ) 3 +( ( ( 3 ) ? ) . :)$ 6 )1< 3 ' ( /) / $ $ $ 5$ 7 3 ( /6 4 $ ) ) ? + 6% $ %)$3 ( ) )$ . In 2002 70% of Palestinians believed that Ariel Sharon’s plan to withdraw from parts of the Gaza Strip and some settlements is not serious at all to somewhat not serious (Poll No.org Donnelly ‘The Suicide Sisterhood’’ National Review Online April 26th 2002 50 51 . 3 )1 '55)$ % $ 3 .jmcc.132 ( $ LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL.) At this time 63.51. ' 3 ( 1 /3 % ) )$ )4 ( + ' 8' . )/ $.1% of Palestinians polled supported to some extent the use of suicide bombing operations.!( (5 ) ) 3 '( 3 /) / $ $ 3 3 )'4 . $6 $ * ( 36 $ 5) 3 ) ( 4 5)3 ( 3( 3 + )$ ? 53 + 1 $3 6 )1 6 3 )< ( <$)( )% 3. for more on female suicide bombers see Clara Beyler at www. 4 $ '( $ ( $ 4$)'5 '3 3 ' %) /' ) 8' 3 ' / $ ) ( $ + ) ' %) &# H )1 )5 $ ) 7. ' 53 $ 4' )15$ 4 ( 6 ( ? ) 53 $ 3 '( ( )1 )( 3 )' 7 )/) 67 $( %) 49 According to the Centre for Policy and Survey research: in 1993 65% of Palestinians in the Occupied Territories were in favour of Oslo. / '44 ) %) +1 $ $' % $ $)3 )( 6+ 6 / $6 4 ) 5$).# '( $$)$ ( )1 ( F 3( * )% C( 5$ ) $ 3 6)11 3 B#3 4$)'5 $ .org.)( )( '56 4 1 + ( )$( ( $ 3 $)% 4 '5 ' )$ $ )( 6 $ $ . )3 ( $ %) .ict.

p. = ' 4 ( . Our Arabic Language for 5th Grade. ‘My Homeland’: ‘…The youth will not tire. ) / ( 3 ($( $ 6 '3 ) )$* 4 1 '4 ' B.Burdman ‘Education.67-68. in the eyes of many people. 3 ? )% ( ( 1 ( 5 $.106 53 ibid.2005] $ $ Suicide Terrorism % & 133 <3 '3 7 ) 3 )($ ) )1( 3 $ 1 $) )1 ( 3 1 + ( ))3 $ 34)' )'$( 3 3. made their evil actions appear beautiful…Such a people are the Jews…’ (In Islamic Education.167). ‘Determine what is the subject. $6 6 31 . We draw our water from death. p. and what is the predicate. . Indoctrination and Incitement: Palestinian Children on their Way to Martyrdom’ Terrorism and Political Violence 2003 p.64-66 for Fifth Grade: ‘Know my son.. = 5)$ )1&# 5 / $ 2# # # 7& '4' 2# 2@ # 3 2B ' ( /) / $ / % "72. They desire to be free or perish. ) 3 % / 3 5 ( )1 .95) These concepts are also used in Arabic language and grammar exercises for instance. 54 The textbooks created by Egypt and Jordan include: Palestinian National Education. For First Grade: poems to be learned by rote. $ 3 4 )1 1 $ 4 3 /6 )$ ( 3 F 3 < C1 $) F ) O 6C $)'4 % /)1 )( $ ) 5$)5 4 . p. p. For further information on textbooks see ‘Report: Palestinian Authority School Textbooks’ by the Centre for Monitoring the Impact of Peace (CMIP). And will not be as slaves to the enemy’ Our Arabic Language.- % 3 $ 3 ) 4 ' )$ 6 ' ' ) ) )' ( $)3)1 '( ) + ) ( )$ + ( 3 5 $ )1 ? /))* % $ 7 $ 3 $ 3 $ ( $ $6 ) ) 3 ) 52 D. 6 $ )3 + ' 0 $ " B2 6 $ )1 4 P 3 0# 465 )$ )( '5 ( G ( *) $ 3 ? /))* % $ ( $ % ( $ B& 465 )$ 1 3 3 6 $ !0D % $ 3). 3 1 3 3 )$ )1 1 ( )1 1 ) 6)' 4 ( $ 1 3 $) ( 3 )3 ( )1 $ 3 1 ( )$( . (from. in the following sentence is: The jihad is a religious duty of every Moslem man and woman’. for indeed Satan has. that Palestine is your country…that its pure soil is drenched with the blood of martyrs…’ Question: ‘Why must we fight the Jews and drive them out of our land?’ Eighth Grade: Regarding the denigration of the Jews: ‘Racism: Mankind has suffered from this evil both in ancient as well as modern times. )( ) = )$ 4 3 ' ? ( ) ' <3 5 $ )1 ( ) *1 3 )3)% 4 $ . ( )$63 '$ ))* %%%-5 %-)$4. $$ G $$ )$ ? /))* % $ $ 5$ 7 $ < ) )( )5 )1 )' ( ) +( ) ' ( ))3( ))3 . 3 $) 61 ) ' $ 4 )1 ? (* $ 3 ( % $ ).3 $ .

