International Journal of Coal Geology, 23 ( 1993 ) 159-191

Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., A m s t e r d a m


Coal resources of the Sonda coal field, Sindh Province, Pakistan

Roger E. Thomas a, Mohammad Riaz Khan b and Shafique Ahmed

Khan b

au.s. Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Geology, National Center, MS956, Reston, VA 22092, USA bGeological Survey of Pakistan, Karachi, Pakistan
(Received April l 0, 1990; revised version accepted November l l, 1992 )

ABSTRACT Approximately 4.7 billion t of original coal resources, ranging from lignite A to subbituminous C in rank, are estimated to be present in the Sonda coal field. These resources occur in 10 coal zones in the Bara Formation of Paleocene age. The Bara Formation does not out crop in the area covered by this report. Thin discontinuous coal beds also occur in the Sonhari Member of the Laki Formation, of Paleocene and Eocene age, but they are unimportant as a resource of the Sonda coal field. The coal resource assessment was based on 56 exploratory drill holes that were completed in the Sonda field between April 1986 and February 1988. The Sonda coal field is split into two, roughly equal, areas by the southwestward flowing Indus River, a major barrier to the logistics of communications between the two halves. As a result the two halves, called the Sonda East and Sonda West areas, were evaluated at different times by slightly different techniques; but, because the geology is consistent between the two areas, the results of both evaluations have been summarized in this report. The resource estimates for the Sonda East area, approximately 1,700 million t, were based on the thickest coal bed in each zone at each drill hole. This method gives a conservative estimate of the total amount of coal in the Sonda East area. The resource estimates for the Sonda West area, approximately 3,000 million t, were based on cumulative coal bed thicknesses within each coal zone, resulting in a more liberal estimate. In both cases, minimum parameters for qualifying coal were a thickness of 30 cm or greater and no more than 50% ash; partings thicker than 1 cm were excluded. The three most important coal zones in the Sonda field are the Inayatabad, the Middle Sonda and the Lower Sonda. Together, these three coal zones contain 50% of the total resources. Isopachs were constructed for the thickest coal beds in these three coal zones and indicate large variations in thickness over relatively small distances. Coal beds in the Sonda coal field were difficult to correlate because of poor core recovery in some intervals and abrupt lateral thinning and thickening. Most coal zones are separated by 5-10 m of interburden, although in some places the interburden between zones is over 100 m thick. More closely spaced drill holes should clarify and significantly improve coal zone correlations in the Bara Formation. Coal resources in the Sonda coal field were calculated for three reliability categories; measured, indicated, and inferred. The most reliable estimates are those for the measured category. Measured coal resources are approximately 91 million t, or about 2% of the total resource; indicated resources are 681 million t, or about 14% of the total; and inferred resources, the least reliable resource category, are 3,931 million t, or 84% of the total resources. The distribution of resources by reliability category is due to the relatively wide spacing (approximately 5 km) between core holes.




Analysesof 90 coal samples, on an as-receivedbasis, indicate average ash and sulfur contents of 13.7%and 3.6%, respectively,and a range in rank from ligniteA to subbituminousC. Calorificvalues for these samples range from 6,000 to 8,000 Btu/lb ( 1 Btu= 1055J; 1 Ib=0.4536 kg).


The Sonda coal field (Fig. 1 ) lies between 24 ° 44' and 25 ° 15' N latitude and 67 ° 50' and 68 ° 32' E longitude and covers approximately 1,583 k m 2. The coal field is divided into two parts by the Indus River. The part of the Sonda field east of the Indus River, is hereafter called the Sonda East area (Fig. 2 ); it covers about 616 km 2. The part of the coal field west of the Indus River (Fig. 2 ), hereafter called the Sonda West area, includes an area of about 984 km:. The area defined as the Sonda East area o f the Sonda coal field had previously been identified by the Geological Survey of Pakistan ( G S P ) and the U.S. Geological Survey ( U S G S ) ( 19 88 ), as part of the Indus East coal occur-




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khra coal field

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Fig. 1. General location of the study area (Sonda coal field) in Sindh Province, Pakistan.
















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Fig. 2. Location of drill holes in the Sonda coal field.

rence area; however, subsequent exploratory drilling in the western part of this area (Fig. 2 ), reported by Landis et al. ( 1988 ) and Thomas et al. ( 1990b ), has shown that the stratigraphy and coal deposits o f this area are contiguous with those on the west side of the Indus River and should, therefore, be included as part o f the Sonda coal field. The area referred to as the Sonda West

respectively. and the village of Tando Muhammad Khan serve as the west and east boundaries. 1988. 79 coal exploration holes have been drilled by the Government and private investigators. 2 ) are based on the results of drilling and are somewhat arbitrary. north of Lake Kalri. south of Hyderabad. 1 ) and the recently discovered. 1986) and the USGS (SanFilipo et al.. The USGS responsibilities in Sonda included: planning an exploration program.. The Sonda West area currently extends from Baran Nadi in the north to Thatta in the south. 75 m high Takkar bluffs (Thomas et al. At present. Fig. Based on recommendations made by Ahmed et al.b). which generally follows the Indus River. and other agency reports that the Lakhra coal field (Fig... 2 ) and . Fig. Since then. Background Coal was discovered in the Sonda coal field in 1981 by the Geological Survey of Pakistan. Boundaries for the Sonda East and Sonda West areas (Fig. and Thomas et al. monitoring compliance with drilling and logging contracts. and planning and guiding the preparation of progress and final reports on the results of COALREAP. 1984a. Between 1981 and 1986. a coal resource exploration and appraisal program (COALREAP) was initiated in 1985 by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of Pakistan (GOP) to explore further the currently operating Lakhra coal field. The boundary between the Hyderabad and Thatta Districts. and the railroad between Jhimpir and Baran Nadi (Fig. 1988c). and is currently an ongoing program. 1988b). The Sonda West area has been reported on extensively by the GSP (Ahmed et al. (1984a) until the area east of the Indus River was explored. (1984a. 1 ) might extend south into the Sonda and Thatta areas. Coal Resource Assessment Component. 1984b. It is bounded on the east by the Hyderabad-Thatta District boundary and extends westward to the village of Jhimpir. 2). training GSP geologists in coal exploration and resource estimation. Now the GSP (Kazmi et al. the GSP drilled 20 coal exploration holes (D series. THOMAS ET AL. Seventeen COALREAP exploratory holes were drilled in the Sonda area (Sonda West) during parts of 1986 and 1987 (JP. 2) had been identified as the Sonda coal field by GSP (Ahmed et al. area (Fig. but not mined. northwest of Hyderabad (Fig.. 2) in the Sonda area. in Pakistan.162 R. S and T series.E. the Sonda East area extends a few kilometers beyond Chhari Dhand in the south. and the northern boundary is marked by the extensive. immediately south of Hyderabad. COALREAP is part of USAID'S Energy Planning and Development Project. Sonda coal field. 1990) has expanded the Sonda coal field to include the Sonda East area. This report presents a synthesis of current work in the region.

