Android (operating system) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Android
Android 2.2 Company /developer Open Handset Alliance Programmed in Working state Source model Initial release Latest stable release C (core), C++ (some third party libraries), Java (UI) Current Free and open source software 21 October 2008 2.2 (Froyo) / 20 May 2010; 5 days ago
Supported platforms ARM, MIPS, Power Architecture,x86 Kernel type Default user interface Monolithic (modified Linux kernel) Graphical
3 Google applications 4. The unveiling of the Android distribution on 5 November 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance.4 Third party applications 4. a consortium of 65 hardware. unit sales for Android OS smartphones ranked second among allsmartphone OS handsets sold in the U. and uses a modified version of the Linux kernel.S.2 Licensing 1.3 Market share 6 Restrictions and issues 6. BlackBerry OSand the Android OS ranked first and second respectively.License Officialwebsite
Apache 2. and lately by theOpen Handset Alliance. a firm later purchased by Google. Google released most of the Android code under the Apache License.3 Update history 2 Features 3 Hardware running Android 4 Software development 4. It allows developers to write managed code in the Java language. Contents [hide] 1 History 1..com
Android is an operating system and software stack for mobile devices that includesmiddleware and key applications. software.2 Typeface 5.1 Open Handset Alliance 1. It was initially developed by Android Inc. a free software and open source license.2 Issues concerning application development 6.0 and GPLv2 android. in the first quarter of 2010.5 Native code 4.3 Issues for specific applications 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External links History
. and telecomcompanies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices.1 Software development kit 4. According to NPD Group. controlling the device via Google-developed Java libraries.1 Logos 5.6 Community-based firmware 5 Marketing 5.1 Linux compatibility 6.2 Android Developer Challenge 4.
Inc. Inc.). More speculation that  Google would be entering the mobile-phone market came in December 2006. Google. upgradeable system. Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile ). and Chris White  (headed design and interface development at WebTV ). a mobile device platformbuilt on the Linux kernel version 2. Marvell Technology Group. Softbank. a consortium of several companies which include Texas Instruments."  -Eric Schmidt. Atheros Communications. it was announced that 14 new members would be joining the Android project.Intel. Asustek Computer Inc. Our vision is that the powerful platform we're unveiling will power thousands of different phone models. LG. Nvidia. At Google. This began rumors that Google was  planning to enter the mobile phone market. Rich  Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications. it was showing prototypes to cell phone manufacturers and network operators. Along with the formation of the Open Handset Alliance. In September 2007. little was known about the functions of  Android. HTC. InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed  several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. including ARM Holdings. At the time. Garmin Ltd. Toshiba Corp. In July 2005.Android at Googleplex. Android. California. 2007. a small startup company based in Palo Alto. the Open Handset Alliance. Sony  Ericsson. Samsung Electronics. the OHA  also unveiled their first product. Reports from the BBC and The Wall Street Journal noted that Google wanted its search and applications on mobile phones and it was working hard to deliver that.6.. Sprint Nextel and T-Mobile was unveiled with the goal to develop open standards for mobile devices. Android's co-founders who went to work at Google included Andy Rubin(co-founder of Danger). It was reported that Google had already lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part. Qualcomm. Google acquired Android. On 9 December 2008. More speculation followed reporting that as Google was defining technical specifications. Licensing
. Google Chairman/CEO On November 5. USA. Print and online media outlets soon reported rumors that Google was developing a Googlebranded handset. Broadcom Corporation. Motorola. and Vodafone Group Plc. Inc. the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernelwhich they marketed to handset makers and carriers on the premise of providing a flexible. other than that they made software for mobile phones. Open Handset Alliance Main article: Open Handset Alliance "Today's announcement is more ambitious than any single 'Google Phone' that the press has been speculating about over the past few weeks.