% 4 )1 .1 %3 ) $ ( 3 '1 $ 1 /6 ) /) ( $ * .)( . (' $ 3 $ 4 . (5 3 . '3 ) ( $ ( $ (% ( .Kushner. 3 (3 6 )' )1 5$)4$ 4 ( 3$ ( 1( $ $ 3.)3 / . . ' ( ' " ( ! ' 8' 1 )$ )1 $$)$ .) )1 ( *+ $1 3 + $ 1 3 . European Parliament passed Amendment no. ) )1 $$)$ )$4 .)3 ( ' )1)/. ( %3 ) ) 3 ? / 55 $ * 7'5 )1 ) $ ( $ ( 3 ) 3 5$)4$ /31 6 % '( ) 6 $ ( (3 ) ) (' 4 3 $ ) )1 ( ( ) ) 4 ) '$ 3 1 ( )13 47 $ ( 1 ) ) ' & ! ! ) * '( $$)$ @/6 . '3 4$)'5)3 ) ' 4) 7 ) 3 5$) ) 5 ( +$ 7 '( ) 7 ) 4- . reconciliation and the breaking down of hatred’. small children trade baseball type cards of suicide bombers.)$( 4 ) . )'$ (+ 5 $ 3 + 3 6 3. 1:115 BB( )$ ( 1 1 ' 4 $ 8' $ /6 ) 5 / $ 2# # # <3 ' )$ 6 $6)1 '( ) '$$ ( ' '3 ) 5$ 1$ )1 $ )1 ? /))* % ( ( ) 7 ( '/ 3$ 1 .6 ) 4 % )' )) '( ( 1 '3 $ 3 55 $ 4 5$ - <3 % 55$ ( ) <3 3. $/ 3 5' /6 ( $ )$ ( . 4 55 13th October 2001.'$ $ )$ +. )' ( ( $ B0) ) ) )1 6 ( $ 3 ). $ 4 ' $ 2# # % #= '$/ 4 1 4) .W. understanding. . scientific studies suggest that props similar to baseball cards can lead to imitative behaviour in children see ‘Suicide Bombers: Business as Usual’ Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 1996 57 History and September 11 by Francis Fukuyama in Worlds In Collision 2002 . ) 5$)4$ /) / 1 )$ ( $ )1 .177 which specifies that appropriations for funding can only be used for ‘projects supporting peace. ' 3/) / $ ) 6 5$)( / ( ' 6 $ 5$) '( )1 ( ) ' 6( . 1 )$ 6 ( )% 4 31 )1 $ 6$ 1 $31 ' )113 3.134 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. ) ( ( ( $ 3* 3 )) )1 44$ . 56 H.( 3 + . $3 5 6 4$)'5 ( 3( ) )1 )3 3 . + ".

(3 1 3 )$. ) 3 )'4 ? $ 3 ( )1 44$ ) %)'3 / ' % 3) ( 6'5$ 41 $) .$' 3 ( ( 722 )1 ( )' $7 $$)$ ( )' $7 $$)$ $ */ 4 5 $( . ) $% $ . 3)5 $ )$ $ $ ) ( $)3 4 ) 3 5 $ ( 31 ( . ( 5)5'3 ) %)'3 / ' 3* 3 )3 6 ) 4). ' ( = $$)$ $4 )( ( $ 3 )4( /6 $)' 4 )'4 1 $ % $4 C ) ( / 3 4). 6 $ 3 )131 ) 3 ) 6 $ 5) )1 )( ( $ ' / ( ) $ /6 $'3 )13 % )$ 3 4 3 ( 6% 6$ 3 ) 47 $ ( 4 ( ) 3 ) 1 3 6( $) % )( % $ $$)$ )$4 ) /$ /$ 3 )( ( ( ) )3$ $ % 5$ 5)3( )1 1 $ ' 58 Rohan Gunaratna ‘Suicide Terrorism: A Global Threat’ Janes Intelligence Review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uicide Terrorism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

) ( )$ ( 73* 4$)'5 % '3 ( /3 $) 4 $ 6 13 ) 1 3 36 ) )6 43 3 $+ -4<EE + 4$)'5 % $ $ )( 6+)$ :)$ 6 $ )1 '55)$ + '( ( * -4/ ) !"# <3 ) 6( ( * ) I $) 1 5 )53+1 )$ 5 )53 J $ ? 53 )1( 4 1 $) % +1 3 )3)% 5 $ ) )15$)1 )' 3' ) 3 . '3 ' )$ ) 6 ' / 3% ( $ 3( 1( % $ '( ) 3 $$)$ $'5 1 $ ))4$ 3 )$ 1 61 $ )/ ' 1 )$ 55$) ( ) ( 4 *3 ' /' $ ( )7)5 $ ) / % 5 ( 36 1 ( 3 1 ( )' $ )$ 4 $ % 4 $ $ )1 $$)$ ) $ ( I3 3 % 6 1 $) )' $ '( ' ) $ J I 3 % 65 )1 $$)$ 1( $ 3 $ 1 $ + $ 1 )'4 0 3$ 6 ) $ :) ( )' $7 ( ) J $ ) 3( ) ' 6 $ 5 3 /( 6 ) 43 )3$ )1 $ 3 ? $' ) )1( 1 ( % ( ) 3 ( $ ( $ 3 1% ( )1 $ ) 3$ 3 ) $ * ( )% $ 5 $ 6 ( )$ + ( ' $ . $ $$ )$6 ( $)3 % ) 1 $ 36 .Paz. 6 )1 . ( 5)3 ( 3 5) $ ( $6+ 1 6 $ 1 $) 5$ .e.) 4$ )1 4) ) / )3 3 ' 6 3 )7 4) 4 ( /6 $4 4). In 2001 the two states signed the Moscow Declaration of Russia and India on Combating International Terrorism where the states affirmed that international terrorism is a threat to peace and security. 1:115 (.136 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. $ )3 3 6 ) 3 * )( 5$) $ ( ) )1 ( 1 () 3 59 60 Benjamin R. 3 4 $ ) $ )1 )( ) 3 ) )( 5 1 $) % ( ' ( $$)$ )( ( $ 5) $ ' /@ F % 3( 3 $ %)$3 % ( '( ) )1 )3 ) 3'$ 3 B! / (' /)' )131 $ ( ( /3 ) . On 6th June 2000 the Russian Interior Minister told a press conference that he had signed two protocols of cooperation between the Russian Interior Ministry and the Israeli-law-enforcement bodies i.Barber ‘Democracy and Terror in the Era of Jihadis’. in Worlds in Collision p. )1 )$% 6+ ( / ) ' 1 '3 4) ) )$% 4 53 ) $ ( )3 / % 5$ % ( $ '3 ( 1$ % ( ))* 1 ( 1 1 $) /$' $6 2# 2# $ )' ( 1 )$ 5$ 3 ) 3 5$ 5 $ ) 31 )$ 3 $$ )$6 5)3 ( 3 ' ) ) 6 ). . a grave violation of human rights and a crime against humanity.1 5$ ) 34 4$ . p.256 Ali Ahmed Said. the General Security Service and the Israel Police. $6) C $$)$ 4$)'5 ( / . In 2000 the President Putin of Russia visited India and signed a Declaration on Strategic Partnership between Russia and India.Reuter My Life is a Weapon 2004 61 R.I % $ ' / 1 )'4 ) 0# ( * $ $ '3 )15)3 ( 3 $)6 +1 $) )' A J .178 C.

