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FAS Military Analysis Network

Russian Missiles

S-25 SA-1 GUILD
The S-25 SA-1 GUILD was the first surface-to-air strategic air defense system deployed by the Soviet Union These R-113 missiles were deployed in a ring around Moscow, and remained in service through the mid-1980s. The SA-1 system entered operational service in the late 1950s, and was deployed around Moscow in a dense complex of 56 sites arranged in two concentric rings. There were 22 sites in the inner ring at about 25 nm radius from the center of Moscow and 34 sites on the outer ring at about 45 nm radius. A typical site had 60 launch positions joined by a road network. The V-301 missile, as originally designed for use with this system, was unboosted and employed a single liquid sustainer motor. Although its maximum speed was on the order of Mach 2.5, it had a low initial velocity which limited its engagement capability against supersonic targets. Its maximum intercept range varied depending upon the approach and type of target; for example, against a directly incoming, high-flying B-252 its range was on the order of 20 n.m. This missile ccould carry an HE or nuclear payload of 450-700 pounds and its CEP was estimated to be 65-120 feet. It was believed to be capable of interceptions from a minimum altitude of 3,000 feet up to 60,000 feet, with some additional capability up to about 80,000 feet, particularly if equipped with a nuclear warhead. The B-200 guidance system at each site employed a track-while-scan radar (designated "Yo-Yo" by US intelligence) having about 54° coverage in both the vertical and horizontal planes. The system also incorporated fire control equipment which enabled each site to engage as many as 20 targets simultaneously. This capability, with the spacing of adjacent sites for mutual support and the inner ring of sites for backup, enables the system to direct an extremely high rate of fire against incoming targets. Because of its' cost, immobility, and inflexibility, the SA-1 system was not deployed elsewhere in the Soviet Union apart from Moscow.

V-75 SA-2 GUIDELINE HQ-1 / HQ-2 (Chinese versions) Tayir as Sabah (Egyptian versions)
The V-75 (SA-2) surface-to-air missile system was designed for the defense of both fixed targets and field forces. The V-75 was designed to cope with the threat posed by small groups of aircraft rather than massed raids. Flexibility and mobility are its chief advantages over the SA-1. In contrast to the massive SA1 sites, each of which is capable of defending only a limited sector around the target area, each SA-2 site is capable of 360° coverage. This flexibility is obtained at the expense of target handling capacity and rate of fire relative to the SA-1. Although there are a variety of arrangement patterns, all sites consist of six launching positions -- usually revetted - deployed around a guidance radar and linked by service roads to facilitate loading. While the sites were permanent installations, all operating components of the system are mounted on wheeled vehicles and are capable of movement by road or raiL The V-75 was the basic missile defense system for critical urban-industrial areas in the USSR, other than Moscow. The V75 deployment began on a wide scale since early 1958, with sites located throughout the western part of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact countries. Deployment patterns and levels of concentration varied according to the geography, size, and shape of the target area, and the Soviet estimate of the worth of individual targets. Between mid-1958 and 1964 more than 600 SA-2 sites were identified by US intelligence in the USSR, mostly in defense of population centers, industrial complexes, and government control centers. Most SA-2 sites defended major centers of population and industry. SA-2 defenses were also deployed for the special protection of nuclear materials production and storage facilities. In addition, some key Soviet field forces and long range bomber bases were included in the SA-2 deployment pattern. The construction of sites and the training and activation of firing units was seasonal, with activity at a minimum during the winter months. The sites in the Moscow area, located within the inner ring of SA-1 sites, were intended to supplement the existing defenses. Deployment of SA-2 installations around Moscow included seven sites as of 1964 as part of a program to supplement the SA-1 system.

Missile defenses were provided for most of the Soviet cities with populations greater than 200,000. SA-2 sites were emplaced at some smaller urban areas which contained government control centers or other installations of critical importance. They were also deployed for defense of naval and port facilities, nuclear production and weapon storage Installations, missile test ranges, and Industrial facilities. Other major military installations, such as long-range missile sites and alrfields of the long-range air force, are also defended by SA-2. A number of sites in border areas, which were unrelated to specific targets, were part of the deployment of peripheral defenses which eventually extended from the Kola Peninsula along the western and southern borders of the USSR into central Asia. Deployment in the Baltic coastal area was particularly dense. In mid1962 about 750 sites were operational in defense of more than 200 target areas in the USSR. The Soviets eventually deployed roughly a thousand SA-2 sites in the USSR, with the major portion of the deployment completed by the mid-1960s. Some SA-2 units were deployed in support of Soviet field forces in East Germany and in the USSR. Although SA-2 units assigned to Soviet field forces were normally emplaced at fixed installations, the system is transportable by road and SA-2 units were observed in field exercises. However, SA-2 units have a limited ability to follow a fast moving front because of the requirement for good roads and the time required to displace to new positions. SA-2 missile defenses for field forces were primarily assigned to such targets as major headquarters, logistic centers, and airfields. Deployment of SA-2 sites for defense of Warsaw Pact targets began in 1960. The heaviest deployment has occurred in East Germany. About half of the sites were manned by East German troops, and the remainder by units of the Soviet field forces. The East German sites were located in the vicinity of Berlin and in the northern portion of East Germany. The Soviet sites were deployed to defend important Soviet military installations such as major headquarters and airfields. China Suspension of Soviet assistance limited the extent of SA-2 deployment in China. Only about a half dozen sites were initially deployed in China, three of them at Beijing. These sites contained Soviet manufactured equipment. The Chinese license-built version of the V-75 was designated the HQ-1. The People's Republic of China developed its own modified version of the V-750 under the designation HQ-2 (Hong Qian = Red Leader), with the Western designation CSA-1. According to a China sales brochure, the FT-2000A SAM will use a highly-modified HQ-2/ CSA-1 missile that has been equipped with a passive radio frequency homing seeker operating in the 2- to 6-GHz band. The FT-2000A also will contain a new millimeter-wave band fuze, a new guidance-and-control section, and a new 60 kg fragmentation warhead. The missile has a cutoff valve for thrust adjustment while in flight, probably to extend its range. The missile seeker is loaded with the target aircraft’s radio frequency (RF) signature before launch and relies on this information for tracking

and intercept. The missile has an estimated maximum range of 60 km, with a maximum altitude of 18,000 meters. A stand-alone FT-2000A battery consists of a central control station and twelve launchers, each holding one missile. The central control station has one master passive sensor and three auxiliary passive sensors. The auxiliary passive sensors coordinate with the master passive sensor through triangulation to determine angle and range of targets emitting in the 2- to 6-GHz band. This configuration is totally passive, relying on the RF emissions of the target. A composite fire unit consists of FT-2000A launchers and missiles, integrated with standard SAM components like those of the HQ-2, SA-2, or SA-3. Although a special fire control unit and launcher are required, this configuration allows anti-jamming missiles to replace several of the command guided missiles normally associated with these SAMs. Egypt Egyptian technicians have reverse engineered and modified two Soviet SAMs -- the Ayn as Saqr (a version of the SA-7) and the Tayir as Sabah (a version of the SA-2). V-75 Missile System The V-75 SA-2 GUIDELINE is a medium to high altitude surface-to-air missile system. This two-stage missile has a large solid propellant booster stage fitted with four very large delta fins. The core stage consists of a storable liquid propellant sustainer rocket motor using inhibited red fuming nitric acid oxidizer and kerosene fuel. A set of four cropped delta-shaped wings are located near the mid-section, with a second in-line set of smaller fixed fins at the nose, and a third in-line set of slightly larger powered control fins at the tail. The guidance system at an SA-2 site can handle only one target at a time, but can direct three missiles against a target simultaneously. Additional missiles could be fired against the same target after one or more missiles of the first salvo had completed their run. The Soviets apparently believed they must program three or four missiles against each target in order to achieve acceptable kill probabilities. The 295 kg nuclear warhead used only on the SA-2E variant is believed to have a yield of 15 kT. The other V-75 variants have an internally grooved fragmentation warhead weighs 195 kg (130 kg of which is high explosive) with proximity, contact and command fusing available. This conventional warhead is fitted forward of the main fins and behind the nose-mounted guidance assembly. At medium and low altitudes the kill radius is about 65 meters and the blast radius for severe damage is 100-120 meters. The maximum blast radius against a high altitude target is approximately 250 meters, due to the rarefied atmosphere. The weapon has a accuracy of 75 meters with the large blast radius compensating for system inaccuracies.

The V-75 system is designed to be simple and easy to operate with the minimum of specialized training. The standard deployment pattern of a battalion site consists of six semi-fixed trainable single rail launchers are deployed in the familiar hexagon arrangement about 60-100 meters apart. The launchers may be dug into pits, left at ground level or hardened in concrete revetments. The battery command post fire control team and its computer, the Fan Song missile control radar, the P-12 Spoon Rest early warning radar, and typically six reload rounds on their articulated trailers are all located in the center of the launchers array. The Spoon Rest A-band warning and target acquisition radar has a range of 275 km using a large Yagi antenna array. SPOON REST Function: Range Frequency Comments

Associated weapon system Recognition

Target acquisition, early warning 275 km A versions: A band (VHF) B versions: VHF below A band Power 314kw, BW 6x22.5 PRF 310-400pps PW 4-6us Max Alt 32km Scan 2-6rpm SA-2 GUIDELINE FAN SONG fire control radar Six yagi array with bisecting crossbar Mast mounted on 6x6 truck In transit, two truck carry array and generator

KNIFE REST Type Russian Designation Function Frequency Range

KNIFE REST A P-8 Dolfin Early Warning A-band 75 km

KNIFE REST B/C P-10 A-band 70 km

Comment Associated weapon system Recognition

75kw power PW 4-12us SA-2

The maximum radar range of the E-band Fan Song A/B/F radar varies between 60-120 km depending upon target type, altitude and operating conditions. The G-band Fan Song D/E maximum range is extended to between 75-145 km under equivalent conditions. FAN SONG Function: Range Frequency Comments FAN SONG A/B FAN SONG C/E FAN SONG F Fire Control & Tracking Can track six targets simultaneously 60-120km (A/B 70-145km (D/E/F versions) versions) E/F bands (A/B G band (C/E E/F bands (F versions) versions) version) 600kw power Vert Ant BW 10 10x2deg Hort Ant BW 2x10deg Scan 15.5-17HZ

1.0mw power 600kw power Vert Ant BW Vert Ant BW 10 7.5x1.5deg 10x2deg Hort Ant BW Hort Ant BW 11.5x7.5 2x10deg Scan 15.5-17HZ Scan 15.5-17HZ PRF 828-1440 (guidance): PRF Search 44pps 1656-2880 Trk PW .4-1.2ms us 2-.9ms us Associated weapon SA-2 GUIDELINE SAM, system SPOON REST target acquisition radar Recognition Trailer-mounted with tilting superstructure Two orthogonal antennas(lewis scanners)

E version have 2 additional parabolic dishes Scanners exhibit 'flapping' motion in operation

SIDE NET Function Range Frequency Associated weapon system Recognition

PRV-11 Height 28 km 32km Max altitude E-band SA-2/3/5

At regimental HQ there is a fourth Spoon Rest, a van-mounted P-15 Flat Face 250 km range C-band search and tracking radar with two elliptical parabolic reflectors and a PRV-11 Side Net 180 km range E-band nodding height-finder radar mounted on a boxbodied trailer. There is also a radar control truck and a Mercury Grass truck-mounted command communications system for linking the HQ to the three battalions.

Some countries which deploy early versions of the V-75 use the older ground-mounted P8 Dolphin Knife Rest-A truck-mounted P-10 Knife Rest-B/C radars instead of the Spoon Rest. These A-band radars have an operating range of about 150-200 km. The People's Republic of China has deployed a modified version of the V-75 under the designation HQ-2. The license-built version was the HQ-1.

Specifications
DOI Status Length (m) Diameter (m) 1959 Standard 10.60 .70

Weight at launch (kg) 2,300 Propulsion system Booster Sustainer Launch rails/tubes Guidance Warhead (type) Performance: Max. velocity (Mach) Effective altitude Maximum range (km) Minimum range (km) Kill Radius Reload time (min) Associated radars 4.0 B/C/D, 4.5 E/F Mach 27 B/C/F & HQ-2B/F/J/P, 40 D/E km 35km B/F, 44km C, 50km D/E 35km HQ-2B, 50km HQ-2J 7-9 65 m 10 FAN SONG, SPOON REST Solid Liquid Single rail, ground mounted (not mobile) Command HE 200kg (295kg SA-2E) 188kg (HQ-2B/F/J/P), possible nuclear

HQ-1 / HQ-2 (Chinese versions)

SJ-202 Radar

S-125 SA-3 GOA
The S-125 SA-3 GOA medium altitude surface-to-air missile system uses a two-stage, solid-fuel missile built by the Isayev OKB. The S-125 missile includes a large 2.6 second burn-time solid propellant booster with rectangular fins that rotate through 90º at launch. The smaller main stage has an 18.7 second burn-time solid propellant sustainer motor, and has four aft fixed fins and four forward movable control. Following booster jettison the missile is tracked by the system's radar with guidance signals sent to an antenna on the rear fins. US intelligence imagery at Kapustin Yar in late 1959 revealed two probable R&D sites, each of which consisted of four launch pads. A possible launcher on one of the pads held two missile-like objects about 20 feet long. US intelligence subsequntly identified more than 35 sites of this type in the USSR between late 1961 and 1964, usually near SA1 or SA-2 sites. The initial SA-3A GOA Mod 0, deployed in 1961, includes command guidance throughout the missile's flight. The subsequent SA-3B GOA Mod 1, first deployed in 1964, incorporated an improved guidance system. The missile's ability to dive allows it to be used against surface targets and naval vessels. Long-range surveillance and target acquisition is handled by the van-mounted P-15 FLAT FACE) radar. The P-15 radar has been replaced in many S-125 units by the P-15M SQUAT EYE radar, which has the antenna mounted on a 20-30 m mast for improved low altitude coverage. The accompanying PRV-11 SIDE NET E-band height-finding radar has a range of 180 km covering targets at altitudes of up to 32000 meters. FLAT FACE Function: Range Frequency Associated weapon system Comments P-15 Target acquisition 200-250 km C band (UHF) SA_3 GOA possibly SA-8 GECKO SAM, LOW BLOW missile control radar Can guide three missiles simultaneosly Power 380kw, BW AZ 4.3deg-ELEV 4.3 deg PW 2us, PRF 200-700pps, 70km range at 300m alt, accuracy 650m range, 1.8 deg AZ Van mounted Two eliptical parabolic reflectors

Recognition:

measuring 11x5.5 m Reflectors arranged one above the other on van roof

Target data generated by these tracking radars is passed to the battalion's LOW BLOW trailer-mounted fire control radar. With a maximum acquisition range of 110 km, the tracking range of this I-band system is between 40-85 km, depending on target size and altitude. The system can simultaneously track six target aircraft and guide one or two missiles. Improved LOW BLOW radars include TV cameras with a range of 25 km to provide the fire control team with the data needed to perform a command guidance intercept in a heavy ECM environment. If the missile fails to intercept it would be commanded to either change trajectory or self-destruct. LOW BLOW Function: Frequency Range Comments

Associated weapon system Recognition:

Fire Control Trk/FC Guidance I band I band D band 40 km 40-85 km 29 km Power 250kw PRF 3560PRF 17503585HZ 3500pps Scan (Para) PW .25-5ms(us) 25HZ BW 12x1.5 Scan (trough) 16HZ SA-3 GOA SAM, FLAT FACE, SQUAT EYE acquisition radar Four-wheeled trailer-mounted Two scanning parabolic dishes one above the other

The S-125 is fired from trainable launchers which are normally fixed, but can be relocated. The crew loads the missiles with the aid of a conveyor onto the groundmounted, trainable launcher for firing, with both twin and quadruple launchers in use. A pair of missiles are carried in tandem on a modified truck or tracked vehicle. The S-125 is normally transported from battalion storage areas on modified ZIL-131 (6 x 6) or ZIL157 (6 x 6) trucks and loaded onto the launchers. Approximately one minute is required to load the missiles onto the launch rails, but nearly an hour is required between missile launches due to missile preparation, truck transit and other reloading procedures. SQUAT EYE Function Range Frequency Associated weapon system Recognition P-15M(2) 128 km C-band SA-3/5 Power 380kw

SIDE NET Function Range Frequency Associated weapon system Recognition

PRV-11 Height 28 km 32km Max altitude E-band SA-2/3/5

Specifications
Missile Characteristics: DOI Status Length (m) Diameter (m) Weight at launch (kg) Propulsion system Booster Sustainer Launch rails/tubes Guidance Warhead (type) Kill Radius Performance: Max. velocity (Mach) Max. altitude (m) Min altitude (m) Operational range (km) Minimum range (km) Reload time (min) 3+ 25,000 100 25 6 50 Solid Solid 2 or 4 rails, ground mounted (not mobile) Command, (poss. IR terminal homing) HE 12.5 m 1961 Standard 6.70 .60 400

Associated radars

FLAT FACE, LOW BLOW, SQUAT

EYE

SA-4 GANEF
SA-4 GANEF is a medium to high altitude surface-to-air missile system. Over the years at least four variants of the missile have been produced, designated 9M8, 9M8M, 9M8M1 and 9M8M2, though external differences are minimal. The 9M8M1 and 9M8M2 variants are the primary types in service. The 9M8M1, introduced in 1967, is a 8.8 meter longnosed version (the SA-4a) with effective range limits of 8 to 55 km and effective altitude limits of 100 to 27000 m. The 9M8M2, introduced in 1973, is the short-nosed 8.3 m version (SA-4b or GANEF Mod 1). It has improved close-range performance to reduce the dead zone above the TEL at the expense of losing some 3000 m in altitude and 5-10 km in maximum range capabilities. Both versions have a fuselage diameter of 0.86 m, a wing span of 2.3 m and a tail span of 2.73 m. The HE warhead weighs 135 kg and is detonated by a proximity fuse. The missile is launched by four solid booster rockets mounted externally on the body. The missile is armed 300 meters from the launcher. After launch the boosters burn for about 15 seconds and then fall away when the fueled ramjet kerosene sustainer motor ignition speed of over Mach 1 is attained at about 9 km from the TEL. The four fins are fixed and the four wings, in two pairs, are hydraulically operated. A battery typically has one TEL fitted with the 9M8M2 and two TELs with the 9M8M1 missile, although some TELs may carry one missile of each type. An electro-optical fire control system is fitted for use in a heavy ECM environment. Targets are initially detected by the long range LONG TRACK early warning E-band radar, which has a 150 km range and 30 km maximum altitude coverage. LONG TRACK is mounted on a lengthened version of the AT-T heavy artillery tractor with a large van body added, and is also used for the SA-6 SAM. This system passes data to the SA-4 GANEF battery where the H-band PAT HAND continuous wave fire control and command guidance radar takes over. The PAT HAND radar is mounted on the same chassis as the GANEF launcher, with the whole assembly collapsed flat and a grill raised in front of the radar for road transit. This radar acquires the target at about 120-130 km and when it is within the 80-90 km tracking range a single missile is launched and guided to the target by the guidance beam with a semi-active terminal homing phase for the final stage. The missile is tracked in flight by a continuous wave radar transponder beacon attached to one of the tail fins. If required the PAT HAND can handle two missiles per target in order to increase the kill probability. Target altitude information is also provided by the 240 km range THIN SKIN truck- or trailer-mounted height-finder H-band radar. The SA-4 TEL (Industrial Index designation 2P24) consists of a tracked armored chassis on top of which is mounted a hydraulically operated turntable carrying two missiles. The launcher can be traversed by 360º with the missiles being elevated up to an angle of 45º on their launcher arms for launching. The vehicle's engine is to the right of the driver with the remainder of the space in the vehicle taken up by the crew and electronics.

Hatches for the other crew members are on either side of the missile turntable. The torsion bar suspension consists of seven dual rubber-tired road wheels with the drive sprocket at the front and the idler at the rear, and four track return rollers. The vehicle has an air filtration and overpressure NBC system and an IR night vision system for the commander and driver but no amphibious capability. Reserve missiles are carried on Ural-375 (6 x 6) trucks, and reloading the TEL takes between 10 and 15 minutes.

Specifications
Deployment Deployment Year Length Body Diameter Launch Weight Warhead Guidance Propulsion Range Design Russia, 9 other countries 1967 8.8m (SA-4A), 8.4m (SA-4B) 86 cm 2,500 kg 135kg HE fragmentation effect Radio command, semiactive radar Ramjet sustainer, 4 solid rocket boosters 55km (SA-4A), 50km (SA-4B) Lyulev Design Bureau

S-200 SA-5 GAMMON
The S-200 SA-5 GAMMON is a medium to high -altitude surface-to-air missile system. The single-stage missile has four jettisonable, wraparound solid propellant boosters, each of which is is 4.9 m long and 0.48 m in diameter with a single fin spanning 0.35 m from the booster body. The missile is 10.72 m long overall with a wing span of 2.85 m. The main body is 0.85 m in diameter and has a solid fuel dual thrust sustainer rocket motor. Each missile battalion has one 320 km range P-35M BARLOCK-B E/F-band target search and acquisition radar with an integral D-band IFF system, one 270 km range SQUARE PAIR H-band missile guidance radar, and six trainable semi-fixed single rail launchers. The missile's minimum range of 60 km is due to the booster burn time and jettison requirements, limiting the system to engagements against relatively large unmaneuverable targets at ranges up to 250 km. Guidance beyond the 60 km booster jettison point is by course correction command signals from the SQUARE PAIR radar with the S-200's own active radar terminal homing seeker head activated near the projected intercept point for final guidance. The large HE warhead is detonated either by a command signal or the onboard proximity fusing system. When fitted with a nuclear warhead only the command detonation option is used. SQUAT EYE Function Range Frequency Associated weapon system Recognition P-15M(2) 128 km C-band SA-3/5 Power 380kw

TALL KING Function Range Frequency Associated weapon system Recognition

P-14 EW 605 km A Band SA-5 Scan 2-6rpm

SIDE NET Function Range Frequency Associated weapon system Recognition

PRV-11 Height 28 km 32km Max altitude E-band SA-2/3/5

BACK NET Function

EW/GCI

Range Frequency Associated weapon system Recognition

300 km E-band SA-5 3-6 rpm Scan

BAR LOCK Function Range Frequency Associated weapon system Comments

P-35/37 EW 200 km E/F-bands SA-5 1 mw/b power PRF 375pps 7 rpm Scan BW .7deg PW 1.5, 4.5 us Accuracy range 350m AZ .14 deg

Recognition

Specifications
Maximum Speed Effective Altitude Effective Range Warhead Fuze Kill Radius 4 Mach 30.5 km 300 km HE 215kg Proximity and command Unknown

ZRK-SD Kub 3M9 SA-6 Gainful
The SA-6 GAINFUL is a two stage, solid-fuel, low-altitude SAM. It has radio command guidance with semi-active radar terminal homing. Development of the 3M9 antiaircraft missile for the Kub [Cube] system ended the career of Ivan Ivanovich Toporov, founder of the OKB-134 Special Engineering Office. The missile designed had not been experimentally verified, and it became necessary not only to build the missile but also to simultaneouly conduct basic research. During the initial test launch in 1961, the 3M9 missiles disintegrated in the air. The associated aerodynamic, engine, and guidance problems compelled Toporov to ask the Ministry of Armaments to extend the deadline for submitting the 3M9 to governmental tests. Toporov was removed from his post of chief engineer at the end of August 1961, becoming department chairman at the Moscow Institute of Aviation, and replaced by Andrey Lyapinov as director of the team. This did not accelerate the work on the 3M9. Finally in 1966 the missile together with all the Kub equipment was certified as an operational weapon, and it turned out to be one of the most successful Russian antiaircraft missiles. Although it is frequently reported that a naval version of the missile is the SA-N-3 GOBLET, this is evdiently not the case. The SA-6a missile has a length of 5.7 meters, body diameter of 0.335 meters, a wing span of 1.245 meters, a tail span of 1.524 meters and has a launch weight of 599 kilograms with a 56 kilogram HE-fragmentation warhead. The proximity and contact fuses are armed after some 50 meters of flight. The basic SA-6a has a maximum effective range of 24,000m and has a minimum effective range of 3,000m, the minimum engagement height is 100m when using the fire control (STRAIGHT FLUSH) radar and 80m when in the optical tracking mode, the maximum effective altitude is about 11,000m. A battery is able to relocate to an alternate firing position in approximately 15 minutes from systems being shutdown. In 1977, a new version - the SA-6b Gainful, was mounted on an SPU medium-tracked transporter. The SPU carried three SA-6b missiles and also an associated FIRE DOME H/I-band missile guidance illuminator radar is fitted on the front end of the launcher assembly. Reload missiles are carried on modified 6x6 trucks and are loaded manually onto the launcher by a crane carried on the rear of the loader vehicle. Reloading an TEL takes approximately 10 minutes. The STRAIGHT FLUSH fire control radar has a maximum range of 55 - 75km and a 10,000m altitude capability depending upon the conditions and target size, and performs limited search, low altitude detection and/or acquisition, pulse Doppler IFF interrogation, target tracking & illumination, missile radar command guidance and secondary radar missile tracking functions. Some modified fire control (STRAIGHT FLUSH) radars use a TV camera with a 30km range to enable the battery to remain in action even if the vehicle's radar is jammed or forced to shut down due to threats from anti-radiation missiles. This radar can also be linked to the launch vehicles by either a radio data link or a 10m long cable for direct data input to the launcher's systems. The data link antenna is carried on the right forward hull corner of the TEL. It also carries the fire control computers for the SA-6 Gainful missile battery.

