Table of Contents: Chapter1: introduction

1.1 Project Overview 1.2 Project Objective 1.3 Project Flow

Chapter2: Wireless sensor networks
2.1 wireless sensor networks 2.2 Key definitions of sensor networks 2.3 applications on wireless sensor networks 2.4 Network topologies 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 star network (Single Point-to- Multipoint) Mesh network Hybrid star ± Mesh network

2.5 power consideration in wireless sensor networks

Chapter3: Sensors
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 control sensors classification of measurement errors type of sensors application

Chapter4: Related work Chapter5: Design and implementation
4.1 introduction 4.2 theory of operation 4.3 model

Chapter6: Conclusion and feature work List of Tables List of Figures List of Appendices

CHAPTER-1 Introduction
Modern wireless sensor networks are made up of a large number of inexpensive devices that are networked via low power wireless communications. It is the networking capability that fundamentally differentiates a sensor network from a mere collection of sensors by enabling cooperation, coordination, and collaboration among sensor assets. Harvesting advances in the past decade in microelectronics, sensing, analog and digital signal processing, wireless communications, and networking, wireless sensor network technology is expected to have a significant impact on our lives in the twenty-first century. Proposed applications of sensor networks include environmental monitoring, natural disaster prediction and relief, homeland security, healthcare, manufacturing, transportation, and home appliances and entertainment. Sensor networks are expected to be a crucial part in future military mission, for example, as embodied in the concepts of network centric warfare and network-enabled capability. Wireless sensor networks differ fundamentally from general data networks such as the internet, and as such they require the adoption of a different design paradigm. Often sensor networks are application specific; they are designed and deployed for special purposes. Thus the network design must take into account the specific intended applications. More fundamentally, in the context of wireless sensor networks, the broadcast nature of the medium must be taken into account. For battery-operated sensors, energy conservation is one of the most important design parameters, since replacing batteries may be difficult or impossible in many applications. Thus sensor network designs must be optimized to extend the network lifetime. The energy and bandwidth constraints and the potential large-scale deployment pose challenges to efficient resource allocation and sensor management. A general class of approaches ± cross-layer designs ± has emerged to address these challenges. In addition, a rethinking of the protocol stack itself is necessary so as to overcome some of the complexities and unwanted consequences associated with cross-layer designs. This edited book focuses on theoretical aspects of wireless sensor networks, aiming to provide signal processing and communication perspectives on the design of large-scale sensor networks. Emphasis is on the fundamental properties of large-scale sensor networks, distributed signal processing and communication algorithms, and novel cross-layer design paradigms for sensor networking. The design of a sensor network requires the fusion of ideas from several disciplines. Of particular importance are the

theories and techniques of distributed signal processing, recent advances in collaborative communications, and methodologies of cross-layer design. This book elucidates key issues and challenges, and the state-of-the-art theories and techniques for the design of large-scale wireless sensor networks. For the signal processing and communications research community, the book provides ideas and illustrations of the application of classical theories and methods in an emerging field of applications. For researchers and practitioners in wireless sensor networks, this book complements existing texts with the infusion of analytical tools that will play important roles in the design of future application-specific wireless sensor networks. For students at senior and the graduate levels, this book identifies research directions and provides tutorials and bibliographies to facilitate further investigations [1]. The book is divided into 4 chapters :


Chapter-2 Wireless sensor networks 2.1 Wireless sensor networks
Recent technological advances allow us to envision a future where large numbers of low-power, inexpensive sensor devices are densely embedded in the physical environment, operating together in a wireless network. The envisioned applications of these wireless sensor networks range widely: ecological habitat monitoring, structure health monitoring , environmental contaminant detection industrial process control , and military target tracking , among others. A US National Research Council report titled Embedded Everywhere notes that the use of such networks throughout society ³could well dwarf previous milestones in the information revolution´. Wireless sensor networks provides bridges between the virtual world of information technology and the real physical world. They present a fundamental paradigm shift from traditional inter-human personal communications to autonomous inter-device communications. They promise unprecedented new abilities to observe and understand large-scale . real-world phenomena at a fine spatiotemporal resolution. As a result , wireless sensor networks also have the potential to engender a new breakthrough scientific advances . While the notion of networking distributed sensors and their use in military and industrial applications dates back at least to the 1970s , the early systems where primarily wired and small in scale . it was only in the 1990s ± when wireless technologies and low-power VLSI design became feasible ± that researchers began envisioning and investigating large-scale embedded wireless sensor networks for dense sensing applications.

Figure 1 : A Berkeley mote (MICAz MPR2400 series)


creating some confusion. wireless modem. Berkeley and USC [2].2 key definitions of sensor networks Sensor networks is an interdisciplinary research area that draws on Contributions from signal processing. and power supply. databases and information management. ‡ Sensor node: A basic unit in a sensor network. ‡ Sensor: A transducer that converts a physical phenomenon such as heat. in which researchers at UCLA collaborated with Rockwell science center to develop some of the first wireless sensor devices. the link represents a one-hop connection. along with TinyOS. sound. with on-board sensors. or motion into electrical or other signals that may be further manipulated by other apparatus. the LWIM project focused on developing devices with low-power electronics in order to enable large. In a wireless network. ‡ Network topology: A connectivity graph where nodes are sensor nodes and edges are communication links. Other early project in this area. processor. networking and protocols. and the neighbors of a node are those within the radio range of the node. relatively inexpensive platform for experimentation and real deployment has played a significant role in the ongoing wireless sensor networks revolution 2. memory. an associated embedded operating system that facilitates the uses of these devices figure (1) shows the image of Berkeley mote devices the availability of these devices as an easily programmable . we define a number of key terms and concepts that will be used throughout the report as we develop techniques and examples for sensor networks. fully functional . light. This project were succeeded by the Wireless Integrated Networked Sensors (WINS) project a few years later . at several places included MIT. dense wireless sensor networks. Were also primarily in academia.Perhaps one of the earliest research efforts in the direction was the low-power wireless integrated micro sensors (LWIM) project at UCLA funded by DARPA . and embedded systems and architecture. When a node has only a single sensor on board. the node is sometimes also referred to as a sensor. distributed algorithms. 5 . starting around 1999-2000. It is often abbreviated as node. Researchers at Berkeley developed embedded wireless sensor networking devices called motes which were made publicly available commercially. In the following.

