CAFFEINE Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM & ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Caffeine is among the most widely used drugs because

of its ubiquitous occurrence in commonly consumed beverages such as coffee, tea and cola. Many drugs contain caffeine and are readily accessible to the public in the form of OTC stimulants and combination analgesics. Clearly caffeine is an important drug-food substance in our society which deserves attention. To begin to have a new consciousness about caffeine so that we can become aware of how this drug can affect our physiology and psychology is a problem. The reasons for this are certainly complicated, but we can start by considering a factor dominating all of our lives, our habits. When we become aware of and take responsibility to change habits, we are taking a first step in the process of awakening. The result must not be only an improvement in the quality of our lives but the world itself will be changed for the better. The use and abuse of caffeine is a major public ³habit¶ and may be as important a factor as heredity and environment in the etiology of physiological and psychological disorders. To recognize this, we must know that we are creatures of habit. Most people are caffeine consumers because from birth this food-drug is set before us, if not offered directly, along with orange juice, cereal, dessert and cigarettes. Caffeine is a potent central nervous system stimulant and much of its ³psychological´ activity may be related to this action of the drug. Its effects on the nervous system are obviously adverse at high doses. it may not be obvious that at lower doses when used in moderation, it may have beneficial effects. For example, its possible therapeutic use in hyperkinetic children certainly would seem advantageous when compared to the current treatment with more powerful stimulants which have concomitant adverse reactions. Also, with the intense day to day pressures imposed on and accepted by many of us, is there any harm in ³relaxing´ with a hot cup of coffee? On the other hand, caffeine is a drug which is subject to abuse. The fact that it is a drug with a potentially powerful physiological effect escapes most of us who think of coffee as a relatively harmless beverage. Recently published studies and reports of personal observations have shown without doubt that caffeine abuse (caffeinism) may result in a syndrome which resembles and may be confused or confounded with true psychotic states. This may lead to misdiagnosis and mistreatment. A question arises from the varied reports of caffeine consumption in psychiatric populations: Does caffeine stimulate psychosis or does psychosis stimulate caffeine consumption? These are not trivial findings because of the ready availability of caffeine and the epidemic of psychological problems which we are experiencing in this era. This study reviews some of the knowledge of caffeine¶s effects with the hope that we will all be more educated and more careful in the use of this commonly ingested drug.

acts as an adenosine impostor. locking into the adenosine receptors on brain cells. 24-hour diet recall. They fool the body into thinking that adenosine is circulating. caffeine appears to help extroverts keep performing vigilance tasks better than introverts. then. The variables to be considered in this study are the following: body mass index (BMI). adenosine must reach receptors on the surface of certain brain cells in order to work. when compared with performance levels that are low because of fatigue. 15 are male and the other half are female. Caffeine speeds up the metabolism and makes you burn calories faster. Its effects are most pronounced. After it is released by nerve endings in the brain. caffeine seems only to increase intellectual speed. good for neither athletes nor flyers: dehydration is one of the worst problems of air travel and a prime cause of jet-lag. Its effects are the opposite of what adenosine does: it makes you feel brighter and more alert. Proponents of caffeine speak of its ability to increase vigilance and heighten the ability to perform various tasks. increases gastric secretion. makes you urinate more and stimulates respiration. . Caffeinated drinks are thus dehydrating. but they produce no depressive effect of their own. elimination pattern and environment. Subjects in experiments do things like read and fill out crossword puzzles faster-but not. the theory has it. not intellectual power. This boost to overall endurance has led to its use by cyclists and runners. Their age ranges from 18-25 years old. The physiological and psychological effects of caffeine in the profile are tested. Its inclusion in over-the-counter diet pills in place of prescription-only amphetamines (³speed´) seems to be largely ineffective. although not so much faster that it will help you lose weight. unfortunately. by not slowing you down. The theory holds that caffeine interferes with the depressant effects of adenosine. who can evidently plow through such tasks unassisted. Too. The prevailing theory of why caffeine increases alertness took shape only in the early 1970s. its effects seem to vary by personality type. work differently than caffeine does on the brain. But caffeine also has a diuretic effect. vices other than caffeine intake. The procedure of this study is to know the common habits & attitudes of the profile in terms of their practice in drinking such beverages.Theoretical Framework The respondents in this study are the thirty (30) 3rd year Nursing students of Perpetual Help College of Manila. which diminish appetite. Caffeine speeds you up. Caffeine quickens reaction time and can enhance both hand-eye coordination and the capacity of muscles to work. boredom or caffeine abstinence. The following are theories regarding caffeine which can be a guide in answering the question on what are the physiological and psychological effects of caffeine in the human system. lowers the need to urinate and slows gastric secretion and respiration. however. Despite the generations of writers who have thought that coffee helped them think more clearly. Molecules of caffeine counterfeit molecules of adenosine. Caffeine. For example. Amphetamines. which is one of the chemicals that the body makes to control neural activity Adenosine triggers a series of slowing effects: it depresses mood and alertness. increasing frequency of urination. more accurately. rest and sleep pattern.