S. most of the sixteen drill holes in the Sonda East area had to be located along the roads paralleling the canals. 2). to increase the relative a m o u n t of the resource classified as measured) and provide more detail to support eventual decisions as to the development of the resource.. with support from USAID and USGS. (1988).COAL RESOURCES OF THE SONDA COAL FIELD 163 sixteen were drilled in the Indus East area (Sonda East) between 1987 and 1988 (K series. Fig. (1988b). causing drill sites to be changed from planned locations. 2 ) was conducted by GSP during 1988 and early 1989. Drilling of the K. and T holes and the JP hole was carried out by the Indus Valley Construction Company. road conditions frequently deteriorated towards the Indus River. partly because the new information was not expected to make a material difference in the overall resource quantity. SanFilipo et al. and Thomas et al.e. details of lithologies. 2 ). (1988). However. They also made lithologic descriptions of cores and cuttings recovered and assisted in locating additional drill sites based on the available stratigraphic data. with few canals and little farming. All drill holes were surveyed and recorded by GSP surveyors. The new information from this twenty-hole program was not included in the coal-resource assessment of the Sonda West area reported here. Pakistan. The COALREAPprogram significantly increased knowledge of the areal extent of the coal-bearing rocks in Sindh Province and showed that coal beds are not confined to the Lakhra coal field but are present far to the south. 2 ). in-fill drilling program in the area around Jherruck. in the Sonda West area (Fig. Most drill sites were accessible from the National Highway (Fig. except in the north. It is relatively fiat. under the supervision of a repre- . Drilling logistics were significantly less complicated in the Sonda West area. about 8 km north of the town of Jherruck. isosulfur and isoash maps of selected beds to illustrate the general characteristics of the coal deposits of the Sonda coal field. Geophysical logs were run by the GSP. This drilling program (J-series holes. but mainly to provide a refinem e n t in the reliability of the estimate (i. and is occupied by numerous shallow lakes. Specific locations. the program in the Sonda West area was expanded to include a twenty-hole. locally becoming relatively thick. Ltd. With the discovery of a 6. (IVCC). the new information has been used in this report to prepare cross sections and coal-bed isopach. however.3 m thick coal bed in core hole S-4. Fig. under contract to USAID. Therefore. of Lahore. The area east of the Indus River is fiat. stratigraphic thicknesses and depths and copies of geophysical logs can be found in Landis et al. Extensive irrigation canals and sugar cane farms complicate the logistics of access and the locating of drill sites. Procedures Daily recording of the drilling progress and recovery of coal samples for analysis were performed by GSP geologists who lived at the drill site.

o~~o~ 4PI DENSITY LOG 500 cps/inch /not coa' ~}slight wash-out E~o wash-out 3-ARM CALIPER LOG 2K range Sandstone Claystone Siltstone U Coal no scale Fig. . . T H O M A S ET AL Drill hole ~ not coal . . . . . 3. Comparison of the geophysical and lithologic logs to interpret coal beds.--. .E.-.-~not coal coal -out -out coal no wash-out not coal ~wash-out in top of the sandstone coal .164 R.

is highly probable and is under current investigation. caving of loose sandstone prevented open-hole logging. the Sonda coal field. siltstone. a US-based firm under contract to USAID.. The sandstone is medium light gray to white. There is coal in the Sonhari Member of the Laki Formation but it is in thin and discontinuous beds and will not be further discussed in this report. Except for a few foraminifera. COAL GEOLOGY Stratigraphy The study area. Both logs were used in conjunction with lithologic logs to create composite logs. especially in the Sonda West area. Our investigations of the Bara Formation were confined to the upper 350 m because of the practical limits of current coal mining procedures. The vast majority of the coal is located in the Bara Formation. The caliper log was used to interpret whether the trace on the log reflected a coal bed or a "washout". lies in the Indus River Basin. it is coarse grained and well to poorly sorted. The thick-bedded to massive sandstones commonly contain crossbeds and flaser beds. Density. wash-outs and other low-density intervals. The coal-bearing rocks are in the Paleocene Bara Formation and in the Paleocene and Eocene Sonhari (Sohnari ) Member of the Laki Formation (Fig. A sharp spike on the density log is produced by coal beds. even at depths of 350 m. In most holes. with light greenish gray shades. Inc. A marine origin for these sandstone beds. 4-6) was named at the type section at Bara Dohoro in the Laki Range (Cheema et al. or 4 PI gamma-gamma. Density and caliper logs were used extensively for determining coal bed intercepts and coal bed thicknesses. which is covered by thick deposits of sand and silt. Flushing the caved sediment out of the hole allowed for some open-hole logging. Geophysical probes were usually run through the drill stem a n d / o r casing. The Barn Formation is the oldest stratigraphic unit that was penetrated by drilling during COALREAP. Comparing all three logs facilitiated interpretations (Fig. 4).. Coaly films are scattered throughout the cores of the sandstone and in many places these films grade to carbonaceous claystone beds. claystone and coal. 3 ).COAL RESOURCES OF THE SONDA COAL FIELD 16 5 sentative from Geoscience. The Bara Formation consists of beds of sandstone. Coring . Much of the sandstone is unconsolidated. but this proved risky and was seldom tried. Five different types of geophysical logs were available to be run per drill hole. 1977). logs were used to measure the rock density. the sandstone is largely unfossiliferous in the study area. Bara Formation The Bara Formation (Figs. which occur in ten identified coal zones. depending upon hole conditions.