etc. Storage may be local to the node where the data is generated. or anchored at a few points (warehouses). A threshold-based detector may flag a detection whenever the signature of a physical phenomenon is determined to be significant enough compared with the threshold. and health monitoring 2. load-balanced across a network. Resource allocation assigns resources to tasks.‡ Detection: The process of discovering the existence of a physical phenomenon. etc. their displays in the control room. intelligent agriculture. ‡ Sensor tasking: The assignment of sensors to a particular task and the control of sensor state (e. as well as input devices that control actuators in the physical plant (valves. indexed. and node energy reserves.g. processors.1 Industrial Control and Monitoring A large. An embedded OS typically provides an abstraction of system resources and a set of utilities [3]. ‡ Classification: The assignment of class labels to a set of physical phenomena being observed. 2. the control input devices.3 applications on wireless sensor network A sensor network is designed to perform a set of high-level information processing tasks[3] such as industrial control and monitoring. on-board memory. ‡ Node services: Services such as time synchronization and node localization that enable applications to discover properties of a node and the nodes to organize themselves into a useful network. and accessed by applications. surrounded by a relatively large physical plant. ‡ Embedded operating system (OS): The run-time system support for sensor network applications. ‡ Data storage: Sensor information is stored.. on/off.) that affect the observed state of the plant. communication links. asset tracking and supply chain management.3. security and military sensing. and the actuators in the plant are often all relatively inexpensive when compared with the cost of the armored cable that must be used to communicate between them in a wired installation. the condition of equipment. The sensors describing the state of the physical plant. the temperature and pressure of stored materials. ‡ Resource: Resources include sensors. industrial facility typically has a relatively small control room. Significant cost 6 . pan/tilt) for accomplishing the task. typically optimizing some performance objective. home automation and consumer electronics. The control room has indicators and displays that describe the state of the plant (the state of valves.). heaters.

etc. in normal operation. it often changes slowly. dimming of the lights. Much of the expense in the installation of lights in a large building concerns the control of the lights ² where the wired switches will be. An example of wireless industrial control is the control of commercial lighting. Wireless sensor networks may be of particular use in the prediction of component failure for aircraft. A wireless sensor network of many nodes. poisonous. but the required reliability of the network is very high.[12] 7 . when the machine must be taken off-line. etc. to do otherwise defeats the purpose of the sensors. while still providing the security needed by a commercial installation. they can be resilient in the face of an explosion or other damage to the industrial plant. requires the use of a wireless sensor network with very low energy requirements. Wireless sensor networks may employ sensors to detect the presence of noxious. wired sensor and actuators are often impractical. The sensor node often must be physically small and inexpensive as well.savings may be achieved if an inexpensive wireless means were available to provide this communication. providing officials with critical plant status information under very difficult conditions. To do this. of the rotating components of the machine to optimize the time between maintenance periods. A further example is the use of wireless sensor networks for industrial safety applications. can meet these requirements[4]. it is important that the wireless sensor system be capable of operating for the full interval between maintenance periods. Thus. providing multiple message routing paths of multihop communication. Because the wireless networks may employ distributed routing algorithms. and can be self-healing and self-maintaining. lubrication flow. yet it may be important to monitor the temperature. vibration. in turn. In such applications. or otherwise dangerous materials. have multiple routing paths. Because the information being communicated is state information. which lights will be turned on and off together. A flexible wireless system can employ a handheld controller that can be programmed to control a large number of lights in a nearly infinite variety of ways. This. the required data throughput of the network is relatively low. The monitoring and control of rotating or otherwise moving machinery is another area suitable for wireless sensor networks. providing early detection and identification of leaks or spills of chemicals or biological agents before serious damage can result (and before the material can reach the public). where these attributes may be used to particular advantage.

Should everyone in an office area move to the conference room for a meeting. and annual variations occur. The HVAC system could then place especially dry air there. Changes to the building itself must also be considered: interior walls may be inserted. seasonal. the humidistat in the umbrella and coat closet could detect the increased humidity in that closet. hebdomadal. and awnings may be added or removed.Still another application in this area for wireless sensor networks is the heating. These variations are associated with the distribution of people in the building throughout the day. etc. Due to all these possible variations and. as nearly anyone who works in an office building can attest. wireless sensor networks may be employed to greatly increase the information about the building environment available to the HVAC control system. season. For example. and air conditioning (HVAC) of buildings. Should the group return during a driving rainstorm. for example. The number of these thermostats and humidistats is limited. Because they do not require the expense of wired sensors and actuators. week. however. without affecting the occupants elsewhere in the building. and to greatly decrease the granularity of its response. by the costs associated with their wired connection to the rest of the HVAC system. however. the system can respond by closing the volume dampers in the office area. HVAC systems are typically controlled by a small number of strategically located thermostats and humidistats. the air handlers and dampers that directly control the room environment are also wired. and year. important changes also affect the heat load of the building at more irregular intervals. Wireless thermostats and humidistats may be placed in several places around each room to provide detailed information to the control system. the HVAC system may instruct the wireless bypass dampers to respond to the change in total building heat load. Diurnal. or removed. curtains. In addition. wireless bypass dampers and volume dampers can be used in great number to fine-tune the response of the HVAC system to any situation. moved. Similarly. 8 . for the same reasons. The root cause of such unsatisfactory HVAC function is that the control system lacks sufficient information about the environment in the building to maintain a comfortable environment for all. when organizations reorganize and remodel. their numbers are also limited. Should the group leave the building. ventilating. while opening the volume dampers in the conference room. windows. The heat load generated by people in a building is quite dynamic. space previously used for offices may be used by heat-generating laboratory or manufacturing equipment. improvement is needed.

