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SNKSSS2 Page: 1‐1

1

1 Model Testing

1.1 Drag

When a fluid flows around t he out side of a body, it produces a force t hat t ends t o drag t he body in

t he direct ion of t he flow. The drag act ing on a moving obj ect such as a ship or an aeroplane must be

overcome by t he propulsion syst em. Drag t akes t wo forms, ski n f r i ct i on dr ag and f orm dr ag.

1.1.1 Skin Friction

The frict ional drag is caused by t angent ial st resses due t o t he drag of t he wat er moving parallel t o t he

surface of t he vessel. This occurs on surfaces of hull t hat are long in t he direct ion of flow compared t o

t heir height . Such bodies are called STREAMLI NED. When a fluid flows over a solid surface, t he layer

next t o t he surface may become at t ached t o it wet s t he surface. This is called t he ‘No Sl i p

Condi t i on’. The layers of fluid above t he surface are moving so t here must be shearing t aking place

bet ween t he layers of t he fluid. The shear st ress act ing bet ween t he wall and t he first moving layer

next t o it is called t he wal l shear st ress and denot ed by ¡

w

. I f t he frict ion is negligible, t he flow is

called “ I deal ” .

The result is t hat t he velocit y of t he fluid u increases wit h height y. The boundary layer t hickness δ is

t aken as t he dist ance required for t he velocit y t o reach 99% of u

0

. This layer is called t he BOUNDARY

LAYER and δ is t he boundary layer t hickness. Fig. 1.2 Shows how t he velocit y " u " varies wit h height " y

" for a t ypical boundary layer.

Fig.1.1 Boundary layer t hickness.

I n a pipe, t his is t he only form of drag and it result s in a pressure and energy lost along t he lengt h. A

t hin flat plat e is an example of a st reamlined obj ect . Consider a st ream of fluid flowing wit h a

uniform velocit y u

0

. When t he st ream is int errupt ed by t he plat e as shown Fig. 1.2, t he boundary layer

will form on bot h sides. The diagram shows what happens on one side only.

The boundary layer t hickness δ grows wit h dist ance from t he leading edge. At some dist ance from t he

leading edge, it reaches a const ant t hickness. I t is t hen called a FULLY DEVELOPED BOUNDARY

Nouel Testing

SNKSSS2 Page: 1‐2

2

LAYER.

The Reynolds number for t hese cases is defined as:

R

n

=

pu

0

I

u

(2)

l is t he dist ance from t he leading edge in met er, µ is densit y kgm

-3

, µ is kinemat ic viscosit y (m

2

s

-1

). At

low Reynolds numbers, t he boundary layer may be laminar t hroughout t he ent ire t hickness. At higher

Reynolds numbers, it is t urbulent . This means t hat at some dist ance from t he leading edge t he

flow wit hin t he boundary layer becomes t urbulent . A t urbulent boundary layer is very unst eady and

t he st reamlines do not remain parallel. The boundary layer shape represent s an average of t he velocit y

at any height . There is a region bet ween t he laminar and t urbulent sect ion where t ransit ion t akes place

Fig.1.2 The st ream is int errupt ed by t he plat e.

The t urbulent boundary layer exist s on t op of a t hin laminar layer called t he LAMI NAR SUB LAYER.

The velocit y gradient wit hin t his layer is linear as shown. A deeper analysis would reveal t hat for long

surfaces, t he boundary layer is t urbulent over most of t he lengt h. Many equat ions have been

developed t o describe t he shape of t he laminar and t urbulent boundary layers and t hese may be used

t o est imat e t he skin frict ion drag.

Not e t hat for t his ideal example, it is assumed t hat t he velocit y is t he undist urbed velocit y u

o

everywhere out side t he boundary layer and t hat t here is no accelerat ion and hence no change in t he

st at ic pressure act ing on t he surface. There is hence no drag force due t o pressure changes.

The skin drag is due t o t he wall shear st ress τ

w

and t his act s on t he wet t ed area. The drag force is hence:

R = τ

w

S (3)

The dynamic pressure is t he pressure result ing from t he conversion of t he kinet ic energy of t he st ream

int o pressure and is defined by t he expression:

Nouel Testing

SNKSSS2 Page: 1‐S

S

x

P

dynumìc

=

pu

0

2

2

.