4 ) $ $)55 /6 . )'3 ) 3 / 1 3 6 )3)% 1 6 %)$*02.org/Israel/court_of_justice.# H $ '3 )1 $ 3 ( 6 () '$ 3 ? 3 ) )1 (' <3 %)$* $ ' ) $ )$ 1 '$ $ ( ( ) $ '3 )1 ( '$1 % +/3 * )( )' )3 ) . 3 $ 6( ) $ = $. )( '5 ) ) 3 $ 1 ( 6 )$( $ (3 6 (. (1 (+ ) 3 )/)3 $ 6 $ )3 )1 < 3 . $ 3 5 $ ) % 3 6 ) 3 / :' 1 /6 $ 3 $6 ) 5$ . ) 3 6 ( ( ) 36 ( 3 / ( ( 3 ' ) $ 5$) ( ) 4' )15$ .. 4 ( 3 ) ) % )( '5 ( $$ )$ $ 1 '3 3 % )1 )( '5 ) ( ( '56 4<)% $ ( ( / $ )1 5)5'3 ) % ( )( '56 4.2005] Suicide Terrorism 137 /3 6 )1 $$)$ )$4 ) )$ ( $' $ 3 ) $ (5 ( 6 ) 5$) ) 6 )1 $ 6$ /6 '553 4 /) 6 3 $6 )1 () )( 6% * 4 )1 )$4 ) $ ).1 )3 4 ) )1 ' ( /) / $ .?$ 3 ( $).<)3( ( )'3 / 5$). 4 '( ( * ( 62 Israeli military commanders in Lebanon had ordered that a minimum of two people occupy every moving car in the occupied zone on the misassumption that suicide bombers would not kill unwitting passengers. 1 '$ $ ' ( ( * $' $ / 13 3 ' / $ )1 ( % * $ 3 5$)5 $0& 1 $) G+ 3 )'4 $$)$ )$4 ) ( ) 3 . See www.)% ) $ 3 6 4 $ 3 $4 C ) 5 )1( ( $ 1 $) $ 3 '5$ )'$ 5$) )' ( )1 3 4 3 6 1 3 $) $ ) 3 )'$ )1 ' (+ $ 3 ) ( ) ' 4 5$): ( )( 53 ) .% ) .asp . 4 ) ( '$ 3 $ )1 3 $6 ( ) $ 3 5)3( )1 $4 6 ) + )' )3 ) + 5 $ ) % 3.adl.'$ 4 ( 3 < ( <$)( 3. 63 No Israeli has been killed in a terrorist attack in an area with the security fence whereas 19 have been killed and 102 injured where the fence is not yet complete. ) )'4 6$ . $)' ) ( 53 % ) 6 $ 3 '5$ )'$ 1 4 /' ) % % ( ( ' ) $' ) * %)'3 3)% $ 3 ) 3 ?3 ( 5 '$ !0D-= $ 3 )/ C ( 6 $ 4$ 4 5 )1 % 3 3 ) 7 4) /3 ( )3 6 ) 5$ ) 5)3( 6 )* ( $ )5$ 3 6 ?3 % ( ( . 6 4 ( . . 3)11 ( 3 $ )1( ( 3 5)$ ( . $$ ) %)'3 7/ /) / $ 5$ 5 ( ( )'3 / 1 ?( )$ ' 4 '( ( /' $ ) '( . )( 6 )1 $$)$ )$4 ) % ) ( )1 $ ) 1 1 ' $ 7 )' 4 )1 /) / $C 1 3 ' 5$).)$ 44$ $ .

