04/11/2007 20:54:00

1) Why is America sometimes called the “Democratic Paradise”? • • • • • • • Because we have more elections than other countries. 1) to give legitimacy to the government 2) to legitimize change A mandate (the conditions for a mandate do NOT generally exist) Retrospectively Primary & general In a presidential primary, for example, the 2 parties will pick a candidate to represent their party in the general election 7) Describe/define a general election? • In a general election, voters will decide which candidate will actually fill the elective public office 8) Name 2 kinds of primaries? • • Closed primary, open primary A primary in which only a party’s registered voters are eligible to vote. 9) Describe/define closed primary? 10) Describe/define open primary? 2) What is the purpose of popular elections?

3) What is called a command for the elected officials to carry out their platforms? 4) Do most people vote prospectively or retrospectively? 5) Name two BASIC kinds of elections? 6) Describe/define a primary election?

Where members of other parties & independents participate & vote.

11) What do you call an organized attempt by voters of one party to influence the primary results of the other party? • • Raiding Initiative, referendum, and recall 12) Name 3 other types of elections? 13) An election that allows citizens to propose legislation & submit it to the state electorate for popular vote is called what? • Initiative 14) An election whereby the state legislature submits proposed legislation to the state’s voters for approval is called what? • Referendum 15) An election in which voters can remove an incumbent from office by popular vote is called what? • • • • A recall 1) It doesn’t emphasize policies 2) The scheduling of primaries affects who wins 3) The media are too important 16) Critics of the presidential primary argue that-what 3 things?

17) When a presidential candidate puts a lot of resources at the beginning of a primary, what do we call it? • • • Front-loading The horse-race aspect 1) Usually wealthy 18) Primaries favor the horse-race aspect or substance? 19) Party delegates have what 3 characteristics?

• • them? • • for? •

2) Highly educated 3) More ideologically extreme

20) At the party’s National Convention, do they pick a candidate or just ratify Ratify Unlikely; also, states would not divide their votes, most likely.

21) The abolishment of the electoral college; is it likely or unlikely? 22) Strong challenges face an uphill battle against incumbents . What do they look They look for scandal; they look for a member of Congress to make a mistake; they look for redistricting, and they look for someone to retire. 23) What is gerrymandering? • • • • • • election? Questionable political redistricting Tom Delay 40% Older people, higher income, more education Registration rules Alienation/attitude (towards politics) 24) Who was accused of gerrymandering? 25) What percentage of eligible voters vote regularly? 26) In general, voter turnout is higher among who? 27) What is the most important structural reason why people don’t vote? 28) What is the most important non-structural reason why people don’t vote? 29) What is voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same

• • •

Ticket-splitting Candidates become too extreme There are 5 (nomination campaign, general election campaign, personal campaign, organizational campaign, media campaign)

30) What is one of the dangers of the nominating campaign? 31) When running for high office, how many actual campaigns are there?

32) Who is the head of a political party? • Campaign manager/consultant 33) What is another name for political consultants? Spin doctor 34) Critics of political consultants claim that the rise of “spin doctors” has stripped campaigns of what? • • • • • • • Of substance; have turned campaigns into a bag of tricks If someone goes negative on you, go negative back Paid media The free media 1) Their obsession with the horserace aspect of the campaign 2) They encourage scandal & negativity 3) Modern campaigns discourage substance 35) What is the law of going negative? 36) The most controllable aspect of the campaign is the what? 37) What is the most trusted aspect of the campaign? 38) The problems with media coverage of a campaign are what?

39) In order to manipulate press coverage a “spin doctor” will what?

• • • •

1) Isolate the candidate from the press 2) Stage media events 3) Put a positive spin on whatever the candidates do YES! Because they can alter a sizable minority, which is what usually wins the election or loses, illustrated by the 2000 debates-Bush v. Gore

40) Do debates matter?

41) Who was the first president to use technology? • • • • FDR (radio) Kennedy (TV) Internet We don’t want anyone or group to buy off the system. 42) Who was the first modern president to use technology? 43) Howard Dean used what technology to reach voters? 44) Why do we want to regulate the flow of money in politics? 45) Political money is regulated by the federal government according to what first big law for finance reform? • The Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1974 46) PAC money is given primarily to incumbents in an officially recognized, federally mandated, fund-raising committee for an interest group called what? • A political action committee (PAC) 47) The basic truth about PACs is that a very small number of PACs conduct the bulk of PAC activity & have a what kind of influence on the process? • • Disproportionate No, the buy access 48) Do PACs directly buy votes?