The foldable 28km range dish antenna is of the conical scanning type and is used for low altitude H-band sector search scans, target tracking and target illumination. The lower parabolic antenna is the G-band medium altitude target acquisition and early warning radar with a 55-75km range, with the lower feed for medium to high altitude coverage and the upper feed for low altitude coverage. The STRAIGHT FLUSH fire control radar can begin target acquisition at its maximum range of 75km, and begin tracking & illumination at 28km. The STRAIGHT FLUSH radar can only illuminate a single target and control three missiles at any one time so normal practice when a target track has been initiated is to normally order the launch of two and sometimes three weapons from one or more TELs. STRAIGHT FLUSH Function: Fire control/short range target acquisition Can guide three missiles simultaneosly Range 60-90km, 10,000m alt Frequency G/H band (acquisition, I band (tracking) Associated weapon system SA-6 GAINFUL and possibly SA-11 GADFLY SAM, LONG TRACK, THIN SKIN target acquisition radars Recognition: Essentially same chassis as SA-6 12ft long search reflector with 7 ft diameter fire control parabolic dish on top Radars mounted on heavy turntable Reflector backs have hvy pressed metal appearance Radars can rotate independently of one another Assembly folds flat in transit With radar up, reaction time from a dormant condition through the target acquisition, IFF interrogation and lock-on phases to missile launch is about three minutes. If the radar vehicle is already active then the time taken for the sequence is reduced to between 15 to 30 seconds. A battery is able to become mobile and relocate to an alternate firing position in 15 minutes from systems being shutdown. The LONG TRACK target acquisition radar is also associated with the SA-6 system. After target data has been acquired by the SA-^ regiment's LONG TRACK surveillance radar, target acquistion and fire control are taken over by the STRAIGHT FLUSH missile site radars. LONG TRACK

Function:

Target acquisition

Range Frequency Associated weapon system

150 km+, 30,000+ alt. E band (UHF) SA-4 GANEF, SA-6 GAINFUL, SA-8 GECKO, PAT HAND fire control radar

Recognition:

Highly modified AT-T chassis Large eliptical parabolic antenna Operators' cab at front

The TELAR vehicle is of all-welded construction with the crew compartment at the front, missiles on the turntable immediately behind the crew compartment and the engine at the rear. The transmission is at the rear of the hull. The torsion bar suspension system consists of six rubber tired road wheels with the drive sprocket at the rear and the idler at the front. There are no track return rollers. The vehicle has an air filtration and over pressure NBC system and infra-red night vision equipment fitted as standard but the vehicle has no amphibious capability. Three SA-6 Gainful missiles are carried on a turntable which can be traversed through a full 360º with the missiles elevated on their launchers to a maximum of 85º. When traveling the turntable is normally traversed to the rear and the missiles are horizontal to reduce the overall height of the vehicle. Besides being vulnerable to suppresive fires and ECM, the system is slaved to the longrange LONG TRACK radar. Without it the SA-6 is "blind" at high altitudes.

Specifications
System designation Type Kub (domestic version) or Kvadrat (export version) Mobile tactical air defense complex Protection of troops and objects of thereof from lowflying airplanes and helicopters of adversary under conditions of jamming and fire counteraction (The system was reportedly designed to defend advancing Soviet tank divisions in case of the war) V.V.Tikhomirov Science and Research Institute of Instrument-Engineering (NIIP) Chief Designer of the System: Yevgeniy Pigin State Machine-building Design Bureau «Vympel» (Moscow) Ul'yanovsk Mechanical Plant (for launchers and reconnaissance facility)

Mission

System Developer

Missile Developer Serial Production Facility CHRONOLOGY

Development started late 1950s Testing started Serial Production started Production ceased PERFORMANCES: One Self-Propelled Reconnaissance and Targeting Facility and 4 Self-propelled SAM Launchers, each System Composition carrying three missiles (all on tracked chassis). Initial version of the system carried 3M9 missiles, Kub-M3 features 3M9M3 missiles Probability of kill by one missile (within To increase Pk target can be engaged by several the lethality missiles, fired from either single or several Launchers envelope) for «non manuevering 0.8-0.9 [1], 0.7-0.8 [2] 0.8-0.95 [3] aerodynamic target» for manuevering high0.5-0.7 [2] speed target for cruise missile 0.3-0.4 [1] 0.1-0.3 [2] 1965 (Army) 1968 [1] or 1967 [3] 1983 [3] or 1985 [1]

Missile Guidance

semi-active radar homing (on recently upgraded complexes TV/optical seeker introduced) For protection aganst anti-radar missiles seeker of SAM can lock on target mid-air, after launch 5.8 m 0.335 m 1.245 m Mach 2.8 599 kg

Length: Diameter: Wing span: Max speed: Launch weight:

Max effective range: 24,000 m 24-28 kilometers [1-3] (for M3 and M4 modifications) Min effective range: 3,700 m 3-3.5 kilometers (for M3 and M4 modifications) Max effective altitude: Min effective altitude: Propulsion: Warhead: Reload time (SPU): 12,000 m 14 kilometers (for M3 and M4 modifications) (radar mode) 100 m (optical mode) 50 m 25 meters (for M3 and M4 modifications) integral rocket motor/ramjet booster and sustainer motor assembly 59 kg HE fragmentation with contact and proximity fuzes 10 min

Time of Deployment 5 minutes for Combat Reaction Time Operational Temperatures 20 [1] or 22 [3] seconds between target detection and missile firing -50 C .. + 50 C «In the interests of foreign customers» NIIP currently upgrades the system to increase efficiency of tracking targets at low altitudes and improve jam-resistance of illumination channel. Work is also underway to increase combat performance can be enhanced by inclusion of a newer 9A310M1 Self-propelling Launcher from BukM1 (SA-17) system Was delivered to 22 [1] or 25 [3] countries, including

Performance Upgrade Activity

Exports

Syria and Yugoslavia. Extensively used in the 1973 Israeli-Arab war (64 airplanes were shot down by 95 fired missiles)

SA-N-3

SA-7 GRAIL 9K32M Strela-2 HN-5 (Hongying 5) China Anza MKI - Pakistan Ayn as Saqr - Egypt
The SA-7 GRAIL (Strela-2) man-portable, shoulder-fired, low-altitude SAM system is similar to the US Army REDEYE, with a high explsive warhead and passive infrared homing guidance. The HN-5 ( Hong Nu = Red Cherry ) is an improved Chinese version with upgraded capabilities. The SA-7 was the first generation of Soviet man portable surface-to-air missiles. Although classed as "fire and forget" types, the missiles were easily overcome by solar heat and, when used in hilly terrain, by heat from the ground. The SA-7 seeker is fitted with a filter to reduce the effectiveness of decoying flares and to block IR emissions. The system consists of the missile (9K32 & 9K32M), a reloadable gripstock (9P54 & 9P54M), and a thermal battery (9B17). An identification friend or foe (IFF) system can be fitted to the operators helmet. Further, a supplementary early warning system consisting of a passive RF antenna and headphones can be used to provide early cue about the approach and rough direction of an enemy aircraft. Although the SA-7 is limited in range, speed, and altitude, it forces enemy pilots to fly above minimum radar limitations which results in detection and vulnerability to regimental and divisional air defense systems. The SA-7a (9K32 Strela-2) was introduced for service in 1968, but was soon replaced by the SA-7b (9K32M Strela-2M) which became the most common production model. The SA-7b, differs from the SA-7a primarily by using a boosted propellant charge to increase range and speed. The SA-7a had a slant range of 3.6 km and a kill zone between 15 and 1500 meters in altitude, with a speed of about 430 meters per second (Mach 1.4). The SA-7b has a slant range of about 4.2 km, a ceiling of about 2300 meters, and a speed of about 500 meters per second (Mach 1.75). Both the SA-7a and SA-7b are tail-chase missile systems, and its effectiveness depends on its ability to lock onto the heat source of low-flying fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft targets. The Anza anti-aircraft missiles give Pakistan a response to India's superiority in modern aircraft -- India has a numerical superiority in modern fighter aircraft of more than 3 to 1 over Pakistan. The Anza MK-1, Anza MK-2, and Anza MK-3 surface to air anti-aircraft missiles have ranges of 4, 6 and 15 km, respectively. The missiles are manufactured by the laboratory named after Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, the father of Pakistan's nuclear program.

The Anza MKI missiles, which have a range of 4.2 km, were manufactured and handed over to the military forces in 1990. It has been reported that the missile was used during the Kargil incidents between Pakistan and India. Pakistan downed two of India's military planes, a MIG-21 and a MIG-27, with the Anza MKI missiles for violating its airspace on 26 May 1999. Egyptian technicians have reverse engineered and modified two Soviet SAMs -- the Ayn as Saqr (a version of the SA-7) and the Tayir as Sabah (a version of the SA-2). The Ayn as Saqr [Falcon Eye] anti-Aircraft missile system is designed to counter air-ground attack by all types of aircraft flying at low and very low altitudes due to its simplicity of operation, accuracy, light weight, mobility & versatility (either by one man or to be integrated into other overall A/D systems). Also it can be mounted on any combat vehicle, light or armored. Moreover the basic equipment can be fitted with IFF & night vision units.

Specifications
Date of Introduction Proliferation Crew Launcher Name Length (m) Diameter (mm) Weight (kg) Reaction Time Time Between Launches (sec) Reload Time (sec) Missile Name Max. Range Min. Range Max. Altitude Min. Altitude Length (m) Diameter (mm) Weight (kg) Missile Speed (m/s) 1972 Worldwide 1 9P54M 1.47 70 4.71 5-10 seconds (acquisition to fire) INA 6-10 9M32M 5,500 meters 500 meters 4,500 meters 18 meters 1.40 70 9.97 580

Propulsion Guidance Seeker Field of View Tracking Rate Warhead Type

Solid fuel booster and solid fuel sustainer rocket motor. Passive IR homing device (operating in the medium IR range) 1.9° 6°/sec HE

Warhead Weight (kg) 1.15 Fuze Type Self-Destruct (sec) FIRE CONTROL Contact (flush or grazing) 15 Launcher has sighting device and a target acquisitionindicator. The gunner visually identifies and acquires the target.

Gunner Field of View INA Acquisition Range (m) INA SA-N-5 Naval version HN-5A Chinese version Strela 2M/A Yugoslavian upgrade Sakr Eye Egyptian upgrade Mounted in several types of vehicles in four, six, and eight-tube launcher varieties. Can be mounted on several helicopters (Mi-24, S-342 Gazelle)

VARIANTS

ANZA MK-1 Specifications

Type Length Weight Propulsion Guidance

2-stage, low altitude (missile, with retracted tail fins) 1.44 m (total launch assembly in firing condition) 15 Kg (Missile at launch) 9.8 Kg solid fuel booster and solid fuel sustainer rocket motor uncooled Pbs passive infrared homing seeker

Warhead Average missile cruise speed Max missile manoeuvring Self destruction time Max target speed Max effective slant range Min effective slant range

HE fragmentation (containing 0.37 Kg HE) with contact and graze fuzing 500 m/s 6g 14-17 s (receding target) 260 m/s 4,200 m 1,200 m

Max effective altitude 50 m Weapon reaction time Time from march to ready Battery operation time less than 5 s less than 10 s for operation more than 40 s

HN-5 (Hongying 5)

Anza MK-1

Ayn as Saqr

SA-8 GECKO 9K33M3 Osa-AKM
The SA-8 GECKO is a single-stage, solid-fuel, short-range, low-altitude, all-weather SAM system. The first production version of this system was identified as SA-8a, which only had 4 launcher rails and exposed missiles. The SA-8b typically has two BAZ-5937 resupply/transloader vehicles, carrying 18 missiles each (boxed in sets of three) that supports a battery of four TELARs. A target can be brought under fire both with one missile as well as a volley of two missiles. This system is also air transportable. The SA-8a (GECKO Mod 0) high acceleration missile (Factory Index number 9M33) has a launch weight of about 130 kg. Maximum speed is Mach 2.4, minimum altitude is 25 meters, maximum effective altitude 5000 meters. The minimum range is 1500 meters and the maximum range 12000 meters. The SA-8b or GECKO Mod 1, introduced in 1980, is mounted in a rectangular launch box and incorporates improved guidance and higher speed providing an increased maximum range of 15000 meters. The warhead of both missiles is fitted with proximity and contact fuses, and the 19 kilogram warhead's lethal radius at low altitude is about 5 meters. The system reload time is five minutes, and combat deployment time is four minutes with system reaction 26 seconds. The LAND ROLL conical-scan fire control radar operates in the H-band with a 360º travers, with a maximum range of 35 kilometers and an effective range of around 30 kilometers against a typical target. LAND ROLL also has a short-range target acquisition capability. The radar, at the rear of a one-man gunner-radar operator position, folds back 90º to reduce the overall height of the vehicle for air transport and high speed road travel. The pulsedmode tracking radar operates in the J band with a range of 20 to 25 kilometers. The two Iband guidance radars make it possible to launch two missiles at the same target, each one responding to a different frequency to frustrate ECM. Mounted on top of each missile guidance radar is an low light level TV optical assist system for target tracking in low visibility and heavy ECM. The SA-8 transporter erector launcher and radar (TELAR) vehicle is a six-wheeled design designated BAZ-5937. Four command-guided missiles are carried ready to launch, two either side. The driver's compartment at the front of the vehicle has accommodation for two, the driver and commander, with access via a hatch in the roof. The engine is at the very rear, and the vehicle is fully amphibious, being propelled in the water by two water jets at the rear of the hull. The vehicle is fitted with an air filtration and overpressure NBC system together with IR systems for the commander and driver. There are at least three major families of SA-8 launch vehicles. The first, a pre-series prototype, had a very blunt nose. The standard production model has a sharper nose, and variants of this vehicle with feature minor changes in the detail of hull fittings. The SA8b vehicle is basically similar to the SA-8a vehicle aside from the launcher which accommodates six missile canisters. Variants of the SA-8b launcher feature a

reconfigured rear end, while some SA-8b TELs include an additional small radar antenna fitted above the surveillance radar associated with a newIFF system. Each battery has two missile transloaders based on the same chassis with a long tarpcovered structure covering the cargo space and crane which slides to the rear when operating. A total of 18 reloads in boxed sets of three are transferred to the TELARs by the centrally-mounted hydraulic crane. Regimental maintenance batteries include a single radar collimation vehicle using the same chassis. The collimation antenna lies on both sides of the vehicle and overhangs the rear during transit. In operation it is raised and mounted on each side of the hull directly behind the cab.

Specifications
Date of Introduction Proliferation Crew Combat Weight (mt) TELAR Length (m) Height (m) Width (m) Engine Type 1980 At least 25 countries 3 9 BAZ-5937 6x6 amphibious cross-country capable vehicle 9.14 4.2 (with surveillance radar folded down) 2.75 D20K300 diesel

Cruising Range (km) 500 Max. Road Speed Max. Swim Speed Radio Protection Launcher Name Length (m) Diameter (mm) Weight (kg) Reaction Time (sec) Time Between 80 km/h 8 km/h R-123M NBC Protection System 9P35M2 3.2 INA 35 INA 4

Launches (sec) Reload Time (min) Fire on Move Emplacement Time (min) Displacement Time (min) Missile Name Max. Range Min. Range Max. Altitude Min. Altitude Length Diameter Weight Missile Speed Propulsion Guidance Warhead Type Fuze Type Warhead Weight Self-Destruct FIRE CONTROL IFF Radar Name Function 5 No 4 Less than 4 (est.) 9M33M3 15,000 meters 200 meters 12,000 meters 10 meters 3158 mm 209.6 mm 170 kg 1020 m/s Solid propellant rocket motor RF CLOS Frag-HE Contact and proximity 16 kg 25-28 seconds Sights w/Magnification LLLTV/optical assist (for target tracking in low visibility and heavy ECM) Yes LAND ROLL Target Acquisition

Detection Range (km) 20-30 Tracking Range (km) 20-25 Frequency Frequency Band 6-8 GHz H

Radar Name Function

Monopulse Target Tracking Radar Target Tracking

Detection Range (km) 20-25 Tracking Range (km) INA Frequency Frequency Band Missile tracking radars Frequency VARIANTS 14.2-14.8 GHz J 2 10-20 GHz SA-8a Initial production model that carries four missiles on exposed rails. 4K33 Osa-M (SA-N-4) Naval variant

SA-9 GASKIN 9K31 Strela-1
The SA-9 GASKIN is a short-range, low-altitude self-propelled SAM-carrying system based on the BRDM-2 chassis. The vehicle carries quadruple SA-9 SAM launchers on a revolving mount in place of the KPV/PK machine gun turret. The missiles are usually fired in pairs against each target to increase the kill probability, with an interval between rounds of about five seconds. Reloading is performed manually and takes about five minutes. The 30 kilogram Mach 1.5 Strela-1 missile is 1.8 meters long and 0.12 meters in diameter with a wing span of 0.375 meters. It carries an HE-fragmentation warhead and proximity fuse with a lethal radius of 5 meters and damage radius of 7.6 meters. The original version of the Strela-1 was known as the 9M31 (SA-9A GASKIN Mod 0) and used an uncooled first-generation lead sulfide (PbS) infra-red (IR) seeker operating. This was supplemented by the 9M31M variant (SA-9B GASKIN Mod 1) which has an improved seeker providing greater target sensitivity and lock on ability. The minimum range of the 9M31 is 800 m and the maximum range 6500 m within altitude limits of 15 to 5200 m. The minimum range of the 9M31M is 560 meters and the maximum range 8000 meters (increasing to a possible 11000 meters when used in a tail-chase engagement) within altitude limits of 10 to 6100 meters. When engaging a head-on target the system has a considerably reduced range. One SA-9 TEL (SA-9 Mod A, BRDM-2A1 or SA-9A TEL) in each battery is fitted with FLAT BOX A passive radar detection antenna, one either side of the hull above the front wheel housings, one under the left launch canisters pointing forward and one mounted on a small frame above the rear engine deck plate pointing rearwards to give 360º coverage. The TEL without the FLAT BOX A system is known as the SA-9 Mod-B, BRDM-2A2 or SA-9B. The BRDM-2 transporter erector launcher (TEL) has the chain-driven belly wheels removed and the normal turret replaced by one with four ready to launch SA-9 containerlauncher boxes. These are normally lowered to the horizontal when traveling to reduce the overall height of the vehicle. The vehicle crew of three consists of the commander, driver and gunner. An air-filtration and overpressure NBC system are standard.

Missile Specifications
9M31 Length: Diameter: Wing span: 1.803 m 0.12 m 0.36 9M31M 1.803 m 0.12 m 0.36

Max speed: Max target speed: Launch weight: Max effective range: Min effective range: Max effective altitude: Min effective altitude: Guidance:

Mach 1.8 300 m/s 32 kg 4,200 m 800 m 3,500 m 30 m 1-3  waveband uncooled PbS passive IR homing seeker

Mach 1.8 300 m/s 32 kg 8,000 m 560 m 6,100 m 10 m 1-5  waveband cooled PbS passive IR homing seeker

Propulsion:

single-stage solid propellant single-stage solid rocket motor propellant rocket motor 2.6 kg HE fragmentation with contact and proximity fuzing 4 5 Passive radar detection antenna giving 360º coverage 2.6 kg HE fragmentation with contact and proximity fuzing

Warhead:

basic load on vehicle reload time (min) radar(s)

emplace/displace time (min) chassis

25895 Modified BRDM-2 chassis 4 wheels

speed, road water road range (kg) crew

100 10 750 3

S-300PMU SA-10 GRUMBLE SA-N-6 GRUMBLE HQ-10/15 (Chinese licensed copy)
The S-300PMU [SA-10 land-based, SA-N-6 naval version] surface-toair missile system is able to engage a number of targets simultaneously, countering intensive aircraft raids at low-to-high altitude. The SA-10 offers significant advantages over older strategic surface-to-air missile systems, including multitarget handling and engagement characteristics, a capability against low altitude targets with small radar cross-sections such as cruise missiles, a capability against tactical ballistic missiles, and possibly a potential to intercept some types of strategic ballistic missiles. The first SA-10 site became operational in 1980. Over 80 sites were operational by 1987, when work was progressing on at least another 20 sites. Nearly half of these sites were located near Moscow. This emphasis on Moscow as well as the deployment patterns noted for the other SA-10 sites suggested a first priority on terminal defense of command-and-control, military, and key industrial complexes. A program to replace all of the older strategic SAM systems with the SA10, well under way by 1996, has been considered by experts to be one of the most successful reequipment programs of the post-Soviet armed forces. This vertically launched missile uses a single-stage solid propellant rocket motor. It is normally armed with a 100 kg HE-fragmentation warhead with a proximity fuse, though a low yield tactical nuclear type is believed to be an alternative warhead option. The missile's vertical launch trajectory provides fastest available reaction time capability to counter targets approaching from any azimuth. Missile engagement altitude extend from 25 m up to about 30000 m. The maximum engagement range is stated as at least 90000 m, though in practice it is probably greater. The SA-10A launch complex consists of a missile battery which includes a battery command post and engagement control center, the large CLAM SHELL 3D continuous wave pulse Doppler target acquisition radar, the FLAP LID A I-band multi-function phased-array trailer-mounted engagement radar with digital beam steering in hardened sites, and up to 12 semi-trailer erector-launchers which mount four tubular missile container-launchers. The towing unit for the semi-trailer erector-launcher is the KrAZ260V (6 x 6) tractor truck. The launchers are usually positioned on concrete pads with the trailers being leveled by the use of four hydraulic jacks. An S-300PMU Regiment comprises three such batteries and employs the BIG BIRD 4 meter tall F-band long-

range, 3D surveillance and tracking radar at the Regimental command post for initial target detection. In the mid-1980s design work on the mobile S-300PMU SA-10B GRUMBLE Mod 1 was completed. This version of the weapon is carried and vertically launched from a dedicated four-round capacity transporter-erector launcher vehicle based on the MAZ-7910 (8 x 8) truck chassis. The combined engagement radar and control station is mounted on the same chassis. The SA-10B mobile missile battery comprises the combined FLAP LID B engagement radar and engagement control/command post station mounted on a MAZ-7910 chassis, up to 12 TELs (SPU: mobile launcher unit), a trailer-mounted 36D6; CLAM SHELL 3D 360º scanning target designation radar, and a maintenance section. The SA-10B Regiment consists of three such batteries with an additional radar section and a number of TZM (transport-loader vehicles) MAZ-7910 transloaders for resupply purposes. The TEL carries a total of four sealed container-launcher cylinders, each of which is used for the storage, transport and launching of a missile. When traveling the launcher system is carriedin the horizontal position but at the launch site is elevated to an angle of 90º. The combined FLAP LID-B radar/engagement control vehicle has the 2.75 m2 planar array antenna on a box-like antenna mount and support systems container. When traveling the array is carried horizontally, and when deployed it is raised above the container to an angle of approximately 60º. The battery takes only five minutes to deploy once it comes to the halt. The vehicles have electronic inter-vehicle communications and data transmission links with elevatable poletype antenna, and thus it does not require interconnecting vehicle cables. Each of the MAZ-7910 derivative vehicles has four hydraulic jacks positioned either side between the first/second and third/fourth road wheels which are lowered to the ground to provide a more stable and level environment. Missile guidance is of the Track-Via-Missile (TVM) type with the FLAP LID guidance radar capable of engaging up to six targets simultaneously, with two missiles assigned per target to ensure a high kill probability. Maximum target velocity is stated as 4200 km/h with the battery capable of firing three missiles per second. If the battery is employed in rugged terrain or forest then the engagement radar system can be mounted on a special trailer-mounted extendible 24.4 m high tower to improve radar coverage. The use of this extended-range radar for low level engagements increases the system's range to 43,200 m from the original 32,000 m. In its sealed containerlauncher cylinder the missile is considered to be a round of ammunition and is said not to require any check-ups or adjustments for a period of 10 years.

The S-300PMU1 is an extended range version of S-300PMU with a limited anti-ballistic missile capability, including capabilities against aerodynamic targets with speeds up to 3 kilometers/second. The S-300PMU2 Favorit variant is a new missile with larger warhead and better guidance with a range of 200 km, versus the 150 km of previous versions. Unveiled at the MAKS'97 exhibition in August 1997, it represents a thorough modification of the S300PMU1. The first tests were performed on 10 August 1995 at the Kapustin Yar firing range. One new element is the entirely new 96L6E autonomous mobile radar, which works in conjunction with the 83M6E2 control post and S-300MPU2 launchers. The new 48N6E2 missile, developed by MKB Fakel, weighs 1,800 kg, and is 7.5 m long and 0.5 m in diameter. After a cold start in the upright position with help of a catapult, the 48N6E2 accelerates up to 1,900 m/s in 12 sec time, and then approaches the target from above. The 48N6E2 differs from the older 48N6E in having a new warhead specially designed for destroying ballistic missiles, with a warhead weight of 145 kg versus 70-100 kg. The S-300PMU2 Favorit can engage targets flying from 10 m to 27 km above the surface at a speed of up to 10,000 km/h. It is claimed that it has a kill ratio ranging from 0.8 to 0.93 against aircraft and from 0.8 to 0.98 against Tomahawk-class cruise missiles.