Glycogen is the principle fuel for muscles. The failure to focus on caffeine is due not to demonstrated evidence but to error. Besides being a self-prescribed antidepressant and alertness drug. since it works as a bronchodilator. The second theory focuses on caffeine¶s ability to cause the body to burn more fat and fewer carbohydrates. Remember. This delays the immediate depletion of glycogen. When this happens. however. caffeine does not counteract the effects of Phenobarbital and other barbiturates. Caffeine enters the body and forces the working muscles to utilize as much fat as possible. should make caffeine the prime suspect in the hunt for the mysterious cause of migraine without aura. Surprisingly. The reason for this error may simply be the near-ubiquity of caffeine. It does. No one imagines that coffee can make you a safer driver after you¶ve been drinking. the saved glycogen can be used for the remainder of the workout where normally it would be entirely depleted. the prevailing view is that caffeine is merely one among many factors that influence primary headache. meaning that it widens the air passages in the lungs and eases breathing. Studies show that in the first fifteen minutes of exercise caffeine has the potential to reduce the loss of glycogen by fifty percent. Your motor functions will be just as impaired by alcohol as they were minutes before you downed that cup of coffee. though. The last theory about caffeine is presented by Barry Spencer which states that caffeine withdrawal causes headache and migraine. Similarly. the effects of caffeine have become confounded with the condition of being human. This reversal affects how you think as opposed to how fast you react. because nearly everyone uses caffeine. Some researchers speculate that a similar restorative effect on cognitive activity might take place in the interaction between caffeine and alcohol. the compounds that are the basis of Valium and many other tranquilizers. he or she will probably advise you not to defeat the effects of the drug by drinking coffee. Another error that may obscure the importance of caffeine in headache is the collective tendency . if the results of a University of Michigan study can be generally applied: the study showed that older subjects were more likely to be sexually active if they were coffee drinkers than if they were not. in studies of primary headache or primary headache treatments. a demonstrated cause of headache. but fat is the most abundant resource that the body uses for energy. If you are taking a muscle relaxant or tranquilizer that you think might be one of these compounds. combined with its near-universal use. Yet neither caffeine nor caffeine withdrawal is considered a major cause of headache or migraine. One such error is the collective failure to control for caffeine withdrawal. The lack of focus on caffeine is not due to any experimental evidence that rules out caffeine as a major cause of migraine without aura. It might even be something of an aphrodisiac. caffeine has been shown to be useful to people with asthma. ask your doctors. in other words. that the question is whether caffeine can help you think more clearly after you have drunk alcohol ± not whether it will improve your reflexes. and even if you feel more awake. help reverse the impairment of cognitive activity caused by benzodiazepines. Instead. which makes the effects of caffeine blend into the background of human existence. you¶re just as dangerous as a driver.This general quickening does not mean that coffee can sober you up ± either black or with milk. no such experimental evidence exists. primary headache has never been demonstrated to exist separately from caffeine withdrawal. but no one yet knows. Caffeine¶s ability to potentiate severe headache and nausea/vomiting.