. i ' i ' i It ~ < oo . - Orr N 0 it < i-.-..~}i'~\'.U~ U~ >CC Z o u.'o W I--- . C ~ i I i I i I i ~--. THOMAS ET AL.!...]~. . ..-.E.. .. .._.--~... ..:...#-.~ u n c o n f o r m i t y Inayatabad M i d d l e Sonda L o w e r $onda Fig..U p p e r W a S S l W" W a s s i LSYLower Stray . 4.u < ~ Coal with underclay ~ Siltstone ~!-~ ---.4 :'-!'7i%-:'3:-37÷~:..'.7_ ~---~.&-:_-__-~ _~ ~ . ~ ~-.. .. ..'" Z._E ~00 (. ~ . .~--~-.'. .. .7~ Claystone/Shale Sandstone W 0 0 W ..)z .~F.0 ":.166 R._-:_~:~:~:~ :~±-_~_-__-" = = _~-~7 :L~-'~'_'. ....~...:-'::.mestoe UA :~.IN ~ n o I-- ~ >.:. r-.-(4~ Explanation N .=. . Generalized stratigraphic column of the Sonda coal field showing the coal-bearing rocks in the Bara and Laki Formations.:177~7:!!i" ? ~ i!)~ .: .':~: Claystone.'. '. ~ ~l _z ~.---.-s_ 0 >_ : -.~-~-~:_ ~ .. . sandy ~ ~ Alluvium pebbles COAL USY~MSUpper ZONES Stray with LSLIW..-r~....:%'-.-~' w .e w < cc ~/~ :______= n- w j.3-'::._ . .. u~ ..

Abrupt.COAL RESOURCES OF THE SONDA COAL FIELD 167 these sands is difficult because they tend to be washed away during drilling. Within each coal zone are scattered beds of siltstone claystone. The thickest coal bed in the Sonda West area (6. Individual coal zones range in depth from 65 m (Sonhari coal zone ) to 350 m (Lower Stray coal zone) from the surface. as shown in the Middle Sonda coal zone in drill hole K. 2 and 5 ). suggesting that the sediment has a high organic content. regardless of depth. however. Small broken fossil pelecypod a n d / o r gastropod shells occur in the beds of siltstone but are rarely preserved in the claystone beds. Distinguishing between coal zones in the Bara Formation becomes increasingly difficult as individual coal . Coal beds interbedded with the loose sandstone were rarely recovered and that led to difficulties in making correlations. 5). They are found at an average depth of 230 m and range from a few centimeters to 15 m thick.33 m ) was penetrated in the Middle Sonda coal zone by drill hole S-4 (Figs. 6 ). 4-6). Both the siltstone and claystone are consolidated at most places. The interburden between coal zones also varies greatly in thickness. The interburden averages between 5 and 12 m of rock from coal zone to coal zone and reaches a m a x i m u m thickness of 105 m in drill hole T-4 (Fig. but the average is two coal beds per zone. the thickest coal bed in the Sonda East area (2. 2 and 6 ). also in the Middle Sonda coal zone. in many places. A coal zone may contain as many as six coal beds.05 m to 5. Most contacts between the siltstone and claystone are gradational. Underclay is carbonaceous in many cores. The contact between the lowest bed of limestone in the Lakhra Formation and the highest bed of sandstone in the Bara Formation served as a datum for correlating some of the coal zones. The thicknesses of the coal zones in the Bara Formation vary considerably from drill hole to drill hole. Thin beds of coal and rootlets offer evidence that coal occurred directly above the seat rock. and sandstone. Siltstones and claystones are pale brown to m e d i u m light gray and contain scattered glauconite pellets. Some claystones are sandy but predominantly contain scattered siltstone laminae and abundant siderite lenses. especially the sandstone beds. Coaly films are scattered abundantly throughout much of the claystone but exhibit zonat i o n / o r clustering. seat rock composed of sandstone replaces the underclay.40 m ) . The Bara Formation is conformably overlain by the Laldara Formation (Figs.16 (Fig.46 m in thickness. well-defined contacts between beds of sandstone and carbonaceous claystone assist in delineating coal zones. Claystone beds commonly grade into beds of carbonaceous mudstone a n d / or underclay with scattered coaly lenses. Individual coal beds within the coal zones range from 0. In many core samples the siltstones are dark gray. was penetrated in drill hole K-15 (Figs. Coal zones in the Bara Formation Ten coal zones were recognized in the Bara Formation.

claystone and sandstone. in drill holes J. the Middle Sonda coal zone and the Lower Sonda coal zone are separated by a very thin interval. 2-30). 2. 2. (1983). The Lakhra Formation does not contain coal. such as marine pelecypods. Coal beds that appear to split and merge within coal zones between drill holes create problems in determining the stratigraphic position of individual beds.168 R. especially in the top 50 m of the formation. The Sonhari Member of the Laki Formation consists of siltstone. 4-6 ). recent COALREAPdrilling has shown "the contact with the Lakhra Formation is intertonguing and gradational" (SanFilipo et al. 2 ) to the north and east of the coal field (Thomas et al. and (4) Laki Limestone Member. Coal beds were penetrated in the Sonhari Member in six drill holes: three in the Sonda East area and three in the Sonda West area (Figs. and 3 were penetrated during drilling. gastropods. forms steep claystone slopes and limestone cliffs. cephalopods and brachiopods. Outcrops of the Sonhari Member are dark red. Most of the claystone is thin. A few broken shell fragments and evidence of bioturbation are present. (2) Meting Limestone Member. Members 1. however it is rich in fossil fauna. THOMAS ETAL. 1988. however. beds bifurcate and merge. 5). core loss was thick-bedded and calcareous in parts. thus making a clear distinction between these two coal zones questionable.. Lakhra Formation The Lakhra Formation overlies the Paleocene Bara Formation with apparent conformity (Figs. iron-rich beds with sharply defined contacts. The Hunting Survey Corporation (1960) referred to the Sonhari as a "laterite" or paleosol horizon. 5 and 6 ) was divided by Nuttal ( 1925 ) into four subdivisions. 5 and 6 ) but the Sonhari coal beds will not be further consid- . This area. known as Ganjo Takkar. (1988) and Khan et al. claystone and lesser amounts of siltstone. The limestone varies in color but is generally light gray to dark gray and slightly clayey. with a few thin (0. sandy and pyritic. silty.19 and D-20 (Fig. pp.E. Laki Formation The Laki Formation of early Eocene (Ypresian) age (Figs. Foraminifera and fossil oysters are common. For example. Coquina lenses are common in the claystone but never approach any significant thickness. from bottom to top: ( 1 ) Sonhari (also spelled Sohnari) Member (Basal Laki laterite).. Further discussion and detailed descriptions can be found in SanFilipo et al.36 m thick) coal beds. Members 3 and 4 out crop (Fig. Where the limestone and claystone beds are in abrupt contact. It consists of thick-bedded to massive limestone with interbedded sandstone. 1988a). due to both the competent nature of the limestone and the cohesiveness of the claystone. The claystone in the Lakhra Formation is olive gray. (3) Meting Shale Member.