Export Sales
China In the early 1990s China imported 100-120 S-300 missile systems which are deployed aroung Bejing, and it has been suggested that China intends to obtain a license to produce them, with a designation variously reported as either HQ-10 or HQ-15. The first Chinese copy have been tested, but all the components of the first copy version were imported from Russia. The October 1999 parade celebrating the 50th anniversary of the People's Republic of China in Beijing featured a large number of truck towed quad-cannister systems associated with the SA-10. India Since 1995 India has been negotiating with Russia regarding purchase of the S300, in response to Pakistan's deployment of M-11 missiles from China. In 1995 Russian Defense Deputy Minister Kokoshin offered to sell S-300 missiles during his trip to India. Following this offer Indian officials started negotiations with the Russian manufacturers, and in August 1995 the Indian Defense Secretary Nambiar went to Russia to observe tests of the missiles near Moscow. The $1 billion purchase is said to include six S-300 systems, with each combat system consisting of 48 missiles. Reportedly in June 1996 27 S-300 missiles were delivered to India. Cyprus signed an agreement with Rosvooruzhenie (Russian Armament) state arms-trade agency on 4 January 1996.

South Korea discussed possible purchase of the SA-10, prior to deciding in late 1999 to purchase the American Patriot PAC-3.

Specifications
Builder Lemgth Diameter Weight Propulsiom Range, (km) Altitude, (m) Basic load on vehicle Detection range, km Reaction time, sec Speed Reload time Warhead Command guidance Radar(s) Emplace/displace time (min) Support vehicles Chassis Flap Lid or Tombstone engagement radar Clam Shell acquisition radar Big Bird designation radar 70-100 kg high explosive - 5V55K 145 kg high explosive - 48N6 S-300PMU1 1.7 km./sec S-300P 2.0 km./sec S-300PMU Almaz Scientific-Production Association 7.0 m 7.5 m - 48N6 S-300PMU1 0.45 m 0.50 m - 48N6 S-300PMU1 1,480 kg 1,800 kg - 48N6 S-300PMU1 Single-stage, solid-fuel rocket 45 km - 5V55K 90 km - 5V55R 150-200 km - 48N6 S-300PMU1 30,000 m

SA-N-6

SA-11 GADFLY 9K37M1 BUK-1M
The SA-11 GADFLY is a medium-range, semi-active, radar-guided missile using solidrocket propulsion that provides defense against high-performance aircraft and cruise missiles. The SA-11 represents a considerable improvement over the earlier SA-6 GAINFUL system, and can engage six separate targets simultaneously, rather than the single target capability of the SA-6. Single-shot kill probability are claimed to be 60-90% against aircraft, 30-70% against helicopters, and 40% against cruise missiles, a significant improvement over the SA-6. The system is more mobile, taking only about 5 minutes to move from road march to engagement. The new system also offers significantly greater resistance to ECM than previous systems. The SA-11 system is comprised of the TELAR (9A310M1), Loader/Launcher (9A39M1), SNOW DRIFT Surveillance Radar (9S18M1), and Command and Control vehicle (9S470M1). The Mach 3 semi-active homing 9M28M1 missile has a maximum slant range of 28 km and a minimum range of 3 km. It is capable of engaging targets between altitudes of 30 and 14000 m and can sustain 23 g maneuvers. The solid fuel missile is 5.6 meters long with a diameter is 0.4 m and a wing span is 1.2 m. The launch weight is 650 kg, which includes a 70 kg HE warhead with a 17 meter lethal radius. The SNOW DRIFT warning and acquisition radar provides target height, bearing and range data. The SNOW DRIFT has a detection range of 85 km against high-flying targets, 35 km against targets at an altitude of 100 meters, and 23 km against targets flying nap-of-the-earth (NOE). The radar's tracking range extending from 70 km for highflying targets to 20 km for NOE targets. Tracking of helicopters hovering at 30 m can be made as far as 10 km. Once a target is identified it is turned over to an TELAR via a data link for tracking and attack. The SNOW DRIFT receives early warning from brigadelevel surveillance radars such as the SPOON REST. The H/I-band FIRE DOME monopulse guidance and tracking engagement radar has an effective guidance range of 3-32 km and an altitude envelope 15 meters to 22 km, and can engage approaching targets moving at a maximum of 3000 km/h (1860 mph). The radar guides as many as three missiles against a single target. The SA-11 GADFLY system also can be fitted with a supplementary electro-optical sighting system for use in a severe jamming environment, which would overwhelm the normal semi-active radar homing system -- in which case the missile uses radiocommand guidance. The TELAR, based on the GM-569 tracked chassis, carries four ready to fire missiles on a turntable that can traverse a full 360º and FIRE DOME radar. The tracked Surveillance Radar vehicle uses the same chassis and carries the SNOW DRIFT radar. The Command and Control vehicle works in conjunction with the SNOW DRIFT radar. The Loader/Launcher vehicle (LLV) resembles the normal TELAR, but replaces the FIRE DOME fire control radar with a hydraulic crane for reloading 9M38 missiles. The LLV

can load itself in rear areas from the 9T229 transporter in 15 minutes, and take those missiles to reload the TELAR in about 13 minutes. The LLV can also launch missiles, though it requires radar guidance from a nearby TELAR.

Specifications
SA-11 GADFLY Missile Characteristics: DOI Status Length (m) Diameter (m) Weight at launch (kg) Propulsion system Booster Sustainer Launch rails/tubes Guidance Warhead (type) Performance: Max. velocity (Mach) Max. altitude (m) Min altitude (m) Operational range (km) 3 (est.) 15,000 (est.) 25-30 (est.) 30 (est.) 3 (est.) Reload time (min) INA Solid Solid 2 or 4 canister tubes Semiactive radar homing HE 1979 Standard 5.7 0.13 55

Associated radars Recognition:

U/I acquistion radar; U/I tracking radar; possible STRAIGHT FLUSH Variant ZSU-23-4 chassis 4 missiles mounted side-by-side on launch rails

Entire missile system mounted on turntable

Vehicle:

Tracked, transporter, erector, and launcher (TTEL)

S-300V SA-12A GLADIATOR and SA-12B GIANT HQ-18
The S-300V (SA-12) low-to-high Altitude, tactical surface to air missile system also has anti-ballistic missile capabilities. The HQ-18 reportedly the designation of a Chinese copy of the Russian S300V, though the details of this program remain rather conjectural. In early 1996 Russia astounded the United States Army by marketing the Russian SA-12 surface-to-air missile system in the UAE in direct competition with the United States Army's Patriot system. Rosvooruzheniye offered the UAE the highest-quality Russian strategic air defense system, the SA-12 Gladiator, as an alternative to the Patriot at half the cost. The offer also included forgiveness of some of Russia's debt to the UAE. The S-300V consists of:
         

9M82 SA-12b GIANT missile 9M83 SA-12a GLADIATOR missile 9A82 SA-12b GIANT TELAR 9A93 SA-12a GLADIATOR TELAR 9A84 GIANT Launcher/Loader Vehicle (LLV) 9A85 GLADIATOR Launcher/Loader Vehicle (LLV) 9S15 BILL BOARD Surveillance Radar system 9S19 HIGH SCREEN Sector Radar system 9S32 GRILL PAN Guidance Radar system 9S457 Command Station

The 9M83 SA-12a GLADIATOR is a dual-role anti-missile and anti-aircraft missile with a maximum range between 75 and 90 km. The 9M82 SA-12b GIANT missile, configured primarily for the ATBM role, is a longer range system [maximum range between 100 and 200 km] with a longer fuselage with larger solid-fuel motor. The 9A82 SA-12b GIANT and 9A93 SA-12a GLADIATOR TELAR vehicles are similar, though the 9A83-1 carries four 9M83 SA-12a GLADIATOR missiles, whereas the 9A82 carries only two 9M82 SA-12b GIANT missiles. The configuration of the

vehicles command radar is also different. On the 9A83-1 the radar is mounted on a folding mast providing 360º coverage in azimuth and full hemispheric coverage in elevation. The radar on the 9M82 TELAR is mounted in a semi-fixed position over the cab, providing 90º coverage on either side in azimuth and 110º in elevation. The TELARs are not capable of autonomous engagements, requiring the support of the GRILL PAN radar. The 9S457-1 Command Post Vehicle is the command and control vehicle for the SA-12 system, which is supported by the BILL BOARD A surveillance radar and the HIGH SCREEN sector radar. The CPV and its associated radars can detect up to 200 targets, track as many as 70 targets and designate 24 of the targets to the brigade's four GRILL PAN radar systems for engagement by the SA-12a and SA-12b TELARs. The BILL BOARD A radar provides general surveillance, with the antenna rotating every 6-12 seconds. The radar, which can detect up to 200 targets, provides target coverage of 0-55º in elevation and 10-250 km in range with an accuracy is 30-35 min of arc in azimuth and 250 m in range. and. The HIGH SCREEN sector radar supporst the ATBM role, providing surveillance of anticipated azimuths of threat missiles. The radar is switches to a tracking mode when high speed targets are detected, automatically transmiting the trajectory parameters to the Command Post Vehicle. The CPV prioritizes the threat and instructs the HIGH SCREEN radar to track specific missiles, with the maximum being 16 simultaneous targets. The GRILL PAN radar system controls the battery's launcher vehicles (TELARs and LLVs). It can simultaneously track up to 12 targets and control up to six missiles against these targets The radar can acquire targets with a radar cross-section of 2m2 at a range of 150 km in manual mode and 140 km in automatic mode. The GRILL PAN tracks targets assigned to it by the CP while simultaneously maintaining a horizon search for new targets. The LLVs (9A85 GLADIATOR and 9A83 GLADIATOR) resemble normal TELARs, but with a loading crane rather than command radars. While the primary role of the LLV is to replenish the TELARs, they can also erecting and launch missiles if needed, though they are dependent on the use of command radars from neighboring TELARs.

Specifications

SA-12a
Range, (km) Altitude, (m) Basic load on vehicle Detection range, km Reaction time, sec Speed Reload time Warhead Command guidance Radar(s) Emplace/displace time (min) Support vehicles Chassis 6-75 km 25 km 4 missiles on launcher

1.7 km./sec 150 kg, HE Combined, inertial with semi-active self-guidance GRILL PAN missile guidance radar, BILL BOARD surveillance radar, HIGH SCREEN sector scan radar 5 TELAR, Transloader, command post Variations of the MT-T chassis are used for the launch vehicle, loader-launcher vehicle, missile guidance station, command post vehicle, and the radars.

Specifications

SA-12b
Range, (km) Altitude, (m) Basic load on vehicle Detection range, km Reaction time, sec Speed Reload time Warhead Command guidance Radar(s) Emplace/displace time (min) Support vehicles Chassis 13-100 km 1-30 km 2 missiles on launcher

2.4 km./sec. 150 kg, HE Combined, inertial with semi-active self-guidance GRILL PAN missile guidance radar, BILL BOARD surveillance radar, HIGH SCREEN sector scan radar 5 TELAR, Transloader, command post Variations of the MT-T chassis are used for the launch vehicle, loader-launcher vehicle, missile guidance station, command post vehicle, and the radars.

SA-13 GOPHER ZRK-BD Strela-10
The SA-13 GOPHER [ZRK-BD Strela-10] is a short-range, low altitude SAM system. The SA-13 missile (9M37) is 2.2 m long, 0.12 m in diameter with a 0.4 m wingspan and has a maximum speed of Mach 2. It carries a 5 kg HE warhead and is fitted with either an improved passive lead sulfide all-aspect infra-red seeker unit, or a cryogenically cooled passive all-aspect infra-red seeker unit. The estimated minimum range of the SA-13 is 500 meters and the maximum effective range of 5000 meters with altitude engagement limits of 10 to 3500 meters. The SA-13 Strela-10M3 variant is designed to defend troops on the march from low level aircraft and helicopters, precision-guided munitions and reconnaissance RPVs. The major change is the adoption of a dual mode guidance system for the missile seeker - optical 'photo-contrast' and dual band passive IR. The 9M333 missile weighs 42 kg at launch and when in its container-launcher the box-like canister has a total mass of 74 kg. Target acquisition range using the optical 'photo-contrast' channel is between 2000-8000 meters while for the IR channel it is between 2300-5300 meters. Altitude engagement limits are from 10 meter up to 3500 meters at a maximum range of 5000 meters. Average missile speed is 550 m/s. The HE-fragmentation rod warhead weighs 5 kg in total (including 2.6 kg of HE) and uses both contact and active laser proximity fusing systems. The actuation radius of the proximity fuse is up to 4 meters. The dual mode passive optical 'photocontrast/IR seeker ensures good IR decoy counter-countermeasures discrimination capability and optimum use of the system against extremely low altitude targets and in adverse weather conditions. The SA-13 incorporates the range-only HAT BOX radar which provides the operator the targets range to the system to prevent wastage of missiles outside the effective range of the system. The HAT BOX circular parabolic radar antenna is located between the two pairs of missile canisters. There are two versions of the SA-13 transporter erector launcher and radar (TELAR). The TELAR-1 carries four FLAT BOX B passive radar detection antenna units, one on either corner of the vehicle's rear deck, one facing aft and one between the driver's vision ports at the front, whereas the TELAR-2, which is used by the SA-13 battery commander, has none. The SA-13 TELAR is a modified MT-LB amphibious armored tracked vehicle with the machine-gun turret removed. The launcher pedestal mounted to the rear of center of the vehicle is 360º traversable. It incorporates the operators position behind a large, rectangular window at its base. Normally the TELAR carries four ready to fire SA-13 missile container-launchers and eight reloads in the cargo compartment but it can also carry either SA-9 GASKIN container-launcher boxes in their place or a mixture of the two. This enables the the cheaper SA-9 (Strela-1) to be used against the easier targets and the more expensive and sophisticated SA-13 (Strela-10) against the difficult targets. The missile mix also allows a choice of infra-red (IR) seeker types on the missiles for use against extremely low altitude targets and in adverse weather.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Effective range Altitude Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability basic load on vehicle reload time (min) fire control 8 3 IR homing, cooled seeker, dual frequency 600-5000 meters 10-3500 meters IR homing, cooled seeker, dual frequency

radar(s)

SNAP SHOT (range only) PIE RACK (IFF)

emplace/displace time (min) support vehicles chassis

40 sec 14631 MT-LB

speed, road water road range (kg) crew

60 6 500 3

SA-14 GREMLIN 9K34 Strela-3
SA-14 GREMLIN (Strela-3 9K34) man-portable SAM is the successor to the SA-7/SA7b (Strela-2 9K32 and Strela-2M 9K32M). The system consists of the 9P59 gripstock, 9P51 thermal battery/gas reservoir, and 9M36-1 missile. The external appearance of the SA-14 is very similar to the SA-7, and the gripstock, launch canister and aft missile body are almost identical. The most significant differences are the new seeker system and the substitution of a ball-shaped 9P51 thermal battery and gas reservoir for the SA-7's canister shaped battery. The SA-14's new nitrogen-cooled lead sulfide seeker allows it to home in on the exhaust plume of jet engines, turboprop and helicopter gas turbine engines. The enhanced seeker allowed the SA-14 to be fired against targets from much broader angles, as well as defeating countermeasures such as exhaust shrouds. Optical filtration was added to the seeker to reduce vulnerability to typical IRCM flares. The warhead of the SA-14 was nearly doubled in weight over the small warhead of the SA-7. The guidance electronics were reduced in weight and a new solid-propellant motor was introduced, compensating for the heavier warhead and improving aerodynamic performance. The SA-14 has a maximum range of 4500 meters, and a maximum altitude of 3000 meters.

Specifications
Designation Date of Introduction Proliferation Crew Launcher Name Dimensions Length (m) Diameter (mm) Weight (kg) Reaction Time (sec) Time Between Launches (sec) Reload Time (sec) Missile Name Max. Range (m) Min. Range (m) 1.40 75 2.95 14 35-40 25 9M36 or 9M36-1 6,000 600 9K34 Strela-3 1978 Worldwide 1 9P59

Max. Altitude (m) Min. Altitude (m) Length (m) Diameter (mm) Fin Span (mm) Weight (kg) Missile Speed (m/s) Propulsion Guidance Seeker Field of View Tracking Rate Warhead Type

6,000 50 1.4 m 75 mm INA 10.3 600 2-stage solid-propellant rocket passive IR homing INA INA Frag-HE

Warhead Weight (kg) 1.0 Fuze Type Self-Destruct (sec) FIRE CONTROL Contact/grazing 14-17 Sights w/Magnification Launch tube has simple sights

Gunner Field of View INA (o ) Acquisition Range (m) IFF VARIANTS INA Yes Igla 9M39 (SA-N-8) Naval version

9K331 Tor SA-15 GAUNTLET SA-N-9 HQ-17
The 9K331 Tor [SA-15 GAUNTLET land-based, SA-N-9 naval version] low-to-medium altitude SAM system is capable of engaging not only aircraft and helicopters but also RPVs, precision-guided weapons and various types of guided missiles. The HQ-17 is a copy of Tor-M1, that China will use it to replace the aging HQ-61 SAMs, will enter service around the year 2005. Although it is an autonomous system it can be interfaced into an integrated air defense network. SA-15b is designed to be a completely autonomous air defense system (at division level), capable of surveillance, command and control, missile launch and guidance functions from a single vehicle. The basic combat formation is the firing battery consisting of four TLARs and the Rangir battery command post. The TLAR carries eight ready missiles stored in two containers holding four missiles each. The SA-15b has the capability to automatically track and destroy 2 targets simultaneously in any weather and at any time of the day. The single stage solid propellant missile has a maximum speed of 850 m/s and is fitted with a 15 kg HE-fragmentation warhead detonated by a proximity fusing system. The missile is approximately 3.5 meters long with a diameter of 0.735 meters and a launch weight 170 kilograms. The cold launch ejection system propels the missile upwards to a height of 18-20 meters, whereupon thruster jets ignite and turn the weapon to the target bearing. The main sustainer rocket motor then ignites and the missile is command guided to the intercept point where the proximity fuse is triggered. Effective range limits are from 1500 to 12000 m with target altitude limits being between 10 and 6000 m. The maximum maneuvering load factor limit on the weapon is 30 g. The missile launcher consists of a box container extending down below the level of the hull top, holding two groups of four ready to fire missiles in the vertical position. Each missile is in a maintenance-free factory-sealed container-launcher box. The system is reloaded by a dedicated transportation/loader vehicle. The 3D pulse Doppler electronically beam steered E/F-band surveillance radar provides range, azimuth, elevation and automatic threat evaluation data on up to 48 targets for the digital fire control computer processing system. Automatic track initiation can be performed on the 10 most dangerous targets, which are categorized and prioritized in order of threat for engagement. The operator reconfirms the highest priority target choice and tracks this target before firing the missile. The maximum radar range is stated as 25 kilometers, but the rapid five to eight second reaction time [including fire control target prioritization] suggests a somewhat greater range. The radar antenna, on top of the turret, is swung through 90º to the horizontal position for travel. Target radar surveillance is carried out on the move but the vehicle would normally come to a halt for missile launch.

The phased-array pulse Doppler G/H-band tracking radar is located at the front of the turret. This electronically steered radar is capable of simultaneously tracking two targets traveling at speeds of up to 700 km/h in all weather conditions, and countering threat ECM operations. The antenna assembly can be folded down for travel. Mounted on the top left of this radar is a small vertical pointing antenna which serves to initially acquire the missile after launch before it is handed over to the main tracking/guidance system. On the lower right side of the tracking radar is an automatic TV tracking system with a range of 20000 m that complements the tracking radar and enables the system to operate in a heavy ECM environment. The Tor is not amphibious although it is airportable. An NBC system is fitted as standard as is a built-in training system. The chassis of the vehicle is almost identical to that used for the 2S6 self-propelled hybrid air defense system and is based on the GM-569 tracked vehicle. The three man crew consists of the vehicle commander, system operator and vehicle driver, seated at the front of the vehicle with the large box-like unmanned turret in the center and the engine compartment at the rear. This arrangement is similar to that of the Kub (SA-6) and Shilka (ZSU-23-4) vehicles. The vehicle suspension consists of six dual rubber tired roadwheels with the idler at the front, drive sprocket at the rear and three return rollers. An auxiliary gas turbine powers a 75 kW generator, allowing the main diesel engine to be shut down when the system is deployed to conserve fuel. The Russian company Antei which produces anti-aircraft missile systems has developed a new efficient system Tor M1. A number of countries have precision weapons and a reliable shield is necessary against these weapons. The new Russian anti-aircraft missile system Tor is such a shield. The system consists of a special vehicle and two radars to detect targets and to accompany flying targets and missiles, a computer, and equipment for launch and navigation. The missile unit is a transportation and launch container with four missiles. A anti-aircraft guided missile is a one-stage missile with a solid fuel engine. The system is operated by 3 or 4 people. The Tor system ensures reliable protection for government, industrial and military sites and ground troops from all types of missiles, unpiloted aircraft, aircraft bombs, aircraft and helicopters with stealth capabilities. The Tor system is the only system in the world which can detect and identify various targets. It can detect targets at a height ranging from 10 meters to 6 kilometers. The Tor system is autonomous and has short reaction time. The latest technologies of Russia's defense industry are used in it.

Specifications
Designations Date of Introduction Proliferation Crew TLAR Chassis Combat Weight (mt) 9K331 Tor-M1 1990 At least 5 countries 3 9A331 combat vehicle GM-355 34

Length (m) Height (m) Width (m) Engine Type

7.5 5.1 (TAR up) 3.3 V-12 diesel

Cruising Range (km) 500 Max. RoadSpeed Radio Protection Launcher Reaction Time (sec) Reload Time (min) Fire on Move Emplacement Time (min) Displacement Time (min) Missile Name Max. Range (m) Min. Range (m) Max. Altitude Min. Altitude Length Diameter Weight (kg) Missile Speed (m/s) Propulsion Guidance Warhead Type Fuze Type 65 (km/h) INA NBC Protection System 5-8 10 Yes 5 Less than 5 9M331 12,000 100 6,000 (m) 10 (m) 2,900 (mm) 235 (mm) 167 850 INA Command Frag-HE RF Proximity INA Sights w/Magnification

Warhead Weight (kg) 15 Self-Destruct (sec) FIRE CONTROL

Electro-optical (EO) television system Range IFF Radar Function 20 km Yes Target Acquisition

Detection Range (km) 25 Tracking Range (km) INA Frequency Frequency Band Radar Function INA H-band Doppler Target Tracking and Guidance

Detection Range (km) INA Tracking Range (km) 25 Frequency Frequency Band VARIANTS INA K-band Doppler, Phased Array SA-N-9 Naval version

SA-N-9

SA-16 GIMLET Igla-1 9K310
SA-16 GIMLET (Igla-1 9K310) man-portable surface-to-air missile system, a further development from the SA-7 & SA-14 series, is an improved version of the SA-18 GROUSE, which was introduced in 1983, three years before the SA-16. The SA-16 feattures a new seeker and modified launcher nose cover. Whereas the the SA-18 9M39 missile is fitted with an aerodynamic spike on the nose, the 9M310 missile of the SA-16 has the spike replaced with an aerodynamic cone held in place with a wire tripod. On the SA-18 the protective cover of the seeker is conical, on the SA-16 it is tubular with a prominent lip at the forward edge. The 9M313 missile of the SA-16 employs an IR guidance system using proportional convergence logic, and an improved two-color seeker, presumably IR and UV). The seeker is sensitive enough to home in on airframe radiation, and the two-color sensitivity is designed to minimize vulnerability to flares. The SA-16 has a maximum range of 5000 meters and a maximum altitude of 3500 meters.

Specifications
Maximum Speed Effective Altitude Effective Range Altitude Warhead Guidance Fuze Kill Radius 2+ Mach 3,500 m 500 -- 5,000 m 10-3500 m HE 2kg passive 2-color IR and UV homing Contact and graze Unknown

SA-17 GRIZZLY / Buk-M1-2 SA-N-12 GRIZZLY / Yezh HQ-16
SA-17 GRIZZLY is a new mobile SAM system to augment and eventually replace the SA-11 GADFLY. The new system uses the same launch vehicle chassis, and overall has a similar configuration to the SA-11 GADFLY. The SNOW DRIFT surveillance radar is also carried on the modified GM-569 tracked vehicle chassis. Russia is upgrading the Belorussian Buk (NATO: SA-11 Gadfly) air defence missile system at the Uliyanovsk Mechanical Plant. The new Buk-M1-2 (SA-17 Grizzly) system has increased fire power, and guarantees hits against six targets flying simultaneously from different directions and at different altitudes. The Yezh naval version [SA-N-12] of the SA-17 is visually Identical to SA-N-7. The HQ-16 is a joint development project between China and Russia that apparently represents a further evolution of the Russian Grizzly. The system would represent a significant overall improvement in Chinese air defense capabilities. The HQ-16 will reportedly have a range of 50 miles and the ability to hit both high and low flying targets.