5 6( )3 )4( 3 5 ( '5) $4 ' ( . 3 ' 6 )1 ' 3 % 6 )1 ) ) $ ( $ . )$ $ ) 35$)( 6 ( ) ' ( /) / 4 ( (/ ( ' )1 ( 7 1(.1 4$ 7$)) $ .)3 ' $ ( 5 4 5$) ) ) $ ( $' / 5) $ LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. ) 1 . ) 4 ( ) ) ) $ 3 53 1 )$ ) 4 )1 $$)$ )$4 ) ' ) 5$ 1 $+ /) )1% ( $ . 4 )$ $ '( 4 ( . /6 6 ( / ) ) )1$ 34)' + ) 3 + 5$ ) 3 5 6( )3 )4( 31 ()$ $$ ) 3 6 )1 ( 1 $) ) . '( ) ) 1 )$ ' ( ) ) $ ( 5$) ) ) 1 )$ ' ( $$)$ + 3 ( 4 )1 )1 .138 % 3 3 1 % 6 . 4 4 $ 5 $ ' 33 . /6 )5 $ ) 3 ( (3 ( ) $ ) )$4 ) % 3 '3 3 3 6 )5 ( 8' % ( 64 Malek Wabdeh a Hezbollah cultural representative in C. ) ' ( /) / $ + 6 $ ) $ . 6 4 3 ) 4 % )' 5$)5 $ ? 53 ) % $6)1 ( 4 6/ ' % 43 6 5 4 5'/3( )5 ) )% $ ) )1 ( 1 () 3 G 3 C( /)3 ) ' ( ) $ 4 )5 $ ) + )$ ? 53 + 1 .$$)$ )$4 ) ' ) / 3)% 3 )1 )1 1 $ 5$ ))1 ( ( ( $ % ' ) 4$)'5 '( 3 7K % ( ( 4)$4 4 + 3) ? 1 4 ( 1( ) 3 $'443 ' 4 5$ )G ) .6 /3 4 )( 6 % ) 6 ( * 6/3. ( 6 ' / $ 34)' 3 3% '( . ( /6( . )3 ( 5$)( )1 $ ( $' + )($ ) ' / ( 1 ) $) )$ 4 .73 . ' 3 % ) .3 )'4 6 $ ) )1 ) .)3 ' $ 1 '( )$ ) $ $ 4$)'5 1 % ) )$ 6)5 $ $$)$ )$4 ) 3 4) $)'4 . 1:115 ( )' $7 $$)$ $ 46 )$4 ) % ' 6 )1$ ). '!(')* !( ' ( /) / $ $ ) . / 34 /6 1 8' $ $ 1$ ( ) E)$ . $6% $ .)$ $ 5 $ 5$) 3 (( $ ( 3 )'3 )5 5$ ( 4 )1 )3 6 $ $ ) ) 8' )'3 $ '$ ) ( ( 5 )1 ) $. /( ) .)$ ? 53 $ )'3 ) )1 ' ( /) / $ 5 '5 5'/3( 53 ( )$ $ ) F $ $ 1 ( J /6 % ( ' ( 1 /) / $ / ( ) )3 % ) ) $ * ) '3 3 4 ? /))* . 3 1 )$4 ) $ ) '( ( ' * )$ $ 5) /3 6 1 )$ 4 5)$ $ 6 / . $6 )5 ( ' $ % 3 3 5)$ ( )1 $ 5)$ 4 3 3 )( $ 4) 3 ) )1 ( '$ 3$ 5$ '3 .Reuter My Life Is A Weapon p. 5' + F )$ 5)$ $53 C -0. $ % 3/ 3 .

'$ )( * '3 $ $4 $ 5) )1 $ .3)+ 1( '( /) / 4 55 $ $ 8 ) 8' ( 6 3' $ *3 3 5$) $ ( ( 1( ) 3 ) ( $65$ ( ) ) )$ ) 5 $ ) 3. ) ( ) ' +/' .)'$ )1% * $ 4$)'5 )$ $5$ ' ( /) / $ )1< 3 ) . )3 ( $' ) $4 $ ( $ )$ ( % ) ( 5 $)' ' / $ )11 3 1( ( / 3 '( 4$ $% ( 4 /) / ( % 3 * * ) 3 $4 ( $)% ) 3+/' 1 ( '$ )1 '3 / %)$ 4 1)$ 1 ) F ' C ( .. ( 1 )$ $ ( . ) 1 6' ) 3 ) 7 ' ( 31 6 )$ )1 ( * . / $ . ) $ ($ 3 ) 1 '373 6 )( 6 $ $ 5) . ( ) ) '55)$ . 3 )/ ( ' ) ( )1 % 4 / 3 /' 3 4 ) % $ )$ '( $$)$ 1 / 3 ( )15)% $ 1 . 4 )$ % 66 $ 1 )$% $ )1 $ ) $ 3 3 9< 5 $1 ( 3' $ ) )1 % 3 ( 55 % $ 46 * ) 1$ ) )3 ) 6 1 3) ( $ 8' % * /' 6 ( ) '$ 6 .3 3 1 6 1 ( 3 ( $( 1 6 ) $4 ) ( 53 ) 6) %)$$6 4 % $ 55 $ ( )1 ' ( /) / 4 ( )' $ % % ( $ ) ( 1( / % ) 3 6 %) 5 $ ( $ '3 5$ +1 ? 53 ' )$ $ / + ( )1 ? $ 34$)'5 ) 6 ( $$6 )' ( ) / 3 )1 * 1 ' 1 ( ) ' 6+1 ? 53 3 )$ 7 K )( 4$)'5 . ( ) '44 '( $$)$ 3 %)$* / $ 1 ) $1 )$ )1 $$)$ )1 $ $4 ) + 3 )'4 3 6 ' )1 ' ( /) / 4 / . 4 $ $ / (' 6 $ /3 )% 4 3 '5 ) . $. 5) * .$ 3 /)3 $ )( '5 ) + ( :' 1 $) ( 36 /6 3 ) )5 '( ( * 3 ))* ( $ 43 6 )'4 $$)$ )$4 ) ( ) ' % '( ( :' )5$). $ '$ ) 5)3 ( 3.2005] Suicide Terrorism 139 /3. . 6( '( $$)$ ' 8' 1 )$ )1 $$)$ 1 )$ )1 5 6( )3 )4( 3 % $1 $ % $ / (' 6 5 $5 $ )$ 5$ 7 5 $( 6 . 3 1 )$ 5)% $7 $ 4 .( )1 55 3 4' 1 ( 6 )1 $ 6 5 6 )% $ 5 )53 % ) ' / ) )5 3 6 $ $ % 3 4 ) *3 3 3 3 . $ ) . 3 ( . ))$ 5 )1 $ 6 ' ) % ) 6 6 + ) $% %)'3 / 3)4 ( 3 3 $$ ) 3 ( )' $7 5$) '( . <3 / $ $( '$$ ' ) )$ 6 %)'3 .:' )5$). / 1 )$4) ( ) ($ 4 ' . $ $ 5$ ) 3 % ( 6 . )'$ ( ( $ $ % ) ) 534 )1 5 )53 1 $ 6) $ 1 )$ )1 ( %)'3 . %3 ) 1 (. 5$ ) 3 6 .