asymmetric. The sandstone is calcareous and clayey in some sections measured in the Ganjo Takkar area (Thomas et al. which has produced many vugs and solution cavities. in addition to scattered sea urchins and spines. The limestone is grayish orange. pelecypods. 1988c). The fossils include pelecypod and gastropod fragments. siltstone and sandstone. gastropods and echinoderms comprise the fossil fauna in places and cephalopods weather out near the limestone/claystone contact. Color varies. thick-bedded to massive and forms gentle slopes. breached anticline which can be traced southward into the Sonda West area. Limestone in the Meting Shale Member is chalky. Color ranges from very pale orange to dark yellowish orange and pale yellowish orange. Scattered pelecypods and gastropods. It is yellowish orange and weathers to grayish orange. but it is generally moderate brown to moderate yellowish brown. sandy and contains abundant foraminifera. Current . chalky limestone. It is massively bedded with a few thin beds of claystone a n d / o r shale. The sand is relatively clean but has minor heavy-minerals and iron-stained quartz grains. scattered foraminifera and echinoderms.. depending on the extent of weathering. loose and friable and forms gentle slopes. The claystone is soft. Abundant pelecypods. The Meting Shale Member of the Laki Formation consists of claystone with a few thick-bedded to massive beds of limestone and sandstone. 1 ) is represented by a large. Sandstone in the Meting Shale Member contains less than 55% quartz and is fine-grained and thick-bedded.8%) contents. 4 ).COAL RESOURCES OF THE SONDA COAL FIELD 169 ered here.4%) and sulfur (3. with minor beds of claystone. Holocene alluvium The Holocene alluvium consists of unconsolidated Indus River sandstone and siltstone. gastropods and brachiopods are abundant. due to their limited lateral extent and high ash (16.12 (Fig. No coal occurs in the Meting Limestone within the Sonda field. comprise the fauna and numerous burrows are also present. Structure The Lakhra area (Fig. with minor mud and clay deposits. The limestone ranges from dark yellowish orange to very pale orange. The surface has undergone intensive weathering. Thickness ranges from a few centimetres to as much as 100 m in drill hole K. Fossil burrows. The Laki Limestone Member of the Laki Formation consists of thick-bedded. 5 ) in the southern part of the Sonda East area. The Meting Member conformably overlies the Sonhari Member and is conformably overlain by the Meting Shale Member (Fig. The Meting Limestone Member consists predominantly of marine limestone.

is the major structural feature in the Sonda East area. One predominant syncline. near the village o f T a n d o M u h a m m a d Khan. The thickest coal bed of the three was included in the isopach map for that zone at that point. Numerous small faults and folds occur throughout the Sonda West area. In some cases the thickest bed in a zone is the same bed in several adjacent drill holes in an area. Coal is shallowest in the updip near Chhari Dhand. the best potential for minable coal at shallow depths may be near Chhari Dhand and the village of Mulla Katiar.E. with its associated anticline on either side. Inayatabad coal zone: The distribution of the thickest coal bed in the Inayatabad coal zone is shown in Fig. Additionally.. 79 ). coal mining occurs in the breached anticline but does not extend southward beyond the north edge ofBaran Nadi (Fig. 7. This syncline. Whether . in others it may be a lower or higher bed. near the village of Wassi.1 and J-2 (Fig. Isopach Maps Coal zone correlations required the use of two datums (Thomas et al. for example in drill holes J. Where coal beds tend to be close together. 5 and 6). 5 ). 2 ) making access to this coal difficult.. For example. most persistent coal bed. while the thickest. The isopach maps are based on the thickest coal bed in each coal zone in each drill hole. The Sonda East area has several northeast-plunging synclines and anticlines. As previously discussed. isopach maps of the three most important coal zones are included (Figs. The thickest coal bed in each coal zone in each drill hole in the study area is shown in Tables 1 and 2. This coal zone is at an average depth of 170 m and the thickest coal bed measures 1. is tightly folded near the west side of Chhari Dhand. 1989). the Middle Sonda coals dip under the Ganjo Takkar area (Fig. separating the zones is difficult. because it contains the thickest beds and has the greatest lateral extent (Figs. The first occurrence of a calcareous unit at the base of the Lakhra Formation served as one datum for correlating the coal zones. three coal beds are contained in the Middle Sonda coal zone. indicating slight structural folding. 2 ). Although the Middle Sonda coal zone does not outcrop in the Sonda East area. 1989). To illustrate the distribution of coal zones and beds in the Sonda coal field.52 m thick was also penetrated in this zone in drill hole K-7. in drill hole S-9. served as a second datum. THOMAS ET AL. Regional dip increases towards the anticline but is generally about 2 ° NNE.170 R. Most features trend in a north-south direction with a fairly open axis. the Middle Sonda bed in the Middle Sonda coal zone. transecting drill hole K. A coal bed measuring 1.14 and trending north-northeast.88 m in drill hole S-8 (Thomas et al. The lack of a thickness value in these tables indicates that either the coal zone is absent or the drill hole did not penetrate deep enough to intersect the coal zone. the Middle Sonda coal zone is the principal zone in the coal field.

LAKI FORMATION LAKHRA FORMATION BARA FORMATION Limestone Member I Members . / II ua / / I J // / J // i i i l \ \ 4 .

2. D-6 ~ D-25 ~ "J--gi D-21 ~_D D-20 J-14 inayatabad coa~ zone LJpper Sonde coal zone Middle Sonde coa~ zone ~D-~ 4 L -t o-1 ~-:_~~ -- -----i~--- --- ~ ~ _ _ .COAL ZONES SonharJ coal zone Upper Dadun coal zone DaCluri coal zone U D p e r Stray c o a l z o n e D-22 °.

... ~ ...... T-4 T-7 © .... C r o s s s e c t i o n o f t h e S o n d a W e s t a r e a o f t he S o n d a c oa l field s h o w i n g coal z o n e c o r r e l a t i o n s ... ® ...COAL RESOURCES OF THE SONDA COAL FIELD T-2 EXPLANATION T-8 @ ... 5._ _ metars 40 ~o lo o Fig........... D-7 T-10 D-2 T-1 D-12 COAL C OA__L_ Z-9-N~ZONE L Z~N~ ...