SA-18 GROUSE Igla 9K38 SA-N-10 GROUSE Igla-M
The SA-18 GROUSE (Igla 9K38) is an improved variant in the the SA-7 & SA-14 series of manportable SAMs. As with the earlier SA-14, the SA-18 uses of a similar thermal battery/gas bottle, and the SA-18 has the same 2 kilogram high-explosive warhead fitted with a contact and grazing fuse. But the missile of entirely new design with substantially improved range and speed,. The new seeker and aerodynamic improvements extend its effective range, and its higher speed enables it to be used against faster targets. The SA18 has a maximum range of 5200 meters and a maximum altitude of 3500 meters. The 9M39 missile SA-18 employs an IR guidance system using proportional convergence logic. The new seeker offers better protection against electro-optical jammers; the probability of kill against an unprotected fighter is estimated at 30-48%, and the use of IRCM jammers only degrades this to 24-30%. The Igla-M [SA-N-10 ] is the naval version of the SA-18.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range altitude, (m) Guidance mode emplace/displace time 5200 meters 10-3500 passive IR homing 13 sec

Single-shot hit probability

SA-19 GRISOM 9M111 Pantsyr S1
The SA-19 GRISOM (9M111) is a radar command guided, two-stage surface to air missile mounted on the 2S6 Integrated Air Defense System. The 2S6 vehicle is fitted with two banks of four missiles in blocks of two, which can be elevated vertically independent of each other. The SA-19 can engage aerial targets moving at a maximum speed of 500 meters/second at altitudes ranging from 15 to 3,500 meters, and at slant ranges from 2400 to 8000 meters. The missile's high-explosive fragmentation warhead is actuated by a proximity fuse if the missile passes within 5 meters of the target. The SA19 is supported by the HOT SHOT radar system, which consists of a surveillance radar with a maximum range of 18 km, and a tracking radar with a maximum range of 13 km. The semi-automatic radar to command line-of-sight engagement requires the gunner to track the target using the roof-mounted stabilized optical sight. The SA-19 is claimed to have a kill probability of 0.65.

Specifications
Chassis: Crew Armament Missile Guidance system Maximum speed Time of flight to 10 km range Weight With container Launch weight Container diameter Length in container Warhead type: Warhead weight Gun Calibre Total rate of fire 30 mm 700 rds per minute 90 kg 65 kg 170 mm 3.2 m fragmentation rod 16 kg radio commands with IR or radio direction finding 1,100 m/sec 14 sec Ural-53234 8 x 8 truck 3 12 57E6 SAMs, 2 2A72 30 mm guns

Muzzle velocity Projectile weight Ammunition load Radar Range, with target reflection surface of 23 sq cm Target detection Target tracking Kill zone Missiles Range Altitude Guns Range Altitude Number of simultaneously engaged targets Number of targets handled per minute Reaction time

960 m/sec 0.97 kg 750 rounds

at least 30 km at least 24 km

1,000 to 12,000 m 5 - 8,000 m

0.2 - 4,000 m 0 - 3,000 m 2

10 - 12 5 - 6 sec

S-400 SA-20 Triumf
The Triumf S-400 is a new generation of air defense and theater anti-missile weapon developed by the Almaz Central Design Bureau as an evolution of the S-300PMU [SA10] family. This new system is intended to detect and destroy airborne targets at a distance of up to 400 km (2- 2.5 times greater than the previous S-300PMU system). The Triumf system includes radars capable of detecting low-signature targets. And the antimissile capability of the system has been increased to the limits established by the ABM Treaty demarcation agreements -- it can intercept targets with velocities of up to 4.8 km/sec, corresponding to a ballistic missile range of 3,500 km. The system was developed through the cooperation of the Almaz Central Design Bureau, Fakel Machine Building Design Bureau, Novosibirsk Scientific Research Institute of Instruments, St. Petersburg Design Bureau of Special Machine Building and other enterprises. The Fakel Machine Building Design Bureau has developed two new missiles for Triumf.

The "big" missile [designation otherwise unknown] has a range of up to 400 km and will be able to engage "over- the-horizon [OTH]" targets using a new seeker head developed by Almaz Central Design Bureau. This seeker can operate in both a semiactive and active mode, with the seeker switched to a search mode on ground command and homing on targets independently. Targets for this missile include airborne early warning and control aircraft as well as jammers.  The 9M96 missile is designed to destroy aircraft and air- delivered weapons at ranges in excess of 120 km. The missile is small-- considerably lighter than the ZUR 48N6Ye used in the S-300PMU1 systems and the Favorit. The missile is equipped with an active homing head and has an estimated single shot kill probability of 0.9 for manned aircraft and 0.8 for unmanned maneuvering aircraft. a gas-dynamic control system enables the 9M96 missile to maneuver at altitudes of up to 35 km at forces of over 20g, which permits engagment of non- strategic ballistic missiles. A mockup of the missile was set up at an Athens arms exhibition in October 1998. One 9M96 modification will become the basic longrange weapon of Air Force combat aircraft, and may become the standardized missile for air defense SAM systems, ship-launched air defense missile systems, and fighter aircraft. These new missiles can be accomodated on the existing SAM system launchers of the S300PMU family. A container with four 9M96's can be installed in place of one container with the 5V55 or 48N6 missiles, and thus the the standard launcher intended for four 48N6Ye missiles can accommodate up to 16 9M96Ye missiles. Triumf provides for the greatest possible continuity with systems of the S-300PMU family (PMU1, PMU2), making it possible to smoothly change over to the production of the new generation system. It will include the previous control complex, though supporting not six but eight

SAM systems, as well as multifunctional radar systems illumination and guidance, launchers, and associated autonomous detection and target indication systems. The state tests of the S-400 system reportedly began in 1999, with the initial test on 12 February 1999. As of May 1999 the testing of S-400 air defense system was reportedly nearing completion at Kapustin Yar, with the first systems of this kind to be delivered to the Moscow Air Force and Air Defense District in the fourth quarter of 1999. However, as of August 1999 government testing of the S-400 was slated to begin at the end of 1999, with the first system complex slated for delivery in late 2000. The sources of the apparent one-year delay in the program are unclear, though they may involve some combination of technical and financial problems with this program. Russian air defense troops conducted a test of the new anti-aircraft missile system S-400 on 07 April 2000. At that time, Air Force Commander Anatoly Kornukov said that serial production of the new system would begin in June 2000. Kornukov said air defense troops would get one S-400 launcher system by the end of 2000, but it would be armed with missiles of the available S-300 system. On condition of normal funding, radars with an acquisition range of 500-600 km should become operational by 2002-2003. However, other sources report that while it was ordered by the Defence Ministry, the military has nothing to pay for it with, so it is unclear when the Russian military will get this new weapon. The Russian Air Force is studying a reduction in the number of types of air defense weapons, and it is possible that Triumf will become the only system being developed, providing defense both in the close-range and mid-range as well long-range zones.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode 120 km 9M96 missile 400 km "big" missile Almaz Central Design Bureau Fakel Machine Building Design Bureau

Single-shot hit probability

SA-X-21 Mysk
In 1996 there were reports of that US sources had suggested the fact of the existence of a new Russian SAM system in development with the US designators SA-X-21 and the Russian system nomenclature believed to be Mysk. However, no additional information has been forthcoming concerning either a Russian system designated Mysk, or any other system that might be associated with the SA-X-21 designator. The Ballistic Missile Defense Simulation Support Center's Extended Air Defense Simulation [EADSIM] modeling database does contain an entry for the SA-21, though publicly available details are lacking. The Extended Air Defense Simulation is a system-level simulation used to assess the effectiveness of Theater Missile Defense (TMD) and air defense systems against the full spectrum of extended air defense threats. EADSIM models performance and predicts effectiveness of ballistic missiles, surface-to-air missiles, aircraft missiles, and cruise missiles in a variety of user defined scenarios. EADSIM is being used by all four U.S. military services, individually and jointly, at over 300 subscriber sites around the world. It is also being used by the United Kingdom, Israel, Australia, and the SHAPE Technical Center under Memoranda of Agreement with the U.S. Army. EADSIM has been used in support of the TMD Advanced Warfare Experiment, as well as TMD Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis studies. EADSIM was used successfully by the U.S. Air Force Studies and Analyses Agency to analyze attrition, Suppression of Enemy Air Defense missions, and refueling operations during Desert Shield and Desert Storm.

AA-1 ALKALI K-5 (RS-1U / RS-2) PL-1
In 1955 the Kaliningrad (Moscow Oblast) Series Production Plant, which was producing gun turrets for M-4 bomber aircraft and similar equipment, began series production of the first K-5 and K-8 guided air-to-air missiles. The R-55 (K-55, Object 67), a modification of the K-5 missile, was series-produced throughout the 1967-77 period and quite widely used. By then the Almaz team had given up work air-to-air missiles, and the development of the K-55 missile was assigned to the engineering office at the Kaliningrad (Moscow Oblast) Series Production Plant. This plant was producing aircraft weapons (artillery turrets for M-4 bomber aircraft, sights, etc.), then in 1955 began series production of the first K-5 and K-8 guided air-to-air missiles. Developing the K-55 missile was the first task ever assigned to this team alone (and the only one concerning air-to-air missiles in the history of this team). Currently this engineering office in Kaliningrad, under the name Zvezda, is the leading Russian creator of strategic guided air-to-ground missiles. During the 1966-168 period the two teams working on air-to-air missiles were renamed -Bisnovat's OKB-4 team was renamed Molniya and Andrey Lyapin's (who replaced Ivan Toropov in 1961) team was designated Vympel. During later part of the 1960s the Vympel team began working on modifications to the R-55 which resulted in the R-55M missile, with a cooled homing head, a radio rather than optical closing-in igniter, and a more potent warhead. The PL-1 [Pili = Thunderbolt, or Pen Lung = Air Dragon] medium range air-to-air missile was a Chinese copy of the AA-1.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective 2 - 6 km 83.2 kg 1957 2.83 m

range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability Carried by MiG-17PFU, MiG-19P, MiG-21F, Yak-25, Yak-28 Radio Controlled

AA-2 ATOLL K-13 (R-3 or Object 310) PL-2 / PL-3 / PL-5
The 24 September 1958 Chinese acquisition of an American AIM-9B Sidewinder missile marked the beginning of a breakthrough in the development of Soviet air-to-air missiles. The missile, fired from a Taiwanese F-86 Sabre aircraft, lodged without exploding in a Chinese MiG-17. The missile was sent to Toropov's engineering office to be copied, and the product the K-13, long the most popular Soviet air-to-air missile. The Sidewinder had a number of valuable features, not least of which was the modular construction that facilitated ease in production and operation. The simplicity of the AIM-9 was in marked contrast to the complexity of contemporary Soviet missiles. The Sidewinder's infraredguided homing head contained a free-running gyroscope and was much smaller than Soviet counterparts, and the steering and in-flight stabilization system were equally superior. Gennadiy Sokolovskiy, later chief engineer at the Vympel team, said that "the Sidewinder missile was to us a university offering a course in missile construction technology which has upgraded our engineering education and updated our approach to production of future missiles." The Soviets soon made advances over the original Sidewinder model, making dozen of modifications to the initial design. In 1960 series-production of the K-13 missile (also called R-3 or Object 310) began. In 1962 the R-3S (K13A or Object 310) became the first version to be produced in large numbers, though its homing operation took much more time (22 seconds instead of 11 seconds). In 1961 development began of the high-altitude K-13R (R-3R or Object 320) with a semiactive radar head, which was entered service with combat aircraft in 1966. The training versions were the R-3U missiles ("uchebnaya", barrel with a homing set, not fired from an aircraft) and the R-3P ("prakticheskaya" differing from the combat version by absence of an explosive charge). The RM-3V (RM denoting "raketa-mishen" [target-missile] served as an aerial target. During late 1960s the Vympel team began working on the K-13M (R-13M, Object 380) modification of the K-13 missile, which in 1973 was certified as an operational weapon. It has a cooled homing head, a radio rather than optical closing-in igniter, and a more potent warhead. Analogous modifications of the R-55 resulted in the R-55M missile. The last version of the K-13 is the R-13M1 with a mofified steering apparatus. The K-13 missile was produced in China as the PL-2 (updated versions PL-3 and PL-5) and also in Romania as the A-91. The PL-5E [Pili = Thunderbolt, or Pen Lung = Air Dragon] air-to-air missile has a maximum mobility overload of 40g, exceeding the 35g of the AIM-9L of the United States. Mobility overload a unit for measuring the mobility of aircraft. The larger the value the better the aircraft can adapt to violent mid-air mobility. An air-to-air missile with a great overload means that the attacked side is less likely to escape the attack). The speed of the missile is Mach 2.5 (2.5 times sound speed) and its maximum range is 14,000 meters.

Specifications
Year Type Modifications Wingspan (AA-2) Wingspan (AA-2-2) Length (AA-2) Length (AA-2-2) Diameter Launch weight Max. speed Maximum range Propulsion Guidance Warhead 1961 short-range missile AA-2 - infra-red guidance AA-2-2 "Advanced Atoll" - semi-active radar guidance 0.45 m 0.53 m 2.8 m 3.0 m 0.12 m 70 kg 2850 km/h 6.5 km solid propellant rocket motor passive infra-red homing or semi-active radar homing proximity-fuzed blast fragmentation, 6 kg USSR, India, South Yemen, Romania, Afghanistan, North Yemen, North Vietnam, Albania, Nigeria, Uganda, Iraq, Poland, Syria, Algeria, Sudan, Morocco, Somalia, Angola, Bangladesh, Peru, Yugoslavia, Mozambique, China, Libya, Hungary, Laos, North Korea, Ethiopia, East Germany, Finland, Czechoslovakia, Cuba, Bulgaria.

Service

AA-2

PL-2

PL-3

PL-5

AA-3 ANAB K-8 PL-2 [China]
In 1955 the Kaliningrad (Moscow Oblast) Series Production Plant, which was producing gun turrets for M-4 bomber aircraft and similar equipment, began series production of the first K-5 and K-8 guided air-to-air missiles. The improved version K-8M was certified in 1961 as a combat weapon (designated by ordnance as the R-8M; the letter K referring to Engineering Office and the letter R referring to Air Force). This missile operated with the Oriol [Eagle] radar set. In January 1960 it was decided to use the homing head of the K-13 missile in K-5 and K8 missiles to devise a missile for tactical air combat. In 1962 M. Bisnovat's OKB-4 Special Engineering Office was testing K-88 missiles, smaller than the K-8 and with a K13 head, although the K-88 never moved beyond prototype status. Subsequent modifications of the K-8 missile led to the K-8M (R-8M1, more widely known as the K-98 or R-98), equipped with a semiactive radar homing head which enabled it to attack airborne targets not only from behind but also head on. The first interceptor-fighter system using the R-98 missile was the Su-15-98 aircraft. The missile was subsequently employed on the on the Yak-28P aircraft with the Oriol-D radar set, and later on the Su-15TM aircraft with the Tajfun [Typhoon]-M radar set. In 1973 production of the R-98 missile shifted to the final variant, the R-98M (K-8M) with improved firing capabilities and greater resistance to countermeasures. The R-98M missile remains part of the combat load of the Su-15TM aircraft. All these missiles were produced in two variants, with radar guidance (suffix R) and an infrared guidance (suffix T) respectively. The training version is the UR-8M, which first entered service in 1966.

Specifications
Contractor Year Type Modifications Wingspan Length (SAR version) 1961 medium-range intercept missile Semi-active I-band and J-band radar guidance Passive infra-red guidance 1.3 m 4.1 m

Length (IR version) Diameter Launch weight Max. speed Maximum range Propulsion Guidance Warhead Carried by Service

4.0 m 0.28 m 275 kg 3420 km/h (Mach=3.0) 19 km single stage solid propellant rocket motor semi-active I-band and J-band radar homing or passive infra-red homing proximity-fuzed high-explosive blast Yak-28, Su-15 USSR, Bulgaria, Romaina, Poland, East Germany, Hungary, Czechoslovakia

AA-4 AWL K-9 / K-155
In the late 1950s the Mikoyan and Gurevich design bureau built the long-range K-9 missile, also called the K-155. The prototype of this weapon was displayed publicly in 1991 under an E-152A plane, but the missile was not certified as a combat weapon.

AA-5 ASH R-4
In 1959 the Bisnovat design team began work on the K-80 missile (Object 36 -- later called the R-40) as part of the the Tu-128S-4 interception system. This strategic air defense system consiste of the Tu-128 long-range interceptor fighter aircraft, a Smerch [Tornado] on-board radar set (the letter S in the system designation), and the R-4 missiles (the digit 4 in Tu-128S-4). Two variants of the R-4 missile were developed: the R-4R using a semiactive radar set with a PARG-10-88 homing head and the R-4T using infrared homing with the T-80NM seeker head. Apart from the Tu-128, only the Mikoyan E-152M experimental aircraft carried the R-4 missiles. The R-4 missile entered seriesproduction in 1963, although significant development efforts remained, as was also the case with the Smerch radar set. In 1973 production began of the improved K-80M (R4TM and R-4RM variants) for the Tu-128S-4M system, consisting of the Tu-128M aircraft, the Smerch-M radar set, and the R-4M missile. In the West the K-80 missile and its modifications are called The AA-5 Ash R-4 missile was withdrawn from service along with the remaining Tu-128 aircraft around the end of the Cold War.

Specifications
Contractor Year Type Modifications Wingspan Length (SAR version) Length (IR version) Diameter Launch weight Max. speed Maximum range (SAR version) Maximum range (IR version) Propulsion Guidance 1961 medium-range missile Infra-red guidance Semi-active radar guidance 1.3 m 5.3 m 5.2 m 0.31 m 390 kg 1710 km/h 30 km 15 km solid propellant rocket motor passive infra-red homing with Cassagrain optics or

semi-active I-band radar homing Warhead Carried by Service high-explosive blast Tu-128 USSR, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, East Germany, Poland.

AA-6 ACRID R-40
In early 1962 the Bisnovat design team began working on the R-40 (K-40), a new longrange missile intended for use with the the MiG-25-40 high- altitude interception system, consisting of the MiG-25 aircraft with Smerch-A radar set and the R-40 missile. Though only slightly larger than the predecessor R-4, the range of the R-40 is over three times greater. This missile was produced in two variants: R-40R (Object RD46 with PARG-12 head) and R-40T (Object TG-46). After the defection of a MiG-25P to Japan on 06 September 1976, an extensive redesign of the aircraft was undertaken, resulting in the MiG-25PD interception system. Instead of the Smerch-A, a Sapfir-25 radar was installed. The new missile R-40D and its R-40D1 update ("dorabotanaya" [more elaborate]) were produced in two variants R-40RD and R40TD, both featuring improved countermeasures resistance and a more sensitive homing head to improve performance against low-flying targets. The R-40D1 missile was developed by the Vympel team, the Molniya team having by that time withdraw from development of aircraft missiles. The R-40 is still included among the weapons of MiG25 and MiG-31 aircraft, although production was discontinued in 1991.

Specifications
Manafacturer Date Deployed Range Speed Propulsion Fuze Guidance Warhead Launch Weight Length Diameter Fin Span Platforms Late 60s 30 km (R-40) 50 km (R-40TD and R-40RD) Mach 4.5 One solid-propellant rocket motor Radar and active laser Command, inertial and semi-active radar (R-40R) Command, inertial and IR (R-40T) 70 kg HE fragmentation 475 kg 6.2 m 355 mm 1.8 m Su-15, MiG-25, MiG-31

AA-7 APEX R-23 / R-24
In the mid-1960s the Vympel design bureau developed the K-23 intermediate-range missile for MiG-23 fighter jet aircraft. While the first units of the K-23 missile were tested with the prototypes the MiG-23 aircraft, the missile was certified as a weapon for the MiG-23M in 1973. The R-23 comes in two variants: R-23R (Object 340) with radar guidance and R-23T (Object 360) with infrared guidance. There is also the training version R-23UT. The later MiG-23ML and MiG-23MLD aircraft carry the R-24 missile, a modification of the R-23 with various improved characteristics, most importantly a 50 km rather than 35 km range. In its external appearance this missile is similar to the predecessor R-23. For actual use it is available in two variants: R-24R (Object 140) and R-24T (Object 160). The R-23 is produced in Romania under license as the A-911. In 1968 the Soviets acquired an American AIM-7M Sparrow, which was similar to the R23 class of missiles the under development, and the Vympel team copyied the Sparrow under the designation K-25. Several of these missiles were tested, but Soviet R-23 missile was sent to production, and work on the K-25 ended in 1971. The R-23 and R-24 missiles were superior to the K-25 Sparrow-ski in versatility and range, as well as interference immunity, signal processing logic, and other characteristics. Nevertheless, analysis of the Sparrow missile design were helpful in later work on the the R-27 missile: on its hydraulically driven closed-loop servomechanisms and aerodynamic system with movable wings.

Specifications
Contractor Year Type Modifications Wingspan Length (SAR version) Length (IR version) Diameter Launch weight Max. speed Maximum range 1975 medium-range missile Semi-active radar guidance Passive infra-red guidance 1.0 m 4.5 m 4.2 m 0.22 m 320 kg 3420 km/h (Mach=3.0) 35 km

(SAR version) Maximum range (IR version) Propulsion Guidance Warhead Carried by Service 15 km two stage solid propellant rocket motor semi-active radar homing or passive infra-red homing proximity-fuzed high-explosive, 40 kg MiG-23 USSR, Czechoslovakia, Libya, India, East Germany.

AA-8 APHID K-60 (R-60, Object 62)
Toward the end of the 1960s the Molniya design bureau begin working on the first missile for tactical air combat, the K-60 (R-60, Object 62), with infrared self-guidance. Series production of this missile began in 1973, with the R-60 missile being certified as a weapon for a variety combat aircraft. The R-60 missile is an unusually small missile, weighing half as much as the lightest Western missiles, with a correspondingly small warhead which weighs barely 3.5 kg). The R-60 on attack aircraft such as the MiG-27, Su-24 or Su-25 serves as a self-defense missile, and on fighter aircraft such as the MiG-23, MiG-25, and Su-15 it is occasionally used as a supplementary missile. The R-60 missile had an unusually short development time, with only four years passing from the beginning of its design to the beginning of its production -- the normal development process of Soviet air-to-air missiles typically required 8 to 9 years. This rapid development was facilitated by the availability of a wealth of experimental data on the K-13 missile, and no new research was done for the R-60. Further developments of the R-60 include the R-60M missile, the export variant R60MK, and the UZR-60 training version.

Specifications
Manufacturer Date Deployed Range Speed Propulsion 1975 3 km, 5 km 10 km Mach 2+ One solid-propellant rocket motor Two active radar fuze aerials located aft of the moving control fins, and a single strake running down the forward half of the body. Active laser in R-60M All aspect Infrared 6 kg ( 1.6 kg of which is uranium ) HE fragmentation 65 kg 2.08 m 130 mm 0.43 m

Fuze

Guidance Warhead Launch Weight Length Diameter Fin Span

Platforms

Mi-24, Su-15bis, Su-17M3, Yak-38, Su-25, Su-24M, MiG-21bis, MiG-23, MiG-25, MiG-27, MiG-29, MiG-31

AA-9 AMOS
The R-33 long-range missile was created for arming MiG-31 fighter-interceptors. It became operational in 1980 and is capable of engaging SR-71 strategic reconnaissance aircraft, B-52 and B-1 bombers, aircraft of front and transport aviation, and also helicopters and cruise missiles. The R-33 may be used at any time of day, under any weather conditions, in the presence of interference and jamming to engage targets flying against earth and water surfaces. The missile is made in a normal aerodynamic scheme and has a cruciform configuration. Lifting surfaces of the R-33 are made with a low aspect ratio and two control surfaces are folding for its semirecessed accommodation beneath the platform's fuselage. Control and stabilization in three angles are accomplished with the help of four mechanically unconnected (differential) aerodynamic surfaces activated by gas drives. The missile is equipped with a semiactive radar homing head that locks onto a target on the trajectory. Guidance of the R-33 to a target is a combination: inertial in the initial phase and homing in the terminal phase. The R-33 is the first Russian air-to-air missile to use an onboard digital computer, which has stable characteristics compared with analogue devices. It is fitted with an active radar proximity fuze and impact fuze as well as with an HE-fragmentation warhead.

Specifications
Manafacturer Date Deployed Range Speed Propulsion Fuze Guidance Warhead Launch Weight Length Diameter Fin Span Platforms Vympel 1985? 160 km Mach 4.5 solid rocket Active radar Inertial, command updates and semi-active radar 47 kg HE fragmentation 490 kg 4.15 m 380mm 1.18 m ( 0.9 m wingspan ) Mig-31, up to 6 can be carried

AA-10 ALAMO R-27
The R-27 medium-range missile is a component of the MiG-29 armament. In its overall characteristics the R-27R is generally comparable to the the American AIM-7M Sparrow missile, which it is said to surpasse it in certain combat capabilities. The R-27 is designed according to a modular principle and is the base for a family of missiles equipped with various types of homing heads and propulsion systems. Several versions of this missile have been produced in Russia with infrared, semi-active and active radar guidance. The AA-10 Alamo-C has a range of 130 km, while other variants have a maximum range of between 70 to 170 kilometers. The R-27 standardized medium-range guided missile became operational in 1985, intended for MiG-29 and Su-27 frontal aviation fighters. The R-27 is capable of engaging manned and unmanned targets in long-range and close maneuverable air-to-air combat. It can be employed both in individual as well as group operations of platform aircraft. It supports the intercept of targets moving from different directions against the background of the earth's and water's surface in any weather conditions. The R-27R is equipped with a semiactive radar homing head. The R-27R is equipped with an active radar proximity fuze and impact fuze and a continuous-rod warhead. It is guided to the target by a combination method according to the proportional navigation method: inertially with radiocorrection of trajectory in the initial flight phase, and homing in the terminal phase. This provides for reliable target lock-on at long ranges from the launching aircraft. The missile can be guided along special trajectories to create favorable conditions for homing head and proximity fuze operation. It is capable of going around a plume of passive jamming, of being moved out of the main lobe of the platform's radar, and of approaching a low-flying target from above at a given angle. The missile has a canard aerodynamic configuration with an axially symmetric cruciform arrangement of aerodynamic surfaces. Control surfaces of original (so-called "butterfly") configuration permit using the same surfaces both for missile yaw and pitch control as well as for its roll stabilization. Each of the four control surfaces has an independent hydraulic drive with a pump-accumulator system for supplying pressure fluid. Canard surfaces are mounted ahead of them. Changing their size ensures identical balance characteristics of the missile when the homing head is replaced.