each of which may have multiple causes and multiple precipitating factors.). drinks. This fact has important implications: it means caffeine withdrawal might cause the entire phenomenon of primary headache. so there is plenty of anecdotal evidence that primary headaches such as migraine without aura can occur separately from caffeine withdrawal. etc. cluster headache. and therefore studies that depend on self-reported information about personal caffeine intake tend to underestimate the prevalence of caffeine use. it is all too easy to ingest caffeine without being aware of it. and is often occult. In another phone survey 96 percent of subjects said they had ever used caffeine. In fact more than 75 percent of infants have been exposed to caffeine in the womb. Such testimonial evidence. if not more underestimate the prevalence of caffeine use. and 14 percent said they had ceased all caffeine intake. called triggers. primary headache consists of multiple distinct disease entities (tension headache. all migrainers who believe they consume no caffeine may be mistaken. Phone survey studies. Yet because caffeine is present in many foods. Caffeine is no doubt just as popular.) The multiple disease theory has a possibly fatal weakness: it utterly rests and depends on the assumption that primary headache can occur in the absence of caffeine withdrawal. For example: visual aura accompanying cluster headache is not considered compelling evidence of kinship between cluster headache and migraine with aura. 83 percent said they drink a caffeine-containing beverage at least once a week. for example. Unquestioning faith in the prevailing multiple disease theory of primary headache may be the biggest reason for the failure to focus on caffeine. and some infants suffer caffeine withdrawal symptoms soon after birth. (Caffeine withdrawal has not been demonstrated to cause visual aura. however. Nearly all children are regularly exposed to caffeine: a study in which food diaries were kept for one week found 98 percent of subjects¶ ages five to 15 regularly consumed caffeine. but this negative result may be due to the relative rarity of visual aura. Because primary headache has never been demonstrated to exist separately from caffeine withdrawal. The theory that primary headache is heterogeneous is so firmly entrenched that evidence to the contrary is ignored. Many headache researchers and physicians may assume. Many migrainers insist they ingest no caffeine whatsoever. so testimony regarding personal caffeine intake is unreliable. Those 14 percent of interviewees who believe they have ceased all caffeine intakes. It may be subjects tend to underestimate their own caffeine intake. and medicines. Patients who believe they have multiple distinct headache conditions may be mistaking one highly variable condition for multiple distinct conditions. According to prevailing theory. among adults. for example. that infants and children are generally not exposed to caffeine. migraine without aura. amounts to conclusions drawn by patients based on their interpretation of subjective symptoms. may be mistaken. Caffeine is related beyond dispute to primary headache in three ways: . Many primary headache patients insist they can readily distinguish between their caffeine withdrawal headaches and their migraines or other types of primary headache. For that reason it makes sense to examine the relationship between our most popular neuroactive drug and our most prevalent neurological malady. however. This suggests caffeine withdrawal and migraine might still be considered separate conditions even if caffeine withdrawal was demonstrated to cause visual aura. migraine with aura. Many nursing infants are exposed to caffeine in mother¶s milk. find a lower prevalence of caffeine use: in one phone survey only 61 percent of subjects said they use caffeine every day.