- 1~ *° ~ .. ..E.. 1. . . .R. ~_ o o ~ ~ ~ ~ _~ • ~--~~_ _ ~ : : .._:_'ro. _ L ..~--o ~ .- ~ ~o2_: z-:7_. K-9 K-15 K-13 N N ~ i $ \ o~.:_. ... THOMAS ET AL. . .:: . . L "Y~--~!'rV" "-- ... ...

k/'} ...-.~ \." N .._COAL _ ZONE ZONE - / i / /" // / .. : \ ..... \ X m .....~.:-~.. : / " ~ \ J:0oi:4. K-IO / / // / // _-/ COAL ZOI DADU R /Y .-.:. + \ io ~ Oil of COALREAPdrill ho'.es and correlation traverses 1{-15 I ~ .. -~ __C_OAL .../ / /" / // ~..~ - o.._.. K-2 ~ . ~o..o~ ..- ..

~ ...~ 0~.. D=~u. . . . . .oo.. . >< Fig. . . . Daou. ... .. . LOWER STRAY . ..Y tu COA~ _ 7C'NE- .1' 0 >- 0 ¢ N 0 ~" Z m W I/J 0 f: -- ~- X . . . . C r o s s s e c t i o n o f t h e S o n d a East a r e a o f t h e S o n d a c o a l field s h o w i n g coal z o n e c o r r e l a t i o n s . .... .~ . . 6.:} [ meters 0 K-4 o meters Sandstone with Ctayatone.e ~a uppufaonda !~i i 0c w 0 .i Claystenel shame Slltstone up uppe. _~ Lowe 3 i r a ¢ r Z - uJ K-16 0 K-12 Underclay Core Coal IOS~.174-176 Z O .. . (i K-7 z < ~.COAL Z_9_N__E .! [~ kilneatone ~ Sandstone K-6 0 EXPLANATION Symbol and coal ~ 2one. ~ . claystons laminae sandy w i t h gravel car bonaceoue w~ w~. ~ ~ ---~" sr~4~.. Msmber contract Coal zone ¢ontuot K .. .. name .DATUM O m~. . .

57 1.36 0.30 1.16 1.45 0.28 0. . .74 0. . .30 0.40 . .10 1. 0. 0.98 0.55 0.22 K-4 K-5 K-6 K-7 K-8 K-9 K-10 K-11 K-12 K-13 K-14 K-15 0.75 0.75 1. .70 .30 . 0.50 0.09 0.55 - Upper Sonda - - Middle Sonda 1. . .i n d i c a t e s a coal b e d is a b s e n t o r d r i l l i n g d i d n o t p e n e t r a t e c o a l z o n e .39 . .45 0. 0. . . 0. . .26 0.20 0. 0.73 0.90 0. 1.75 0. .12 0. .40 0.51 1.29 0.23 - Drill holes K-16 0. . .00 Upper Wassi - 0.40 0.78 0. . . .38 0.38 0.57 0.61 Lower Stray 0. .31 0.88 0.40 0. . . .52 0. .17 1. Bara Formation.48 - Thicknesses in metres.25 0.30 .58 0.50 0.75 0.TABLE Sonda East area 1 t" Thickest coal bed in each coal zone in each drill hole.15 0. .35 0. .28 0.50 0.40 1. 0.20 0.61 1. . © Coal zone K-3 . .98 0.78 o > ~-~ m Lower Sonda 1.28 2. .25 .20 0.95 0. 0.29 Wassi 0. Daduri - - Upper Stray - - Inayatabad 0.20 0.70 0. .55 0. .37 0.25 0.60 0.00 0. .35 .50 > ¢3 K-1 K-2 O Upper Daduri .00 0. .95 .

. 0.03 0. . 1. Bara Formation. 1. .03 .30 0.43 0. D-6 D-7 D-8 D-9 D-10 D-11 D-12 D-13 .25 .76 0. . 0. 0. .41 .35 0.31 0. 0.43 0.03 . .41 - Inayatabad 0.37 2. .46 0.46 0. 0. Lower Stray - - 0. .30 . .25 0.43 - MiddleSonda 1.91 .13 0.92 - . . 0. .10 0. 2-5 ) Thickest coal bed in each coal zone in each drill hole.15 .44 0. .36 1.18 . .91 . . D-15 .36 .76 . .41 0. .52 . .46 . 0.23 0.31 1. .05 . D-18 .34 . . 0.30 . .05 - Upper Daduri - - Daduri 0.10 0. . 0.38 0.17 0. .10 0.36 UpperStray 0.32 - 0.oo TABLE Sonda West area 2 (see Figs.79 D-25 0.13 0.20 0.20 UpperWassi - Wassi - 0.61 . .61 0.41 - Lower Sonda 0. . 0.79 - UpperSonda 0. . 0. D-23"D-24 0.34 0.43 0.30 0.74 .43 D-22 0. .88 .48 0.18 0. .61 1.41 0. 0.46 0.46 .37 . 0.46 .61 0.36 0. 0. . . Drill holes ~ D-I D-2 D-3 D-14 . .53 0.91 . 0. Coal zone D-4 0. . 0. 0.33 0. 0. 0. 0.08 0.18 0.10 0.23 0.20 D-19 D-20 D-21 0. .14 . . .33 0. .79 0. .05 0.20 0.

17 0. .20 0.14 Middle Sonda 0.45 J-2 J-3 J-5 J-6 J-7 J-8 J-9 J-10 J-l 1 J-12 J-13 J-14 J-15 J-16 J-17 J-18 J-19 J-20 >o r-" m O Upper Daduri 0.39 . ~7 ). 0.20 - 0. 0.75 . 0.30 0.85 1. Lower Stray - - ~Drill holes D-5.60 0. . .02 2.46 1.50 0. 0.33 Wassi .75 O. Thickness in metres.40 1.30 0.45 .90 . . 0. Upper Sonda - 0. 0.40 .30 2.23 .40 1.26 0.33 0. . J-4 and T-3 not in section. 0. 0. 0. Upper Stray 0. T-2 T-4 T-7 T-8 T-9 T-10 S-1 S-2 S-3 S-4 S-5 Upper Daduri .44 . 0. .88 0. .84 0.60 1. . .00 Upper Wassi - 0.45 0. .00 0. .49 1. .94 0. .12 0.3O 2. .12 3.19 0. . 0. .62 4.05 . D-9.40 - Upper Stray - - Inayatabad . . . . . . .30 0. . . 0. .30 0.10 0.12 1. .38 0.40 0.40 3.02 0.62 1. .40 0.41 0.60 0. Lower o.10 0.31 1.90 0.20 .05 D-23.50 .20 . .30 - Upper Wassi 0.84 0.14 1.40 - 0.10 0.28 0. .60 upper Sonda - 1~30 ~ O Middle Sonda 0.63 1.02 0. . .33 0. D-8.95 0.97 1.40 . .30 . . .25 1.05 Wassi 0.51 2. .48 0. D-17. 0.30 0.47 0.40 0. .30 0. .50 6.40 0. .25 0. . 4. e " r a ~" .48 0. .76 2. .54 0. .33 Inayatabad - 0.30 . .20 0. .36 0.~ T-1 . .79 1.70 0. .65 . .26 Lower Sonda 0. Daduri . .01 3. .80 1. .55 1.45 0.19 0. .40 0. .30 0. . .40 Lower Sonda 0.26 S-9 O I'. .65 1.82 0.30 0.30 0.47 .18 1. .33 0.30 0. 0.10 0.40 0. 0. .30 1.85 . .91 0.20 0.80 0. 0. S-6 0.34 - 0.50 0.83 0.12 0.12 .25 1. .72 O.64 0. . 0. 2Drill hole S-7 not drilled. . 0. . . . .90 0.65 Daduri 0. . . 0.J-I .75 0.20 .10 0. .60 0.09 0.27 S-8 0. D-16. . .