Specifications
Contractor Date Deployed Range Speed Vympel 1982 2 - 80 km R-27R 70 km R-27T 130 km R-27RE 120 km R-27TE Mach 4

Propulsion Guidance Warhead Launch Weight Length Diameter Fin Span Platforms

One solid-propellant rocket motor SARH R-27R, R-27E All-aspect Infrared R-27T, R-27TE 39 kg expanding rod 253 kg R-27R 254 kg R-27T 350 kg R-27RE 343 kg R-27TE 3.70 m 230 mm 0.77 m Su-27, Su-33, Su-35, Mig-29, Yak-141

AA-11 ARCHER R-73
Currently the R-73 is the best Russian short range air-to-air missile. Apart from an exceptional maneverability, this missile is also directly connected to the pilot's helmet, which allows engagement of targets lateral to the aircraft, which cannot be engaged by missiles with a traditional system of targeting and guidance. The R-73A, an earlier variant of this missile, has a 30 km range, while the most recent R-73M can hit targets at a distance of 40 km. The R-73 short-range, close-combat standardized missile was developed in the Vympel Machine Building Design Bureau, and became operational in 1984. The R-73 is included in the weapon complex of MiG-23MLD, MiG-29 and Su-27 fighters and their modifications and also of Mi-24, Mi-28 and Ka-50 helicopters. It also can be employed in flying craft which do not have sophisticated aiming systems. The missile is used for engaging modern and future fighters, attack aircraft, bombers, helicopters, drones and cruise missiles, including those executing a maneuver with a gforce up to 12. It permits the platform to intercept a target from any direction, under any weather conditions, day or night, in the presence of natural interference and deliberate jamming. It realizes the "fire and forget" principle. The missile design features a canard aerodynamic configuration: control surfaces are positioned ahead of the wing at a distance from the center of mass. The airframe consists of modular compartments accommodating the homing head, aerodynamic control surface drive system, autopilot, proximity fuze, warhead, engine, gas-dynamic control system and aileron drive system. The lifting surfaces have a small aspect ratio. Strakes are mounted ahead of the aerodynamic control surfaces. The combined aero-gas-dynamic control gives the R-73 highly maneuverable flight characteristics. During flight, yaw and pitch are controlled by four aerodynamic control surfaces connected in pairs and by just as many gas-dynamic spoilers (fins) installed at the nozzle end of the engine. Control with engine not operating is provided by aerodynamic control surfaces. Roll stabilization of the missile is maintained with the help of four mechanically interconnected ailerons mounted on the wings. Drives of all missile controls are gas, powered from a solidpropellant gas generator. The passive infrared homing head supports target lock-on before launch. Guidance to the predicted position is by the proportional navigation method. The missile's combat equipment consists of an active proximity (radar or laser) fuze and impact fuze and a continuous-rod warhead. The engine operates on high-impulse solid propellant and has a high-tensile steel case. Russia's Vympel weapons designers have developed a one-of-a-kind air-to-air missile, which NATO has dubbed as AA-11, for use on foreign fighter planes. Techically and militarily the new missile, meant for quick-action dogfights, leave its foreign analogues far behind. Vympel experts have also made it possible for the new missile to be easily installed on all available types of aircraft. The AA-11 can also be used on older planes

which will now be able to effectively handle the US' highly maneuverable F-15 and F-16 jets. The AA-11 missile is based on all-new components, use new high-energy solid fuel and an advanced guidance and control system which has made it possible to minimize their size. Their exceptionally high accuracy is ensured by the missile's main secret, the so-called transverse control engine, which rules out misses during the final approach trajectory. The transverse control engine is still without parallel in the world. Russia has offered the export-version R-7EE air-to-air missile system for sale so that it can be fitted to foreign-made fighter aircraft. Developed by the Vympel state-sector engineering and design bureau, the R-7EE is designed for close-quarters aerial combat. Vympel specialists have developed a way of ensuring that the missile system can be fitted to virtually any type of aircraft. It can be fitted to older aircraft, which feature heavily in third-world countries' air forces.

Specifications
Contractor Date Deployed Range Speed Propulsion Guidance Warhead Launch Weight Length Diameter Fin Span Platforms Vympel 1980s 20 km (R-73M1) 30 km (R-73M2) 40 km Mach 2.5 One solid-propellant rocket motor All aspect Infrared 7.4 kg HE expanding rod warhead 105 kg (R-73M1) 115 kg (R-73M2) 2.9 m 170 mm 0.51 m Su-27, Su-33, Su-34, Su-35, Su-37, MiG-29, MiG31, MiG-33, Yak-141, Ka-50, Ka-52

AA-12 ADDER R-77
The most recent Russian R-77 medium-range missiles (AA-12 "AMRAAMSKI") is similar to and in some respects equal to the American AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles. The R-77 missile has an active radar finder and a maximim range of 90-100 kilometers (50 km more than AMRAAM) and flies at four times the speed of sound. The AA-12 has rectangular narrow span wings and a distinctive set of four rectangular control surfaces at the rear. similar to the configuration used on the terminal control fins of the SS-21 'Scarab' and SS-23 'Spider' ballistic missiles. These unique control surfaces feature reduced flow separation at high angles of attack, producing greater aerodynamic moment force than conventional control surfaces. The missile's guidance is inertial with mid-course updates from the launch aircraft, followed by a terminal active radar phase from an acquisition range of about 20 kilometers. Development of the missile is believed to have begun around in 1982.

Specifications
Length Body diameter Wingspan Launch weight Warhead Fuze Guidance Propulsion Range Platforms 3.60 m 200 mm 0.35 m 175 kg 30 kg HE fragmentation Active radar Inertial, command and active radar Solid propellant 50 km Su-33, Su-34, Su-35, Su-37, MiG-33, MiG-31M, Yak141

AS-1 KENNEL SSC-2a SALISH SSC-2b SAMLET
The AS-1 air-to-surface missile is a subsonic,turbojet-powered, cruise missile with a range or 35 to 97 nm. It weighs approximately 6030-lb and has a conventional warhead of 2020-lb. For guidance, it uses a preprogrammed autopilot for launch and climb, a beam rider for mid-course, and semi-active radar for terminal flight. It has a CEP of 150 ft when used in an anti-ship role and a CEP of 1.0 nm when used against land targets. Two AS-1 missiles are carried on the Badger B aircraft. Production of the AS-1 is estimated to have began in 1953, with IOC reached in 1956. It was first seen in 1961. Two versions of the SSC-2 were developed from the Soviet "KENNEL" air-to-surface anti-shipping missile. They resemble a small jet fighter in appearance and are transported on one-axle semitrailers. The field missile SSC-2a "SALISH" is launched from its transport semitrailer which is towed by a KrAZ-214 tractor truck The SSC-2b "SAMLET" coastal missile transport semitrailer is towed by a ZIL-157V tractor truck and is not used for launching. The missile must be removed from the transport semitrailer and placed on a large rail-type launcher for firing. The "SAMLET" coastal defense missile is the most commonly encountered cruise missile, and has been identified in East Germany and Poland.

Specifications
Contractor Initial operational capability Production terminated First detected Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective 1956 1960 1961

range Guidance mode

Mikoyan K-10S (AS-2 Kipper)
The AS-2 air-to-surface missile is a supersonic, turbojet-powered, low-level run-in, cruise missile with a range of 30 to 100 nm. The K-10S missile (Article 352), developed specially for the Tu-16K-10 (Badger-C) aircraft as weapon against naval vessels, was in October 1961, together with that aircraft certified for ordnance. One K-10S missile is suspended from the aircraft, under the middle section of the fuselage. It carries either a conventional or a nuclear 2200-lb warhead. The missile weighs approximately 9120 pounds. For guidance, it uses a preprogrammed autopilot for launch and climb, an autopilot with command correction for mid-course flight, and active radar for terminal flight. The guidance system combines inertial guidance during the initial flight stage and active-radar homing close to the target. The missile can carry a nuclear warhead. It has a CEP of 150 ft when used in an anti-ship role and a CEP of 1 to 2 nm when used against land targets.

Specifications
Contractor Initial operational capability First detected Production terminated Type Wingspan Length Diameter Launch weight Max. speed Ceiling Maximum range Propulsion Guidance Warhead 1961 1961 1965 long-range anti-ship standoff missile 4.6-4.88 m 9.5 m 0.9 m 4200 kg 1400 km/h 12000 m 260-350 km Lyulka AL-5 RD-9FK liquid fuel turbojet active radar homing impact with delay-fuzed high explosive, 1000 kg or nuclear 1000-kg warhead

Kh-20 / AS-3 KANGAROO
The AS-3 air-to-surface missile is a large, supersonic, turbojet-powered, cruise missile weighing approximately 24,500 lb with a range of 100 to 350 nm. It carries a 5000-lb nuclear warhead. For guidance it uses a preprogrammed autopilot for launch and climb, an autopilot with command guidance for mid-course flight, and a preprogrammed dive to target. It has a CEP of 150 ft when used in an anti-ship role and a CEP of 1 to 3 nm when used against land targets. One AS-3 is carried aboard the Bear B and Bear C aircraft.

Specifications
Contractor Type Initial operational capability First detected Production terminated Wingspan Length Diameter Launch weight Max. speed Ceiling Maximum range Propulsion Guidance Warhead meduim- to long-range standoff missile 1960 1961 1965 9.2 m 14.9 m 1.9 m 11000 kg 2280 km/h 18000 m 650 km Tumansky R-11 twin spool turbojet with afterburner, 50.9 kN of thrust beam riding high-explosive, 2300 kg, or thermonuclear, 800 kT yield

Raduga Kh-22 (AS-4 Kitchen)
Built by A. Berezhnyak's "Raduga" engineering group for Tu-22 and Tu-22M aircraft, this missile is now also arming modified Tu-95K-22 aircraft. During experimental tests conducted from the late nineteen fifties to the early nineteen sixties the Kh-22B version had reached a speed of Mach 6 and an altitude of about 70 km. The "Raduga" Design Bureau, first a branch of Mikoyan's OKB-2-155 Special Design Bureau, became an independent group in March 1957. Since 1974, after the death of Alexander Berezhnyak, its chief engineer is Igor Seleznyev. The Kh-22 missile comes in three variants: 1. Kh22N with a nuclear warhead and inertial guidance; 2. Kh-22M with a conventional load for use against ships and with an active-radar operating during the final flight stage; 3. Kh-22MP for breaking through enemy air defenses (overcoming enemy radars).

Specifications
Contractor Type Wingspan Length Diameter Launch weight Max. speed Ceiling Maximum range Propulsion Guidance Warhead long-range tactical standoff missile 3.0 m 11.3-11.65 m 0.92 m 5780-6000 kg 4000 km/h 24000 m 460-500 km liquid propellant rocket motor active radar or passive infra-red homing high-explosive, 1000 kg, or nuclear, 350 kT yield

KSR-2 / KS-11 AS-5 KELT
The AS-5 air-to-surface missile is a small supersonic, liquid-rocket propelled, cruise missile weighing approximately 7760 lb. It has a maximum speed of Mach 1.2 at an altitude of 30,000 ft. and a range of 80 to 125 nm. It can carry an 1100-lb conventional warhead, or a nuclear warhead weighing 850 to 1200 lb. For guidance, it uses active radar homing from launch to impact when employed in an anti-ship role, and an alternate passive radar homing system when used in an anti-radar role. It has a CEP of 150 ft when used in an anti-ship role, and a CEP of 1 to 2 nm when employed against land targets. The Badger G carries two AS-5 missiles suspended beneath its wings. Production of the missile is estimated to have begun in 1963, with IOC in 1965. It was first seen in 1966.

Specifications
Contractor Year Type Wingspan Length Diameter Launch weight Max. speed Ceiling Maximum range Propulsion Guidance Warhead Service 1968 anti-ship and ground attack standoff cruise missile 4.6 m 9.5 m 0.9 m 3000 kg 1080 km/h 18000 m 320 km single stage liquid propellant rocket motor active radar or anti-radar seeker impact- and direct impact-fuzed high explosive, 1000 kg CIS, Egypt

Raduga KSR-5 (AS-6 Kingfish)
The AS-6 air-to-surface missile is a supersonic, liquid-rocket propelled, cruise missile weighing approximately 13,000 lb. It has an estimated maximum speed of Mach 3.5 at an altitude of 65,000 ft. and an estimated range of 300 nm. It can carry an 1100-lb conventional or nuclear warhead. For guidance it uses a preprogrammed autopilot for launch and climb, an inertial guidance system or an autopilot with radio command override for mid-course, and an active radar system for terminal dive when used in an antiship role. It has a CEP of 150 ft when used in the antiship role, and a CEP of 1 to 2 nm when employed against land targets. The AS-6 probably is a follow-on to the AS-2 and AS-5. This is a smaller version of the Kh-22 missile, intended for Tu-16 bomber aircraft. Series production of the KSR-5 (Article D-5) anti-ship version with active-radar homing began in 1966. Target indication is given by either a "Rubin" radar of the Tu-16K-26 or a YeN radar of the Tu-16K-10-26. The KSR-SP antiradar missile entered service in 1972, at which time was also built the KSR-5N version with a nuclear load. On the basis of the KSR-5 was later built the KSR-5NM airborne target for training exercises. Modified Badger C and Badger G aircraft carry two AS-6 missiles. The Backfire may also have been an AS-6 carrier, but evidence is lacking to confirm this estimate. Production is estimated to have begun in 1969,with IOC in Badger aircraft in 1970. IOC with Backfire is estimated in 1974.

Specifications
Contractor operational Badger operational with Backfire Type Wingspan Length Diameter Launch weight Max. speed Ceiling Maximum range Propulsion Guidance 1970 1974 long-range cruise missile 2.5 - 2.61 m 10.0 - 10.52 m 0.9 m 3900-4800 kg 3200 - 3400 km/h 20000 m 240-700 km two stage solid propellant rocket motor active radar or anti-radar seeker

Warhead Service

proximity-, impact- or impact with delay-fuzed highexplosive, 1000 kg, or nuclear, 350 kT yield 700 kg CIS, Iraq

Zvezda Kh-66 (AS-7 Kerry) Zvezda Kh-23 (AS-7 Kerry)
In April 1965, when work on the MiG-23 fighter aircraft began, the "Vympel" [Pennant] OKB-134 Special Design Bureau received an order for a Kh-23 tactical guided air-toground missile. The main incentive for developing it was intelligence received about the Bullpup missile, a highly effective American one of the same class built several years earlier. Right away the engineers faced an obstacle of technological nature: the Russians had never before built tactical guided missiles and had not acquired any experience with missile guidance systems. A particularly difficult problem was the stipulation by the Air Force that the missile guidance system fit already existing fighter aircraft and thus be small. Because the OKB-134 did not meet time schedules, the Air Force in early 1966 accepted the proposal from the "Zvezda" small Design Bureau at the Kalinin No 455 Series Production Plant near Moscow producing K-5, K-8, and other guided air-to-air missiles. They proposed to build the first tactical air-to-ground missile with ready-made components of air-to-air missiles. What prompted the "Zvezda" OKB to submit its proposal was that it already had certain experience in using air-to-air missiles against ground targets. Such tests had been conducted during late nineteen fifties and early nineteen sixties with K-51 (RS-2US) missiles fired from MiG-19PM fighter aircraft. The main results of these tests indicated the feasibility of using these missiles against land and sea targets, though not very effectively because of the small warhead. The first Soviet tactical air-to-ground missile was built in 1966 and, therefore, called the Kh-66 or Article 66. The key design requirement was that it be able to carry a warhead weighing 100 kg (for comparison, the warhead of the K-5 missile weighed 13 kg). For propulsion of the Kh-66 missile the propulsion system of the K-8 was used with only a small modification of the nozzle. The nozzle had to be split in two, because the K-51 (RS-2US) guidance system, also used by the Kh-66 missile, was located in the tail. Using the old guidance system had many drawbacks but also offered one great advantage, namely that it could be carried by every aircraft previously carrying a K-5 missile without modifications of the aircraft (except for a new attachment underneath the fuselage). The missile was produced within a few months and in September 1966 began to be tested with an MiG-21PFM aircraft. Then in 1968 the Kh-66 was officially certified as weapon of MiG-21 aircraft, supported on the center line beneath the fuselage. The Kh-66 missile was a temporary solution and therefore, work on the Kh-23 missile was not discontinued but transferred from the "Vympel" OKB to the "Zvezda" OKB. Many components of the Kh-66 missile were used for building the Kh-23 and only the tail carrying the Delta-R1M radio-command guidance system had to be altered. Furthermore, the propulsion fuel was replaced with one having a higher energy content. The first ten experimental Kh-23 units were tested in the beginning of 1968. Due to defects, factory testing continued till the end of 1969. The cause of perturbations in the missile guidance could not be determined for quite a long time. Eventually the cause was found to be the wrong location of the smoke tracker allowing it to interfere both thermally and mechanically with the antenna of the guidance system. This problem was

solved by placing the tracker on the tail extension of the missile. The aircraft part of the Delta apparatus was installed either permanently on the aircraft (Delta N and Delta NM) or in containers (Delta NG or Delta NG2 systems). After completion of Government Qualification tests on MiG-23S and MiG-23B aircraft in autumn 1973, the Kh-23 missile was in 1974 officially certified as weapon with the Kh-23M (Article 68M) designation.

Specifications
Version Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode 3.63 m 0.275 m 0.811 m 278 kg 103 kg 2.49 m 0.275 m 0.785 m 286 kg 111 kg Kh-66 Kh-23M

single stage solid propellant rocket motor 2340 km/h 10 km beam riding 2900 km/h 10 km beam riding

Raduga Kh-28 (AS-9 Kyle)
Tactical missiles were also built by A. Berezhnyak's "Raduga" OKB engineering group, but by a different route than taken by the "Zvezda" Design Bureau. While "Zvezda" started from light air-to-air missiles, "Raduga" scaled down heavy air-to-ground missiles for strategic aircraft into light tactical ones. The Kh-28 (Article 93, alias D8) was built by applying to it Kh-22 and KSR-5 features. Its structure is a conventional aerodynamic one, with small delta wings. Its propulsion system is a two-stage liquid-fuel rocket engine. It was produced as early as the nineteen sixties, especially as an antiradar missile for Yak-28 bomber aircraft (the first Soviet missile of this type). It was, however, never actually put on Yak-28 aircraft but instead used as weapon of Su-7B/17/24 and Tu-22M aircraft. Series production of the Kh-28 began in 1971. The warhead is programmed prior to the missile launch, either by a "Filin" [Eagle Owl] set on board the aircraft (Su-24) or a "Metel" [Blizzard] set suspended from the aircraft (Su-7B/17, Tu-22M), to track the frequency of detected enemy ground radar. On the Su-17 aircraft this missile is suspended under the center line of the fuselage and the "Metel" set on the right underwing pylon. The missile is no longer used.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability 3500 km/h 120 km 5.97 m 0.43 m 1.93 m 720 kg 160 kg

Zvezda Kh-25 (AS-10 Karen)
The Kh-23 missile was very difficult to operate. After having been fired, it required continuous control by the pilot so that the pilot had to view the target image and the missile image as well as the sight screen. The necessity of continuously watching three images diverted the pilot from other tasks was very dangerous during combat. The distance to the target was, moreover, logged by the pilot manually on the basis of rough "eyesight" estimates and thus with significant errors. Other methods of guidance were sought, therefore, and the use of a laser for target indication to a guided missile became the choice. Work on this project was carried out by the "Zvezda" OKB jointly with Sukhoy's engineering group, the system developed by them being designated as the Su-17MKG (initial plans also included missiles with laser guidance as weapons for Su-7BM aircraft, but the autopilot of these aircraft was weaker and not able to ensure adequate damping of vibrations and thus sufficiently accurate aiming). While the Kh-23 was still being tested, its Kh-25 version (Article 71) was being prepared with a 24N1 semiactive laser homing head, using light rays reflected by the target upon their incidence from the first Soviet aircraft laser station ''Prozhektor-1'' (or possibly from a laser station on the ground). The missile was also equipped with an SUR-71 autopilot. Inasmuch as the Kh-25 version did not need a Delta system, instead an additional warhead weighing 24 kg to supplement the 113 kg warhead in the front, was placed in its tail section. The "Prozhektor" laser station had been built by the "Geofizika" [Geophysics] SKB (D. Khorol chief engineer). Flight tests of the Kh-25 missile on an Su17M aircraft, also carrying a "Prozhektor" laser, began toward the end of 1973, after which followed in autumn 1974 Government Qualification tests of the Su-17KMG complex. Both Kh-23 and Kh-25 missiles were also tested on Ka-25 and Ka-27 helicopters. The experience acquired during work on radio command-guided Kh-23, laser- guided Kh-25, and Kh-25 antiradar missiles was all applied to a new design: of the "Modulnaya" [Modular] Kh-25M missile (Article 71). This one became ultimately the most popular Soviet missile of its class and replaced earlier types. In 1975-76 it was approved for ordnance, especially as weapon of the MiG-27, then later also as weapon of almost all other aircraft and also of some helicopters such as Ka-50. The Kh-25M missile is series produced in three versions, all using the same engine, autopilot, warhead, power supply, body with wings, and other components. Only the guidance heads are different. The Kh-25MP antiradar missile (Article 711, NATO's AS12 Kegler) is similar to the Kh-27PS with an almost identical outer appearance. The Kh25ML (Article 713, NATO's AS-10 Karen) has a 24N1 laser guidance head and thus the same one which the Kh-25 has. The Kh-25MR (Article 714, NATO's AS-10 Karen) has the guidance head in the nose section replaced by a deflector and a Delta radio commandguidance system in the tail section, just as in the earlier Kh-23M missile. The latest version of the Kh-25 missile is the Kh-25MTP with a thermal-imaging guidance head.

Specifications
Version Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability range 10 km (Kh-25MP 40 km) 320 kg 136 kg 300 kg (Kh-25MP 320 kg) 89.6 kg 3.57 m 0.275 m 0.275 m; Kh-25 Kh-25ML

Raduga Kh-58 (AS-11 Kilter)
The Kh-58U missile (Article 112, alias D7) was built to replace the Kh-28, first of all for Su-24M aircraft, and was then used as basic weapon of MiG-25BM and other aircraft. Target indication and guidance head programming prior to the launch are done by either an on-board (Su-24M) "Fantazmagoria" [Phantasmagoria] set or a "Vyyuga" [Snowstorm] set suspended in a container. The probability of hit within a 20 m radius around an operating radar station is 80 percent. The Kh-58 version was equipped with an active radar head.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability 80% Mach 3.6 120 km 4.80 m 0.38m 1.17 m 640 kg 149 kg

Zvezda Kh-25MP / Kh-27PS (AS-12 Kegler)
One of the most important tasks of a tactical air-to-ground missile is breaking through the enemy air defense system by destroying its radar stations. No wonder then that in 1972, immediately after completing both Kh-23 and Kh-25 missiles, the "Zvezda" OKB began working on the Kh-27PS (Article 72) missile of the same family with a passive-radar head. An antiradar missile must have a long range so as to be able to reach radar stations from beyond the range of the air defense artillery. The Kh-27PS was therefore equipped with a two-range engine so its range could be extended to 60 km by reducing its speed during the initial flight stage. The passive-radar head of this missile was equipped with two antennas tuned to the radar frequencies of two most popular Western air defense systems: Hawk and Nike Hercules respectively. The missile was also equipped with an autopilot enabling it to perform the "hump" maneuver during the final flight stage so as to hit the target at a 20-30[DEG] angle and thus improve the effectiveness of warhead. The Kh-27PS missile worked with the airborne "Vyyuga" [Snowstorm] set programming the warhead prior to the launch. The missile was arming Su-17 and MiG-27 aircraft. Government Qualification tests on an MiG-27 aircraft were conducted during the 1975-77 period.