The drag coefficient is calculat ed by drag force divided by dynamic pressure mult iplied by wet t ed are or

defined as

C

]¡ìct

=

R

P

dVncmic

S

=

21

v

pu

0

2

(4)

τ

w

= C

]¡ìctn

pu

0

2

2

(5)

The drag force can be writ t en as

R = C

]¡ìct

pu

0

2

2

s (6)

Not e t hat t his is t he same definit ion for t he pipe frict ion coefficient C

f

and it is in fact t he same

t hing. I t is used in t he Darcy formula t o calculat e t he pressure lost in pipes due t o frict ion. For a

smoot h surface, it can be shown t hat

C

]¡ìct

= u.u74(R

n

)

-1¡5

(7)

Example:

Calculat e t he drag force on each side of a t hin smoot h plat e 2 m long and 1 m wide wit h t he lengt h

parallel t o a flow of fluid moving at 30 m/ s. The densit y of t he fluid is 800 kg/ m

3

and t he dynamic

viscosit y is 0.008.

Solut ion.

R

n

=

pu

0

x

u

=

800 x 30 x 2

0.008

= 6x1u

6

, C

]¡ìctìon

= u.u74(6x1u

6

)

-1¡5

= u.uuS26

Byanmic piessuie =

pu

0

2

2

=

800 x 30

2

2

= S6u kPa.

τ

w

= C

]¡ìctìon

x

pu

0

2

2

= u.uuS26 x S6u kPa = 117S.6 Pa ,

Resist ance

R = τ

w

s = 117S.6 x 2 x 1 = 2S47.2 N

On a small area t he drag is JR = ¡

w

JA. I f t he body is not a t hin plat e and has an area inclined at an

angle 0 t o t he flow direct ion, t he drag force in t he direct ion of flow is ¡

w

JAcos 0

.

The drag force act ing on t he ent ire surface area is found by int egrat ing over t he ent ire area

Nouel Testing

SNKSSS2 Page: 1‐4

4

R = 1¡

w

cos 0 JA ( 8)

Form or pressure drag applies t o bodies t hat are t all in comparison t o t he lengt h in t he direct ion

of flow. Such bodies are called BLUFF BODI ES.

1.1.2 Resistance on a Ship Hull

For bodies near t he free surface, t he Froude number (F

n

) is import ant , due t o wave effect s. Therefore

C

Ð

= C

Ð

(R

n

, F

n

). I n general t he rat io of Froude number and Reynolds number denot ed as

P

n

R

n

=

.gL

3

v

. I t is

impossible t o easily scale bot h R

n

and F

n

. For example

P

n

R

n

= constont and

L

M

L

S

=

1

10

, t hen

g

M

g

µ

= 1uuu. This

makes ship model t est ing seem unfeasible. Froude’s Hypot hesis proves t o be invaluable for model t est ing

calculat e measure indirect ly

C

Ð

(R

n

, F

n

) = C

]

(R

n

) +C

R

(F

n

)

Where, C

]

is for flat plat e residual drag of equivalent wet t ed area and C

R

is residual drag.

I n words, Froude’s Hypot hesis assumes t hat t he drag coefficient consist s of t wo part s, C

]

t hat is a known

funct ion of R

n

, and C

R

, a residual drag t hat depends on F

n

number only and not on Re. Since C

]

(R

n

) ~

C

]

(R

n

)

]Iut pIutc

, we need t o run experiment s t o (indirect ly) get C

R

(F

n

). Thus, for ship model t est ing we

require Froude similit ude t o measure C

R

(F

n

), while C

]

(R

n

) is est imat ed t heoret ically.

1.1.3 Frictional on a Ship

The specific frict ional resist ance coefficient is defined as

C

]¡ìct-shìp

= C

]¡ìct

(1 +k

shìp

) (8)

Where k

shìp

is form fact or of a ship which depends on t he hull design. The basis for Schoenherr’s flat

plat e frict ional drag is given as

1

.

C

]rict

= 4.1S log

10

(R

n

C

]¡ìctìon

) (9)

The Hughes formula is given as

C

]¡ìct

=

0.067

(Iog

10

R

n

-2)

2

(10)

The int ernat ional Towing Tank Conference (I TTC-1957) agreed on t he following formula

C

]¡ìct

=

0.075

(Iog

10

R

n

-2)

2

(11)

Nouel Testing

SNKSSS2 Page: 1‐S

S

Cl ass Exer ci ses

• Please calculat e t he skin frict ion by using Schoenherr’s met hod.

1.1.4 Total Drag

I t has been explained t hat a body usually experiences bot h skin frict ion drag and form drag. The t ot al

0.00000

0.00100

0.00200

0.00300

0.00400

0.00500

0.00600

0.00700

0.00800

0.00900

1

.

