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Science notes – Form 1

Chapter 1 : Introduction to Science


Importance of science in everyday life

1. Science is the systematic study of nature and how it affects us and the environment.
1. Science enables us to understand ourselves and our surrounding.
2. The importance of science in specific areas:

A) Education: The use of computer and facilities such as the internet enhances learning and obtaining up-to-
date information.
B) Medicine: Discoveries of new medicines and the invention of new medical equipment help to prevent or
cure many illnesses and diseases.
C) Agriculture: Scientific researches on crops and the invention of new machines enable us to grow more
food and yield better crops.
D) Transportation: Better infrastructures facilities enable us to move from one place to another with east.

1.2 Laboratory safety rules

1. The science lab is a place where we conduct scientific investigations.


2. Safe and good laboratory practice is very important for our own safety as well as the safety of others.
3. We must obey laboratory rules and safety precautions at all times.
4. Proper ways of handling hazardous substances:

A) Flammable: Keep flammable substances away from fire or heat.


B) Explosive: Explosive substances usually explode when heated or lit. Use them according to the
instructions given.
C) Corrosive: Avoid direct contact with the corrosive substances which can cause burns. Wash off any spilled
acid or alkali on your skin or clothes with plenty of water. Handle these substances in a fume chamber.
D) Poisonous/Toxic: Do not eat, drink or taste these poisonous substances. Use them according to the
instructions given.
E) Erritant: Avoid inhaling the vapour of poisonous substances. Use them according to the instruction given.
F) Radioactive: Strictly at adhere to all safety precautions when handling radioactive substances.

1.3 Mass and weight

1. The mass of substances is the measurement of the amount of matter in it.


2. The more the matter in an object, the bigger is its mass.
3. SI unit for mass is kilogram (kg) – 1 kg = 1000 g
1g = 1000 mg
4. The beam balance and electronic balance are used to measure mass.
5. Weight is the gravitational force acting on a matter.
6. The greater the gravitational force, the heavier the object.
7. Weight is measured in Newton (N). – 1N = 0.1 kg
8. The spring balance is used to measure weight
1.4 Measuring length
1. Length is the distance between two points.
2. The S.I unit for length is metre (m) – 1cm = 10mm
1m = 100cm
1km = 1000m
3.The length of a straight line can be measured by using a ruler.
4. When taking a reading, position of eye must be vertically above the mark to be read to avoid parallax error.
5. It is difficult to measure the diameters of round objects by using a metre rule or a measuring tape. To do so, calipers are
used.
6. Internal calipers are used to measure the internal diameter of objects and external calipers measure the external diameter of
objects.

1.5 Measuring area


1. The area of an object can be estimated by the following steps:
(i) Trace the shape of the object on graph paper with a pencil.
(ii) Count the number of squares that are completely, half or more than half covered by the shape
(iii) Multiply the number of squares by the area of one square of the graph paper.

1.6 Measuring volume


1. Measuring cylinder – for measuring the volume of a liquid.
2. Burette – for measuring a small volume of liquid accurately.
3. Pipette – used together with a suction pump for measuring a fixed volume of a liquid accurately.
4. The volume of a regular or an irregular solid can be measured by using the water displacement method.

1.7. Steps in a scientific investigation are:


1. Indentifying the problem ( Determining what you want to find out )
2. Making a smart guess (Making a hypothesis )
3. Planning the experiment ( Planning how to test your smart guess )
4. Controlling the variables ( Changing the conditions of the scientific investigations )
5. Collecting data (Writing down what has been observed )
6. Analyzing and interpreting data ( finding a meaning to what has been observed )
7. Making a conclusion ( Deciding whether the smart guess is true )
8. Writing a report.

1.8 Physical quantities


1. Physical quantities are quantities that can be measured.
2. They are measured in S.I units : a) Length metre m
b) Mass kilogram kg
c) Time second s
d)Temperature Kelvin K
e) Electric Current ampere A
3. Prefixes are used to represent quantities that have very big values or very small values.
Example : mega(M) – 1000000
Kilo(k) – 1000
Centi(c) – 1/100
Micro(µ) – 1/1000000
Kertas Model | PMR | Sains | Set 3 | Jawapan

1. B 16. A 31. C 46. C 61. C


2. B 17. D 32. B 47. D 62. C
3. B 18. D 33. A 48. C 63. B
4. A 19. D 34. C 49. D 64. A
5. D 20. C 35. B 50. A 65. D
6. C 21. B 36. C 51. C 66. Q
7. B 22. D 37. D 52. A 67. A
8. D 23. C 38. A 53. C 68. B
9. A 24. D 39. A 54. C 69. C
10. D 25. D 40. A 55. A 70. B
11. B 26. C 41. D 56. B 71. C
12. A 27. C 42. B 57. A 72. A
13. B 28. D 43. A 58. B 73. A
14. B 29. D 44. 8 59. D 74. D
15. A 30. 8 45. A 60. C 75. A