Raduga Kh-59 (AS-13 Kingbolt) and Kh-59M (AS-18 Kazoo)
The Kh-59 missile (Article D9) was for the first time publicly displayed in November 1991, in Dubai (United Arab Emirates). This missile is guided by television and propelled by a powder-fuel engine, with a powder- fuel accelerator in the tail. Its folding stabilizers are located at the front, while its cantilever wings with rudders are located in the rear. The Kh-59M missile differs from the original model by having a twice as large warhead and by another propulsion system. Under the missile body has been suspended a small turbojet engine, the RDK-300 designed by the "Soyuz" [Union] OKB. The missile is brought up to speed by a powder-fuel accelerator located in the tail section and then continues flying propelled by that turbojet engine. Equipped with such a propulsion system, the missile has a three times longer range than the Kh-59. Because television guidance has the drawback that the target must be "seen" by the missile, which limits the missile's range of action, the Kh-59M has a dual guidance system. After having been fired, the missile is guided by an inertial navigation system into the vicinity of the target and then the television camera is turned on for transmission of images to the receiver on board the missile's carrier aircraft. The transmitter of flightcorrecting radio commands (APK-8 for MiG-27K aircraft or APK-9 for Su-24M/30M and newer aircraft) is mounted in a container which hangs under the aircraft. The armament consisting of a Kh-59M missile with such guidance is called Owad [Insect]-M.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Altitude 285 m/s 115 km (Kh-59 40 km) 7 m above water or 100, 600, 1000 m above ground 1982 5.695 m (Kh-59 5,368 m) 0.38 m 1.26 m 930 kg (Kh-59 760 kg) 315 kg with penetrating ammunition or 280 kg with fragmenting ammunition (Kh-59 147 kg)

Guidance mode Carried by

TV-guide Su-24M, Su-34

Molniya (AS-14 Kedge)
This is the only missile of the air-to-ground class which has been designed by Matus Bisnovat's "Molniya" [Lightning] Design Bureau, which specializes in air-to-air missiles. It was developed in the middle nineteen seventies for MiG-27, Su-17, and Su-24 (Fencer) aircraft. It was later also installed on other aircraft. It is used chiefly against heavily reinforced targets (almost half its weight is the warhead). It is supported on AKU-58 launcher pylons, from which it is dropped down before its engine starts. The Kh-29L (Article 63) is an improved version of the Kh-29, with semiactive laser guidance. A target can be illuminated from the delivery aircraft or from another aircraft or from the ground. The Kh-29T (Article 64) has a television head with automatic optical homing to a distinguishable object indicated by the pilot in the cockpit. The Kh-29D version with a thermal- imaging head is also on the list of Russian export items.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode 600 m/s 8-10 km Kh-29L (Article 63)semiactive laser Kh-29T (Article 64) television Kh-29D thermal-imaging Su-17M3, Su-25T, MiG-27M, Su-24M, Su-34, MiG33, Su-35 1980 3.875 m 0.38 m 0.78 m 657 kg (Kh-29T 680 kg) 317 kg

Platform

Kh-55 Granat AS-15 Kent SS-N-21 Sampson SSC-4 Slingshot
The Kh-55 strategic cruise missile is used for destroying targets whose coordinates are known. Its guidance system combines inertial-Doppler navigation and position correction based on comparison of terrain in the assigned regions with images stored in the memory of an on-board computer. The propulsion system is a dual-flow engine located underneath the missile's tail. The missile carries a 200 kt nuclear warhead. The first tests of this missile were conducted in 1978 and a few units were installed on Tu-95MS aircraft in 1984. Three aircraft versions of this missile are known: Kh-55 (Article 120, alias RKV-500, NATO's AS-15a), Kh-55-OK (article 124), Kh-55SM (Article 125, alias RKV-500B, NATO's AS-15b). In addition the land version RK-55 (SSC-X-4) was destroyed in compliance with INF disarmament negotiations. The sea version SS-N-21 Sampson is reportedly deployed on the Akula, Victor III, Yankee Notch, and Sierra class SSN submarines. However, since the SSC-4 coastal defense variant is carried in a 25.6-in (650-mm) diameter canister, some analysts have suggested that the sub- launched variant is probably for launch only from 650-mm diameter torpedo tubes. Russian President Boris Yeltsin announced in January 1992 that he would end the manufacture of all sea- and air- launched cruise missiles. In March 2000 it was reported that the Russian Air Force had tested a new cruise missile with a conventional warhead. It was said to be a Kh-555 missile, which was developed from the Kh-55, with a range of 2000 - 3000 km.

Raduga Kh-65
The Kh-65 missile is a tactical modification of the strategic Kh-55. According to the first available information (on data sheets at the 1992 Moscow Air Show), its range was to be 500-600 km. The reason for shortening its range was that, according to terms of the SALT-2 Treaty, any aircraft carrying missiles with a range longer than 600 km will be regarded as a strategic one and the number of such aircraft is strictly limited. A full-sized versio of the Kh-65SE was displayed for the first time in 1993 (February in Abu Dabi, then September 1993 in Zhukovskiy and Nizhniy Novgorod). The missiles shown at the exhibitions did not differ from the earlier versions except for their range, quoted as 250 km when launched from low altitude and 280 km when launched from high altitude. The Kh-65 was intended for use against large targets with a larger than 300 m2 effective reflecting surface area, particularly warships, under conditions of strong electronic interference. It approaches the target guided by an inertial navigation system while flying

at a low altitude. Having reached the region where the target is located, it rises to a higher altitude and its active-radar target seeking system turns on.

Specifications
Version Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Propulsion Speed Maximum effective range Flight Altitude Guidance mode Mach 0.48-0.77 3000 km (Kh-55 2500 km) Mach 0.48-0.77 250-280 km 40-110 m 8.09 m 6.04 m / 19 ft, 6 in 0.77 m; (Kh-55 0.514 m) 0.514 m 3.10 m 1700 kg 200-kt nuclear 3.10 m / 10 ft, 1 in 1250 kg 410 kg HE Kh-55SM Raduga OKB M. I. Kalinin Machine Building Plant Kh-65SE

AS 15 Mod A RKV-500A ALCM

AS 15 Mod B RKV-500B ALCM

Raduga Kh-15 (AS-16 Kickback)
The Kh-15 short-range attack missile is analogous to the the American AGM-69 SRAM. Its basic version is the Kh-15P (Article 115) antiradiation missile used for breaking through air defenses. Its Kh-15A anti-ship version (exhibited in Abu Dabi 1993 as the Kh-15S) has an inertial navigation system for the initial flight stage and a millimetricwave active-radar self-homing system for the final flight stage. During its initial flight stage the Kh-15 missile, using a solid-fuel, rises to an altitude of about 40,000 m, whereupon the target seeking radar turns on. Having been zeroed in on the target, the missile dives while accelerating to a speed of Mach 5.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range flight altitude Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability Mach 5 150 km 40 km 4.78 m 0.455 m 0.92 m 1200 kg 150 kg

Zvezda Kh-31 (AS-17 Krypton)
New air defense weapon systems of the American Patriot kind have raised the requirements which antiradar missiles must meet. These include first of all higher speed and longer range, then also high interference immunity and radar turn-off when attacked. For the special purpose of meeting these requirements, the "Zvezda" group under the direction of V. Bugayskiy began in 1977 working on the Kh-31 missile (Article) 77P). The first launchings of this missile took place in 1982. The most interesting component of the Kh-31P is its dual propulsion system designed by the "Soyuz" Design Bureau in Turayevo near Moscow (note: there are several "Soyuz" engineering groups in Russia). First the missile is accelerated by its solid-fuel rocket engine to a speed of Mach 1.8, then the engine is discarded and the interior of the missile is converted into the combustion chamber of the missile's jet engine. The latter accelerates the missile to a speed of almost Mach 4.5, while four air intake holes on the sides of the missile body open up. On the basis of the Kh-31P antiradar missile were developed the Kh-31A missile (Article 77A) with an active-radar guidance head and also an M-31 flying target for air defense training exercises. The Kh-31 was for the first time publicly displayed in November 1991, in Dubai (United Arab Emirates). The State Scientific Production Center Zvezda-Strela has upgraded the air-to-surface supersonic ASM Kh-31A NATO: AS-17 Krypton). Recently a variant of the air-to-air class based on the Kh-31 was made available, equipped with a hybrid active-passive guidance head for use against nonmaneuvering airborne targets such as AWACS (passive guidance) from far distances. The range of this missile is 200 km. The unofficial designation of this missile is 'mini-Moskit'. The Kh-31A missile has been developed from the technologies of the 1970-80s.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode 1000 m/s 70 km (Kh-31P 110 km) Active Radarhoming 5.232 m 0.36 m 0.779 m 600 kg 90 kg

Carried by

P-750 Grom BL-10 AS-19 KOALA SS-N-24 SCORPION SSC-5
The P-750 Grom supersonic winged cruise missile with a range of 3000-4000 km was developed for replacing the Kh-55 [AS-15 KENT]. The AS-X-19 Koala was an airlaunched land-attack version derived from the SS-NX-24 Scorpion submarine-launched missile. A pair of AS-19 missiles was expected to arm the Tu-142 Bear-H bomber. The missile carried two warheads independently guided to hit two targets 100 km apart. The letters BL in its American designation refer to the firing range in Barnaul, where it was tested; its Russian industrial index designation is not known. Work on the program was suspended in 1992.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode 3000-4000 km 2,000 kg 2 x 200 kt nuclear turbojet or rocket/ramjet supersonic Chelomey cancelled 7 meters

Zvezda Kh-35 AS-20 Kayak SS-N-25 Switchblade SSC-6 Switchblade
In 1972 the Zvezda-Strela State Scientific-Industrial Center (GNPTs) group began working on the Uran (Western SS-N-25) anti-ship missile system - also commonly called Kharpunskiy because of its similarity to the American Harpoon - for ships of various classes. The Kh-35 antiship cruise missile can be used by surface ships and motor boats, coastal reconnaissance/strike systems, naval helicopters and also by Air Force planes. The Uran missile systems comprise 16 Kh-35 missiles - 4x4 launchers with pressurised transport-launching containers. The Uran system now serves as armament of Project 1149.8 missile equipped gun boats and other vessels. A coastal defense variant and, more recently, an antiaircraft variant were later developed on the basis of this missile. The Kh-35 missile has a normal aerodynamic design and an aluminium-alloy airframe. The missile's power plant consists of a solid-fuel booster and a turbojet powerplant. The missile's take-off weight is 750 kilograms, the warhead weighs 150 kilograms with a range of up to 130 kilometres. The Kh-35U anti-ship aircraft missile (Article 78U), propelled by a turbojet engine, flies toward its target at a speed of about the 300 m/s at an extremely low altitude. Owing to its high-precision radio-altimeter, the missile can skim the sea waves at an altitude of 3-5 metres at the terminal phase of trajectory. Its guidance system combines inertial guidance for during the initial flight stage and active-radar guidance during the remaining flight stage. The missile has a folding wing and a folding tail fin. For use by coastal or shipborne launchers the missile is equipped with a rocket starteraccelerator, a container-type launcher having room for four missiles. The air-launched AS-20 Kayak version was scheduled to become part of ordnance in 1994. The Kh-35U is intended to serve as weapon of practically all tactical naval aircraft, also of ZOP on the Tu-142 long-range aircraft (eight missiles on two positions, four per position, under the wings) and carrier-based Ka-27 helicopters (four missiles). Also available is an IC-35 flying target simulator for training a ship's air defense team in destroying missiles of this class. The "Zvezda" product line includes a variant of the Kh35 missile which operates with thermal-imaging rather than radar guidance during the final flight stage.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter 1983 3.75 m 0.42 m

Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Platforms

0.93 m 480 kg [630 kg with booster] 145 kg

300 m/s 130 km Active Radarhoming Ka-28, MiG-33, Yak-141

AFM-L Alfa 3M-51 Alfa P-900
The P-900 Alfa [industrial code 3M-51 ] is a version of the Granat [SS-N-19 SHIPWRECK] carrying a supersonic [Mach 2.5] final attack stage. There is some confusion as to whether the SS-N-27 designation applies to this missile, or to the Klub [industrial code 3M-54, also known as Alfa] , although the best evidence suggests that the 3M-54 Alfa is the SS-N-27, rather than the 3M-51 Alfa. The first information about the Alfa or officially AFM-L air-to-water missile built by the Scientific-Industrial Association "Mashinostroyeniye" [Machine Construction] (formerly V. Chelomey's Special Design Bureau since 1984 directed by G. Yefremov) was given at the Abu Dabi exhibition in February 1993, and in August 1993 a full-size model of this new missile was displayed in Zhukovskiy. It has a folding wing and four stabilizers aft. During the first flight stage, covering about 200 km, the missile is propelled by a turbojet engine and flies at a subsonic speed of 220-240 m/s approaching the target, whereupon a rocket engine kicks in which accelerates it to 700 m/s. NPO Mashinostroenie continues the development of the Alfa universal supersonic cruise missile that can be adopted for service in five to six years. The missile is being developed in submarine, ship, air and coastal-launched variants. As an airborne variant, Alfa will first join the armament options for the Su-34 or Su-32FN (NATO: Flanker) attack aircraft. The ship, submarine and coastal-launched variants of the Alfa have take-off weight of 2,600 kg (5,730 lb.) and warhead weight of 300 kg. (661 lb.). The Alfa airlaunched variant has take-off weight of 1,600 kg. (3,527 lb.). With the exception of the airborne variant, the missile is fired from a standard transport-launching container (TLC).

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed 2,600 kg (5,730 lb.) ship, submarine and coastallaunched variants 1,600 kg. (3,527 lb.) air-launched variant 300 kg. (661 lb.) Turbojet + Rocket Cruise Subsonic, NPO Mashinostroyeniye Under Development 8.0 m

Attack Mach 2.5 - 700 m/s Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability 250 km Active Radar

Moskit SS-N-22 Sunburn
Moskit is the aircraft variant of the naval missile 3M80 (SS-N-22 Sunburn, the designation 3M80 apparently referring to the Mach 3 speed of 1980 weapons) used on "Sovremennyy" destroyers (eight missiles on each) and on "Tarantul [Tarantula] III patrol ships (four missiles on each). The 3M82 "Mosquito" missiles have the fastest flying speed among all antiship missiles in today's world. It reaches Mach 3 at a high altitude and its maximum low-altitude speed is M2.2, triple the speed of the American Harpoon. When slower missiles, like the French Exocet are used, the maximum theoretical response time for the defending ship is 150-120 seconds. This provides time to launch countermeasures and employ jamming before deploying "hard" defense tactics such as launching missiles and using quick-firing artillery. But the 3M82 "Mosquito" missiles are extremely fast and give the defending side a maximum theoretical response time of merely 25-30 seconds, rendering it extremely difficult employ jamming and countermeasures, let alone fire missiles and quick-firing artillery. The aircraft version, officially called ASM-MMS and apparently also Kh-4, is intended specially for Su-27K (Su-33) carrier-based fighter aircraft. It was for the first time shown to the CIS leaders in February 1992 in Machulishche and then to the public in August 1992 at the Moscow Air Show in Zhukovskiy. The missile is propelled by a dual (rocket-jet) engine operating by the same principle as the Kh-31 engine. The missile, suspended under the aircraft, has a folding wing. The missile is guided by an autopilot during the initial fight stage, with possible correction by the aircraft pilot, and by active radar during the final flight stage.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Mach 3 250 km 2.10 m 4500 kg 320 kg 9.745 m

Flight Altitude Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability

20 meters above sea level active radar

3M55 Oniks P-800 Yakhont P-800 Bolid SSN-X-26
The supersonic P-800 Yakhont (Gem) is a ramjet version of P-80 Zubr [SS-N-7 Starbright]. The ship, submarine and coastal-launched Yakhont is launched from the unified ampoule-shaped transport-launching container (TLC). The container is 9 m long, is 0.71 m in diameter. The firing range reaches 300 km (162 nmi.) when flying along a combined trajectory and 120 kg (265 lb.) when following only a low-altitude trajectory. Flight speed varying over the range from M=2.0 to M=2.5 is provided by the kerosenefueled multi-mode liquid-fuel ramjet. The P-800 Bolid is the encapsulated, submarine launched version of Yakhont. An air-launched version of the missile with the take-off weight of 2,500 kg (5,507 lb.) is also being developed. The closest American counterparts, the Tomahawk and Harpoon missiles, are subsonic; the best French antiship missile, the Exocet, has a range of only 45 miles.

Specifications
Country of Origin Builder Role Range Speed Flight altitude Weight of warhead Guidance Minimum target detection range Maximum seeker head search angle Propulsion Launcher type Russia Beriev Amphibious anti-submarine patrol aircraft 300 km mixed trajectory 120 km low trajectory Mach 2 to 2.5 5 to 15 meters, final phase 200 kg [about] active-passive, radar seeker head 50 km in active mode 45 degrees solid propellant booster stage liquid-propellant ramjet sustainre motor underwater, surface ship, land

Launch method Launch angle range Weight Launch-container dimensions

from closed bottom launch-container 15 to 90 degrees 3,000 kg launch 3,900 kg in launch-container 8.9 meters length 0.7 meters diameter

FROG-1 3R-1, Filin
The Russian The FROG-1 [ Free Rocket Over Ground] and FROG-2 were the earliest of the Soviet large free rockets. FROG-1 can be distinguished by its large, bulbous nose and by the large transporter-launch vehicle based on the JS heavy tank chassis. FROG-2 is a smaller rocket, also with a bulbous nose, but transported by and launched from a lighttracked vehicle derived from the PT-76 tank chassis. Both FROG-1 and FROG-2 are considered obsolete today and are no longer in first line units.

FROG-2 3R-2, Mars
The Russian The FROG-1 [ Free Rocket Over Ground] and FROG-2 were the earliest of the Soviet large free rockets. FROG-1 can be distinguished by its large, bulbous nose and by the large transporter-launch vehicle based on the JS heavy tank chassis. FROG-2 is a smaller rocket, also with a bulbous nose, but transported by and launched from a lighttracked vehicle derived from the PT-76 tank chassis. Both FROG-1 and FROG-2 are considered obsolete today and are no longer in first line units.

FROG-3 R-9, Luna FROG-4 Luna FROG-5 3R-10, Luna-1
The Russian FROG-3 [Free Rocket Over Ground], FROG-4, and FROG-5 are three variants of a single unguided, spin stabilized, solid fuel rocket. The system requires about 30-40 minutes to prepare missile for firing and about 60-70 minutes to reload. The rockets are transported on and launched from the same basic light-tracked chassis derived from the PT-76 tank. This chassis can be distinguished from that of the FROG-2 transport-launch vehicle by the presence of track support rollers. The rockets are identical, differing only in the size and shape of the warheads. Although still encountered in some armies, this series of FROG'S was replaced by FROG-7 which is carried on and launched from a wheeled vehicle.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode 10,000 to 61,000 m unguided, spin stabilized Up to 800lbs

FROG-3

FROG-4

FROG-5

FROG-6
The Russian FROG-6 [Free Rocket Over Ground] is a dummy rocket used for training purposes. It is transported on a specialty modified ZIL-157 (6?6) truck chassis.

FROG-7A (3R-11, 9K21, 9M21, R-65) FROG-7B (9K52, 9M52, R-70), Luna-M
The FROG-7 is the latest addition to the "Free Rocket Over Ground" family of unguided, spin-stabilized, short-range (battlefield support) artillery rockets. The rocket is of conventional single-stage design, with a cylindrical warhead of the same diameter as the rocket body, giving it a cleaner, more modern appearance than its predecessors. The FROG-7 has a range of 70 km and a 550 kg warhead, and an impact area of approximately 2.8 km long by 1.8 km wide. The FROG-7 is capable of delivering HE, nuclear, or chemical warheads. The FROG-7 gave the Soviet division commander a deep interdiction/penetration nuclear threat. The FROG-7A was first introduced in 1965 as a replacement for earlier FROG variants, some of which had been in service since the mid-1950s. The FROG-1 and -2 are obsolete. The FROG-3, -4, and -5 variants, mounted on a non-amphibious version of the PT-76 light tank chassis, are obsolete in the USSR, but were still found in other Warsaw Pact armies at the end of the Cold War. The FROG-5 is still used as a training rocket, and the FROG-6 is a dummy rocket used for training purposes only. The FROG-7B, introduced in 1968, is essentially the same rocket as the FROG-7A but with a longer warhead section. The FROG-7 was replaced by the SS-21 tactical ballistic missile which has greater range (120 km) as well as probable improvements in reaction time, missile reliability, accuracy, and handling characteristics. Since the SS-21 is mounted on a six-wheeled TEL similar to the SA-8/GECKO SAM system, it has improved cross-country capability and is probably amphibious. Like the SA-8, it probably has an air filtration and overpressure system forcollective chemical and biological protection. The SS-21 was first deployed in 1976 in the USSR and was reported in GSFG in 1981. During the Cold War the most prominent short-range nuclear force [SNF] system at at the division level was the unguided free-rocket-over-ground (FROG), which in the Soviet Army was deployed in a battalion of four launchers. As of 1987 the Soviets were replacing FROGs with the more accurate, longer range SS-21s in some divisions opposite NATO. About 500 FROG and SS-21 launchers were opposite NATO. Another 215 FROG launchers were opposite China and in the Far East; some 100 were opposite Southwest Asia and eastern Turkey; and about 75 were in strategic reserve. Non-nuclear versions of the FROG-7 have been exported to both Warsaw Pact and some non-Warsaw Pact nations. The FROG-7 is deployed by Cuba, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, North Korea, Syria, and Yemen. Laith, an Iraqi improved version of the FROG-7, has a 90 km range. The FROG-7 (9K52 Luna), the final version of the FROG family, is an unguided, spinstabilized, short-range, battlefield support artillery rocket. The range of the FROG-7A rocket is 70 km with a CEP of 500 to 700 meters. It is fitted with either a 450 kg HE, 450

kg nuclear, or 36 kg chemical warheads. The improved FROG-7B carries a cargo warhead for delivering bomblets or mines. In addition to improvements in the rocket which give it greater range, a new transportlaunch vehicle using a wheeled chassis has been developed based on the ZIL-135 [BAZ135] 8x8 truck. This wheeled transporter erector launcher (TEL) carries one rocket and a crane. It incorporates a number of improvements in rocket handling such as the on-board crane. Reload missiles are placed on the TEL by that vehicle’s own hydraulically operated crane on the right side of the launcher rail. A very similar vehicle is also used with the FROG-7 system to transport the reserve rockets. The earlier FROG'S used semitrailers towed by ZIL-157V tractor trucks, and needed crane trucks for reloading of the transport-launch vehicles. Preparation for firing can take 15 to 30 minutes depending on the situation. A typical FROG-7 battalion is equipped with two firing batteries each with two TELs and a D-band RMS (END TRAY) long-range meteorological radar. The cruising range of the transporter-erector-launcher vehicle is 400 km. The FROG-7 TEL vehicle provides no NBC protection for the crew. The single-rail launcher has limited traverse.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Accuracy Users 70 km ballistic 145 It has an impact area of approximately 2.8 km long by 1.8 km wide CIS, Cuba, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, North Korea, Syria, Yemen 550 kg

SS-21 SCARAB (9K79 Tochka)
The SS-21 SCARAB (9K79 Tochka) single-stage, short-range, tactical-ballistic missile is transported and fired from the 9P129 6x6 wheeled transporter erector launcher. It is supported by a tactical transloader (9T218) and a 9T238 missile transporter trailer towed by a ZIL-131 truck. The 9P129 TEL crew compartment is in the forward section and the missile compartment behind. During transport the missile is enclosed with the warhead in a temperature-controlled casing. The SS-21 SCARAB missile (9M79) has a maximum range of 70 km and a CEP of 160 meters, while the improved composite propellant 9M79-1 (Tochka-U) has a maximum range of 120 km. The basic warhead is the 9N123F HE-Frag warhead which has 120 kg of high explosives. The 9N123K submunition warhead can probably carry either bomblets or mines. The SS-21 can also carry the AA60 tactical nuclear warhead. Other warheads are believed to include chemical, terminally guided warhead, and a smartmunition bomblet warhead. In 1981, the SS-21, a guided missile (providing improvement in both range and accuracy), began replacing the FROG in forward-deployed divisions, and 140 are were deployed as of 1988. Division-level SS-21 battalions were being consolidated into brigades in Soviet armies in East Germany. On 21 October 1999 US satellites [reportedly the Defense Support Program] tracked two Russian short-range ballistic missile launched from the Russian city of Mozdok some 60 miles northeast of Grozny. The missiles slammed into a crowded Grozny marketplace and a maternity ward, killing at least 143 persons, according to reports from the region. The missiles are believed by intelligence analysts to have been SS-21s.

Specifications
USA Code Name Nato Code Name: Russian Designation: Range: Stages: Fuel: Inservice: Notes: Contractor Entered Service Total length SS-21 Scarab 9K79 120 Km 1 Solid Current System Replacement for FROG -7 System. Very Mobile

Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability

SS-N-2 Styx HY-1 / SY-1 CSS-C-2 SILKWORM FL-1 Flying Dragon CSS-N-1 SCRUBBRUSH
China acquired the Russian SS-N-2 Styx missile technology in 1959, and production began in 1974. The Russian SS-N-2 was used in 1967 against Israel by Egypt, in 1971 by India against Pakistan, and by Iran during its 1980-88 war with Iraq. Chinese copies of the Styx design (CSS-C-2 Silkworm and CSS-C-3 Seersucker) coastal defence missiles and the ship launched CSS-N-1 and CSS-N-2 were used by both sides in the Iraq-Iran War Technological improvements to the C-801/SARDINE and the C-802/ SACCADE are providing a gradual upgrade to China's current force of antiquated first generation CSSN-1 SCRUBBRUSH ASCMs. It was reported in 1996 that Iran had begun indigenous production of a medium-range antiship missile, the FL-10, based on the Chinese FL-2 or FL7 and developed with Chinese technical assistance.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability 80 km Auto pilot, Active radar 5.8 meters o.76 meters 2.4 meters 2,300 kg 454kg HE hollow charge

P-350 Bazalt 4K-77 P-500 Bazalt 4K-80 SS-N-12 Sandbox
SS-N-12 Sandbox is a Russian supersonic speed cruise missile with a range of 550 km carrying a payload of 1,000 kg. The P-350 Bazalt [industrial code 4K-77] was the successor to the P-35 Bazalt, which was started in 1963 and subsequently cancelled. It evolved into the P-500 Bazalt [industrial code 4K-80] which was the production version of the original P-350 Bazalt. Developed to replace the SS-N-3 Shaddock anti- ship missile, it was initially deployed on Kiev-class aircraft carriers in the mid-1970s. The Slava-class cruisers carry an advanced version with an improved sophisticated guidance system, an autopilot that can be programmed for mid-course maneuvers, and an enhanced engine. The P-700 Granat [SSN-19 Shipwreck] was developed as a more successful turbojet alternative to the SSN-12 Sandbox, from which it was derived.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Circular Error Probable (CEP) Chelomey 1973 11.70 meters 0.90 meters 2.60 meters 5,000 kg 1,000 kg high-explosive or 350 kiloton nuclear liquid-fueled rocket [turbojet according to some sources] Mach 2.5 550 km mid-course missile guidance radar on lamuch platform active or passive terminal homing 300-700 m

SS-N-14 Silex RPK-3 Metel / RPK-4 Musson
SS-N-14 Silex is a Russian anti-submarine weapon. It was initially and incorrectly given the SS-N-10 designation. There is also an ASuW(SSM) version where a homing head is mounted on the nose of the carrier and the torpedo is replaced by a warhead- the whole missile is then guided onto the target. it uses UPRK-3, UPRK-4 or UPK-5 missiles.