The variables would include the respondent¶s body mass index (BMI). It would know the potential physiological and psychological effects of caffeine intake in the human system. It focus on the effects of caffeine on physiological and psychological well-being of the respondents. 2. To . This study is applicable only to the thirty (30) 3rd year Nursing students of Perpetual Help College of Manila.3 Age Gender Civil Status 2.1 1. 3.2 1. Researchers. vices other than caffeine intake. What is physiological and psychological status of nursing student¶s respondent in Perpetual Help College of Manila? Hypothesis There is no significant difference between the profile variables and the physiological and psychological status of nursing students in Perpetual College of Manila. 2006. elimination pattern and environment. rest and sleep pattern. What is the profile of the Nursing student¶s respondent in terms of the following variables? 1.1. this study will benefit the following: Nursing students. Heavy caffeine intake is associated with migraine and cluster headache. Specifically it sought to answer the following questions: 1. It also aims to show the findings and values from the corresponding method used to obtain such. Significance of the Study The purpose of this study was to review the effects of caffeine on the physiological and psychological aspects of the human system. Scope and Limitation This study is limited only to the thirty (30)3rd year Nursing students of Perpetual Help College of Manila as the respondents on the survey done on August 12. It is hoped that the findings of this study will further enhance the knowledge of consumers and researchers on caffeine¶s effect. Statement of the Problem This study is intended to determine the physiological and psychological effects of caffeine in the human system of the thirty (30) 3rd year Nursing students of Perpetual Help of Manila. Other situation may avail of findings relevant to their needs. Caffeine has been demonstrated to have a withdrawal syndrome often featuring severe headache and nausea/vomiting. For supplemental referenceConsumers. 24-hour diet recall. Caffeine is used as a medicine to relieve various primary headaches including migraine. Specifically.

Interestingly. 150 to 250 mg. the cortex and medulla. Caffeine has been shown to improve attention in a study which simulated night driving. vasomotor and vagal centers are stimulated by caffeine. In this study it is a drug that is naturally produced in the leaves and seeds of many plants Caffeinism. respiratory. This effect is due to an increased sensitization to carbon dioxide but needs large doses to elicit this effect. cocoa and kola (the basis of cola beverages). Ritchie (1975) stated in his study that the medullary. an unpleasant sensory sensation. gastric secretion and diuresis. Leinart (1966) stated that caffeine stimulates the central nervous system first at the higher levels. . Client recall of all the food & beverages consumed during a typical 24-hour period Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter is a review of some existing literature and studies on the effects of caffeine which are related to the present study. The largest sources of caffeine are from the plants used to make coffee. and finally the spinal cord at higher doses. tea. The spinal cord is stimulated at higher doses and convulsions and death may result. To learn about its effect on the human body Other Individual Definition of Terms For a better understanding of the study. The equivalent of one or two cups of coffee (150 to 250 mg of caffeine) is sufficient to induce adverse effects. the following terms are defined below: Caffeine. caffeine is ingested daily by a vast number of people and is unique in that it is a potent drug. although it is also found in Latin America as mate¶ and guarana. but it also affects. Caffeine abuse Body Mass Index (BMI). considered to be part of our normal diet. parenterally. to a lesser degree the heart muscle. More than 10 g are needed for such toxicity to occur in man. can be stimulated by large doses of caffeine.know the actual findings and values of caffeine¶s effectCaffeine Addicts. The occurrence of hyperesthesia. Indicates whether weight is appropriate for height 24-hour Diet Recall. Caffeine particularly has a profound effect on the central nervous system. Mild cortex stimulation appears to be beneficial resulting in more clear thinking and less fatigue. Related Literature & Studies Murdoch (1975) described the pharmacological effects of caffeine. The onset of the effect of caffeine occurs within one hour and lasts for three to four hours.