0

0

E

+

0

5

1

.

0

0

E

+

0

6

1

.

0

0

E

+

0

7

1

.

0

0

E

+

0

8

1

.

0

0

E

+

0

9

F

r

i

c

t

i

o

n

C

o

e

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

t

Rn

Skin friction as a function of Rn

Hughes

ITTC 57

0.00000

0.00100

0.00200

0.00300

0.00400

0.00500

0.00600

0.00700

0.00800

0.00900

1

.

0

0

E

+

0

5

1

.

0

0

E

+

0

6

1

.

0

0

E

+

0

7

1

.

0

0

E

+

0

8

1

.

0

0

E

+

0

9

F

r

i

c

t

i

o

n

C

o

e

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

t

Rn

Skin friction as a function of Rn

Hughes

ITTC 57

Schoenherr’s

Nouel Testing

SNKSSS2 Page: 1‐6

6

drag is t he sum of bot h. This applies t o aeroplanes and ships as well as bluff obj ect s such as cylinders

and spheres. The drag force on a body is very hard t o predict by purely t heoret ical met hods. Much

of t he dat a about drag forces is based on experiment al dat a and t he concept of a drag coefficient is

widely used. The DRAG COEFFI CI ENT is denot ed C

D

and is defined by t he following expression.

C

Ð

=

2R

pu

0

2

S

(12)

where S is proj ect ed area.

1.1.5 Drag on Sphere

The relat ionship bet ween drag and Reynolds number is roughly t he same as for a cylinder but it is more

predict able. Consider a case when real fluid wit h u

0

velocit y flows past a sphere where d is t he sphere

diamet er, t hen t he Reynolds number is R

n

=

pu

0

d

u

. The proj ect ed area of a sphere is S =

nd

2

4

.

At very small Reynolds numbers (R

n

< u.2) t he flow i s very small or t he fluid is very viscous t hen t he

viscous force are much more predominant t han t he inert ial force. This flow st ays at t ached t o t he sphere

all t he way around and t his is called St okes flow. He found t hat t he t ot al drag is given by

F

Ð

= SnµÐu

0

(13)

St oke argued t hat t wo-t hird of t he force is cont ribut ed by t he skin frict ion F

ÐP

= 2nµÐu

0

and rest is from

pressure difference F

ÐP

= nµÐu

0

. I n t his case, t he expression for t he drag coefficient is as follows

F

Ð

= SnµÐu

0

= C

Ð

pu

0

2

2

S = C

Ð

pu

0

2

8

nJ

2

C

Ð

=

24u

pu

0

d

=

24

R

n

(14)

As t he velocit y increases, t he boundary layer separat es at t he rear st agnat ion point and moves forward.

A t oroidal vort ex is formed. For u.2 < R

n

< S, Oseen made an improvement t o st okes’ solut ion by part ly

t aking int o account t he effect of inert ial t erms. He found t hat

C

Ð

=

24

R

n

|1 +

3

16R

n

| (15)

Nouel Testing

SNKSSS2 Page: 1‐7

7

The breakaway or separat ion point reaches a st able posit ion approximat ely 80

0

from t he front

st agnat ion point and t his happens when R

n

is about 1000. For Suu < R

n

t he flow is called Newt on

flow. The drag coefficient remains const ant at about 0.4. Depending on various fact ors, when R

n

reaches 10

5

or larger, t he boundary layer becomes t ot ally t urbulent and t he separat ion point moves

back again forming a smaller wake and a sudden drop in t he drag coefficient t o about 0.3. There are

t wo empirical formulae in common use

For S < R

n

< 1uuu C

Ð

=

24

R

n

|1 +u.1S R

n

0.687

] (16)

For 1uuu < R

n

< 1u

5

C

Ð

=

24

R

n

+

6

1+.R

n

+u.4 (17)

Fig. 1.12 shows t his approximat e relat ionship bet ween C

Ð

and R

n

.

Fig.1.12 Relat ionship bet ween drag coefficient and Reynolds number.

Exer ci ses

• A st eel sphere of 4 mm diamet er falls in glycerin at t erminal velocit y of 0.04 ms

-1

. Assuming

St okes’ law is applicable, det ermine: dynamic viscosit y of glycerin, drag force, drag co-efficient

for t he sphere. Take specific weight s of st eel and glycerin as 75 kN/ m

3

and 12.5 kN/ m

3

respect ively.