140 5' % LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 5)% $ )1 4 + ' ( /) / $ %)'3 * 5 1 6( )'3 % 3 3 $ 3 1 $ ( ) 1 $ F ' C $ ( ( ' 36 * ( 3 . ' 36+ ) 3 3 5 $ 5 )53C 534 )' $ * '( )( ) 3 %) $ % 6 $+ 4. ( ) ) 3 % 61 6 )$ 5 $ ) 36+ 3 .( $ ( 5$ ) /3 6 )1 ( 55 $ ) * 5) /3 ) 5$ ( 1' ( 3 ( 1 $ 1 ()$ )$ )' 3 ) 47 $ 6)3 ) ' ) $ ( 5 ) ) %3 ) / 3 /' 3 ) ( ( ) $ 31 ( )$ % 3 3 6 $4 )33 1 6 $) $)' /3 / () 3 ))$ / % 6 ) )5 6( 3 6( ) 3 ) ' ) ' '$ 1 )$ ) * )% 31 6 '( /) / $ . 1:115 % ( 6/ )' ) /6 * 4 )% 31 3 4 ) . /( ) ( .

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$ # #$!!$! ! !" % ! +'7 )!# & +' ) ) # $ $ . 2 To know more about the history of the implementation of the death penalty in early times. & # ! ! / 0 1# ( # 2 3456' ( ! ) # #! ! % $ ) !7 0 1 !"" # + ! ' % $ ( !& 8 #& % +* ## # + # 8 ) !) ! $! % ( % !" % $ (* !+ & ' # #! 9 ! 3 )! # ! #) ) 7 : . ) ! % $% .!" # ( $ )! %' " ! && ( ! * !) # ! #$% # ! # # ! # ! ! # # # !" !"" ! ' ! #* %# ! # # ))!# ! & $ #+ ! ' " $% ( ( . Cambridge University Press.# % # 34<= /' !" /! !" ( 9 ( # ! )! ) # + # $ 1 >* ) & ! ! ( !) ! # ! * # $% + # ))!# ! " #( " !" ) $ $ !* ' ! # # ! ) ) % ( " ! ! 7 " 1: ! + ( "! # #" # ' "! # ! ! # ' ) # # ! # !" " #+ # ' ( ( "! ! ! # ' ) ! "! #! # + ! "! !# # ! # # * ! 3? % !+ # ! !)! % ! ( !) # + # # †Birkbeck College. No 47 Dec 2004/Jan-Febr 2004. Schabas.) ) # !" & #" % ( %' # # . Hors série entitled Violences. in Sciences Humaines. University of London 1 See Le corps puni: le châtiment sous l’Ancien Régime by Michel Porret. 3rd edn. ! ( ! . see p.3 in The Abolition of the Death Penalty in International Law by William A. ) # $! %: $ ! ( ( 2 ' #! % # ( !" ( !) # ' ! ) % ! %! # ('# !+ + # " ! + %#) ! $! % ( %* # !" ! # & $! 8 # # %* *.

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However, ‘at the time of ratification of the American Convention on Human Rights in 1981, Barbados made a reservation to Article 4(5) of the Convention stating that ‘persons of 16 years and over … may be executed under Barbadian law’. Barbados has since raised the minimum of age under national law to 18 at the time of the offence. Barbados has made no similar reservation to the relevant provisions of the ICCPR (to which it acceded in 1973) or the CRC (ratified in 1990) - See The execution of child offenders from the death penalty under general international law by Amnesty International, AI Index Act 50/004/2003, 18 July 2003. 5 See The execution of child offenders from the death penalty under general international law by Amnesty International, AI Index Act 50/004/2003, 18 July 2003.