 Among the changes were: Optimized hardware speed Support for more screen sizes and resolutions Revamped UI New Browser UI and HTML5 support New contact lists Better white-black ratio for backgrounds
1. VPN. Google opened the entiresource code (including network and telephony stacks) under an Apache License.6.5 update: Ability to record and watch videos with the camcorder mode Uploading videos to YouTube and pictures to Picasa directly from the phone 1.5 release of Android.29
.27 Bluetooth A2DP support Ability to automatically connect to a Bluetooth headset within a certain distance New widgets and folders that can populate the Home screens Animations between screens Expanded ability of Copy and paste to include web pages On 15 September 2009. history.1 (Eclair) Based on Linux Kernel 2.With the exception of brief update periods. and the web from the home screen Updated Technology support for CDMA/EVDO. with faster response and deeper integration with native applications. Android has seen a number of updates since its original release.6. vendors can add proprietary extensions without submitting those back to the open source community. With the Apache License. the official 1.1x.0/2. Update history
A cupcake was placed beside Android atGoogleplex to commemorate the 1. camcorder.5 (Cupcake) A new soft keyboard with an "autocomplete" feature Based on Linux Kernel 2.5 (Cupcake) update for Android was released.0 (Eclair) SDK was released.6. Included in the update were: An improved Android Market experience An integrated camera. and gallery interface Gallery now enables users to select multiple photos for deletion Updated Voice Search. Android has been available as open source since 21 October 2008. There were several new features and UI updates included in the 1. These updates to the base Operating System typically fix bugs and add new features. the 1. On 30 April 2009. including the ability to dial contacts Updated search experience to allow searching bookmarks. contacts.6 (Donut) Based on Linux Kernel 2.29
2. Gestures.6 (Donut) SDK was released. and a Text-to-speech engine Support for WVGA resolutions Speed improvements in searching and camera applications  On 26 October 2009 the 2. 802.
2. Changes included: General Android OS speed. On 20 May 2010 the 2.0. remote wipe) Improved application launcher with shortcuts to Phone and Browser applications USB tethering and WiFi hotspot functionality Updated Market application with "batch" and automatic update features  Quick switching between multiple keyboard languages and their dictionaries Voice dialing and contact sharing over Bluetooth Support for file upload fields in the Browser application  Support for installing applications to the expandable memory  Adobe Flash 10. GAL look-up. The 2.2 (Froyo) SDK was released.33 or 34 Improved copy±paste functionalities  Features
.6.2 Microsoft Exchange support Built in flash support for Camera Digital Zoom MotionEvent class enhanced to track multi-touch events  Improved virtual keyboard Bluetooth 2.Improved Google Maps 3.32
Confirmed new features: Gingerbread.
the Android Market is a catalog of applications that can be downloaded and installed to target hardware over-the-air. PNG. pixel format conversion) and accelerated 3D graphics. AMR-WB (in 3GP Media support container). UMTS. AMR.264 (in3GP or MP4 container).GIF.
Android supports the following audio/video/still media formats: H. 2D graphics library. MIDI. WAV. The web browser available in Android is based on the open-source WebKitapplication framework.The Android Emulator default home screen (v1.HE-AAC (in MP4 or 3GP container). JPEG. IDEN. Includes a device emulator. MPEG-4 SP. CDMA. AAC. Ogg Vorbis. memory and performance profiling. which is a specialized VM implementation designed for mobile device use. Paid-for applications have been available on the Android
. a lightweight relational database. H.0 specifications. although not technically a standard Java Virtual Machine.5). Bluetooth. BMP. Android does not support J2ME. GPS. MP3. Wi-Fi.magnetometers. without the use of a PC.263. layouts Storage Connectivity Messaging Web browser SQLite. accelerometers. scaling. tools for debugging. 3D graphics library based Handset on OpenGL ES 2. Additional hardware support Development environment Market Android can use video/still cameras. The browser scores a 93/100 on the Acid3 Test. accelerated 2D bit blits (with hardware orientation. Software written in Java can be compiled to be executed in the Dalvik virtual machine. and a plugin for the Eclipse IDE. Originally only free applications were supported. and traditional smartphone layouts. is used for data storage purposes Android supports connectivity technologies including GSM/EDGE. SMS and MMS are available forms of messaging including threaded text messaging. touchscreens.EVDO. like some other mobile operating systems. Current features and specifications: The platform is adaptable to larger. and WiMAX. Like many phone-based application stores. VGA.
but as seen with the HTC Evo 4G.Market in the United States since 19 February 2009.) In December 2007. is poorly documented or just doesn't work. Android has native support for multi-touch which was initially made available in handsets such as the HTC Hero. and no public issue-tracking system. It's clearly not ready for prime
. Not supported by default. The feature was initially disabled at the kernel level (possibly to avoid infringing Apple's patents on touch-screen technology). The Android Market has been expanding rapidly."Functionality is not there.. it is possible to implement.