1.1.6 Drag on a Cylinder

The proj ect ed Area is lengt h ( L) and diamet er (D). The drag around long cylinders is more predict able

t han for short cylinders and t he following applies t o long cylinders. Much research has been carried out

int o t he relat ionship bet ween drag and Reynolds R

n

=

pu

0

d

u

and d is t he diamet er of cylinder. At very

small velocit ies, (Re < 0.5) t he fluid st icks t o t he cylinder all t he way round and never separat es from

t he cylinder. This produces a st reamline pat t ern similar t o t hat of an ideal fluid. The drag coefficient is

at it s highest and is mainly due t o skin frict ion. The pressure dist ribut ion shows t hat t he dynamic

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

0

.

1

0

.

2 1 2 3 4 5

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

D

r

a

g

c

o

e

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

t

Rn

Drag coefficient of spheres

Nouel Testing

SNKSSS2 Page: 1‐8

8

pressure is achieved at t he front st agnat ion point and vacuum equal t o t hree dynamic pressures

exist s at t he t op and bot tom where t he velocit y is at it s great est .

As t he velocit y increases t he boundary layer breaks away and eddies are formed behind. The drag

becomes increasingly due t o t he pressure build up at t he front and pressure drop at t he back.

Furt her increases in t he velocit y cause t he eddies t o elongat e and t he drag coefficient becomes nearly

const ant . The pressure dist ribut ion shows t hat ambient pressure exist s at t he rear of t he cylinder.

At a Reynolds number of around 90 t he vort ices break away alt ernat ively from t he t op and bot t om of

Nouel Testing

SNKSSS2 Page: 1‐9

9

t he cylinder producing a vort ex st reet in t he wake. The pressure dist ribut ion shows a vacuum at t he

rear

Up t o a Reynolds number of about 2 x 10

5

, t he drag coefficient is const ant wit h a value of

approximat ely 1. The drag is now almost ent irely due t o pressure. Up t o t his velocit y, t he boundary

layer has remained laminar but at higher velocit ies, flow wit hin t he boundary layer becomes t urbulent .

The point of separat ion moves back producing a narrow wake and a pronounced drop in t he drag

coefficient .

When t he wake cont ains vort ices shed alt ernat ely from t he t op and bot t om, t hey produce

alt ernat ing forces on t he st ruct ure. I f t he st ruct ure resonat es wit h t he frequency of t he vort ex

shedding, it may oscillat e and produce cat ast rophic damage. This is a problem wit h t all chimneys

and suspension bridges. The vort ex shedding may produce audible sound.

1.1.7 Form Drag and Wake

Consider t he case below t hat could for example, be t he pier of a bridge in a river. The wat er speeds

up around t he leading edges and t he boundary layer quickly breaks away from t he surface. Wat er is

sucked in from behind t he pier in t he opposit e direct ion. The t ot al effect is t o produce eddy current s or

whirl pools that are shed in t he wake. There is a built up of posit ive pressure on t he front and a

negat ive pressure at t he back. The pressure force result ing is t he form drag. When t he breakaway or

separat ion point is at t he front corner, t he drag is almost ent irely due t o t his effect but if t he

separat ion point moves along t he side t owards t he back, t hen a boundary layer forms and skin

frict ion drag is also produced. I n realit y, t he drag is always a combinat ion of skin frict ion and form

drag. The degree of each depends upon t he shape of t he body.

Nouel Testing

SNKSSS2 Page: 1‐1u

1u

The next diagram t ypifies what happens when fluid flows around a bluff obj ect . The fluid speeds up

around t he front edge. Remember t hat t he closer t he st reamlines, t he fast er t he velocit y. The line

represent ing t he maximum velocit y is shown, but also remember t hat t his is t he maximum at any point

and t his maximum value also increases as t he st ream lines get closer t oget her.

Two i mpor t ant ef f ect s af f ect t he Drag

Out si de t he boundary l ayer, t he velocit y increases up t o point 2 so t he pressure act ing on t he

surface goes down. The boundary layer t hickness δ get s smaller unt il at point S it is reduced t o zero

and t he flow separat es from t he surface. At point 3, t he pressure is negat ive. Thi s change i n

pr essur e i s r esponsi bl e f or t he f or m dr ag.

I nsi de t he boundary l ayer , t he velocit y is reduced from u

max

t o zero and skin frict ion drag

result s.

Nouel Testing

SNKSSS2 Page: 1‐11

11

I n problems involving liquids wit h a free surface, a negat ive pressure shows up as a drop in level and

t he pressure build up on t he front shows as a rise in level. I f t he obj ect is t ot ally immersed, t he

pressure on t he front rises and a vacuum is formed at t he back. This result s in a pressure force

opposing movement (form drag). The swirling flow forms vor t i ces and t he wake is an area of great

t urbulence behind t he obj ect t hat t akes some dist ance t o set t le down and revert t o t he normal flow

condit ion.