( % # & ! ! ! ! )! $ ! * $! " ! !" # # # # # ! ( #( !" ! ! # ## @& ) % #$ $ * " ' # # ' ! ) % !# & # ( # !" / ' & ! ( % !# /! & ! ! ! ( +# # ( ' ( + ) % $ )!# !35* ! ( ! #% ! ' # 3656' #< ! # + ' ) %' & ( +# : $ !# / ' ' -# 4' G $ $+ * % #' 8 ! #!" @ & !"" # " ! 8 % * >= A = #% ! # ! >= # 9 ! !& ' ( 8 !# "& ! # # 366B*5 8 ! !" )! # $% $! # ( !" ! ! ( ) ! !" ! /!& ! /& ! ( # /! & ! ! ( #!" / '# #+ & ! 6 See International law. Spring 2004.com 7 Pakistan ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990. child courts should be suppressed and the juvenile death penalty reestablished. 2 ( ' % ) !& $% #( " $ !" # # 1* "! ' #! # & $% +! # + # : ) ! ( # ) ' ( !( ! #) # !" + . 18 July 2003. Georgetown University Law Center. See Pakistan: Death penalty for juveniles reintroduced by Amnesty International. available at www. 8 See The execution of child offenders from the death penalty under general international law by Amnesty International.On the 1st of July 2000 the Juvenile Justice System Ordonnance came into force. 9 December 2004.S. AI Index 33/025/2004. It abolished the death penalty for people under 18 at the time of the offence in most parts of the country but did not include North-West areas (the Provincially and Federally Tribal Areas). In December 2001 President Musharraf also commuted the death sentences of 125 inmates convicted of crimes committed as children. However.findarticles. # !# % 7 ) # +12 * ! $ # !( ! # !" # ) ( ! $ ! 8 ! !" @ & !"" # * " ' ) ! $ ! # !+ $! #& ! (! ( # # ' ! + # # ! % # # & $ ! ) #! + * # ) & ! #% ! !" # #+ ! . 1:145 # !& ( %' ) %?' !" #! % ! + #7 ! % $ #!! ! 8 # ! $ ## !" # ) + # # !" ( !$ ( ! . and the death penalty by Laurence E. sovereignty. this Ordonnance was repealed by Lahore High Court last year. press release. Georgetown Journal of International Law. AI Index Act 50/004/2003. U. . As a result. Rothenberg.150 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. according to a communication released by Amnesty International.

International Court of Justice (1951). # # + ! # ! " ! + ! !( ! # ) + $ ! " ! % $% # $# ! !" ( ! + & ( # 1* ! 9 A state that has persistently objected to a rule of international law is not bound by it so long as the objection was made ‘consistently and uninterruptedly’ .138. . Norway.!+ ' ! # ) )!% ! !" ( ! +' # !" ! +'+ #$ (! # #+ ! ! % ) # ! ! # $! % * <A !" /! & ! ' ! #7 ! ) !( 0 $% ! ! % !" .2005] 8 &! # & @& +* @& ! Juvenile Death Penalty !"" ( * # & !" # 8 ! #! 151 & ) $% !# # ' # !" ) % ( # !"" # # % )! $ #! % ! ## # !" ! ! # !" (!& $! # & ) % "! 8 #! !" @ & !"" #" ! ) % & # # ! # ( @& % #! % ! #! % ! +* ! # # # & ! # # ! !# # #* 9 ! !& '# & !" & $ + ! &! ' " ( # !( ! # ## !(# # * ( # >= = # =' 8 ) ' ! # .See UK v. $. p./! #! ! # ! ! ! ! ! !" ( # !) # ! ! >= = = H34 ! % ! ! & "" #+ ' ! # # #7! % ! #! % ! +1 ! ! ## #! ( +# # # !! # )!# $ # 7! )!# ! !" ) % ( ## !"" ## @ (# &! ! !" ! +1* # # ! !# & ' ! .$ (' "! " ) !" #$ # ! ! * # !" #! % ! +' # $ ! # !" @& ) % #$ (! 6* # # 8 ) !# +! & 7 ## ) % !$@ 1 ! 9 ! !& ' #$ ! # !$ ( # * 0 ' / + ) !% # / ) ) + 1) !" @ # !( # # . ICJ reports 116.

) /! #! 9 3' = . case No 12.R.285. 22 October 2002. available at: http://www. C.285 Michael Domingues v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ovember 2000.152 # 8 LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL. 5 rev. available at www. specifically. * / # ) !% # # !( !# 2 +# " + 1) # ) ( !+ ( ! # # # ( # # !" ) % ( # !"" # $ !+ 35 !" ( ' . the death penalty and life imprisonment without possibilities of release for crimes committed while a juvenile. Report No.See Juveniles and the Death penalte by Lynn Cothern. 12 See IACHR. .ncjrs.org.!+ ( # 8 ( @& !"" # # "! # " ( ! ! # . 2 >= < * 10 ‘International law has expressly determined that the death penalty. Doc.oas. . is a human rights issue’. #! ! # ( #. 1:145 % )! ! ' # ( !+ ( ! ) ! $ ! !" ! !" @ & # * ! # !( 0 ! # & !) !"" )!# ! ( # # !" ) % ( # ) !) + ! + 35 % # ! !" * # ! $! # & # !))!# ! ' ! ! & ' $% )) ! ( @& ) % # & ! ! !" 3= ( #* !$ >= > = (! @ $! %' ..cidh. 62/02. Inter-Am. # $ # ) ! $ ! !" @& ) % @ ( # ) )!% : . 1 at 913 (2002). Report No 62/02.H.org/html/ojjdp/coordcouncil/ 11 Case 12.