males (but not females) showed a lower CNS stimulation compared to placebo. tinnitus. extrasystoles. The toxic effects are due to CNS and circulatory system stimulation and include some well recognized prominent symptoms in addition to those which can result at high doses or in hypersensitive persons: insomnia. One report noted that hyperactivity and insomnia observed in children could be attributed to excess caffeine intake from cola drinks. At higher doses. flashes of light. are more susceptible to caffeine. After two hours. because of their smaller size. restlessness. ³There is no doubt that children should be kept from using coffee and the popular caffeine containing soft drinks.Abrams (1977) and Dowell (1965) cited that stimulation of the CNS is followed by depression although the effect is small at low doses e. Children. The net effect is usually of less than 10 mm of Hg in blood pressure. He states. . arrythmias resulting. Ritchie (1975) stated that although caffeine is well absorbed when taken orally. The direct effect predominates at very large doses with tachycardia and. tachycardia. because its direct and central effects are antagonistic. eventually. Caffeine¶s purported efficacy in hypertensive headaches may be due to a decrease in blood flow as a result of the increased cerebral resistance. Peach (1972) and Poisner (1973) theorized that although caffeine dilates blood vessels by a direct action. an oral (3. Its direct stimulatory effect on the heart may be neutralized by its central vagus stimulation. Caffeine is principally metabolized with only 10 percent excreted in the urine unchanged. Caffeine¶s ability to potentiate cyclic AMP can explain its ability to potentiate ionotropic responses to B-adrenergic agonists and glucogon. Caffeine also stimulates releases of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla and norepinephrine is released from nerve endings in the isolatA heart. the resultant effect of caffeine on blood pressure is unpredictable. its central effect is one of constriction. quivering muscles. excitement. Page. the dilating effect is apparent . and even low grade fever and mild delirium have been observed. its absorption may be erratic because of its low solubility and because it may cause gastric irritation. a single cup of coffee. Similarly.´ Headaches can also be precipitated by caffeine withdrawal especially by those who have the ³habit´. ³I suspect that the condition is much more common than supposed and could well be one of the more frequent causes of chronic recurrent headache.2 g IV) one gram dose will cause adverse effects. Harrie (1970) described a patient whose constant headaches were due to excessive caffeine consumption. It has been shown that prolonged augmentation of gastric secretion results from caffeine administration and that ulcer patient have sustained elevation of acid as opposed to normal.´ Ritchie (1975) mentioned on his study that caffeine¶s effect on the cardiovascular system is less profound than its central nervous system action. Gleason (1969) cited that although a dose of approximately 10 g or more taken orally can be fatal. According to Dr.g. The post stimulation ³let down´ with caffeine results in fatigue and lethargy and the constant stimulation caused by chronic caffeine dosing could be disastrous.

some would prefer to remove stress while chatting with friends over a coffee and a piece of their favorite chocolate cake or pastries not knowing that they have exceeded already the recommended caffeine value. Method of Research The type of research used in this study is the descriptive method.. Nursing is a course that is said to be very stressful. strolling along malls. The age of the respondent ranges from 18 to 25 years old. research tools and instruments. write on. procedure followed and the statistical treatment of data. Research Tools and Instruments . Because the total population (universum) during a specific investigation can not be contemplated as a whole. As little as four cups a day can result in appreciable omnipresent amounts of caffeine in the body. depict. Respondent of the Study The 3rd year Nursing students of Perpetual Help College of Manila are the respondents chosen for this study. researchers make use of the demarcation of the population or of the selection of a representative test sample. continuous ingestion of caffeine by infants can be dangerous. 1979). Its physiological effects are observed in less than one hour. Aside from clubbing. randomly from both genders. According to Klopper (1990: 64) researchers who use this method for their research usually aim at: ‡ demarcating the population (representative of the universum) by means of perceiving accurately research parameters. respondent of the study. If a cup of coffee is consumed by an adult six or seven times a day it would result in a high steady concentration of caffeine in the blood. The hospital and school works make it impossible for a nursing student to be stress-free. METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE This chapter deals with the method of research used. The aim of the latter is that when the total record has been compiled.. Infants do not metabolize caffeine as well as adults and thus have a half-life of about four days (Aranda et al. and ‡ Recording in the form of a written report of that which has been perceived. Descriptive research is thus a type of research that is primarily concerned with describing the nature or conditions and degree in detail of the present situation (Landman 1988: 59).Parsons and Neims (1978) also cited that caffeine has a physiological half-life of three and a half hours to six hours (Aranda et al.. revision of the documents can occur so that the perceptions derived at can be thoroughly investigated. 1975). playing online games. Certainly. The aim of descriptive research is to verify formulated hypotheses that refer to the present situation in order to elucidate it. The emphasis is on describing rather than on judge or interprets. Test sampling therefore forms an integral part of descriptive research. The term descriptive is selfexplanatory and terminology synonymous to this type of research is: describe. etc.