Multi-touch Bluetooth Videocalling Multitasking
Architecture Diagram Hardware running Android Main article: List of Android devices The first phone to run the Android operating system was the HTC Dream. Google has since released an update for the Nexus One and the Motorola Droidwhich enables multi-touch natively. (Google announced an issue tracker on 18 January 2008. it had over 50. As of April 30. Multitasking of applications is available. Issues cited include bugs.0. which runs Sense .. released on 22 October 2008. Support for sending files over bluetooth was added in version 2.000 Android applications for download. inadequate QA infrastructure. 2010.  The early feedback on developing applications for the Android platform was mixed. Software development
Early Android device. lack of documentation. MergeLab mobile startup founder Adam MacBeth stated.
9 version.8 or later. improved development tools and an updated design for the home screen. Google released version 1. On 23 September 2008 the Android 1.libraries. A preview release of the Android software development kit (SDK) was released on 12 November 2007. Mac OS X10. with SweetDreams. Apache Ant. The revelation that Google was supplying new SDK releases to some developers and not others (and keeping this arrangement private) has led to widely reported frustration within the Android developer community. The 50 most promising entries. documentation. Currently supported development platforms include x86-architecture computers running Linux (any modern desktop Linux distribution)..000 each. a customizable onscreen keyboard system and voice recognition. fixes mail notifications and refreshing intervals. distributed between ADC I and ADC II. battery usage indicator and VPN control applet. The first-round winners of ADC II comprising the top 200 applications were announced on 5 November 2009.1 for the Android dev phone. Google announced the top winners of ADC II on November 30. announced on 12 May 2008. The first round of the ADC II closed on 6 October 2009. According to the release notes. These include a debugger. Voting for the second round also opened on the same day and ended on November 25. Sky Map for watching stars. Gestures & Accessibility framework. Software development kit  The Android SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools. This update included many new features including video recording. The user can run the commandadb root to access this folder as only the root has permissions to access this folder. although some smaller features were added". build and debug Android applications as well as control attached Android devices (e. and ten teams that received $100. Google applications Google has also participated in the Android Market by offering several applications for its services.apk format and stored under /data/app folder on the Android OS. Finance for their
. On 18 August 2008 the Android 0. each received a  $25. ADC I accepted submissions from 2 January to 14 April 2008. sample code. Another important update is that Dev phones can now access paid applications and developers can now see them on the Android Market.g. In September 2009 the "Donut" version (1. Google offered prizes totaling 10 millionUS dollars. These applications include Google Voicefor the Google Voice service. Windows XP or Vista. though developers may use any text editor to edit Java and XML files then use command line tools to create. installing software package(s) remotely). The officially supported integrated development environment (IDE) is Eclipse (3.6) was released which featured better search. Android-targeted applications began to appear the week after the platform was announced. a handset emulator (based on QEMU). the Android Developer Challenge Team accidentally sent an email to all entrants in the Android Developer Challenge announcing that a new release of the SDK was available in a "private" download area. The first publicly available application was the Snake game. The Android Dev Phone is a SIM-unlocked and hardware-unlocked device that is designed for advanced developers.000 award to fund further development. It ended in early September with the announcement of ten teams that received $275." Despite this. it included "mainly bug fixes. In the middle of May 2009. sending gmail freeze fix. What the Doodle!? and WaveSecure being nominated the overall winners of the  challenge. alarm clock fixes.2 or later.2 or later) using the Android Development Tools (ADT) Plugin.000 each. Requirements also include Java Development Kit. Android Applications are packaged in . New platform technologies included Text to Speech engine (not available on all phones).4. Google released version 1. priced applications. It also included several API changes from the 0.0 SDK (Release 1) was released. and tutorials. On 9 March 2009. a few crucial updates include support for "search by voice. Android Developer Challenge The Android Developer Challenge was a competition for the most innovative application for Android. This release provides an updated and extended API. While developers can use regular consumer devices purchased at retail to test and use their applications. This release also opened up the AppWidget framework to third party developers allowing anyone to create their own home screen widgets.time. On 15 July 2008.9 SDK beta was released. ADC II was announced on 27   May 2009. and Python 2. Detailed instructions for upgrading are available to those already working with an earlier release.5 (Cupcake) of the Android OS and SDK. triggering a reboot. While there are a few aesthetic updates. some developers may choose not to use a retail device. and now the maps show business reviews". support for the stereo bluetooth profile. preferring an unlocked or no-contract device. The email was intended for winners of the first round of the Android Developer Challenge.