wired thermostat. a personal digital assistant (PDA)type device that can control not only the television. fixed position. where it is warmer. Close monitoring of system performance enables problems to be identified and corrected before occupant complaints arise. a home HVAC system equipped with wireless thermostats and dampers can keep the rooms on the sunny side of the house comfortable ² without chilling the occupants on the shady side of the house ² more effectively than a home equipped with only a single. just the opposite is true ² more cooled air needs to be sent to the kitchen. for example) without requiring maintenance personnel to make manual measurements atop ladders.3. anomalous temperatures in such areas may indicate costly leaks of heated or cooled air. however. total building HVAC costs should drop. DVD player. Such a wireless HVAC system has other advantages. One application is the "universal" remote control.[13] Many of the industrial applications just described have parallels in the home. However. In summer. for example. Often. For these reasons. while occupant comfort would increase when wireless sensors and actuators are employed. 2. In winter. stereo. In addition to the living-area sensors. where it is warmer. many other opportunities are available. due to the heat of cooking. however. sensors may be placed in attics and crawlspaces that contain ductwork.The wireless HVAC system can also solve one of the great problems facing the HVAC engineer: balancing heating and air conditioning. wireless sensors may be placed inside air ducts (to monitor the performance of heat exchange apparatus. and less heated air needs to be sent to the kitchen. It is often the case that heat sources are not uniformly distributed throughout a building. leading to perfect system balance at any time of the year. With wireless sensors and actuators in the HVAC system. where it is cooler. more heated air needs to be sent to the bedroom. kitchens tend to be warm. In the home. leaving some areas perpetually cold and others perpetually warm.2 Home Automation and Consumer Electronics The home is a very large application space for wireless sensor networks. because a volume damper to each room in the house must be independently controlled. This difference between the air distribution of heating and air conditioning is a difficult and expensive problem to solve with wired control systems. the dampers are placed in a single. For example. the problem becomes trivial. the damper(s) to each room can be controlled by the sensor(s) in each room. where it is cooler. In addition. and less cooled air needs to be sent to the bedroom. while bedrooms tend to be cool. and other 9 .

The list of toys that can be enhanced or enabled by wireless sensor networks is limited only by one's imagination. It is also possible to give the toy complex behavior that is not practical to implement in other technologies [4]. the cost of the toy may be significantly reduced. which performs the recognition and synthesis functions. door and window sensors. A major use of wireless sensor networks in the home is expected to be for personal computer peripherals. or perhaps automatically muting the home entertainment system when a call is received on the telephone or the doorbell rings. one's weight may be automatically recorded without the need for manual intervention (and the possibility of stretching the truth "just this once"). By not placing the relatively expensive yet limited speech recognition and synthesis circuits in the toy. however. which employ the computing power of a nearby computer to enrich the behavior of the toy itself. With the scale and personal computer both connected via a wireless sensor network. For example. A particularly intriguing field is personal computer (PC)-enhanced toys. Another major home application is an extension of the Remote Keyless Entry (RKE) feature found on many automobiles. Such applications take advantage of the low cost and low power consumption that are the sine qua non of wireless sensor networks. Toys represent another large market for wireless sensor networks. and range from conventional radio-controlled cars and boats to computer games employing wireless joysticks and controllers. but the lights. and wireless light controls.home electronic equipment. speech recognition and synthesis may be performed by placing the microphone and speaker in the toy. while greatly improving the capabilities and performance of the toy. With the universal remote control. wireless locks. and using the (much more powerful) computing power already present in the computer. but employing a wireless connection to the computer. Its most intriguing potential. comes from the combination of multiple services. With wireless sensor networks. These networks are an extension of the information appliances proposed by Norman. the homeowner may have a 10 . and locks that are also equipped with a wireless sensor network connection. such as having the curtains close automatically when the television is turned on. along with the appropriate analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters. Another application in the home is sensor-based information appliances that transparently interact and work symbiotically together as well as with the home occupant. one may control the house from the comfort of one's armchair. such as wireless keyboards and mice. curtains.

Outside of the home. and other sensors. 2. the location-aware capabilities of wireless sensor networks are suitable for a diverse collection of consumer-related activities. In addition to such defensive applications. a small display on the device indicates the source of the trouble. In the case of the tourism guide. employing proprietary communication protocols. As with many technologies. in the case of the shopping guide. seismic vibration sensors. The user receives a reassuring "beep" once this is all done successfully. and sleeps soundly.3 Security and Military Sensing The wireless security system described above for the home can be augmented for use in industrial security applications. The network may even employ a full home security system to detect a broken window or other trouble. the user is provided information relevant to the products before him. and sets the home's HVAC system to nighttime (sleeping) mode. the user is provided only information relevant to his present view. and sensors for direct human intervention (the "panic button" sensor requesting immediate assistance). In this way. including passive infrared.device similar to a key fob with a button. have existed for several years. keeping soldiers out of harm's way. including tourism[17] and shopping. turns off most indoor lights (save a few night lights). magnetic sensors.[18]. they can serve the same function as antipersonnel mines. some of the earliest proposed uses of wireless sensor networks were for military applications. including sale items and special discounts and offers. without the attendant hazard mines represent to allied personnel during the battle (or the civilian population afterward). They can support multiple sensors relevant to industrial security.3. Should a door be left open. One of the great benefits of using wireless sensor networks is that they can be used to replace guards and sentries around defensive perimeters. smoke. and broken glass sensors. When this button is pressed. turns on outdoor security lights. and to support the attack by locating friendly troops and unmanned vehicles. the device locks all the doors and windows in the home. ultra wideband radar.[22] 11 . knowing that the home is secure. Such systems. deployed wireless sensor networks can be used to locate and identify targets for potential attack. location can be used to provide contextspecific information to the consumer. or some other problem exists. [19] In these applications. magnetic door opening. They may be equipped with acoustic microphones.