and they have a habit of drinking caffeinated products. educational background. The formula is: 100 P = fx N where: P = percentage f = frequency of percentage N = total number of respondents Chapter 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Conclusion Based on the significant findings of the study. civil status. analysis and interpretation of data is the percentage. 3. Evidently. The student respondents perceive that caffeine intake has its physiological and psychological effects in an individual. After the retrieval of all accomplished questionnaires. Part two intends to assess the attitude of the respondents and their beliefs with regards to caffeine and to gather habits and practices of the respondents on their daily caffeine intake in terms of food and beverages. Percentage. gender. Statistical Treatment of Data The statistical tool and technique used to ensure a valid and systematic presentation. The first part aims to elicit information on the profile of the respondent in terms of age. environmental factors such as family and friends affect the habitual drinking of caffeinated products of our respondents. The questionnaires were personally administered and retrieved to these respondents.This research made use of a survey questionnaire as the main vehicle to gather data for this research. summarizing and tabulating of the data were proceeded for statistical interpretation and analysis. The researcher used a survey questionnaire based on the statement of the problem of this study. The questionnaire consists of two parts. permission was sought from the research adviser in order to conduct the study to the target respondents. encoding. . year/ level and length of caffeine intake. This was used as a descriptive statistics to describe the relationship of a part to the whole. Procedure Followed Prior to the conduct of the study. the following conclusions were made: 1. 2. The typical 3rd year nursing student respondents are female aged 20 ± 21 years old.

According to some study. This delays the immediate depletion of glycogen. It was also included in this study the related effect of caffeine on the hydration status of an individual. Based on the result of the survey done. Caffeine enters the body and forces the working muscles to utilize as much fat as possible. Glycogen is the principle fuel for muscles. This is approximately equal to the half-life of caffeine in the body. Caffeine has also been associated to some issue regarding the effect on the intellectual capacity of an individual. caffeine inhibits deeper stages of sleep as opposed to disturbances of the REM stage which was also been documented by Colton on his study. unfortunately. This effect is explained on the theory which focuses on caffeine¶s ability to cause the body to burn fatter and fewer carbohydrates. Non-coffee drinkers were more sensitive to coffee¶s insomnic effect whereas coffee drinkers were relatively insensitive in this regard. should make caffeine the prime suspect in the hunt for the mysterious cause of migraine without aura. Subjects in experiments do things like read and fill out crossword puzzles faster-but not. most of the respondents have overcome sleepiness by using either coffee or soft drinks which both contain caffeine. This effect of caffeine was also observed on the experimental research done by Mikkelsen on 1978. combined with its near-universal use. According to the respondents on this study. more accurately. almost of the respondents did feel thirsty after taking in caffeine products but have not feel any change on skin turgor. One of its popular effects is related to sleep pattern of an individual. Based on the last theory about caffeine which we also presented on this study.Based on the result of this study. According to some studies done. According to him. It has been so popular because of its known physiological and psychological effect on human system. Using caffeine as an stimulant on endurance level of an individual has also been a subject to several study and it was also considered in this study. the saved glycogen can be used for the remainder of the workout where normally it would be entirely depleted. 1977) showed that the quality of the first three hours of sleep was impaired by the ingestion of coffee before retiring. its major therapeutic use is to allay sleep and drowsiness. In fact. Based on the result of the survey. Mueller-Limmroth (Stephenson. Based on the result of the survey. Caffeine¶s ability to potentate severe headache and nausea/vomiting. being the only OTC stimulant approved by the FDA. Goldstein did also an extensive work on the effect of coffee and showed that coffee drinkers slept more soundly when they took placebo as opposed to caffeine in coffee. respondents did not feel the effect of it on their intellectual capacity. When this happens. but fat is the most abundant resource that the body uses for energy. caffeine has a diuretic effect as what has been documented by Colton. caffeine has been widely used by almost individual and they considered it as part of their everyday lives. Yet neither caffeine nor caffeine . Non-coffee drinkers experienced disturbed sleep patterns and delayed onset of sleep. caffeine withdrawal causes headache and migraine. they feel more energetic and tend to work longer and faster. Caffeine is known to cause insomnia because of its central nervous system stimulating activity. coffee helped them think more clearly and increase intellectual speed but not intellectual power. Studies show that in the first fifteen minutes of exercise caffeine has the potential to reduce the loss of glycogen by fifty percent.