0 ~0 0 CO 0 ¢0 I + . the Inayatabad coal zone thins southward to a thickness o f less than 1. l e d ¢re~ / ~ o~ ~ ~.180 R.J. South o f the village o f Jherruck. 7.JP-1.'~t~ K. m o t e oy ss: a e. COALREAP and drill Sca~e T are holes • ~. The thicker coal beds in this zone are located in drill holes J._ \~'_~ // ""--" ~ / EXPLANATION Paved - road O. However.14. . Isopach map of the thickest coal bed in each core hole in the Inayatabad coal zone.ea Fig. S-4 and S-8. s dr I] rio es T drill "ole rl Sonua n " &~t~ <l.S.rt-roa-d-- f~- Town. ~ Lake • < dill // • /"/F/ + Mlrpur 6atoro Isopach (m) 0 1 2 3 4 1 2 5 km mi Drill hole ~[lst rL'L qoles irdds I / js ~J J drill +°l° r.VHlage ~ 0. J g e r r u ( " d.E.BAD -25 ° 15/0~ ' N + Meting / 05 Jhimpir + . the isopach map indicates thinning both northward and southeastward. THOMAS ET AL.0 m thick. / J / 5 5/ \ \\ . the coal zone extends under the Ganjo Takkar area is not known. K-7.

between drill hole J-10 and Mullar Katiar. It exhibited the most reliable stratigraphic constancy among those drill holes that contained the Middle Sonda coal zone. Figure 8 shows a pod-like feature in which the coal thins on the margins to a thickness of less than 1. 8. has the thickest (2. The Middle Sonda coal zone is the most important coal zone because it contains the thickest. 7). the Lower and Middle Sonda coal zones appeared to merge in drill holes K-3 and K-16 in the Sonda East area.0 m thick. 5 and 6). 8 ).40 m. Middle Sonda coal bed correlations were based on coal bed thickness. 8 ).33 m in drill hole S-4 (Table 2) (Wnuk et al. 5 and 6. with an average thick- .. ranging from 0. The thickest Middle Sonda coal bed was used as a datum in Figs. This is the third most important coal zone in the study area. 1990b). Middle Sonda coal zone: The Middle Sonda coal zone is found at an average depth of 200 m. due to its unconsolidated nature. Middle.40 m ) coal bed in this zone in the Sonda East area (Table 1 and Fig. The sandstone was frequently not recovered as core. Most of the coal appears to be located in the Sonda West area. most persistent.0 m. A small outlier of the Inayatabad coal zone occurs near the village of Sonda (Fig. in the study area (Thomas et al. Most of the coal in this zone is located north of Jherruck and tends to thin southward towards Thatta (Fig. Coal beds in the Lower Sonda zone are not as thick as the beds in the Middle Sonda zone. coal beds in this area average a thickness of less than 0. and Upper Sonda coal zones (Figs. however. 9. A few drill holes west of river did intersect the Middle Sonda zone in the area between Sonda and Thatta.72 m in the Sonda West area. Lower Sonda coalzone: An isopach map of the thickest coal bed in the Lower Sonda coal zone in each core hole is shown in Fig. 1987).73 m in the Sonda East area and 0.0 m probably occurs under the Indus River. due to the 1 m isopach limit imposed by the author for clarity. Although in most circumstances the Middle Sonda coal zone was identifiable.COAL RESOURCES OF THE SONDA COAL FIELD 1 81 The Inayatabad coal zone is largely confined to the northern section of the study area. coal bed. with more than 100 m of overburden near Thatta. the Middle Sonda coal bed. Claystones are semi-consolidated and are also difficult to recover as core. 5 and 6 ). with the thickest coal bed in the zone measuring 6. Coal beds in the Middle Sonda coal zone that are less than 1. Drill hole K-15. Coal with a thickness greater than 1. No Inayatabad coal occurs near the village of Thatta..01 m thick.0 m thick are given in Tables 1 and 2 but are not shown in Fig.05 m to 2. but beds in this area are less than 1. located approximately 5 km west of Mulla Katiar. Due to the proximity of the Lower. The interburden between the Inayatabad and Middle Sonda coal zones consists predominantly of sandstone a n d / o r claystone (Figs. Individual coal beds in the zone show great variation. Individual coal beds within the zone average a thickness of 0.