biological. unobtrusive. 12 . without a single point of failure). Wireless sensor networks can be used to advantage in such a situation. its location can always be determined. and radiological sensors to track individuals and groups. The relative location determination capability of many ad hoc wireless sensor networks can enable the network nodes to be used as elements of a retro directive array of randomly distributed radiating elements. Beam forming techniques can also be applied to the sensors themselves. [4]The relative location information is used to align the relative carrier phase of the signals transmitted by each node. by placing sensors on each container. The control of wireless sensor networks and the data they produce in a free society. it is important that the containers next needed be on top of a nearby stack instead of at the bottom of a stack 1 km away. Wireless sensor networks can also be effective in the monitoring and control of civilian populations with the use of optical. combined with the bursty transmission format common to many wireless sensor networks (to optimize battery life). audio. with this information. 2. multihop networks are redundant. trees. For example. An important factor in the shipper's productivity (and profitability) is how efficiently the containers can be organized so that they can be handled the fewest number of times and with the fewest errors.Wireless sensor networks can be small.[28] is outside the scope of this text. some of which are empty and in storage.[23] The use of spread spectrum techniques. to enhance their sensitivity and improve detection probabilities. One example is the tracking of shipping containers in a large port. These networks have distributed control and routing algorithms (i. and camouflaged to resemble native rock. The containers are stacked.3. a feature that makes them difficult to destroy in battle. both on land and on ship. such an array can be used to provide exfiltration of the sensor network data. the exfiltrated data may be transmitted not just in the direction of the incoming signal. or even roadside litter.e.4 Asset Tracking and Supply Chain Management A very large unit volume application of wireless sensor networks is expected to be asset tracking and supply chain management. Such port facilities may have tens of thousands of containers. By their nature. while others are bound for many different destinations. while an important public policy discussion. but in any desired direction. can give them a low probability of detection by electronic means. a "lost" container can be found only by an exhaustive search of a very large facility.. Asset tracking can take many forms. chemical. An error in the location record of any container can be disastrous.

Similar situations involving large numbers of items that must be tracked occur in rail yards. by being able to tell a customer exactly where his product is (or even where the component parts of his product are) in the supply chain. wireless sensor networks can be used to reduce this cost. the customer's confidence of on-time delivery (and opinion of the seller's competence) rises. even though the item is physically on the premises.. but before delivery to a retailer. one of the most vexing problems facing the distributor is to quickly and accurately identify the location of material to be sold. This has already been used extensively in the package shipping industry. A related application is that of supply chain management. connected to both a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver and an International 13 . and temperature sensors) within a shipping container (e. For example. however. but knowing the status of the entire supply chain ² from raw materials through components to final product ² can help a business operate more efficiently. such as cars and trucks. Notification of sensor events are wirelessly transmitted within the shipping container to a mobile processing unit. as well as infrared. Wireless sensor networks placed along the supply chain enable everyone in the business to make better decisions because more information about product in the supply chain is available. In a manner similar to that of the asset tracking application described previously. is practically lost because it is unavailable to be used or sold. and in the manufacture of durable goods. a railroad car) to monitor the state of its contents. but with its precise location unknown. In a large distribution chain. additional benefits may be obtained. radiation. This information can also be used as a competitive advantage. that may sit in large lots or warehouses after manufacture. The ATMS employs wireless sensors (including the state of the door seal. smoke. where thousands of railroad cars of all types must be organized. transferring excess product from Division X (where it is selling slowly) to Division Y (where it is selling briskly) can help a company avoid the purchase of component parts to manufacture more product for Division Y.g. and is therefore a business expense. The use of wireless sensor networks for the tracking of nuclear materials has already been demonstrated in the Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS). An item in a large warehouse. so much so that customers expect this service as a matter of course ² a shipper that cannot tell a customer where his package is at any given time is rarely reused [4]. This represents inventory shrinkage. Knowing where a product is can mean the difference between making or not making a sale.

many thousands of animals may be lost. Hog and chicken farmers typically have many animals in cooled. keeping the animals safe. where subtle environmental changes may have large effects on the value of the crop and how it is processed.Maritime Satellite (INMARSAT) transceiver. because the network can be fitted with a near-infinite variety of chemical and biological sensors. Yet. ventilated barns. Dairy farmers may use wireless sensors to determine the onset of estrus in cattle.3. a labor-intensive manual process at present. The data that is provided by such a network is capable of providing the farmer with a graphical view of soil moisture. Through the INMARSAT system. and the message latency can be on the order of minutes. Wireless sensor networks can be used to monitor the temperature throughout the barn. The location determination features of many wireless sensor networks also may be used in advanced control systems to enable more automation of farming equipment [4]. and power consumption must be low enough for the entire network to last an entire growing season. This type of application is especially important in vineyards. and they may receive rain only sporadically and only on some portions of the farm. The wireless sensor network is capable of much more than just soil moisture measurements. The amount of data sent over the network can be very low (as low as one bit ² "yes or no" ² in response to the "Did it rain today?" query). 14 . Large farms and ranches may cover several square miles. temperature. costs must be low. so it is important to know which fields have received rain.5 Intelligent Agriculture and Environmental Sensing A textbook example of the use of wireless sensor networks in agriculture is the rain gauge. Ranchers may use wireless sensor networks in the location determination of animals within the ranch and. and which fields have not and must be irrigated. and many other quantities. 2. Should the temperature rise excessively. herbicides. Many applications of wireless sensor networks are also used on ranches. so that irrigation may be omitted. however. the need for pesticides. Such an application is ideal for wireless sensor networks. and fertilizers. the location and status of each shipment may be monitored anywhere in the world. received sunshine. with sensors placed on each animal. Irrigation is expensive. determine the need for treatments to prevent parasites.