. Oklahoma 487 US 815 (1988). * ! #E ( ' " # @& .. 2002. ! # )!# ! # $ ! @& ) % # # # % ) # # " ! ) % @& ) % #$ # # ! !" .!+ ! $ 8 ' + # "! ( % !" $ # % 3?B> ( % ! ! ! %' 9 # # # #.2005] ) % 2 . * >2 % % ( # !"" # ( 3? ! 34 3656 # ! !# ! . # ! ## ) ! & ' .) ( + . . mentioned in Les mineurs délinquants et la peine de mort aux Etats-Unis by Isabelle Cesari.) " # ! !# !# ! % !" )!# ( )! @& * " ' + # ! 3654 $ /! ( ! !# # ) " # * # ! 3<' ) /! # ) # • • # ( ) % # " # #' + !" # "! +! ": + # ) !"" % + # ( ) # # /! $ + ) % # ' !%& ! )# ' ! ( !" $! . # * ' $! A?3 @ & # & $ 8 "! # ! #@& # * !( 5= I $ !& 3A "! ! #* ! %' & @ # % # $ # $@ ! ) ) # . ) /! # ! ! + 8 ! !" @& ) #$ # /! # !' ! ) % '+ )! $ # % # !# ! * + 365A 365? . Thompson v. * 32 . ! 2 # @& /! Juvenile Death Penalty # $ ! % ! "# # $ ! 153 ! %. +' # * # ) # ! ( % #!! $% /! # ! !$ # C # # ! ! # ## ) & 0 # #!" %C " # # !" !"" # 13 14 See Streib report. Editions Nicolas Philippe. # !+ & ' * 365= ' 1# . 2000.

// 2 !$ 3644' 15 16 ) /!& .2 . ) #! ' ( !# ! )! $ ) % "! # ! ( 3? ! 34* # # ) % !" @ # # @ !" #' % ) # # # !)! ! ) ! # & % !" -# ! # $ ! $ ! ! !" * /! "! # ! &! & ( # # !" % # ! % "! 8 ! !" 3?. ! 34.# ! ) # * # !)! ! ) # $ ! ! #& $ ! ! [VOL.! +! $ # ) # ) # .A #! & " 1# # '$ ! % "! @ # # ( 8 ! !" 3<. ! % " (# ! ! & * ! # ' ! /& ! ( # " // 366> $ Ibid Standford v.B 3656' ( !) & 3?' . % .154 • LONDON LAW REVIEW # .* * # #* 2 + # + # ! ## + # # !" % " ! ! $ ! +! # ! (! # !" ) %. . $ ! 2 * # 7&! & ( # !" %1 8 ! !" 3<.% .% . # $ ! & ! ! !" # ! +* % "# ) %% # $ ! ( # # # ! ! 0 ' ! ( # !# ! +' . Kentucky 492 US 361 (1989). # 8 ! @& # !& # % ! ! !" +! * . 1:145 % !" ) $ ! (! # !" !# ! % !" @& ) %+ # # # # 36553<* <. 366= % & ! 36 ! !" A6 8 ! #! @ & #+! .2( !# % # .+ * E & # ! ' . ! % " #( ( ! .! %! ( !"" #+ # !# ! ( * $ !%& # "! # !) !" ) % ( (@ & # * /! ' <.! !"" # ! !"" # ! # #!" %* # ) # '36 ! !" A5 ! # # # !+ @& %' .

# &# ( ' # $@ ! /! # ! /! # # ! )!# ) ' ) # ! %) # ! . ! ' ( #) "! + $% . # &! 8 ! !" %! See The execution of child offenders from the death penalty under general international law by Amnesty International.# # + ' # "% 34 .2005] + 8 # " ) (@ & Juvenile Death Penalty # & ! ! ) !& #! !" !"" #" ! ) ?. # # # & # ) ! $ ! !" @& ) % # $ !( 0 # ! $% ! $! # # ' "! '$ ! $ ( )! # # + ' ! ! % & $ ) ## !$@ ! ! * E # ( )! ! 0 % #' ! . available at www. 1# # & ! ' 366<' 1# ( #/! ' ( !" ! ! ( ! ) + / ' # . ! ) ( +! 2 % !& 8# ( ! " +#) ( )!# ! !" ) ) # ' (# ) # "! # ! $% ) # # $ !+ ( ! % # !" ( 1* !+ & ' !" #( (' & ! # !$@ ! . ! !# # ! #( #! % ! + # $ # ) ! $ ! !" # !" ) % ( !" 35* % # .oas. #! ! # ( # / $ % >= >' #) = % & * )! ! 0 %+ # 8 8 #! 9 % >5' = "! >= > ! 366B'+ + #@ # 34 % #! * #!$&! #% (! " ) ) % ( ! $ ! 8 ! !" !"" # ' % %! ( ) # 1# )! ! "! $ ! (* / ! % >= B' = 35 ! ! 17 18 /! + !" # 8 ! ! )! $ ( #! ) $ # . case 12.cidh. ! + + # # & !* .(' ) . AI Index Act 50/004/2003.org . ! # & " #! % ! +$ @& ) %' . See IACHR Report No 101/03. 29 December 2003. !" <2 %* 155 // # # & ! # 7 . "! # 8 ) !C . +! # ! $ $! ! ) ) # $ # !" # # # # !$@ ! ! # ! $ * !+ & ' +! # ) ## ! # )!# ! : #' #!$@ ! ! $ ! 8 ! !" @ & # # ! $ ! ## ) * #% ! # #& . 18 July 2003.412.