coal approaching 2.01 m thick at drill hole J-19. ness o f 0. with coal measuring 1.~ Muh~m /" / Jhimpir ~ir~ Lal Bana -1.r T h a t t a Fig. I s o p a c h m a p o f the t h i c k e s t coal b e d in e a c h c o r e hole in the M i d d l e S o n d a coal z o n e . Drill hole S-1 was not drilled deep enough to penetrate the Lower Sonda coal zone.E. 8. based on the shape and trend o f the isopach lines..~'~' COALREAP are Sorda are. + + ~~ . .S. however.73 m.JP-1.... THOMAS ET AL. D S drll ~rl 3 ml ho es . Figure 9 shows a pod-like shape. . k~O~/K.0 ~.182 R. ..ndus Eas~ are{ ~ dr.. ck ar. Dirt road ÷ nadroad ~ I s o p a c h (m) • t ii Lake Drill hole l--'7" / JJf //4 Mirpur /Bat°r + 0 1 2 3 4 5 km /'' and drill ] 2 Scale T ' i.r J . ii ho e~ .75 m thick at drill hole K-3 and 2.~ ark holes T d./ 55" \ \ ~aya EXPLANATION / Paved road . o ~o I o ~o o 3AD o v'~3 9 / N r 05" + / /e~ . ..J.5 m thick may be present.. . . GSF. .~ hole ! qoles :lrlHed IP b. . K drill holes . .n r h a t t a area 9P ~..5 / • . but bed thicknesses there are less than 0.I hole~ ~ Jherruek a. A drill hole 2 km south o f drill hole S- .o. + If.ll ho. south o f Mulla Katiar.JP-1. ~ o~ . ..50 m and are not shown in Fig. east o f Chhari Dhand in the Sonda East area.S. / + + + 7: ~' L?. Isopach map of the thickest coal bed in each core hole in the Lower Sonda coal zone.u i 1 2 Scale r: 3 ml a n d T are drill holes Fig. I 4 0 0D + .mo. Additional exploration drilling should be carded out in the area between drill hole K-1.. ' V d l a g e 0.eo b~ SS ~ s dr'l h°les ' C S°rlda area T d. Isopachs exhibit a SE-NW trend.J :J / r~/ . COALREAP 0 j .// /~ Mirpur ~g~3~o\~' 1.=L+ \\ io ~ /e....:'£O gatoro 0 1 2 3 4 5 km ' ~ (m) / + + Isopach Lake • D r i l l hole K drill holes Indus East area J dr. . 9. + ~o ~'~ N -ab Meting~--'.J. The coal zone is present in the Sonda and Jherruck areas..ea D orllt holes ¢..2 4 ° 55: / f EXPLANATION Paved Dirt road road Tow n .COAL RESOURCES OF THE SONDA COAL FIELD 18 3 O ¢I~ l + .tl1 ii //J f : / K.m hole n ~r. and drill hole K-3. 9.. ° / dhimpir~ +/ / ".BAD -25° 15/o.

The US Geological Survey Circular 891 (Wood et al. but excluded partings greater than 0. The Middle Sonda coal zone contains the thickest coal beds in the Sonda area.E. Resources Approximately 4.184 R.683 Measured 3 4 8 34 10 2 Indicated 20 23 55 261 70 12 Inferred 93 134 298 1.7 billion t. In the Sonda East area the Middle Sonda coal zone accounts for 54% o f the resources o f all three Sonda coal zones and TABLE3 Estimated original coal resources of the Sonda East and Sonda West areas of the Sonda coal field Coal zone Sonda east area (616 k m 2) Measured Upper Daduri Daduri U p p e r Stray Inayatabad Upper Sonda MiddleSonda Lower Sonda UpperWassi Wassi ( W ) Lower Stray Total 1 2 2 4 2 8 5 2 3 1 Sonda west area l (967 k m 2) Inferred 24 40 76 380 88 370 220 65 114 36 Indicated 6 13 14 36 19 66 39 16 21 10 Total 31 55 92 420 109 444 264 83 138 47 1. The method used in the Sonda West area was based on the cumulative total o f all the coal beds with a thickness o f 30 cm or more and less than 50% ash in a zone. COAL RESOURCES Two methods were used to determine coal resources for the Sonda coal field. 1989.7 billion t of coal were discovered in the study area (Table 3 ) (Thomas et al. 1990a)..95 cm thick. Most of the coal resources occur in the Sonda West part o f the Sonda coal field. drilling would be complicated. only the thickest coal bed (30 cm or thicker) and less than 50% ash in each zone was used for calculating resources. However.468 375 150 Total 116 161 361 1. THOMAS ET AL. due to the loose alluvial sand and silt cover. IData from SanFilipo et al. . 1983 ) was used as a guide for both methods.0 m thick in this zone. 9 in the Sonda West area may reveal coal approaching 2. For the Sonda East area.020 Grand total 4.763 455 164 3. All values in million.. ( 1988 ).

10. In that case only the thickest coal bed was used to construct the isopach map.8 km radii from drill hole DRILL HOLE \ 50004000- --4. The Sonda coal beds. Coal zones stratigraphically high in the Bara Formation or at the lower limit o f penetration of the core holes (Lower Stray) have significantly smaller resources. due to the method o f calculating coal resources. account for 55% of the resources in the ten coal zones in the Bara Formation. The Upper Daduri and Upper Wassi coal zones were not recognized in the Sonda West area.4 km radii from drill hole ~ INDICATEDCOAL 0. which may not be economical to extract.4 E o v' 0.8 ¢o 300020001000-1. . For example.COALRESOURCESOF THE SONDACOALFIELD 185 51% o f the resources in all the non-Sonda coal zones.4-1. The average thickness of the thickest coal bed in each o f the ten coal zones is 0.2 --0. a drill hole in the Sonda East area may contain five separate coal beds belonging to one zone.2 km radii from drill hole '~ Drill hole • INFERRED C O A L 1. for both the Sonda East and Sonda West areas.--0 Fig. Radii constructed from drill hole showing reliability categories for coal resource estimates.2-4. The values generated for the Sonda East area are conservative.74 m (Tables 1 and 2). This procedure produced a very conserv- MEASURED COAL 0-0. together.