Her e i s an out l i ne of t he mat hemat i cal approach needed t o sol ve t he f orm drag

Form drag is due t o pressure changes only. The drag coefficient due t o pressure only is denot ed

C

Ðp

and defined as drag force divided by dynamic pressure mult iplied by proj ect ed are.

The proj ect ed area is t he area of t he out line of t he shape proj ect ed at right angles t o t he flow. The

pressure act ing at any point on t he surface is p. The force exert ed by t he pressure on a small

surface area isp JA. I f t he surface is inclined at an angle 0 t o t he general direct ion of flow, t he force

is pcos 0 JA. The t ot al force is found by int egrat ing all over t he surface.

R = 1pcos 0 uA ( 18)

The pressure dist ribut ion over t he surface is oft en expressed in t he form of a pressure

coefficient defined as follows.

C

p

=

2(p-p

0

)

pu

0

2

(19)

p

0

is t he st at ic pressure of t he undist urbed fluid, u

o

is t he velocity of t he undist urbed fluid and

pu

0

2

2

is

t he dynamic pressure of t he st ream.

Consider any st reamline t hat is affect ed by t he surface. Applying Bernoulli bet ween an undist urbed

point and anot her point on t he surface, we have t he following.

p -p

0

=

p(u

0

2

-u

2

)

2

(20)

C

p

= 1 -

u

2

u

0

2

(21)

Nouel Testing

SNKSSS2 Page: 1‐12

12

I n order t o calculat e t he drag force, furt her knowledge about t he velocit y dist ribut ion over t he obj ect

would be needed and st udent s are again recommended t o st udy t he classic t ext books on t his subj ect .

The equat ion shows t hat if u< u

o

t hen t he pressure is posit ive and if u> u

o

t he pressure is

negat ive.

1.2 Ship Model Testing

1.2.1.1 Resistance Test

a) I ndent ify operat ional full speed, t hen convert s necessary dat a int o model scale such as I

M

, R

n

,

F

M

.

b) Perform an experiment wit h a smoot h model at R

nM

(R

nM

< R

nS

)) and obt ain t he model drag

C

1M

.

c) Det erminat ion of form fact or, k

M

,

d) Det erminat ion of residual resist ance, C

RM

e) Assumpt ions: k

M

= k

S

and C

RM

= C

RS

f) Est imat ion of roughness allowance

g) Est imat ion of air resist ance

h) Calculat e t he skin frict ion resist ance coefficient of ship C

]S

i) Calculat e t ot al resist ance of coefficient of ship C

1S

1.2.1.2 OpenWater Test

a) Calculat ion t hrust K

1M

= ¡

1

([) and t orque K

0M

= ¡

2

([) of propeller, where [ is t he number of

advance, [ =

v

nÐ

, where Ðis t he propeller diamet er and n is t he rat e of revolut ion.

0.0000

1.0000

2.0000

3.0000

4.0000

5.0000

6.0000

0.1196 0.1294 0.1395 0.1397 0.1397 0.1495

R

e

s

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

(

N

)

Fn

Total Resistance of a model ship

Nouel Testing

SNKSSS2 Page: 1‐1S

1S

b) Assumed change in drag coefficient of t he propeller blade

c) Calculat ion of propeller charact erist ic correct ion

d) Calculat ion of t he full-scale propeller charact erist ics:

1.2.1.3 SelfPropulsion Test

a) Calculat ion of skin frict ion correct ion

b) Self-propulsion t est

c) Thrust (I) and Torque (0) measured during t he self propulsion t est

d) I t is assumed t hat t hrust deduct ion and t he relat ive rot at ive efficiency are t he same for t he model

and ship

e) I t is assumed t he full-scale wake fract ion can be calculat ed from t he model wake.

Caut ion: I n an experiment , t he boundary layer must be in t he same regime (i.e., t urbulent ) as t he

prot ot ype. Therefore t urbulence st imulat or(s) must be added.