Google Translate. He has provided a method to back up licensed Google applications during the mod's install process and restore them when it is complete.Running native code is complicated by the fact that Android uses a non-standard C library (known as Bionic). citing issues with the re-distribution of Google's closed-source applications within the custom firmware. Places Directory for their Local Search. Maps Editor for their MyMaps service. allowing the development of cross-platform applications. incorporate elements of Android functionality that haven't yet been officially released within a carrier-sanctioned firmware. Google Goggles that searches by image.finance service. and it has been released under an open source license. Native code Libraries written in C and other languages can be compiled to ARM native code and installed using the Android Native Development Kit. The Android operating system has also been considered important enough by a lot of the most popular internet sites and services to create native android applications. and it is the graphics engine underlying the Google Chrome web browser. a jogging application.  Complete applications can be compiled and installed using traditional development tools. Famous applications that have been converted to the Android operating system include Shazam. Rooting lets users load modified  firmwares allowing users of older phones to use applications available only on newer releases. which is part of the standard Android Java classes. Google Shopper. Community-based firmware There is a community of open-source enthusiasts that build and share Android-based firmware with a number of customizations and additional features. CyanogenMod is one such firmware. Skia has backends for both win32 andCairo.loadLibrary call. there has also been an increased interest by third party developers to port their applications to the Android operating system. Cyanogen has complied with Google's wishes and is continuing to distribute this mod without the proprietary software.
. Native classes can be called from Java code running under the Dalvik VM using  the System. phones come packaged with closed-source Google applications for functionality such as the application store and GPS navigation. Even though Android OS is open source. The graphics library that Android uses to arbitrate and control access to this device is called the Skia Graphics Library (SGL). This usually involves rooting the device. such as FLAC lossless audio support and the ability to store downloaded applications on the microSD card. The underlying graphics device is available as a framebuffer at /dev/graphics/fb0. Marketing Logos
Android robot logo. and tend to have fewer limitations. These include MySpace and Facebook. ARM code can be compiled using GCC on a standard PC. The ADB debugger gives a root shell under the Android Emulator which allows native ARM code to be uploaded and executed. Google issued a cease and desist letter to the modder Cyanogen. Backgrounds. Those firmware packages are updated frequently.  hird party applications With the growing number of Android handsets. Listen for podcasts and My Tracks. Google has asserted that these applications can only be provided through approved distribution channels by licensed distributors. and WeatherBug. On 24 September 2009.