Specifications
USA Code Name Nato Code Name Russian Designation Range Propulsion Speed In-service: Guidance SS-N-14 Silex RPK-3 Metel / RPK-4 Musson 55 Km Solid Rocket Subsonic Yes Command

SS-N-15 Starfish RPK-2 Viyoga
The SS-N-15 (Starfish) is a Russian 533 mm calibre anti-ship missile capable of being fitted with a 10-20 kT warhead or a Type 40 torpedo, and has a range of 37-45 kilometers. The SS-N-15 Starfish ASW has a range of 45-50 kilometers. This non strategic weapon was deployed in 1973. It uses the 82R torpedo or 90R nuclear depth charge missile.

Specifications
USA Code Name Nato Code Name Russian Designation Range Design Bureau Propulsion Speed In-service: SS-N-15 Starfish Tsakra / RPK-2 Viyoga 45 Km Novator Solid Rocket Subsonic Yes

SS-N-16 Stallion
The SS-N-16 (Stallion) is a Russian 650mm calibre anti-ship missile capable of being fitted with a 10-20 kT warhead or a Type 40 torpedo. The SS-N-16 Stallion ASW system was deployed in 1979-1981. This non strategic weapon has a range variously estimated at between 50 kilometers and 100-120 kilometers. The SS-N-16 concept is a unique antiship cruise missile that can carry alternatively a high-explosive charge to destroy surface ships or a torpedo for use against submarines. This type of weapon can be used by surface ships or submarines, as with the American AGM-84 Harpoon, although they are not equivalent. The diameter of this type of missiles is so large that it must be launched from 650 mm tubes, and cannot be carried in the standard 533 mm torpedo tubes. The RPK-6 Vodopod is the surface ship system, firing the 83R torpedo carrying or 86R nuclear depth charge, while the RPK-7 Vodopei is the submarine system.

Specifications
USA Code Name Nato Code Name Russian Designation Design Bureau Range Propulsion Speed In-service: SS-N-16A - Torpedo Warhead SS-N-16B - Nuclear Depth Charge Stallion RU-100 Veter ( Torpedo Warhead - Type 40) RU-100 Vodopod ( Nuclear Depth Charge 200kT) Novator 100 Km Solid Rocket N/A Yes

P-700 3M-45 Granat SS-N-19 SHIPWRECK
The P-700 Granat [SSN-19 Shipwreck] was developed as a more successful turbojet alternative to the SSN-12 Sandbox, from which it was derived. Developed in the 1970's, the Shipwreck's initial employment was on the battle cruiser Kirov (later renamed Admiral Ushakov). The Shipwreck was subsequently deployed on the nuclear powered cruiser Peter the Great. It is also deployed on submarines, which can launch the missile while submerged.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability 7,000 kg 750 kg conventional high explosive or 500 kiloton nuclear warhead 2 solid-fuel boosters 1 turbojet sustainer engine supersonic 625 km inertial with command update, active radar/IR and anti-radar homing 10 meters 0.85 meters Chelomey

3M-54 Klub SS-N-27
The Novator Design Bureau developed the Club anti-sub/ship cruise missile system [sometimes referred to as the Klub, Biryuza and Alpha/Alfa]. There is some confusion as to whether the SS-N-27 designation applies to this missile, or to the P-900 Alfa [industrial code 3M-51 ] , although the best evidence suggests that the 3M-54 Alfa is the SS-N-27, rather than the 3M-51 Alfa. The Club missile system is designed to destroy submarine and surface vessels and also engage static/slow-moving targets, whose co-ordinates are known in advance, even if these targets are protected by active defences and electronic countermeasures. There are two 'known' modifications of the system; Club-S (for submarines) and Club-N (for surface vessels). The Club-N can be installed in vertical launch cells or in angled missile boxes. Both systems are based on common hardware, the only difference being the design of the missile launchers and missile transport-launching containers. Five types of missiles - 3M-54E, 3M-54E1, 3M-14E, 91RE1 and 91RE2 - have been developed for the Club ASCM. The Club-S can be armed with a 3M-54E or 3M-54E1 anti-ship missile, 3M-14E submarine-to-coast missile or a 91RE1 anti-submarine torpedo. The Club-N can be armed with a 3M-54E or 3M-54E1 anti-ship missile, 3M14E submarine-to-coast missile or a 91RE2 anti-submarine torpedo. The missile is 6.2 meters long, which is the same as the length of the standard torpedo tubes used by Western navies. It is designed according to the double-stage cruise scheme. The first solid-fuel stage ensures the missile's launch from a universal vertical launcher of a surface craft or from a submarine torpedo tube with a diameter of 0.533 meters. The 3M-54E missile has a range of 300 km. For the majority of its trajectory it flies at a high subsonic speed. The first stage drops off when the missile reaches the prescribed altitude and its second stage sustainer engine goes into action. This is the time when the missile's wing and tail assembly unfold. The altitude of its flight goes down to 10-15 metres above the sea surface and the missile heads towards the target in accordance with the target designations, fed before the start into the memory of its board guidance system. The targeting on the cruise sector of the trajectory is effected by an inertia navigation system. The end sector of the missile's flight with the homing head active proceeds only five metres above the water surface. At 60 km from its target the third, solid-fuel stage separates from the missile, accelerates to supersonic speed and overcomes the defence zone of the target vessel In spite of its relatively small launch weight of 1,570 kilograms, the missile has a range of 300 kilometres and a powerful 450-kilogram warhead, which can blow up very large

surface craft. The missile's moderate weight allows even warships with a small displacement to take aboard quite a few of such deadly weapons. India is making substantial purchases of the Novator 3M-54 Alfa missile to equip Kilo class submarines and its new frigates. The first two Indian 877YeKM submarines (Kilo class, according to NATO classification) will be armed with the latest Russian 3M-54E antiship cruise missiles. These missiles will also be fitted onto three frigates which are being built to order for the Indian navy at the Baltic shipyard in St Petersburg. Each of the frigates will carry eight antiship missiles which will be launched from vertical launch containers on the bow of the ship. It is believed that an air-launched variant will be purchased to arm the Tu-142s currently in service and the six to eight additional aircraft being sought by the Navy. If an airlaunched version of the Alfa is procured, it is anticipated that India's Tu-22M3s will eventually be equipped to fire them.

Specifications
Length [m] 3M-54E 8.22 3M-54E1 6.2 0.533 1,780 300 0.6 - 0.8 Terminal Stage Speed for the 3M54E1 3M-14E 6.2 0.533 1,780 300 0.6 - 0.8 Terminal Stage Speed for the 3M14E 91RE1 8.0 0.533 2,050 50 2.5 Ballistic Stage Speed for the 91RE1 91RE2 6.5 0.533 1,300 40 2.0 Ballistic Stage Speed for the 91RE2 Diameter [m] 0.533 Launch Weight [kg] Maximum Range [km] 2,300 220

Speed [Mach] Depends on flight mode Subsonic Mode: Mach 0.6 0.8, Supersonic Mode: Mach 2.9 Warhead Weight [kg] Control System 200 Inertial + Active Radar Homing LowFlying

400 Inertial + Active Radar Homing LowFlying

400 Inertial

76 Inertial

76 Inertial

Flight Path

Ballistic

Ballistic

Ballistic

RPK-9 Medvedka SS-N-29
The RPK-9 Medvedka [SS-N-29] is similar to the American ASROC-like torpedo carrying rocket for small ships. The MEDVEDKA Missile System is intended to engage hostile submarines and can be installed at surface ships. It has no analogies in terms of potential installation on small ships. The system can be used in shallow water. The system comprises missiles each with the small torpedo as the warhead, launchers* intended for single and ripple missile launches, the fire control system to provide target movement parameters, data for single and ripple firing, output and transmission of launch and flight data, and ground support facilities to store and maintain the system at depots, bases, arsenals, and mobile basing posts. The system can be modified and suited for installation on customer's operational ships to provide inclined or vertical launch on request. The basic variant of the system comprises two four-tube launcher modules. Modular design makes it possible to install one/two/four launcher modules to configure customised system variants comprising from one to eight launchers at customer's request.

Specifications
Nato Code Name Russian Designation Range Design Bureau Propulsion Speed In-service: Total weight Missile weight length calibre Solid Rocket Subsonic Yes 12,000 kg shipboard system with four missiles 19,400 kg Total weight of system with eight missiles 800 kg 5.5 meters 400 mm 0- 20,000 meter 15-500 meters Target engagement depth

VA-111 Shkval underwater rocket
In 1995 it was revealed that Russia had developed an exceptionally high-speed unguided underwater missile which has no equivalent in the West. Code-named the Shkval (Squall), the new weapon travels at a velocity that would give a targeted vessel very little chance to perform evasive action. The missile has been characterized as a "revenge" weapon, which would be fired along the bearing of an incoming enemy torpedo. The Shkval may be considered a follow-on to the Russian BGT class of evasion torpedoes, which are fired in the direction of an incoming torpedo to try to force an attacking to evade (and hopefully snap the torpedo's guidance wires). The weapon was deployed in the early 1990s, and had been in service for years when the fact of its existence was disclosed. Development begain in the 1960s, when the Research Institute NII-24 (Chief Designer Mikhail Merkulov) involved in the artillery ammunition research was instructed to launch the development of underwater high-speed missile to fight nuclear-powered submarines. On 14 May 1969, pursuant to a government resolution, NII-24 and GSKB-47 merged into the Research Institute of Applied Hydromechanics (NII PGM), which formed the basis of the present day 'Region' Scientific Production Association. Advances in the development of jet engines and fuel technologies, as well as outstanding results in the research of body motion under cavitation made it possible to design a unique missile with a dived speed much greater than that of conventional torpedoes. When the suction on the low-pressure side of the propeller blade dips below ambient pressure [atmospheric plus hydrostatic head] the propeller blade cavitates -- a vacuum cavity forms. There is water vapor in the cavity, and the pressure is not a true vacuum, but equal to the vapor pressure of the water. High-speed propellers are often designed to operate in a fully-cavitating (supercavitating) mode. A high speed supercavitating projectile, while moving in the forward direction, rotates inside the cavity. This rotation leads to a series of impacts between the projectile tail and the cavity wall. The impacts affect the trajectory as well as the stability of motion of the projectile. The present paper discusses the in-flight dynamics of such a projectile. Despite the impacts with the cavity wall, the projectile nearly follows a straight line path. The frequency of the impacts between the projectile tail and cavity boundary increases initially, reaches a maximum, and then decreases gradually. The frequency of impacts decreases with the projectile's moment of inertia. Apparently fired from standard 533mm torpedo tubes, Shkval has a range of about 7,500 yards. The weapon clears the tube at fifty knots, upon which its rocket fires, propelling the missile through the water at 360 kph [about 100 m/sec / 230 mph / 200-knots], three or four times as fast as conventional torpedoes. The solid-rocket propelled "torpedo" achieves high speeds by producing a high-pressure stream of bubbles from its nose and skin, which coats the torpedo in a thin layer of gas and forms a local "envelope" of supercavitating bubbles. Carrying a tactical nuclear warhead initiated by a timer, it would destroy the hostile submarine and the torpedo it fired. The Shkval high-speed underwater missile is guided by an auto-pilot rather than by a homing head as on most torpedoes.

There are no evident countermeasures to such a weapon, its employment could put adversary naval forces as a considerable disadvantage. One such scenario is a rapid attack situation wherein a sudden detection of a threat submarine is made, perhaps at relatively short range, requiring an immediate response to achieve weapon on target and to ensure survival. Apparently guidance is a problem, and the initial version of the Shkval was unguided However, the Russians have been advertising a homing version, which runs out at very high speed, then slows to search. A prototype of the modernised "Shkval", which was exhibited at the 1995 international armaments show in Abu Dhabi, was discarded. An improved model was designed with a conventional (non-nuclear) warhead and a guided targeting system, which substantially enhances its combat effectiveness. The first tests of the modernised Shkval torpedo were held by the Russian Pacific Fleet in the spring of 1998. The 'Region' Scientific Production Association has developed developed an export modification of the missile, 'Shkval-E'. Russia began marketing this conventionally armed version of the Shkval high-speed underwater rocket at the IDEX 99 exhibition in Abu Dhabi in early 1999. The concept of operations for this missile requires the crew of a submarine, ship or the coast guard define the target's parameters -- speed, distance and vector -- and feeds the data to the missile's automatic pilot. The missile is fired, achieves its optimum depth and switches on its engines. The missile does not have a homing warhead and follows a computer-generated program. On 05 April 2000 the Russian Federal Security Service [FSB] in Moscow arrested an American businessman, Edmond Pope, and a Russian accomplice, on charges of stealing scientific secrets. A FSB statement said it confiscated "technical drawings of various equipment, recordings of his conversations with Russian citizens relating to their work in the Russian defense industry, and receipts for American dollars received by them." Pope, a retired US Navy captain who spent much of his career working in naval intelligence, was at the time of his arrest the head of a private security firm. On 20 April 2000 the FSB revealed that Pope had been seeking plans the Shkval underwater missile. Pope was detained during an informal contact with a Russian scientist who had participated in the Shkval's creation. The arrest of Daniel Howard Kiely, deputy head of the Applied Research Laboratory at Pennsylvania State University, came almost simultaneously. The laboratory led by Mr. Kiely has for many years been developing torpedoes for US warships and submarines. Professor Kiely had joined Pope in Moscow to offer technical advice and determine the tasks for Pope's further activity. Kiely was interrogated as a witness. His testimony and objects confiscated during the search proved his involvement in Pope's activities. Later the 68-year-old professor was released and allowed to return to the United States. The objective of the High-Speed Undersea Weaponry project at the US Office of Naval Research is to develop the vehicle guidance, control and maneuvering capabilities for the quick reaction weapons. High-speed weapons could offer an advantage for Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) "close encounter" scenarios. The overall system response of a high-speed weapon for breaking off engagements with enemy submarines would be measured in seconds, rather than minutes. The High-Speed Undersea Weapons project has three tasks; Vehicle Guidance, Vehicle Control, and Test Bed Development. Vehicle Guidance deals with homing sensors, signal processing, waveform design, and autopilot

commands that are used to guide (either autonomously or with external interaction) the weapon to its target. Vehicle control deals with control and maneuvering of the highspeed weapon with emphasis on stabilizing the supercavitating bubble cavity, and optimizing the flow for low drag. Technical issues include instability due to vehicle planing and tail slap, interaction between cavity with propulsion exhaust, and propulsion system transients, including startup. Test Bed Development is an ongoing effort that develops a test platform to test and evaluate S&T candidate systems such as homing systems, vehicle control, and propulsion systems.

AT-1 SNAPPER
The first antitank guided missile to be used in the Warsaw Pact forces was the AT-1 "SNAPPER" which was launched from a UAZ-69 jeep. Although by the mid-1970s this launcher was rarely encountered with Soviet troops, it was still used in other countries of the Pact and has been exported to Yugoslavia and the Middle East. The AT-1 "SNAPPER" is a wire guided missile with a HEAT warhead. Officially it is known to the Soviets as the 3M6, with a nickname of "Shmet", meaning bumblebee. The AT-1 has a warhead capable of penetrating 380mm of armor and a range of 2,000 meters. The AT-1 is easily recognized by its wide wing span and pointed nose. The UAZ-69 launch vehicle has a very distinctive appearance since the quadruple launcher with the missiles is rotated to the vertical position during travel. Both the missiles and launcher are covered with a canvas top which give the vehicle the appearance of a baby carriage. For firing the canvas ton is towered to the rear and the launcher is rotated downward to the rear of the vehicle. Since the UAZ-69 is a small vehicle no reserve rounds are carried. The two-man crew of the launcher is located in the forward compartment of the vehicle where the on-board fire control equipment is located. Off-vehicle remote control is also provided for. The "SNAPPER" is also launched from a modified BRDM amohibious scout car. This launch vehicle carries a triple launcher which is raised for firing, with the armor plates moving to the side. As in the case of the UAZ-69 off-vehicle remote control is provided for, although the two-man crew normally operates from the forward compartment of the vehicle. This BRDM launch vehicle wass still used in a number of Warsaw Pact armies in the 1970s.

Specifications
USA Code Nato Name Fuel Guidance Range Launcher Inservice Notes AT-1 Snapper Solid Wire MCLOS 2 Km Rail OOS = Out Of Service Used from Tank Destroyers

AT - 2 SWATTER Anti-Tank Guided Missile
The SWATTER is a radio-guided antitank guided missile with a HEAT (High Explosive, Anti Tank) warhead. The SWATTERs with manual command to line of sight (MCLOS) guidance have the disadvantage that the operator must track target and missile simultaneously and manually guide the missile to the target. The slow flight speed makes evasive action an effective countermeasure, especially at long ranges. The SWATTER was introduced into service in 1960 specifically for use with the BRDM reconnaissance vehicles. The SWATTER is mounted on BRDM/BRDM-2 scout vehicles with four launch rails on a traversable mount. When the launcher is raised for firing, armor plates on the BRDM move to the sides, while the launcher on the BRDM-2 is attached to the underside of a flat, retractable, armored cover. The Mi-8/HIP E can mount four SWATTERs above its outboard weapons racks, and the Mi-24/HIND A and D mount four SWATTERs on wingtip launch rails. BRDM/BRDM-2 SWATTERs are sometimes found in the antitank battery of motorized rifle regiments although this role is more likely filled by the AT-3 or AT-5. The BRDM-mounted SWATTERs with MCLOS guidance were replaced by the new AT-5/SPANDREL. The Mi-24 helicopter was equipped with the heavy 9M17 Skorpion (AT-2 Swatter) missile of the Falanga [Phalanx] family (Vertoletnaya Falanga-V helicopter version). Its older version, the 9M17M, was guided manually by commands from the pilot tracking its flight. Its 9M17P version is guided semiautomatically by an on-board Raduga-F set, the operator's sole task being to keep the target within field of view of the sight eyepiece. Signals are transmitted to the missile over radio. The appearance of the helicoptermounted SWATTER C, retrofitted with a semiautomatic IR/radio guidance system and IR terminal homing, was apparently an interim measure pending the full deployment of the longer-range, second-generation missile AT-6/SPIRAL. SWATTERs are currently seeing limited use, however the AT-2c uprated version, are still in wide use as helicoptermounted missiles. The SWATTER-A has a maximum range of 2500 meters and a minimum range of 500 meters. It has manual command to line of sight (MCLOS) guidance. This means that the missile operator literally flies the missile onto the target using a small joystick. The missile has a flare in its tail that helps the operator fly the missile down his line of sight to the target. Unlike later ATGM's which use a wire to transmit commands from the operator to the missile, the SWATTER uses radio. The SWATTER B also has MCLOS guidance but the maximum range was extended to 3500 m. The SWATTER C was designed as an interim between the SWATTER B and the AT-6 SPIRAL for use by helicopters. The C version uses semi-automatic command line of sight (SACLOS) guidance instead of MCLOS guidance. The difference is that instead of manually flying the missile with a joystick, the operator simply keeps the cross hairs of his sight on the

target and the missile flies itself there. In addition the missile has terminal IR guidance and a maximum range of 4000 m. The 9M17P SWATTER missile's length is 1160 mm, its body diameter is 132 mm, and its launch weight is 31.5 kg. The SWATTER's HEAT warhead weighs 5.4 kg, and can pierce 500 mm thick steel armor. The SWATTER A can engage targets at ranges between 500 and 2,500 meters. SWATTER B and C have maximum ranges of 3,500 meters and 4,000 meters respectively. All versions have a flight speed of 150-170 meters per second, resulting in a flight time of 17 seconds to 2,500 meters (SWATTER A), 23 seconds to 3,500 meters (SWATTER B) or 26 to 27 seconds to 4,000 meters (SWATTER C). Armor penetration is over 500 mm, and the probability of first-round hit is 67 percent for SWATTER A and B and over 90 percent for the SWATTER C.

Variants
The initial version of the missile was the SWATTER-A, but two upgrades were introduced in the 1970s, designated SWATTER-B and SWATTER-C. The SWATTER A was introduced in the early 1960s, and the SWATTER B was in service before 1973 when it was first displayed in the Red Square parade. All versions are 1,1 60 mm long and 148 mm in diameter. The SWATTER A and B, both with manual command-to-lineof-sight (MCLOS) guidance, differ in weight (27 kg and 29 kg respectively). However, the AT-2c/SWATTER C has semiautomatic command-to-line-of-sight (SACLOS) guidance with IR terminal homing.

Specifications
Weight Length Range Warhead Warhead weight Armor Penetration Launching Platforms 27.0 kg (A) 29.0 kg (B,C) 1.2 meters 500 - 2500 m (A) 500-3500 m (B) 4000 (C) High Explosive Anti-tank 5.4 kg 500+ mm BRDM/BRDM-2 Mi-8 Hip Mi-24 Hind Former Soviet Republics, Afghanistan, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Hungary, Libya, Poland, Romania, Syria, Vietnam, Yemen.

Using Nations:

AT-3 SAGGER Anti-Tank Guided Missile Hongjian (Red Arrow)-73
The wire-guided 9M14M Malutka [Tiny or Little Baby] SAGGER, also known by the US designation AT-3, was first seen in 1961. The SAGGER is a wire-guided antitank guided missile with a shaped-charge HEAT warhead. It is more compact than the earlier AT-1 /SNAPPER and AT-2/SWATTER ATGMs, but carries an equally powerful warhead. Antiarmor missiles are used, above all, as helicopter weapons on Mi-2 and Mi-8 helicopters and thus are modifications of army missiles. Introduced in 1961, the SAGGER was smaller but just as effective as its predecessors the AT- 2 SWATTER and AT-1 SNAPPER. It has now been withdrawn from ordnance. The SAGGER may be employed as a man-packed missile, on vehicles, and from rotarywing aircraft. AT-3 is classed by weight as portable (21-40 kg), rather than manportable (<21 kg). The launcher is also a missile carry case. The manpack version is carried in a fiberglass "suitcase", is launched from a rail attached to the lid of the case on a hinged support, and is fired and guided by a control box with firm button, periscope sight, and control stick. On BRDM/BRDM-2 scout vehicles launch rails are mounted on the underside of the retractable armored cover, with eight additional missiles carried inside the vehicle. The BMP and BMD combat vehicles both have a single launch rail mounted above the 73-mm main gun and carry a total of four and three missiles respectively. The retractable launcher on the BRDM-2 vehicle has the ability to traverse 70 degrees to the left or right with elevation varying from 3.5 to 17 degrees. The Mi-2/HOPLITE helicopter can carry four SAGGERs on the sides of its cabin. The Mi-8/HIP F carries six SAGGERs, and some export models of the Mi24/HIND carry four SAGGERs on wingtip launchers. The 9M14M missile weighs 10.9 kg, is 860 mm long, has a body diameter of 125 mm and a wing span of 393 mm. Its maximum range is 3000 m and its minimum firing distance is 500 mm. With an average speed being 120 m/s, the missile is slow, taking 25 seconds to reach its maximum range of 3000 meters. The SAGGER is capable of engaging targets at ranges of 500 to 3,000 meters and can penetrate over 400 mm of armor. As with the SWATTER, the SAGGER uses manual command to line of sight (MCLOS) guidance system in which the operator must observe both missile and target and guide the one towards the other. The improved SAGGER-C was fitted with semi-automatic command line of sight (SACLOS) guidance to serve as an interim until the AT-5 SPANDREL and AT-6 SPIRAL entered service. The guidance panel can be located up to 15 meters from the launcher, and can control up to four

launchers. If a target is <1,000 meters from launcher, the operator can joystick the missile to target without using optics. The guidance elevation (°) is -5/ +10. Because the module is small and can be shifted, elevation and field of view are operationally unlimited. Improved versions can be used on older launchers, but in the MCLOS mode. The SAGGER A or B gunner must visually track target and missile simultaneously, which requires extensive training and constant practice. Although the missile leaves the launcher armed and can detonate and kill at very short range, it can be captured by the gunner only at ranges of 500 to 800 meters. Under combat conditions, however, most gunners probably will be able to engage targets successfully only between 1,000 and 3,000 meters. The missile has a very long flight time to the target (12.5 seconds to 1,500 meters; 25 seconds to 3,000 meters), and evasive action is effective against it, especially at long ranges. Although a SAGGER launching gives off a cloud of gray smoke and a loud roar, this signature is difficult to detect on the battlefield. The wire-guided missile is invulnerable to electronic countermeasures and has a very small percentage of malfunctions. The antitank platoon of a BTR-equipped motorized rifle battalion (MRB) has two ATGM squads with two manpack SAGGER firing teams (two missiles each). In each three-man team, the gunner carries a suitcase containing the control box, and two assistant gunners each carry one missile in a suitcase. One of the assistant gunners is also an RPG-7 gunner. One missile can be set up, checked out, and fired in five minutes (1 2 to 1 5 minutes for all four missiles). Using a tour-position selector switch on the control box, each gunner can fire up to four missiles consecutively. Both gunners can remotely fire missiles from positions up to 15 meters from the launchers. For targets at less than 1,000 meters, the missile can be guided by eye; for longer ranges, the 8x magnifying periscopic sight must be used. The RPG-7 gunner usually is deployed 1 50 to 200 meters in front of the SAGGER position to cover targets inside the minimum SAGGER range of 500 meters. The antitank platoon also has two SPG-9s which may be employed with the manpack SAGGERs. BRDM/BRDM-2 SAGGERs are found in the antitank battery of motorized rifle regiments, in the antitank battalion of motorized rifle and tank divisions, and in the antitank regiment of artillery divisions. The BRDM/BRDM-2 vehicles have a reaction time of one minute to fire from a completely buttoned-up mode. Six missiles can be fired without reloading, and eight additional missiles are carried inside the vehicle. Successive missiles can be fired and tracked within five seconds of the previous missile's impact. The gunner can operate either from within the vehicle or from a remote position up to 80 meters away. The two-man crew (commander/gunner and driver) also has assault rifles and an RPG-7 antitank grenade launcher. SAGGERs are also found in airborne units. The manpack version is found in the antitank platoon of a non-BMD-equipped parachute company and also in the antitank battery of a non-BMD-equipped airborne battalion. BRDM/BRDM-2 SAGGERs are found in the ATGM battery of the BMD-equipped airborne regiment.