0.00

0.10

0.20

0.30

0.40

0.50

0.60

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Nouel Testing

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1.3 UTM Ship Model Testing Tool

At higher Reynolds numbers. A deeper analysis would reveal that for long surfaces. The skin drag is due to the wall shear stress τw and this acts on the wetted area. the boundary layer is turbulent over most of the length. it is turbulent. There is a region between the laminar and turbulent section where transition takes place Fig. The turbulent boundary layer exists on top of a thin laminar layer called the LAMINAR SUB LAYER. it is assumed that the velocity is the undisturbed velocity uo everywhere outside the boundary layer and that there is no acceleration and hence no change in the static pressure acting on the surface. There is hence no drag force due to pressure changes. 2 The Reynolds number for these cases is defined as: (2) is the distance from the leading edge in meter. At low Reynolds numbers. Many equations have been developed to describe the shape of the laminar and turbulent boundary layers and these may be used to estimate the skin friction drag.2 The stream is interrupted by the plate. The drag force is hence: R τ (3) The dynamic pressure is the pressure resulting from the conversion of the kinetic energy of the stream into pressure and is defined by the expression: SMK3352 Page: 1‐2 . This means that at some distance from the leading edge the flow within the boundary layer becomes turbulent. is density kgm-3. is kinematic viscosity (m2s-1).1. the boundary layer may be laminar throughout the entire thickness. The boundary layer shape represents an average of the velocity at any height. Note that for this ideal example.Model Testing LAYER. A turbulent boundary layer is very unsteady and the streamlines do not remain parallel. The velocity gradient within this layer is linear as shown.

The density of the fluid is 800 kg/m3 and the dynamic viscosity is 0.Model Testing . the drag force in the direction of flow is The drag force acting on the entire surface area is found by integrating over the entire area SMK3352 Page: 1‐3 .2 N 0.00326 Dyanmic pressure τ Resistance R τ s 1173. .008. If the body is not a thin plate and has an area inclined at an cos . / 0.074 / (7) Example: Calculate the drag force on each side of a thin smooth plate 2 m long and 1 m wide with the length parallel to a flow of fluid moving at 30 m/s. 6 10 . The drag coefficient is calculated by drag force divided by dynamic pressure multiplied by wetted are or defined as R 3 (4) (5) τ The drag force can be written as R s (6) Note that this is the same definition for the pipe friction coefficient Cf and it is in fact the same thing. it can be shown that x 0. angle to the flow direction. 0.6 x 2 x 1 2347. 1173.6 Pa . For a smooth surface. It is used in the Darcy formula to calculate the pressure lost in pipes due to friction.00326 360 kPa On a small area the drag is .074 6 10 360 kPa. Solution.

is for flat plate residual drag of equivalent wetted area and is residual drag. while is estimated theoretically. For example For bodies near the free surface. due to wave effects. . that is a known function of .Model Testing cos (8) 4 Form or pressure drag applies to bodies that are tall in comparison to the length in the direction of flow.13 log The Hughes formula is given as . Thus. we need to run experiments to (indirectly) get require Froude similitude to measure .3 Frictional on a Ship 1 (8) The specific frictional resistance coefficient is defined as Where is form factor of a ship which depends on the hull design. Therefore . Such bodies are called BLUFF BODIES. the Froude number impossible to easily scale both makes ship model testing seem unfeasible. 1. In general the ratio of Froude number and Reynolds number denoted as and . (11) SMK3352 Page: 1‐4 . It is 1000. The basis for Schoenherr’s flat plate frictional drag is given as 4.2 Resistance on a Ship Hull is important.1.1. a residual drag that depends on number only and not on Re. for ship model testing we . Froude’s Hypothesis proves to be invaluable for model testing calculate measure indirectly . 1. (9) (10) The international Towing Tank Conference (ITTC-1957) agreed on the following formula . Since . then . This and . and . In words. Where. Froude’s Hypothesis assumes that the drag coefficient consists of two parts.

00E+08 1.00E+08 1.00100 0.00E+06 1.00800 Friction Coefficient 5 0.00E+05 1.00800 Friction Coefficient 0.00E+09 Hughes ITTC 57 Schoenherr’s Rn 1.4 Total Drag It has been explained that a body usually experiences both skin friction drag and form drag.00300 0.00E+06 1.00400 0.00600 0.00900 0.00300 0.00100 0.Model Testing Skin friction as a function of Rn 0.00500 0.00200 0.00E+07 1.1.00500 0.00000 1.00700 0.00200 0.00900 0.00E+07 1.00E+09 Hughes ITTC 57 Rn Class Exercises • Please calculate the skin friction by using Schoenherr’s method.00400 0.00000 1.00E+05 1. Skin friction as a function of Rn 0.00700 0. The total SMK3352 Page: 1‐5 .00600 0.