This may noticeably affect responsiveness. According to a report by the NPD group.000 Motorola Droid phones were sold in the United States during the  phone's first week in stores. video call or native Java ME. neither does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries like its system libraries (GNU C Library). which is very popular outside the US. separating their code from Linux.5%. Additionally. 2009. Gartner Inc. iPhone would remain in 3rd place.6.2% stated in November 2009. Google tracks issues and feature requests at Google Code's site. In February 2010 ComScore ranked the Android platform as obtaining a 9. Market share The second Android phone was released on 22 October 2008. Analytics firm Flurry estimates that 250. 2009. Issues for specific applications Unlike other mobile closed platforms like Apple's iPhone OS. This figure was up from an earlier estimate of 5.5 and 1. Android achieved 28% smartphone sales in the US market. Issues concerning application development Android does not use established Java standards.org. The iPhone's sales fell flat at 21% over the same reporting period. it does not have a native X Window System. Google no longer maintains the Android code they previously contributed to the Linux kernel.8% share of the worldwide smartphone market. Meanwhile. Android Green is the color of the Android Robot that represents the Android operating system.  2010.5 version Garbage collection will slow down programs that make too many memory allocations allowing Dalvik to keep a  pool of free memory. only used in the text logo.Text logo. as specified by the Android Brand Guidelines.  of Android phones run the 2. Restrictions and issues Linux compatibility Android uses a version of Linux as its kernel (albeit tweaked by Google to fit Android needs and separated from the main Linux kerneltree). but does not provide the full-class libraries and APIs bundled with Java SE or ME. as do other mobile operating systems. effectively branching kernel code in their own tree. The print color is PMS 376C and the online hex color is #A4C639. Java SE and ME. Research company Canalysestimates that by Q2. Android only reuses the Java language syntax.  contest.1 version.e. Developers have reported that it is difficult to maintain applications working on different versions of Android. however some of this. Google announced in April maintained was deleted in January 2010 from the Linuxcodebase. The following outstanding issues have been highly debated or voted for by the user community:
. applications like Qik allow live broadcasting (but not receiving). In October. the Myriad Group claim that their new J2Android tool allow conversion of Java MIDlets into Android applications. and 37% still run the 1. As of May 2010. behindNokia's Symbian OS. The rapid growth in the number of Android-based phone models with different hardware capabilities also makes it  .  ypeface The custom typeface of Android is called Norad. up 8% from the December quarter. but it is not a conventional Linux distribution. only 32% difficult to develop applications which work on all Android-based phones. By the following quarter (Q3  2009). In May of 2010. Android uses the Droid font family made by Ascender Corporation. such asSymbian OS and Windows Mobile. and  Microsoft's Windows Mobile would remain in 4th place. that they will hire two coders to work with kernel. predicted that by 2012. Android's market share had grown to 3.  Android does not readily support Bluetooth file exchange. BlackBerry would fall from 2nd to 5th place. However. because of various compatibility issues between versions 1. may still by possible with some amount of hacking. specifically concerning the different  Such problems were specifically encountered during the ADC2 resolution ratios of the various Android phones. The code which is no longer  However. This prevents compatibility among Java applications written for those platforms and those for the Android platform. Android would become the world's second most popular smartphone platform. Android had a 2. such as Bluetooth file exchange. Android's first quarter US sales surpassed that of the rival iPhone platform. i.0% of the smartphone platform marketshare. This makes it difficult to reuse existing Linux applications or libraries on Android.
Some vendors provide hands-free dialing.2. Hands free dialing and call answering is not supported. the Android calendar is restricted to synchronisation with Google Calendar service. As of May 2010. the second most requested ("starred") feature is the support for Bi-directional text (right-to-left) such as Arabic. Persianand Hebrew. This makes it illegal to initiate or answer calls while driving in some  areas. Voice dialing can be used to find/input a number.A source of criticism has been the lack of standards-based iCalendar/CalDAV functionality in the Android calendar client. Currently. As of 2.
. In the meantime.2 which supports voice dialing through bluetooth. but selection requires interaction with the screen. Android did not support animated GIF files. the Android Browser natively supports the rendering of GIF images. as on the Motorola Milestone. and very difficult to use while on a bicycle or motorcycle. some manufacturer variations of Android such as HTC's Sense UI come with their own image viewing applications which support animated GIFs. This issue has been partially addressed by Android 2. It only showed the first frame. but the Gallery does not. However. CalDAV based calendars can be incorporated into Google Calendar for later synchronization to Android devices. some 3rd party apps that  and "Chandroid Animated can play animated GIFs such as "Image Viewer (with Animation)"  ImageViewer" have started to surface. Additionally.