(21. Caffeine has the ability to burn more fats and fewer carbohydrates of one respondent. tolerance develops to the stimulant action of the caffeine causing the desired effects to be diminished.H. 4. Comparative Stimulant And Diuretic Actions Of Caffeine And Thecibromine In Man. They fool the body into thinking that adenosine is circulating.) Aeschbacher. but also in other food. is due to withdrawal to caffeine.R. caffeine act as an adenosine impostor. The Respondents should be aware that coffee tea or cola are not the only caffeinated products.1965) . 3. Instead. And also it might be something of aphrodisiac. A. L. Ther. Recommendation 1. Its effect is the opposite of what adenosine does: caffeine makes one respondent to feel more alert. 11. makes him/her urinate more and stimulate respiration. Exp. (J. the prevailing view is that caffeine is merely one among many factors that influence primary headache. increase gastric secretion. H. frequent use of caffeine should be avoided.N Cheyne-Stokes Respiration And In Pulmonary Emphysema (New Engand J. 1977. 2. For respondent with asthma. 1975) Dorfman. Effect Of Aminophylline On Respiratory Center Sensitivity . The respondent should know that. 869-872. 6. increase intellectual speed. 3. consumption of caffeine-containing beverages should be reduced to avoid ingesting toxic doses of caffeine. Respondent should also know that primary headache such as migraine. widen the air passages in the lungs and eases breathing. Consumers Research. but they produce no depressive effect of their own. 273. Et Al. If OTC stimulant products are used. The only way to deal effectively with fatigue is to rest. Ther. (Clin.1447-1453. This drug can be effective in reducing drowsiness and prompting mental alertness in the mild-to-moderately fatigued person.V. There is no current scientific evidence that demonstrates the occasional use of moderate doses of caffeine (100-200 mg) adversely affects the overall health of most individuals. Masking the fatigue with caffeine only postpones the inevitable and should not be viewed as a solution to the problem. 192. Med. 5. However. Pharm. also caffeine works as bronchodilator. 1970) Dowell. 635-641. Lj And Jarvick.E. if used excessively. BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams. May. The Effect Of Caffeine On Barbiturate Sleeping Time And Brain Level. Pharmacol. M. 7. drinks and medicines that they take.withdrawal is considered a major cause of headache or migraine. In addition.

1969) Goldstein.1. Caffeine Accumulation Associated With Alcoholic Liver Disease (New England J. 10.H. W. B. 341-344. Tax. (Williams And Wilkens Co.1969) Goldstein. P. Et Al.2. 10.Firestone.1976) . 348.1969) Stratland.1972) Gleason. Med. A Fatal Ingestion Of Caffeine (Clin. R. Ther. And Gravey. Psychotropic Effects Of Caffeine In Man 4 (Chn. 10. The Effects Of Caffeine And Methylpheniclate On Hyperactive Children (American Academy Of Child Psychiatry 445. 295.H. Effects Of Acute And Chronic Administration Of Caf Feine On Schedule Dependent And Schedule Induced Behavior (Pharm Acoiogy Biochemistry And Behavior 5. Clinical Tox Of Commercial Products. J. 343.J. Et Al The Interaction Of Caffeine With Pentobarbital As A Nightime Hypnotic (Anesthesiology 36. Et Al. Pharm.1976) Turner. Et Al. Ther.E. 3. Et Al.110-111. Et Al. Baltimore. Psychotropic Effects Of Caffeine In Man 3 (Chn. A. 489. 3rd Ed. Pharm. 477488. 1977) Wayner. A.. 1978) Forrest. 37. M.

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