One class is athletic performance monitoring. providing a very low-cost solution to the monitoring of chemical and biological agents. in January 2000.Wireless sensor networks may also be used for low-power sensing of environmental contaminants such as mercury. although the definition is broad and nonspecific." to differentiate it from medical telemetry.[34] The use of wireless sensor networks in health monitoring is expected to accelerate due to the development of biological sensors compatible with conventional CMOS integrated circuit processes.6 Health Monitoring A market for wireless sensor networks that is expected to grow quickly is the field of health monitoring. nucleic acids. and remote monitoring of patients with chronic disorders. "for transmitting data in support of diagnostic or therapeutic functions associated with implanted medical devices. which can detect enzymes. Two general classes of health monitoring applications are available for wireless sensor networks.[35] These sensors."[36] These types of systems can be used for a number of purposes.3. the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) established regulations governing the Medical Implant Communications Service. for example. personal weight management. In the United States. A developing field in the health monitoring market is that of implanted medical devices. and some medical telemetry applications can be considered for wireless sensor networks.[32] The other class is at-home health monitoring. "Health monitoring" is usually defined as "monitoring of non-lifecritical health information. tracking one's pulse and respiration rate via wearable sensors and sending the information to a personal computer for later analysis. 2.[31] Integrated micro cantilever sensors sensitive to particular contaminants can achieve parts-per-trillion sensitivities. from monitoring cardiac pacemakers to specialized drug delivery systems. for example. can be very small and inexpensive. and other biologically important materials. These microelectromechanical (MEMS) sensors may be integrated with a wireless transceiver in a standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. leading to many applications in pharmaceuticals and medical care. Other examples are daily blood sugar monitoring and recording by a diabetic.[33] The patient's weight may be wirelessly sent to a personal computer for storage. 15 .

and can be used by forensic investigators to make future buildings safer. The present systems have their limitations. Wireless disaster relief systems. and give no information about the health of the victim. so that would-be rescuers would be able to perform triage in a large avalanche. they have no way to decide who should be assisted first.and post-collapse locations of the surviving network nodes can be used to help workers understand how the building collapsed. In a large avalanche. The remote nodes can only send or receive a message from the single base station. are already on the market. Even if no additional sensors were included. in the form of avalanche rescue beacons. 2. identifying those still alive under the snow[4]. however. Water and gas sensors also could be used to give rescuers an understanding of the conditions beneath them in the rubble. including oximeters and thermometers. principal among these is that they provide only location information. It was recently proposed that these systems be enhanced by the addition of health sensors. the wireless sensors of the HVAC system in a collapsed multistory building (perhaps the result of an earthquake) can provide victim location information to rescue workers if acoustic sensors. 2. are included. Avalanche rescue beacons. the identities and pre. they are not permitted to send messages to each other. which continuously transmit signals that rescuers can use to locate the wearer in time of emergency.4 Network topologies There are a number of different topologies for radio communications networks. The advantage of this type of network for wireless sensor networks is in its simplicity and the ability to keep the remote node¶s power 16 .A developing field related to both health monitoring and security is that of disaster relief. activated automatically by accelerometers or manually by emergency personnel.4. are used by skiers and other mountaineers in avalanche-prone areas.1 star network (Single Point-to. A brief discussion of the network topologies that apply to wireless sensor networks are outlined below.Multipoint) A star network is a communications topology where a single base station can send and/or receive a message to a number of remote nodes. For example. where air pockets or other survivable areas may be. when emergency personnel can detect several beacons.

which in turn. that is. In addition. This network topology has the advantage of redundancy and scalability. a remote node still can communicate to any other node in its range. it can simply be extended by adding more nodes to the system. It also allows for low latency communications between the remote node and the base station. Additionally.2Mesh network A mesh network allows for any node in the network to transmit to any other node in the network that is within its radio transmission range. if a node wants to send a message to another node that is out of radio communications range. the range of the network is not necessarily limited by the range in between single nodes. The disadvantage of such a network is that the base station must be within radio transmission range of all the individual nodes and is not as robust as other networks due to its dependency on a single node to manage the network. If an individual node fails.4. Figure 2 2. it can use an intermediate node to forward the message to the desired node. can forward the message to the desired location.consumption to a minimum. often limiting the battery life. as the number 17 . The disadvantage of this type of network is in power consumption for the nodes that implement the multihop communications are generally higher than for the nodes that don¶t have this capability. This allows for what is known as multihop communications.

are often plugged into the electrical mains line.of communication hops to a destination increases. allowing them to forward messages from the low power nodes to other nodes on the network. while maintaining the ability to keep the wireless sensor nodes power consumption to a minimum. other nodes on the network are enabled with multihop capability. In this network topology. Generally. This allows for minimal power consumption to be maintained. the lowest power sensor nodes are not enabled with the ability to forward messages. and if possible. especially if low power operation of the nodes is a requirement. However. the nodes with the multihop capability are higher power. Figure 3 2.3 hybrid star ± Mesh network A hybrid between the star and mesh network provides for a robust and versatile communications network.4. This is the topology implemented by the up and coming mesh networking standard known as ZigBee 18 . the time to deliver the message also increases.

Therefore.5 power consideration in wireless sensor networks The single most important consideration for a wireless sensor network is power consumption. While the concept of wireless sensor networks looks practical and exciting on paper. widespread adoption will not occur. Note that by far. 19 . when the sensor node Is designed power consumption must be minimized. contributors to power consumption in a typical 5000-ohm wireless strain gage sensor node versus transmitted data update rate.Figure 4 2. if batteries are going to have to be changed constantly. the largest power consumption is attributable to the radio link itself.

Figure 5 20 .

3 Sensors Sensors are devices that convert a physical parameter such as room temperature. analyzing and displaying. medical equipment. aircraft. blood pressure or wind speed into a signal that can be measured electrically. At present temperature is the only parameter covered in detail [5]. 21 . Once the physical parameter has been converted to an electrical equivalent it is easily input into a computer or microprocessor for manipulating. satellites and toys. industrial control systems. By far the most common parameter measured is temperature. Sensors are becoming smarter. air-conditioning systems. but we will confined our coverage to electrical output sensors as they are more compatible with electronic measuring devices.g. more accurate and cheaper. Other sensor outputs are equally valid (e. Each year hundreds millions of sensors are manufactured. They will play an ever increasing role in just about every field imaginable.Chapter. They are in domestic appliances. visual output from a glass thermometer).

Figure 6 3. and then convert those data to controllable electric signals or information that human can easily confirm.1 control sensors A sensor as a control component is to capture correctly and speedy data of an environment where a machine is installed and data of products that are being processed. 22 .

(1) Role of sensor in automation ‡ Flow of control: Figure 7 Figure 8 23 .

‡ Application in Factory <Pudding Production Process> (2) Type of sensor Figure 9 1 24 .