He found that the total drag is given by 3 (13) Stoke argued that two-third of the force is contributed by the skin friction 2 and rest is from . In this case.Model Testing drag is the sum of both. 6 (12) where S is projected area. A toroidal vortex is formed. then the Reynolds number is .2 5.5 Drag on Sphere The relationship between drag and Reynolds number is roughly the same as for a cylinder but it is more predictable. The drag force on a body is very hard to predict by purely theoretical methods. the boundary layer separates at the rear stagnation point and moves forward. This applies to aeroplanes and ships as well as bluff objects such as cylinders and spheres. 1. The projected area of a sphere is . For 0. Oseen made an improvement to stokes’ solution by partly taking into account the effect of inertial terms. He found that 1 (15) SMK3352 Page: 1‐6 . This flow stays attached to the sphere all the way around and this is called Stokes flow. Consider a case when real fluid with velocity flows past a sphere where d is the sphere diameter.2) the flow is very small or the fluid is very viscous then the At very small Reynolds numbers ( viscous force are much more predominant than the inertial force.1. The DRAG COEFFICIENT is denoted CD and is defined by the following expression. Much of the data about drag forces is based on experimental data and the concept of a drag coefficient is widely used. 0. the expression for the drag coefficient is as follows pressure difference 3 (14) As the velocity increases.

2 5 Rn Fig. drag co-efficient for the sphere. (Re < 0. drag force. the boundary layer becomes totally turbulent and the separation point moves back again forming a smaller wake and a sudden drop in the drag coefficient to about 0.12 shows this approximate relationship between Drag coefficient of spheres 300 250 Drag coefficient 200 150 100 50 0 100000 1000 10 10000 100 1 2 3 4 0.5) the fluid sticks to the cylinder all the way round and never separates from the cylinder. when reaches 105 or larger. 1.1. Assuming Stokes’ law is applicable. Much research has been carried out into the relationship between drag and Reynolds and d is the diameter of cylinder. The drag coefficient is at its highest and is mainly due to skin friction.4.04 ms-1. The drag around long cylinders is more predictable than for short cylinders and the following applies to long cylinders.1.5 kN/m3 respectively. Exercises • A steel sphere of 4 mm diameter falls in glycerin at terminal velocity of 0. This produces a streamline pattern similar to that of an ideal fluid. determine: dynamic viscosity of glycerin. The drag coefficient remains constant at about 0. Depending on various factors.1 0.12 Relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number.6 Drag on a Cylinder The projected Area is length (L) and diameter (D). Take specific weights of steel and glycerin as 75 kN/m3 and 12. For 500 the flow is called Newton flow. There are two empirical formulae in common use For 5 For 1000 1000 10 1 0. (17) Fig.15 .4 and .Model Testing The breakaway or separation point reaches a stable position approximately 800 from the front stagnation point and this happens when is about 1000. 1. 7 (16) 0. At very small velocities. The pressure distribution shows that the dynamic SMK3352 Page: 1‐7 .3.

At a Reynolds number of around 90 the vortices break away alternatively from the top and bottom of SMK3352 Page: 1‐8 . The pressure distribution shows that ambient pressure exists at the rear of the cylinder. 8 As the velocity increases the boundary layer breaks away and eddies are formed behind. Further increases in the velocity cause the eddies to elongate and the drag coefficient becomes nearly constant.Model Testing pressure is achieved at the front stagnation point and vacuum equal to three dynamic pressures exists at the top and bottom where the velocity is at its greatest. The drag becomes increasingly due to the pressure build up at the front and pressure drop at the back.

The degree of each depends upon the shape of the body. The drag is now almost entirely due to pressure. the boundary layer has remained laminar but at higher velocities. it may oscillate and produce catastrophic damage. be the pier of a bridge in a river.7 Form Drag and Wake Consider the case below that could for example. The pressure force resulting is the form drag. then a boundary layer forms and skin friction drag is also produced. This is a problem with tall chimneys and suspension bridges. The vortex shedding may produce audible sound. SMK3352 Page: 1‐9 . The total effect is to produce eddy currents or whirl pools that are shed in the wake.1. the drag is almost entirely due to this effect but if the separation point moves along the side towards the back.Model Testing the cylinder producing a vortex street in the wake. The point of separation moves back producing a narrow wake and a pronounced drop in the drag coefficient. the drag is always a combination of skin friction and form drag. In reality. they produce alternating forces on the structure. If the structure resonates with the frequency of the vortex shedding. When the wake contains vortices shed alternately from the top and bottom. When the breakaway or separation point is at the front corner. The water speeds up around the leading edges and the boundary layer quickly breaks away from the surface. 1. There is a built up of positive pressure on the front and a negative pressure at the back. Up to this velocity. flow within the boundary layer becomes turbulent. The pressure distribution shows a vacuum at the rear 9 Up to a Reynolds number of about 2 x 105. the drag coefficient is constant with a value of approximately 1. Water is sucked in from behind the pier in the opposite direction.