appropriate radii were constructed from drill holes and placed over previously prepared coal bed isopach maps.40-1. there the coal is less than 1.186 R. Three categories of reliability of coal resource estimates were used for both areas (Wood et al.95 cm in thickness were removed from coal bed cores before shipping (Landis et al.2 km radius).5% or less) is located near Jherruck and between drill holes K-4 and S-8. such as the dry and dry. Due to its importance. However. 11 ). Partings composed of siderite or carbonaceous shale greater than 0. 1973 ). fixed carbon and ash). The average Middle Sonda sulfur content for the Sonda West area is also about 2.. Estimates for the other two categories: indicated (0. sulfur and ash isopleth maps (Figs.30 ) (Wood et al.2 km radius) and inferred (beyond 1. sulfur and ash) analyses and other chemical tests were performed on 144 coal samples from the study area. 10). ative estimate.0% (Fig. Measured coal is defined as virgin coal that lies within a radius of 0. near Thatta.0% are found around the village of Jherruck and again just west of Ganjo Takkar. 8 ) is superimposed on the map showing isopleths of the total sulfur in the Middle Sonda coal zone (Fig. 1983). ash-free basis are available.0%) lying in between. volume was multiplied by the specific gravity ( 1. However. COAL QUALITY Standard coal analyses consisting of proximate (moisture. Sulfur values of less than 1. 1983 ) of subbituminous coal. The result represents the weight of coal per unit volume and is expressed in tons. Finally. For each coal zone.E. oxygen.5%) is located near Meting. After being labelled and packed.0% predominate in the southern part of the study area. Coal resources were then determined by a polar planimeter and calculator. north of Ongar. with an area of high values (3. they were sent ot the United States for chemical testing.. Sulfur values greater than 2. 11 and 12) are shown for the Middle Sonda coal zone. Data used in this paper are for analyses on an "asreceived basis". THOMASET AL. . The lowest total sulfur (0. 11 ). In the Sonda West area a computer was used to determine coal resources based on boundaries set by certain limits of calculating resources. it can be seen that high sulfur values occur where the coal is the thickest. An additional coal area with high sulfur content (5.4 k m ( 1/4 mile) from a point where coal thickness was measured. volatile matter. Coal samples were collected at the drill site and wrapped in plastic to prevent excessive water loss. If the isopach map of the thickest Middle Sonda coal bed (Fig. nitrogen.. Total sulfur A total sulfur value of over 2. are less reliable. and ultimate (hydrogen.0 m thick. other analytical results. due to the distance from points of measurement (Fig.0% occurs in the Middle Sonda coal beds throughout most of the Sonda East area.

. .. onoE 3£3 .° ~ Ij ~.. Low ash coal is very limited in the study area and current mining methods in Pakistan would probably include partings of carbonaceous shale greater than 0..' t'1:." 4 ~+/" i .95 cm .0 PERCENT 0 1 2 3 4 5 km K arMIno~e . ..5 / / K ~'\A / _ _ J \~. 11.~ ~ + + Meting TVlulla /" -25° 05" + ~r Katlar/' "~': ~ ' " /~J.::~. K'OJ'ASL'dPA1p Toalrees •rnidl s dr II hOe r. .0o... 9e ~ AND 3./ X jr _L )/ / //f OarOl~ // / ¢.....KaHI La~ Bano ~ ....} / -24 o 55/ &X ~/-~ ~ . ./ AO~ ' ~ no. f1' Jj :rr".. Ash For all coal in the study area.. ~ / // I .COAL RESOURCES OF THE SONDA COAL FIELD 187 :L ° o0 ° co ° co BAD 25jS.'ir'e:rrb':" : :r ""~ .or.. ..5I .JJ her...... uck ~ dhimpir~ ....//// 1/ EXPLANATION ISOPLETH OF TOTAL SULFUR INTERVAL 0...... Fig... .~ ~o~.: 0. the average ash content is 12-13%.~e~ ~ 1"~i~31!''r .. hast .. Isopleth map of total sulfur in the thickest coal bed in each drill hole in the Middle sonda coal zone...

0% ash is located from Chhari Dhand in the Sonda East area and curves northwestward towards Hyderabad. The ash content of the thickest coal bed in the Middle Sonda coal zone is illustrated in Fig.S.ll~C b.' COALREAP drill holes T dr ~o1~ ~ r~. U + J i i f _240 55 z \.II nolef r i d . and of 3 ash Lake • Drill hole < ar. o I + I ~5 o 15/o ~ + N Meting - 25 ° 05" + /' ÷ ' / l / Jhimpir~ ÷ C. thick.188 R. 12. ' E a g t e r d a J dr' I Pole D o. 12. THOMAS ET AL. Fig. .~Ta z~.ViLlage Da 3 - laopleth Interval I / "/F / f ~ Ir ~ G~/ K.E. Values o f 24% or higher are located southwest o f Saidpur. ~/ ~aga + EXPLANATION Dirt road Town.. A thin band o f coal having less than 3. Isopleth map o f ash in the thickest coal bed in each drill hole in the Middle Sonda coal zone.l~ n o e c ' erra(k ' ea percent 5 km 3 mi + MiIpur or o 1 2 3 4 ' 1 2 Scale T are o .J. SS..JP-1.

due to the wide spacing of drill holes. The Middle Sonda coal zone. due to the pinching out of the coal beds in that area. Future drilling in the Sonda West part of the Sonda coal field should be concentrated in two areas: near drill hole S-4 and between the Lakhra coal field. a drill hole near the village of Wassi. and as far southwest as drill hole K-15. The Sonda West part is based on a cumulative figure for all qualifying coal beds with a thickness of at least 30 cm in each zone. which has the thickest coal bed in the study area. Additional drilling south of the village of Sonda should be avoided. and Baran Nadi.COAL RESOURCES OF THE SONDA COAL FIELD 189 Generally.7 billion t of original coal resources are estimated for the Sonda coal field. towards the Indus River. and a drill hole in the middle ofChhari Dhand. such as sandstone or claystone. as far north as drill hole K-16. north of drill hole S-8 (Fig. The Sonda East part of this represents a conservative value because coal resource calculations were based on the thickest coal bed (30 cm or more) in each coal zone. Drill holes near the river may prove that the coal is thick. Drilling operations close to the river may be hampered by water and loose sand. 2 ). Additional drilling in the Sonda East area should be west of the village of Mulla Katiar. 8 and 12 ). Although it does not outcrop in the study area. between K-11 and K-13.1 and K. between K. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Approximately 4.1 and K. . it does come within 200 m of the surface near Chhari Dhand.16. This area represents a gap in which drilling is lacking and should be carefully considered in future drilling plans. Verification of existing coal zone correlations and formational boundaries will assist in increased coal bed to coal bed recognition. The current level of information is too sparse. With an increased understanding of the stratigraphy.11. near the river. perhaps approaching 4 m or more. but near Chhari Dhand. the study area could become a productive coal field. Specific areas for future drill sites should include areas between drill holes K-14 and K-2. high ash values for the thickest coal bed of the Middle Sonda coal zone are most common where the coal bed is the thinnest (Figs. Eleven coal zones were identified and each zone was separated by a distinct lithologic unit. K. three contain about 50% of the total original coal resources. between K.15. north of Hyderabad. coal quality and geology of the coal-bearing rocks. Of the ten coal zones in the Paleocene Bara Formation. Future drilling programs should plan to drill at least 300 m or more in depth to reach the bottom of the Lower Sonda coal zone and additional lower coals that can be relied upon to correlate from coal zone to coal zone. to permit a high level of assurance that coal zone correlations are reasonably accurate. was used as a datum for correlation purposes. Additional drilling is recommended to provide a better geologic basis on which to make a decision.

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