49) Many believe that 2002 Campaign Finance Reform-McCain/Feingold or BCRA (Bi-partisan Campaign Reform Act) will: a) Restrict free speech? b) Will help incumbents? c) Will weaken political parties? Answer: YES!! 50) Why do incumbents hate soft money? • • Because it’s usually attacking them. 1690 51) The first newspapers published in America was when? 52) A form of newspaper publishing during the early 20th century, concerned with reforming government & business was called what? • • • • • • • • Muckraking Yellow journalism Print media & electronic media A little bit of both 83% Affiliates The President Negative 53) What form of journalism came first-yellow journalism or muckraking? 54) The media consists of what? 55) The internet is which type of media-print or electronic? 56) What percentage of people get their information from TV? 57) Local TV stations that carry the programming of a national network are called? 58) Which branch of government is No.1 in terms of media coverage? 59) Media coverage of Congress is overwhelmingly what?

60) What do we call it when a President appeals directly to the American people? • Going public 61) What event had the most profound impact of any modern event on the manner and substance of the press’s conduct? • Watergate Scandal of 1972 62) So recent press attention to private activities & personalities of candidates is called what? • Character issue 63) A factor that permits the modern press to undertake character investigation is a ruling by the Supreme Court; that public officials would have to prove “actual malice” to win a libel suit. What was that case called? • • • New York Times Co. V. Sullivan (1964) Airwaves are considered public property Organized groups that try to influence public policy. 64) TV & radio is regulated by the Federal government because why? 65) What is an interest group? 66) In Bowling Alone, Putnam argues that fewer people are joining groups. True or False? • TRUE! 1)They fill voids left by traditional political parties. 2) The give Americans another opportunity to being their claims to government 3) They make the policy process more representatives 4) They are protected by the 1st Amendment 68) David Truman’s theory explaining why interest groups formed is called what? • • Disturbance theory 1) Public interest groups, 2) economic interest groups 3)governmental interest groups, 4) political action committees 5)multi-issue groups, 6) single-issue groups 69) What are the 6 types of interest groups? 67) What do special interest groups do?

70) Common cause environmental groups are what kind of interest group? • A public interest group-they provide something that benefits everyone. 71) A PAC is a political arm of a business, a trade association, or a professional groups. True or False? • TRUE!! 72) The Christian Coalition, NOW (National Organization for Women) are what kind of interest groups? • • • • Multi-issue groups Single-issue group AARP (American Association of Retired People) They increase the cost of public policies, they advance selfish interests, they ignore the rights of other groups. 76) The 1960’s & 1970’s were characterized by the rise of what? • Public Interest Groups 77) In the 1970’s, 1980’s & 1990’s, there was a backlash against the public interest groups of the 1960’s? True or False? • • TRUE!!! Big Business Interest groups 78) What interest group is dominating the system now? 79) What recent politician was interested in shrinking the size of government and the influence of interest groups? • Al Gore 80) Many of the most effective lobbyists are: former members of Congress, former Congressional staffers or former members of the executive branch or former employees of the federal bureaucracy. True or False? 73) The NRA (National Rifle Association) is what kind of special interest group? 74) What is the most powerful interest group in the country? 75) What is the downside to interest groups?


81) An especially strong link exists between interest groups & regulatory agencies like the EPA. Why? • Interest groups want to influence policy; EPA is an executive agency. 82) Interest groups lobby the court by sponsoring losses & filing briefs. These briefs are called what? • Amicus curiae (friend of the court) 83) A federally registered fund-raising committee that represents an interest groups in the political process and are a little different than regular interest groups is called what? • PACs (they don’t formally have members) (they don’t get tax breaks, either) 84) Several factors contribute to the success of an interest groups. What are the factors? • • Leaders, Patrons/Funding, members Someone who benefits from an interest group without joining or contributing 85) What is a free-rider?

04/11/2007 20:54:00

04/11/2007 20:54:00

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