The boundary layer thickness δ gets smaller until at point S it is reduced to zero and the flow separates from the surface. the velocity is reduced from umax to zero and skin friction drag results. The fluid speeds up around the front edge. the faster the velocity. the velocity increases up to point 2 so the pressure acting on the surface goes down. Inside the boundary layer. Remember that the closer the streamlines. The line representing the maximum velocity is shown. At point 3.Model Testing 10 The next diagram typifies what happens when fluid flows around a bluff object. SMK3352 Page: 1‐10 . This change in pressure is responsible for the form drag. but also remember that this is the maximum at any point and this maximum value also increases as the stream lines get closer together. the pressure is negative. Two important effects affect the Drag Outside the boundary layer.

Applying Bernoulli between an undisturbed point and another point on the surface. The projected area is the area of the outline of the shape projected at right angles to the flow. If the object is totally immersed. The drag coefficient due to pressure only is denoted and defined as drag force divided by dynamic pressure multiplied by projected are. (19) p is the static pressure of the undisturbed fluid. the pressure on the front rises and a vacuum is formed at the back. The total force is found by integrating all over the surface. 1 (20) (21) is SMK3352 Page: 1‐11 . the force is p cos . The pressure acting at any point on the surface is p. Here is an outline of the mathematical approach needed to solve the form drag Form drag is due to pressure changes only. uo is the velocity of the undisturbed fluid and the dynamic pressure of the stream. This results in a pressure force opposing movement (form drag). R p cos dA (18) The pressure distribution over the surface is often expressed in the form of a pressure coefficient defined as follows.Model Testing 11 In problems involving liquids with a free surface. a negative pressure shows up as a drop in level and the pressure build up on the front shows as a rise in level. we have the following. The force exerted by the pressure on a small surface area isp . If the surface is inclined at an angle to the general direction of flow. The swirling flow forms vortices and the wake is an area of great turbulence behind the object that takes some distance to settle down and revert to the normal flow condition. Consider any streamline that is affected by the surface.

1495 c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Determination of form factor. The equation shows that if u<uo then the pressure is positive and if u>uo the pressure is negative. Determination of residual resistance.Model Testing In order to calculate the drag force. and Assumptions: Estimation of roughness allowance Estimation of air resistance Calculate the skin friction resistance coefficient of ship Calculate total resistance of coefficient of ship and torque is the propeller diameter and of propeller. 12 1. where is the number of 1.0000 5.1 Resistance Test a) Indentify operational full speed.1397 0. ) and obtain the model drag b) Perform an experiment with a smooth model at .0000 Resistance (N) 4.0000 0.0000 0. further knowledge about the velocity distribution over the object would be needed and students are again recommended to study the classic textbooks on this subject.2 Ship Model Testing 1.0000 3. where is the rate of revolution. SMK3352 Page: 1‐12 .1. . .1294 0.1196 0.2.2.1395 Fn 0.0000 1. .1397 0. .0000 2.1. then converts necessary data into model scale such as .2 OpenWater Test a) Calculation thrust advance. Total Resistance of a model ship 6.

30 0. SMK3352 Page: 1‐13 .2. a) b) c) d) Caution: In an experiment.3 SelfPropulsion Test Calculation of skin friction correction Self-propulsion test Thrust ( ) and Torque ( ) measured during the self propulsion test It is assumed that thrust deduction and the relative rotative efficiency are the same for the model and ship e) It is assumed the full-scale wake fraction can be calculated from the model wake.10Kq.3000 0.5000 0.e.60 0.00 0.Model Testing 13 0.4000 J 0.50 0..40 Kt.8000 b) Assumed change in drag coefficient of the propeller blade c) Calculation of propeller characteristic correction d) Calculation of the full-scale propeller characteristics: 1.7000 0.1000 0.20 0. Eta 0.1. the boundary layer must be in the same regime (i.6000 0.2000 0. turbulent) as the prototype. Therefore turbulence stimulator(s) must be added.10 0.0000 0.

Model Testing 14 1.3 UTM Ship Model Testing Tool SMK3352 Page: 1‐14 .

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