The sensitivity is then defined as the ratio between output signal and measured property. if a sensor measures temperature and has a voltage output. the sensitivity is a constant with the unit [V/K]. For example.(3) Use of sensor <basic function> 2 (4) Sensor Output ‡ ON/OFF Output ON /OFF when input value exceeds the value set (it may be Called High/Low. ‡ Analog Sensor input Which changes itself continuously is output as consecutive value of voltage /electric current. 3. The output signal of such a sensor is linearly proportional to the value of the measured property.2 Classification of measurement errors A good sensor obeys the following rules: Is sensitive to the measured property  Is insensitive to any other property  Does not influence the measured property Ideal sensors are designed to be linear. 1/0) ‡ Digital Sensor input Which changes itself continuously is output as digital value such as BCD/BIN.  25 . this sensor is linear because the ratio is constant at all points of measurement.

 If the sensor has a digital output.  If the deviation is caused by a rapid change of the measured property over time. this is defined as drift (telecommunication).  Long term drift usually indicates a slow degradation of sensor properties over a long period of time. Systematic errors can sometimes be compensated for by means of some kind  26 . limitation of the sampling frequency also can cause a dynamic error.Sensor deviations If the sensor is not ideal. For example. the output signal will eventually reach a minimum or maximum when the measured property exceeds the limits.  The sensor may to some extent be sensitive to properties other than the property being measured. this behavior is described with a bode plot showing sensitivity error and phase shift as function of the frequency of a periodic input signal.  If the output signal slowly changes independent of the measured property.  Noise is a random deviation of the signal that varies in time. This is defined as the output of the sensor at zero input.  If the output signal is not zero when the measured property is zero. creating a different offset error in one direction than in the other.  If the sensitivity is not constant over the range of the sensor. All these deviations can be classified as systematic errors or random errors. The full scale range defines the maximum and minimum values of the measured property. Often. several types of deviations can be observed: The sensitivity may in practice differ from the value specified.  Hysteresis is an error caused by when the measured property reverses direction. This is called a sensitivity error. The approximation error is also called digitization error. but the sensor is still linear. often noted as a percentage of the full range. this is called nonlinearity.  If the signal is monitored digitally.  Since the range of the output signal is always limited. most sensors are influenced by the temperature of their environment. there is a dynamic error. the output is essentially an approximation of the measured property. Usually this is defined by the amount the output differs from ideal behavior over the full range of the sensor. the sensor has an offset or bias. but there is some finite lag in time for the sensor to respond.

Force 7.Shock & Vibration. Angular / Linear Position 3. The resolution is related to the precision with which the measurement is made. Resolution The resolution of a sensor is the smallest change it can detect in the quantity that it is measuring. Noise is a random error that can be reduced by signal processing. the least significant digit will fluctuate. 27 . Sound 10. Magnetic Fields 8. indicating that changes of that magnitude are only just resolved. Chemical/Gas Concentration 4. Temperature 11. The piezoelectric elements (similar to small crystals) within the accelerometer have the property of producing an electrical charge which is directly proportional to the strain and thus the applied force when loaded either in tension. 2.of calibration strategy. Humidity 5. Often in a digital display. such as filtering. Pressure 9. a scanning tunneling probe (a fine tip near a surface collects an electron tunneling current) can resolve atoms and molecules.Velocity y Sensors: Acceleration An accelerometer is an electromechanical transducer which produces at its output terminals. a voltage or charge that is proportional to the acceleration to which it is subjected. usually at the expense of the dynamic behavior of the sensor.3 Types of sensors Sensors are used to measure basic physical phenomena including: 1. compression or shear. Flow Rate 6. . 3. Acceleration . For example.

Count and direction information can be obtained from both absolute and incremental encoders. RPM or Angular Rate. Frequency. velocity. Encoders An encoder is a sensor of mechanical motion. As a rule. one or more tracks are added to generate a signal that occurs once per revolution (index signal). They operate by moving a contact along a resistor to produce a voltage proportional to the position. the position information is never lost and is instantly available as a digital word on power-up. Absolute encoders have a unique value for each mechanical position and thus the position is known "absolutely".Applications include measurement of Acceleration. It translates motion (such as position. They are made up of 2 major parts. With this type of encoder. Position. The disk of an incremental encoder is patterned with a single track of lines near the outside edge of the disk. Force. and acceleration) into electrical signals. Tilt and Orientation. Impulse and Impulse Energy. Velocity. the position of an incremental encoder is not known since the output signals are not unique to any singular position. which can be used to indicate zero or home on the encoder. and Motion Detection. Rotary Encoder Figure 10 Incremental encoders have output signals which repeat over the range of motion and thus each mechanical position is not uniquely defined. the disk and the sensor. 28 . The disk count is defined as the number of dark/light line pairs that occur per revolution (CPR). The current position sensed is only incremental from the last position sensed. y Sensors: Linear / Angular Position Potentiometers Potentiometers utilize a variable resistor to convert an angle or displacement to a resistance/voltage. Angular Acceleration. Thus at power up.

This relative 29 . These sensors are critical for safety considerations in many industrial applications.y Sensors: Chemical / Gas Concentrations Chemical / Gas Concentrations There are many different types of sensors for detection concentration levels of chemicals and gasses. Under normal atmospheric conditions and a given temperature this fraction can vary between 0 ( absolute dry point ) and 100 (Condensation starting point ). Table 3 y Sensors: Humidity Humidity sensors are used to measure the humidity in air. as a fraction of the maximum amount of water that can be absorbed by air at a certain temperature. Figure 11 Catalytic Sensor Following is a table providing a brief summary of sensor types and applications.

