Tactical Missile Guidance and Control

Notes

. .3. . .1 1. . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 1. . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion .Contents 1 Missile Servos or Actuators 1. . . . . . . .5 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . Electro-Mechanical Servos . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pneumatic Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . Hydraulic Actuators . . . . . . . . .4 1. . Types of actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 6 6 8 8 Hot Gas Servos . . . Recent Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Stored Cold Gas Servos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ram Air Servos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1. .

Chapter 1 Missile Servos or Actuators 1. actuators can be of the following types:(a) Pneumatic (i) Cold Gas (ii) Hot Gas 1 . (c) Low cost.2 Types of actuators Based on the medium or method used. 1. (d) Reliability. (b) Good shelf life. (e) Good dynamic performance.1 Requirements The basic requirements of a servo or actuator used for moving the control surfaces in a missile are as follows:(a) Minimum weight and volume.

(c) Low efficiency. (b) Less number of components required. (d) Low torque. (b) Hot gas servos. (c) Freely available medium. (d) Very good power to volume ratio as well as weight ratio.(b) Ram Air (c) Hydraulic (d) Electro-mechanical 1. 2 . (e) Low stiffness due to compressibility of air. (b) Leakage problems. (e) Slow response. However some of the major limitations of pneumatic actuators are as follows:(a) Storage at high pressures. pneumatic actuators can be of two types namely:(a) Stored cold gas servos. Some of the advantages are of using pneumatic actuators in missiles are as follows:(a) Low cost.3 Pneumatic Actuators Pneumatic actuators are used when the force requirement is moderate/low and the time of operation is short. (e) Self-cooling. Based on the source of air.

Helium or Nitrogen is used as the medium.3. which in turn operates the valve. This in turn results in the movement of the control surface to the desired degree.1 Stored Cold Gas Servos In this type of actuator. The movement of the actuator arm is controlled by the signal given to the solenoid. actuation power is obtained from stored gas.1. 3 . which is released just before the firing of the missile by means of a solenoid operated start valve. to move the actuator arm up or down. A pressure regulator is used to maintain a constant servo supply pressure.

4 Ram Air Servos 4 .1. which in turn is used to operate the piston. Cordite or Isopropyl nitrate is burnt to produce hot gases.3. A relief valve is employed when cordite is used. since its burning rate is high. Used for short time flights only. but highly reliable.2 Hot Gas Servos In this type of pneumatic actuator. 1.

since pressure decreases with height. (d) Altitude of operation of the missile also plays a significant role. below which the performance is poor. 5 . (c) The paddle valve is controlled by a switch motor. which controls the supply of ram air to the vane actuator. (b) The air is supplied to the actuator by a number of pitot intakes positioned around the body and connected to a common manifold. (e) The design is simple and gives advantage of size and weight.5 Mach.The salient features of ram air servos shown in figure above. are as follows:(a) They are used when the missile speed exceeds 1.

The pressure for the oil can be generated by means of a turbine operated by burning cordite or iso-propyl nitrate. during boost phase. They are ideally suited for long operation time. 1. provides high stiffness and good speed of response. where it is expelled into the atmosphere. The hydraulic medium can be ’recirculating’ or ’non-circulating’. Generally used for missiles having ’moving wing’ configuration. Ball-screw arrangement provides higher force and used in the ”flexible nozzles” of TVC. a backup servo is required during the boost phase. Very low torque is available using gear. For flight times less than 20 seconds. an electric motor (DC) is used to generate the motion either through gears or ball screw arrangement. They are also used in thrust vector control (TVC). 1.(e) Since ram system can be used only after certain speeds. which can control small sized control surfaces or seeker motion. 6 .6 Electro-Mechanical Servos In this system.5 Hydraulic Actuators Hydraulic actuators are used when large actuation force is required. to provide higher torques. the DC motor can withstand currents more than its ’rated’ value.

7 . (c) Actuation of one clutch provides positive torque to the final drive. (d) The output end of each clutch spring is attached to the rotating nut of a screw jack.The construction and working principle of the electro-mechanical actuator shown in figure above is as follows:(a) This electro-mechanical servo has two ’contra-rotating’ drums. the capstan acting as the main power amplifier. actuation of the other clutch provides torque in the opposite sense. (b) A spring is wrapped round each drum and is attached to the nut in one end and one member of a clutch at the other. in constant motion from a direct drive from a motor.

8 .(e) The translating screw jack drives the missile fin shaft through a rack and sector gear. (f) When the error is zero. the springs act as brakes. Missiles against stationary or slow moving targets may use electrical servos for their autopilots. locking the output shaft. (g) A mechanical interlock prevents simultaneous operation of both clutches.8 Conclusion Hot or Cold gas servos provide very high performance standards.7 Recent Developments 1. 1. Hydraulic servos are ideally suited for heavier medium range missiles.