* % ! = 32 + ( ) ) "! ' ! ) % ( + ! + # #! ! & + # ) " ! # "! # .. ) /! ! ( # !# ! # 22 "# " )% # $ ! ! " %# # % ! % !# ) + ! # & !$& ! #% + ) ! !" . 03-633. % / !!-' $ (( ! ( + %+ $ # !" # ( * >= B = 9 #! . % / !!-* ! # + + #34 % #! * 366A' $ !! ! # ')) ' $! + !"" $ (* !# ! ## ) $ ( % ( !" . ' ! "! $ ! !( ! * "! ' /! #! # 0 %1# " % #! $ ) !& + 7 "" & # ! ) # ! 1* # #' "! ' ! ! ! !" @& ) %' . ) /! < !B " &! !" . ) # /! !& # # '" ( + # !# ! ! 8 !# + ! + 35 !" * # #! + # )) $% # !" 9 # ! * # % >?' >= B' = . ! # + ! #! ' !+ "! !" # ( $! . 1 March 2005 Ibid . case No. ) /! ( ! &# #! ( !) & 3656 !+ ( 8 ! !" ) !) "! # ! + % + 3? ! 34 % # ! * 9 3'>= <' = . ! #" ' ( )) ! !" ) % ! !# $ !+ 35 % # !" ( !# ! ( * 19 20 Roper v. Simmons: US Supreme Court..156 35 ! + #$ LONDON LAW REVIEW [VOL.. 1:145 )! ! %' + ! $ ! + % ) !* # ! / * ! ! ) !" * 8 ) ! # (! ! # ' ( . * >2 * % 2 // %) % 03 # % ( ! # " ( @& ! "! @ & # # ' # " !" ) & ' # # # # !# ! % !" @& ) % # ) !" ( * )) # #" ! # !" / #!) . ) /! %' # & #! ) ! # * 9 >= < ..

# + "! !+ ( # ! # !+ ! " : # !)! ! ) ) # D.) /! ! ) !" !# ! Juvenile Death Penalty 157 ! % !" ) % 35' .2005] % # (! .# ! % ! % +! ! #! (& !"" # ! ! @& ) %1* # . # ) " 7 ! ! # # # 8 ## 1 # @ % !) ! ! + #$ # ! 7 # # !" ( ! " # 9 ! !& ' " 1* % ## /! #! !# . 1/! ! # # ' ! (+ /! 1# ! # & & # ' * # # # ! . . David H. Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen G.! ( $ !# "" %+ ( !" !"" D !# # ! ! # # # 8# ( # 8 ! !" @ & # D # ! !%J %'+ ( "! @ %>3')! ! # ! # & ## !+ % @& # % & !) ! # ! # #!" !# * + ! !) ! "! /! 7! " ! )! !" & +' +! $ # ( ! " (#!" ! + !# !" ' "! ( )!# $ % 8 ## # ! 1# " #+ $ "! 1* # # ! 7 ( !" 35 # )! + # ! % +# "! % ) )!# # $ + !! !! * # + ' ! ' ( + "! ($ % ! ( ! #1* ( @& # 7 (! % # # )$ # 1 % "! # # !)! ! ) ) # "! !"" # 35* # . Sauter. /! # !' /! # ! ! # ## ( # 1 #) '+ # ( # 3656 8 ! !" @ & # 35 + # ! # ! * ! /! + ( ) % + ( # + 36<5 ( 7&! & ( # # !" % ) !( # !" # (# ! %1 !!!# (# ! @ %& #! + 7 ! ! # # # # & !) 1 ( # ) & ! #% ) ) * # J % :7 ! " # !" ! # % . + 8 #& % ! ! ) ! ) # 7 ! + !# !' ( 21 The four liberal justices who joined Justice Kennedy are John Paul Stevens. / / " # ! # !+ & ' # * 1/! ! " #) # ' ( ( # ( # @& 8 ! #+ # # ( ' % ( # 7 # . $ # ! !" %! (!"" # 1 % # $ )) ! 1* ) ) % "! !# # # & ! ! !" .$%. Breyer.

+ #! !" " + ! ! # .( "! /! # !* !+ & ' . Washington Post. ' /! " & # # 22 5-4 Supreme Court Abolishes Juvenile Executions by Charles Lane.!+ @& ( ) # ! !# ! ! # ' )) # " ! & ! # (! # ' ( # ' ( &! % ! ( 0 ! # + ' # !+ # ! %1# !# ! !" @& ) % #) /! * % ! )% (+ ! ( ## # ' /! # $!& "" ! !" ! + ! # ! ) !* ! ( # + !( # " "" $ + # . ( ! ! # ! ! ! ## * # " . 2 March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

7& 0 1 ( #! ! $ # * 9 ! !& '+ % )) . # $ # >= A' = # & # + ( ! $! ! ## ! ! ) !( # # #! !+ # $! ! "! ( ! + " * " " # ' ! )! ) # # !& )) +* (! ! # ! !"" !# # ) ! + 8 $ * !) & #! # ! ' -# #+ # @ ! (! # $% ! # $ ! # # # (: # # ! #! ) ' #& + ' # @ 8 ! % ## ) "! * $ ( # ( :#! ( ( # #$ ( # # # ! ( (' * ' !" ! ( #! ) !$ $ % $ ! ! # )! !" & +' # 0 ! !" ) # "! $ $ ) % # "! 1# & + # # # # %# ! $ # !# ) # !" ) # $! %* .2005] Juvenile Death Penalty "! ! $ ! #! + ) %# " 159 .# "" ! * ' $! ! ## # ! )% ! ! )!# $ 7 # # "" 1 !" .) /! #! # ! $! ! # ) ! # ' + # ! * * ) % ! " ( "! $! ! # ! !& ') % # ) #! !# # : !" ' # ! ! #+ ) % #) '@ & !"" # ! !$ # ! ' % $ # ( # ! $ $ # # !$ (# ! # %# ! ! $ $ " ' $ ! # # ! ! # ! ! .# '+ @& ) % + # .. ) /! #! * ! ! $' # ) %'+ % # #) # ) #* # !) !" !+ & '! # )) !" # 8 # ) # ' !+ !# " ) # #" ! + (! # # !# 8 ' 7 & ! 1 ) % ! "! $ ( # ) $ *.

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