Humidity Cells are mainly Capacitance sensors characterized of an excellent long term stability. good resistance to pollutants. 4. high sensitivity. Applications Include: 1. such as Mechanical Devices and Resistive type Sensors. The pressure differential increases with the velocity of the flow to aid in determining the flow rate. 3. intergangeability and wettability. the time to go from the T1 to T2 is the same as the time going from T2 to T1. When there is no flow. Transit-Time Flow Measurement Principle A transit-time flow meter measures the effect of a liquid's flow velocity on bi-directional acoustical signals. 2. As a result it is obvious that Temperature or Pressure Dependent sensing elements.humidity measurement is only valid under the above mentioned temperature and atmospheric conditions. precise measurements. However. are far behind of the respective non-dependent ones. such as Capacitance sensors. 5. thus making very important the fact that the sensor must not be affected by temperature or pressure changes. An upstream Figure 13 transducer (T1) sends a signal to a downstream transducer (T2) Flow Rate Sensor that in turn sends a signal back. when there is flow. the 30 . Refrigeration Drying Processes Meteorology Battery-powered systems OEM assemblies Figure 12 y Sensors: Flow Rate Flow Rate Ventura Valves A Ventura valve reduces the cross section of a pipe to create a pressure differential from the normal pipe diameter. Absorption based humidity sensors provide both temperature and %RH (Relative Humidity) outputs.

tension. Force transducers can be used as load cells. Figure 14 Tension Load Cell 31 .effect of the liquid's flow velocity on the acoustical signal is to assist the signal in the up to downstream direction and hinder the signal in the down to upstream direction. This creates the time difference by which the liquid's flow velocity. but can also be used in weighing applications and measuring compression or tension. The relay trip point may be present at the factory or adjusted by the user by turning a potentiometer. strain gauges or piezoelectric sensors. An electronic circuit measures the frequency of the electrical pulses generated and computes the flow rate. simple beam and single point. This rate is converted to a 0-5 VDC or 020 MA output proportional to the flow rate and also used to control a relay. Pitot Tubes Pitot tubes have been used in flow measurement for years. is determined. y Sensors: Force Force Load Cells / Force Transducers Load Cells are intended for determination of static or dynamic tensile and compressive loads and come in many different forms including compression. and ultimately the flow rate. Flow Transducers Fluid flowing through the sensor spins a magnetic rotor to induce a voltage in a coil. Therefore. a series of measurements must be taken across the stream to obtain a meaningful average flow rate. LVDTs. Conventional pitot tubes sense velocity pressure at only one point in the flowing stream. Load cells can be built utilizing either transducers.

When the specimen is mechanically stressed (loaded). Laboratory Instrumentation. Figure 15 Strain Gauges The bonded resistance strain gage is by far the most widely used in experimental stress analysis. has small physical size and low mass.Strain Gauges Strain gauges are used for the measurement of tensile and compressive strain in a body and can therefore pick up expansion as well as contraction. the bonded metallic wire. In general. moments. is only moderately affected by temperature changes. The sensors are contactless and the working distance is dependent on the ferromagnetic mass it is measuring. and has fairly high sensitivity to strain. can be made with a short gage length. They typically consist of a grid of very fine wire or foil bonded to the backing or carrier matrix. The high bandwidth allows detection of vehicles and other ferrous objects at high speeds. y Sensors: Magnetic Fields Magnetic Fields Magneto resistive (MR) Sensors Magneto resistive sensors can determine the change in earth's magnetic field due to the presence of a ferromagnetic object or position within the earth's magnetic field. Underground Boring Equipment and Flux Gate Replacement. Medical Instruments. or structural changes in the material. Strain is caused in a body by internal or external forces. Virtual Reality. pressures. The bonded resistance strain gage is low in cost. The strain is then found by measuring the change in resistance. and foil resistance gages. heat. Applications include Compassing and Navigation. the carbon-resistive gage. most types of strain gages depend on the proportional variance of electrical resistance to strain: the piezoresistive or semi-conductor gage. 32 . the strain on the surface is transmitted to the resistive grid through the adhesive and carrier layers. Vehicle Detection. The carrier matrix attaches to test specimens with an adhesive.

Because of their low price. Pressure potentiometers have characteristics similar to those of LVDTs. barometric pressure. Capacitance transducers use a flexing diaphragm to produce capacitance changes proportional to applied pressure. Silicon or "chip" transducers are widely used in high-volume applications. a wiper is driven across a resistive coil. altitude.) and convert it to an electrical signal. humidity. temperature. 2.y Sensors: Pressure Pressure Transducer Pressure sensor applications include flow (HVAC). These sensors are rather inexpensive. If continuously operated in about the same pressure range. One drawback is at normal 33 . map. but it has the advantage of inherently high output. capacitive and piezoresistive. Pressure transducers/sensors use a wide range of operating principles including: 1. 4. flow. In one common type. In this case. height of a column of liquid. it may suddenly short out or produce severely nonlinear output. it has the added disadvantage of coil wear.Motorola energy from one form to another. depth of a submerged object. sound (dbspl). There are two types of silicon pressure sensors. making it nonlinear and susceptible to wear and vibration. vacuum. position. volumetric displacement. the LVDT. Piezoresistive types are easier to make and cost less and therefore dominate the market. sensitive. a common application of these devices is in automobiles. Figure 16 A transducer is simply a device (or medium) that converts Pressure Transducer . pressure drop. Compared to an LVDT. Capacitive devices are much more stable. and weight. 3. The term is generally applied to devices that take physical phenomenon (pressure. and temperature resistant. with output determined by wiper position. It contains numerous pivots and linkages. an inductive member is driven into or out of a coil. etc. Motion transducers use a bellows or Bourdon tube to convert pressure to an output.

in general. Typically. Figure 17 Sound Sensor For measurement. 5. y Sensors: Sound Sound Microphones A sensor for detecting sound is. while the piezoelectric microphone is extensively used primarily for a microphone for low-frequency sound-level meters. electrostatic. electrostatic type (condenser) microphones are most popular because they can be downsized. Piezoresistive Sensors are available in both gage and absolute versions. called a microphone. voice-coil beam dampened by an oil dashpot.hydraulic pressure their operation dictates a large diaphragm making them better suited to low-pressure systems. Electropneumatic transducers are used to provide regulated air pressures for the control of process systems. and torque motor. except that a conventional torque motor replaces the voice-coil beam arrangement to position the flapper. The sensor typically consists of a Wheatstone bridge etched on a silicon diaphragm which outputs a voltage that is proportional to pressure. electropneumatic transducers are of three basic types: voice-coil beam. o Damped transducers operate in a similar manner except that the arm controlling flapper position is attached to a float suspended in silicone oil. and piezoelectric according to their conversion system. o Voice-coil beam transducers use a nozzle/flapper arrangement to convert a small mechanical motion into a proportional pneumatic signal. The dynamic microphone still has big demands primarily in the music world. o Torque-motor transducers also have similar operating principles. The microphone can be classified into several basic types including dynamic. 34 . 6. and provide markedly high stability as compared to other types of microphones. have flat frequency responses over a wide frequency range.

Thermocouples are pairs of dissimilar metal alloy wires joined at least at one end. Sound Intensity Microphones Sound intensity is a measure of the "flow of energy passing through a unit area per unit time" and its measurement unit is W/m2. In general. Thermocouples . This is achieved by incorporating more than one microphone in a probe to measure the sound energy flow.heating and cooling temperature Figure 18 Temperature Sensors Sensor Types 1. temperature compensation Process control . which represents sound intensity at a specific place (one point). the bias type provides higher sensitivity and stability. The difference is whether the DC voltage is applied from the outside or permanently electrically polarized polymer film is used in place of applying voltage.temperature regulation Automotive . which generate a net thermoelectric voltage between the two ends according to the size of the temperature difference between the 35 .room. but can measure the direction of flow.semiconductor protection Electronic assemblies . The sound intensity microphone is therefore used for sound source probing and for measuring sound power.The condenser microphones are available in two types: bias type and back electrets type.thermal management.air and oil temperature Appliances . duct.overload protection Electronic circuits . The sound intensity microphone probe is designed to capture sound intensity together with the unit direction of flow as a vector quantity. y Sensors: Temperature Temperature Typical applications for temperature sensors include: y y y y y y y HVAC . Conventional microphones can measure sound pressure (unit: Pa). and refrigerant equipment Motors .

The Platinum RTD is the most accurate and stable temperature detector from zero to about 500°C. The resistance of the RTD changes as a function of absolute temperature. ends. (In contrast. They are nearly linear over a wide range of temperatures and can be made small enough to have response times of a fraction of a second. and high electromagnetic field environments. the relative Seebeck coefficient of the wire pair and the uniformity of the wire's relative Seebeck coefficient. Since there is no need to recalibrate individual sensors. Radiation Pyrometer . 5. corrosive. or to operate a relay to sound an alarm or shut down the motor. Optical temperature sensor systems measure temperatures from -200C to 600C safely and accurately even in extremely hazardous. In operation. They are ideal for use in these conditions because their glass-based technology is inherently immune to electrical interference and corrosion. the thermocouple cannot measure absolute temperature. They require an electrical current to produce a voltage drop across the sensor that can be then measured by a calibrated read-out device.2. 3.A device to measure temperature by sensing the thermal radiation emitted from the object. It can measure temperatures up to 800°C. wire-wound resistors with a known temperature resistance characteristic. operator and 36 . it can only measure relative temperature.RTD's (Resistance Temperature Detectors) are precision.Thermistors (Resistance Thermometers) are instruments used to measure temperature by relating the change in resistance as a function of temperature. 6.Optical Pyrometers are devices used to measure temperature of an object at high temperatures by sensing the brightness of an objects surface. Thermistors .Optical-based temperature sensors provide accurate and stable remote measurement of on-line temperatures in hazardous environments and in environments having high ambient electromagnetic fields without the need for calibration of individual probes and sensors. Radiation Thermometers (Optical Pyrometers and Infrared Thermometers) . so it is categorized as one of the absolute temperature devices. the RTD is usually wired into a specific type of circuit (Wheatstone bridge). 4. Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) .) Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors . The output of this circuit can be used to drive a meter which has been calibrated in temperature.

7. The second difference is functionality. The first is operating temperature range. operate over a narrower range. Optical cables also have a much higher informationcarrying capacity and are far less subject to interference than electrical conductors. because of package or cost constraints. 37 .Integrated circuit temperature sensors differ significantly from the other types in a couple of important ways. A temperature sensor IC can operate over the nominal IC temperature range of -55 C to +150 C.technician safety is greatly enhanced as the need for their repeated exposure to field conditions is eliminated. and in increased operator safety. Probes are made from largely non-conducting and low thermal conductance material. including extensive signal processing circuitry within the same package as the sensor. resulting in high stability and low susceptibility to interference. A silicon temperature sensor is an integrated circuit. Some devices go beyond this range while others. Silicon Temperature Sensors .

The pulse magnitude and frequency are proportional to the angular speed.LVT The LVT is based on the principle of magnetic induction and provide reliable velocity measurement in a linear motion.y Sensors: Velocity Velocity Linear Velocity Transducer . As the magnet passes the coil a pulse is generated. This output signal is used to carefully monitor component velocities in various applications. 38 . Tachometer The tachometer measures the angular velocity of a rotating shaft using one of two methods. The first type connects a DC generator (motor) to the shaft which produces a voltage proportional to the increase in shaft Figure 19 angular velocity. Passing a magnet through the coil form generates a voltage proportional to the magnets velocity and field strength. The second type utilizes a magnet with Handheld Tachometer a pickup coil.

A sensor's sensitivity indicates how much the sensor's output changes when the measured quantity changes.4 Applications: Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base. For instance. aerospace. medicine. Sensors that measure very small changes must have very high sensitivities. Sensors need to be designed to have a small effect on what is measured. the sensitivity is 1 cm/°C. There are also innumerable applications for sensors of which most people are never aware. manufacturing and robotics. if the mercury in a thermometer moves 1 cm when the temperature changes by 1 °C. a micro-sensor reaches a significantly higher speed and sensitivity compared with macroscopic approaches. Applications include cars. making the sensor smaller often improves this and may introduce other advantages. Technological progress allows more and more sensors to be manufactured on a micro-scopic scale as micro-sensors using MEMS technology. 39 . for instance. machines. In most cases. Sensors also have an impact on what they measure. a room temperature thermometer inserted into a hot cup of liquid cools the liquid while the liquid heats the thermometer.3.

Figure 20 40 .

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