VARIANTS
Some SAGGER systems, designated AT-3c, were retrofitted with semiautomatic IR/wire guidance systems. Only the vehicle-and helicopter-mounted missiles were so retrofitted, obviously an interim measure pending the full deployment of longer-range, secondgeneration AT-5/SPANDREL and AT-6/SPIRAL missiles. Manpack SAGGERs were replaced by the AT-4/SPIGOT, as were the SAGGERs. The AT-3c/SAGGER C variant employs semiautomatic command-to-line-of-sight (SACLOS) guidance. It is primarily mounted on the BRDM-2, but may also be mounted on the HIP F and HOPLITE helicopters. These hellebore systems provide greater flexibility to the ground command but at a greater vulnerability cost to the launch platform. Copies include North Korean Susong-Po, Taiwanese Kun Wu, and the Chinese copy, Red Arrow-73/HJ-73, with indigenous guidance. The "Hongjian (Red Arrow)-73," China's first-generation anti-tank missile developed in the mid-1980s, had an estimated hit probability of 70 percent. POLK is a Slovenian Portable Anti-armor Launching Set that includes a new launcher, guidance panel with binocular sight, and 3 ATGMs similar to AT-3C Improved (nose probes and lower smoke signature). With a nose probe and improved propellant, the MCLOS-guided ATGM can reach maximum range in 25 sec and penetrate 580 mm. A Russian AT-3c/Improved (SACLOS) has similar capabilities. Iran makes a copy of the Russian AT-3 9M14M (Sagger or Ra’ad) anti-tank guided missile. An improved version of RAAD missile, RAAD-T missile, incorporates a tandem warhead armament system and due to new airframe, its maneuverability increased considerably. Irrespective of the year and place of production, all versions of RAAD missiles can be upgraded to the new version. The RAAD-T weapon system is a portable anti-tank guided missile, which is used to attack any armored fighting vehicle including those with Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA). In field operations, only by one ground guidance equipment, up to four missiles on their launchers can be shot, each in every 30 seconds. The system Safety and Arming Device (SAD) provides a high level of safety during the transportation and handling besides a reliable arming in operation. It is transported in new packing and tested with new equipment. By impacting the target, even at high angles of attack, explosion of the front charge, will remove the Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA) and after a delay time, the main charge will be exploded and the tank distrusted. The Slovenian Iskra TS-M thermal sight is available, with detection at 3,000 meters and recognition at 1,800 meters. Any AT-3 can be modernized to Malyutka-2 with replacement of warhead and or replacement of specific warhead and motor components.

Specifications
Alternative Designations Launching Platforms Malyutka Complex Manpack BMD

BMP BRDM/BRDM-2 Mi-8 Hip Mi-24 Hind Date of Introduction 1963 At least 45 countries, including: Former Soviet Republics, Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Cuba, Egypt, Ethiopia, Hungary, Iraq, India, North Korea, Libya, Mozambique, Poland, Romania, Syria, Uganda, Vietnam, Yugoslavia, Zambia.

Proliferation

Description Crew Primary Mount Alternate Mounts Weight Overall, Excluding Missile (kg) Length Overall in Firing Position (m) Height Overall In Firing Position (m) Width Overall In Firing Position (m) ARMAMENT Launcher Name Launch Method Elevation (°) Rate of Launch (missiles/min) Reaction Time (sec) Emplacement Time (min) Displacement Time (min) Ready/Stowed Missiles 9P111 Case launcher Rail on case Fixed for launcher 2 INA 1.7 POLK set INA 4/0, 3/0 POLK set 3 Ground mount on "suitcase" launcher Rail on BMP-1, BMD-1, BRDM, BRDM-2 etc. 30.5 launcher + guidance 0.86 with AT-3/a/b/c 1.02 with Malyutka-2 INA INA

FIRE CONTROL FCS Name Guidance Command Link Beacon Type Tracker Type Susceptible To Countermeasures Countercountermeasures Rangefinder Frequency Countercountermeasures Sights w/Magnification Gunner Day Field of View (°) Acquisition Range (m) Night Field of View (°) Acquisition Range (m) AMMUNITION Antitank Guided Missiles Name Alternative Designations Missile Weight (kg) Warhead Type Armor Penetration AT-3, -3a, -3b/SAGGER Malyutka, Malyutka-M 10.9 Shaped Charge (HEAT) 400 9Sh16, 8x 22.5 4000 Available N/A N/A 9S415/9S415M/9S415M1 guidance panel MCLOS (9S415/-M panel), SACLOS Wire Incandescent infrared bulb (SACLOS) N/A for MCLOS, flare tracker for SACLOS EO jammers, smoke, counterfire Offset guidance panel, laser filters INA INA INA

(mm) Minimum/Maximum 500/3,000 Range (m) Probability of Hit (%) Average Velocity (m/s) Time of Flight to Max Range (sec) Name Alternative Designations Missile Weight (kg) Warhead Type Armor Penetration (mm) 70 against moving tanks 115 26 AT-3c/SAGGER Malyutka-P 11.4 Shaped Charge (HEAT) 520

Minimum/Maximum 500/3,000 Range (m) Probability of Hit (%) Average Velocity (m/s) Time of Flight to Max Range (sec) Name Alternative Designations Missile Weight (kg) Warhead Type Armor Penetration (mm) 90 (SACLOS) 115 26 Malyutka-2 Malyutka (Modernized) 12.5 Tandem Shaped Charge (HEAT) 800

Minimum/Maximum 500/3,00 Range (m) Probability of Hit (%) Average Velocity 90 (SACLOS) 130

(m/s) Time of Flight to Max Range (sec) Other Missiles 23 Malyutka (Modernized) HE, AT-3c Imp, POLK

AT-4 SPIGOT Anti-Tank Guided Missile
The first concrete evidence of the existence of second-generation Soviet ATGMs was a 1975 report in a Yugoslav military periodical that an ATGM called FAGOT had recently appeared in the Warsaw Pact forces. Subsequently, it was reported that the FAGOT first entered service in 1972. The man-portable FAGOT system has now been given the NATO nickname SPIGOT and the US designation AT-4. The BRDM-mounted AT5/SPANDREL was at one time misidentified as the FAGOT, and the missiles are indeed quite similar. Introduced in the mid-1970s, the SPIGOT was designed primarily to replace AT- 3 SAGGER man-packed missiles. The SPIGOT has a number of improvements over the SAGGER including a smaller but more lethal warhead, SACLOS guidance that gives a 90 percent probability of a first round hit, a speed of 183 meters per second that propels the missile to its maximum range in just 11 seconds, and minimum range of only 70 meters. While meant to be a primarily a man-pack missile, the SPIGOT may be mounted on the BMP and BMD in place of the SAGGER. Because of its weight, the Russians categorize the AT-4/4B system as portable (21-40 kg) rather than manportable. For dismounted carry load is divided among three packs. Due to the greater weight, AT-5/-5B fits into the "heavy" class (40+ kg), and should only be carried short distances from vehicles (<500 meters). For crews using both ATGM classes and operating near vehicles, combat load is 8 (4 stowed in the vehicle). The AT-4/SPIGOT is a tube-launched, semiautomatic command-to-line-of-sight (SACLOS), antitank guided missile system with a HEAT warhead. The SPIGOT launch tube, in which the missile is stored and carried, is 1,200 mm long, 134 mm in diameter, and weighs 5 kg. The missile itself is estimated to have slightly smaller dimensions and a weight of 7 kg. This tripod-mounted, wire-guided ATGM, similar in many respects to the US TOW system, was deployed as a direct replacement for the man-portable SAGGER, and to replace SAGGERs on the BMP and BMD as well. The SPIGOT has a minimum range of only 70 meters and a maximum range of 2,000 meters. Missile speed is estimated at 185 meters per second, with a maximum flight time of 11 seconds. The warhead, which is probably smaller than that of the SAGGER, has an armor penetration capability of 500 to 600 mm. Probability of first-round hit should be at least the same as for the AT-3c semiautomatic SAGGER (90 percent). The SACLOS guidance system increases accuracy and reduces operator training requirements, since it is no longer necessary for the operator to track target and missile simultaneously. The operator keeps his sight trained on the target while the missile is tracked automatically. The deviation between the missile's path and the operator's line-ofsight is measured by an IR tracking apparatus, the IR source being in the tail of the missile. An apparatus at the control site then generates guidance commands which are transmitted to the missile by wire, causing the missile to eliminate the deviation.

The requirement that the missile launcher of a SACLOS system be collocated with the aiming and tracking assembly (i.e., the operator) eliminates the possibility of moving the operator to a remote position for safety. The antitank platoon of a BTR-equipped motorized rifle battalion has two ATGM squads. Each squad has two SPIGOT firing teams. In each three-man team, the gunner carries the launcher and tripod as a backpack, and the two bearers each carry two launch tubes as backpacks. All three men carry an assault rifle, but no RPG-16, since the SPIGOT does not have the 500-meter deadspace of the SAGGER. The AT-4B/Factoria is an upgrade ATGM with a 2,500 meter range, 550-mm penetration, and a velocity of 180 m/s (13.2 - 14.0 sec TOF). Russian firms have developed counter-countermeasures, such as encoded-pulse beacons for ATGMs and counter-dazzler adjustments to the 9S451M1 guidance box. Filters can be mounted in front of reticles. TPVP/1PN65 thermal sight is available, with the range approximately 2,500 meters. Weight is 13 kg. Slovenian TS-F sight and Russian 1PN86-1/1PN86/Mulat have a 3,600 meter detection range. Currently, the Russian Army employs the BRDM-2/AT-5 ATGM variant carrying either SPIGOT (normally for the AT-4 system) or longer-ranged SPANDREL missiles. This system is antiquated by modern standards, and lacks the mobility, armor protection, and effectiveness needed on the modern battlefield. The Russian Army is faced with the option of purchasing the BMP-3 mounted AT-14 Kornet system, which is a follow-on to the AT-5, or the more expensive AT-15 Khrizantema, a more powerful system capable of engaging more targets at greater ranges.

Specifications
Alternative Designations Date of Introduction Proliferation Description Crew Primary Mount Alternate Mounts Weight Overall, Excluding Missile (kg) Length Overall in Firing Position (m) 3 Ground mount on folding tripod Pintel (post) on BMP-1P, BTR-D, UAZ-469, etc. 22.5 9P135M Firing Post, Fagot/Fagot-M 1973 At least 25 countries, including : former Soviet Republics, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Syria.

1.1/1.3 AT-4/5 tube

Height Overall In Firing Position (m) Width Overall In Firing Position (m) ARMAMENT Launcher Name Launch Method Elevation (°) (-/+) Rate of Launch (missiles/min) Reaction Time (sec) Emplacement Time (min) Displacement Time (min) Ready/Stowed Missiles FIRE CONTROL FCS Name Guidance Command Link Beacon Type Tracker Type Susceptible To Countermeasures Countercountermeasures Rangefinder Sights w/Magnification Gunner Day Field of View (°)

INA INA

9P135 (AT-4 only), 9P135M (AT-4/AT-5), -M1, -M2, M3 Tube-launched INA 2-3, depending on range INA INA INA 4/0 full dismount, 4/4 on or near vehicle

9S451M1 Guidance control box SACLOS Wire Incandescent infrared bulb IR, 9S451M1 EO jammers, smoke, counterfire EO jamming alarm INA

9Sh119M1, 4x 4.5

Acquisition Range (m) Night AMMUNITION Antitank Guided Missiles

INA Available

Name Alternative Designations Missile Weight (kg) Warhead Type Armor Penetration (mm)

AT-4/SPIGOT Fagot 13.0 (in tube) Shaped Charge (HEAT) 480

Minimum/Maximum 70/2,000 Range (m) Probability of Hit (%) Average Velocity (m/s) Time of Flight to Max Range (sec) Other Missiles 90 186 11 AT-4B/Factoria

AT-5 SPANDREL Anti-Tank Guided Missile
Introduced in 1977, the SPANDREL is equivalent to the American TOW missile. The first of the second-generation Soviet ATGMs to be seen in public was the BRDMmounted model displayed in the Red Square parade of November 1977. This model, at one time misidentified as the FAGOT (AT-4/SPIGOT) eventually was designated the AT-5/SPANDREL. The SPANDREL is similar to the SPIGOT in most respects. The SPANDREL has a maximum range of 4,000 meters and a minimum range of 100 meters. Other capabilities are essentially the same as for the AT-4/SPIGOT, except for weight, and maximum range and the time of flight which are twice that of the SPIGOT. The AT-5/SPANDREL is a wire-guided, SACLOS antitank guided missile system mounted on the BRDM-2 scout vehicle. The dimensions and shape of the launch tube are similar to those of the AT-4/SPIGOT, but the SPANDREL missile is considerably heavier. The SPANDREL launch tube has a blow-out cap at the front and is flared at the rear. Five SPANDREL missiles are carried on a traversable mount just behind the two front cupolas of the BRDM-2. A bowed hatch in the vehicle roof immediately behind the launcher is possibly used to allow the mount to be folded backwards into the hull for reloading under armor protection. An additional 10 reload missiles are estimated to be carried inside the vehicle. A rotatable optical sighting/tracking periscope, similar in appearance to the periscope on the AT-4/SPIGOT launch apparatus, is mounted atop the gunner's hatch on the right front of the vehicle roof. Unlike the SPIGOT the SPANDREL is intended for use on vehicles only. The SPANDREL was supposed to replace all vehicle-mounted SWATTER and SAGGER missiles, but with the collapse of the USSR this did not become a reality. It has also been mounted atop the turret of the BMP M1981 variant. Currently, the Russian Army employs the BRDM-2/AT-5 ATGM variant carrying either SPIGOT (normally for the AT-4 system) or longer-ranged SPANDREL missiles. This system is antiquated by modern standards, and lacks the mobility, armor protection, and effectiveness needed on the modern battlefield. The Russian Army is faced with the option of purchasing the BMP-3 mounted AT-14 Kornet system, which is a follow-on to the AT-5, or the more expensive AT-15 Khrizantema, a more powerful system capable of engaging more targets at greater ranges.

VARIANTS

9 P135M3 -- Konkurs-M Complex. Launcher with 1PN65 thermal sight and AT5B/Konkurs-M missiles. Night range is 2,500m.

Specifications
Alternative Designations Date of Introduction Proliferation Launching Platforms Description Crew Primary Mount Alternate Mounts Weight Overall, Excluding Missile (kg) Length Overall in Firing Position (m) Height Overall In Firing Position (m) Width Overall In Firing Position (m) ARMAMENT Launcher Name Launch Method Elevation (°) (-/+) Rate of Launch (missiles/min) Reaction Time (sec) Emplacement Time (min) Displacement Time (min) Ready/Stowed Missiles 9P135M (AT-4/AT-5), -M1, -M2, -M3 Tube-launched INA 2-3, depending on range INA INA INA 4/0 full dismount, 4/4 on or near vehicle 3 Ground mount on folding tripod Pintel (post) on BMP-1P, BTR-D, UAZ-469, etc. 22.5 9P135M Firing Post, Fagot/Fagot-M 1973 At least 25 countries, including : Former Soviet Republics, Czechoslovakia, Poland. BRDM BMP-2

1.1/1.3 AT-4/5 tube INA INA

FIRE CONTROL FCS Name Guidance Command Link Beacon Type Tracker Type Susceptible To Countermeasures Countercountermeasures Rangefinder Sights w/Magnification Gunner Day Field of View (°) Acquisition Range (m) Night AMMUNITION Antitank Guided Missiles Name Alternative Designations Missile Weight (kg) Warhead Type Armor Penetration (mm) AT-5B/SPANDREL-B Konkurs-M 26.5 (in tube) Tandem Shaped Charge (HEAT) 925 9Sh119M1, 4x 4.5 INA Available 9S451M1 Guidance control box SACLOS Wire Incandescent infrared bulb IR, 9S451M1 EO jammers, smoke, counterfire EO jamming alarm INA

Minimum/Maximum 75/4,000 Range (m) Probability of Hit (%) Average Velocity 90 208

(m/s) Time of Flight to Max Range (sec) Name Alternative Designations Missile Weight (kg) Warhead Type Armor Penetration (mm) 19 AT-5/SPANDREL Konkurs 25.2 (in tube) Shaped Charge (HEAT) 650

Minimum/Maximum 75/4,000 Range (m) Probability of Hit (%) Average Velocity (m/s) Time of Flight to Max Range (sec) 90 200 20

AT - 6 SPIRAL Anti-Tank Guided Missile
The SPIRAL is much larger than previous Soviet ATGMs. The AT-6/SPIRAL is a tubelaunched, SACLOS antitank guided missile mounted on the Mi-24/HIND E helicopter as a replacement for the heliborne AT-2/SWATTER variant found on previous HIND models. There are attachment points for two SPIRAL launch tubes on each wing tip of the HIND E. The 9M1114 Kokon [Cocoon] missile of the Shturm [Assault]-V (AT-6 Spiral system was adapted for the Mi-24V helicopter, later also used on Mi-28 and Ka-29 helicopters. The weight of the Kokon missile is 31.8 kg, which includes a warhead weighing 6 kg, its length is 1840 mm and its caliber is 130 mm. The missile is fired from a horn launcher. Introduced in 1978 as a long-range stand-off weapon for the Hind attack helicopter, the SPIRAL is often incorrectly said to be a laser-guided weapon similar to the American Hellfire. The SPIRAL has often been erroneously assessed as a laser-guided weapon, and credited with an unrealistic range of 7,000 to 10,000 meters. Unlike the AT-4/SPIGOT and AT-5/SPANDREL, this new missile is not wire-guided. The SACLOS system with IR missile tracking and radio guidance (similar to the AT-2c uprated SWATTER) operates the same as the SPIGOT and SPANDREL, except for the fact that the SPIRAL is not wire-guided. The SPIRAL uses radio instead of wire to transmit commands from the operator to the missile. Probability of first-round hit should be a least the same as for the AT-2c (90 percent). The missile's speed (estimated at 450 meters per second) pushes the missile out to 5000 meters, during which time the helicopter must maintain the target in its sight. During the flight time of the SPIRAL to the target (estimated at approx. 11 seconds at maximum range), the target has an opportunity to take evasive action, but the helicopter launch platform has limited ability to take evasive action itself since the SPIRAL operator must keep the target in his sight. The warhead is believed to contain two tandem HEAT charges that will punch through 600-700 mm of rolled homogenous steel armor.

Specifications
Weight warhead weight Length Range Warhead Armor Penetration Launching Platforms 30 kg up to 10 kg 1.8 meters 5000 m High Explosive Anti-tank 600-700 mm Mi-8

Mi-24 Users Using Nations Former Soviet Republics, Czechoslovakia, Poland.

AT-7 Metis Saxhorn AT-13 Metis-M
The Russians characterize the AT-7 ATGM complex as light or manportable (5-20 kg), permitting long-distance carry by dismounted infantry. Although the AT-13 complex slightly exceeds 20 kg, it is close enough to fit into the category. Guidance elevation has a 15° span. Because the module is small and can be quickly corrected by shifting, elevation and field of view are operationally unlimited, and permit use against hovering or stationary helicopters. The Russian 1PN86V/Mulat-115 thermal sight is available for use on the launcher, with detection at 3,200 meters and recognition beyond the missile's 1,500 meter range. Field of view is 4.6°.

Specifications
Name Alternative Designations Date of Introduction Proliferation Missile Weight (kg) Warhead Type Armor Penetration (mm) AT-7/Saxhorn Metis 1978 At least 5 countries 6.3 (in tube) Shaped Charge (HEAT) 460 13.8 (in tube) Tandem Shaped Charge (HEAT) 1,000/900 behind ERA 80/1500 90 287 8 AT-13 Metis-M (often mislabeled Metis-2) 1992

Minimum/Maximum 40/1,000 Range (m) Probability of Hit (%) Average Velocity (m/s) Time of Flight to Max Range (sec) Launcher Designations Crew Primary mount Alternate mounts 90 180 6.2 9P151 Firing Post 2

Ground mount on tripod Shoulder for launch, UAZ-469 pintel mount

Weight Overall, Excluding Missile (kg) Length Overall in Firing Position (m) Height Overall In Firing Position (m) Width Overall In Firing Position (m) Launcher Name Launch Method Elevation (°) Rate of Launch (missiles/min) Reaction Time (sec) Emplacement Time (min) Displacement Time (min) Ready/Stowed Missiles FIRE CONTROL Name Guidance Command Link Beacon Type Tracker Type Susceptible To Countermeasures Countercountermeasures Rangefinder Frequency Countercountermeasures

10.2

0.78 with AT-7/Metis 0.98 with AT-13/Metis-M 0.72 with AT-7/Metis INA 9P151 Firing Post Tube -5/+10 3-5, depending on range INA 0.20 0.33 4/0 (1 on launcher ) 9S816 Guidance system SACLOS Wire INA IR EO jammers, smoke, counterfire INA INA INA

Gunner Field of View INA

(°) Acquisition Range (m) Night Sights INA Available

AT-8 (Songster) Anti-Tank Guided Missile
The AT-8 (Songster) is a Russian ATGM. It was designed to be fired from the 125 mm smooth-bore gun. It uses radio for guidance from the gunner. The AT-8 has a flight speed of 250m/s and a range of 4000m. It can penetrate 550 mm of flat steel and 445 mm of sloped steel armour.

Specifications
Weight Length Range Warhead Warhead weight Armor Penetration Launching Platforms 30 kg meters 4000 m High Explosive Anti-tank Not available 445-550 mm Mi-24

Vikhr (AT-9)
The latest aircraft antiarmor missile is the 9A4172 of the Vikhr (AT-9) family for Ka-50 helicopters and Su-25T aircraft. It was built in Tula by A. Shipunov's group (Priborostroyeniye Design Bureau), builder of aircraft guns. The missile is fired from launchers containing a 6-8 pack. Its guidance system combines radio-command guidance during the initial flight stage followed by laser-beam guidance afterwards. The missile is a supersonic one with a 8-10 km range, its caliber is 125 mm, and its weight together with the launcher is 60 kg. The two-stage shaped-charge warhead is capable of piercing armor of equivalent to 900 mm thickness. With the switch set in the appropriate position on the pilot's panel in the cockpit, the Vikhr operates as an air-to-air missile with a radar turn-on for approach navigation. It is effective against airborne targets flying at speeds up to 800 km/h (600 km/h during rendezvous tacks).

AT-10 STABBER
The 9K116 Bastion (AT-10 STABBER) is a laser-beam riding, antitank missile launched from the main gun of a T-55AM2B main battle tank, BMP-3 Infantry Fighting Vehicle, and the MT-12 antitank gun. The 9K116 system uses beam-riding laser guidance for the 9M117 missile.

AT-11 SNIPER
The AT-11 SNIPER laser-guided ATGM, which can penetrate 700-mm of RHAe out to 4000 meters, gives the T-90 the ability to engage other MBTs, vehicle ATGMs, and even most helicopters before they can engage the T-90.

AT-12 SWINGER
The 9K118 Sheksna (AT-12 SWINGER) is a laser-beam riding, antitank missile launched from the main gun of a an improved T-62 main battle tank. The 9K118 system is essentially a 9K116 system modified to be fired through the 115-mm gun of the T-62 instead of the 100-mm of the T-55.

Kornet (AT-14)
In October 1994, the KPB Instrument Design Bureau introduced the Kornet (AT-14) ATGM system. The Kornet was developed introducing a laser beam-riding missile with automatic command-to-line of sight (SACLOS) guidance. The operator simply has to keep the sight on the target to ensure a hit. The laser beam-riding system is also less vulnerable to countermeasures. The Kornet was specifically designed to replace the Konkurs, which has been in service with the former Soviet and Russian armies for over twenty years. The Kornet, which has a claimed ability to penetrate 1100 to 1200 millimeters of steel armor protected by explosive armor, provided a formidable antitank weapon system. However, even with the improved capabilities the Kornet has over earlier systems, an ATGM with all-weather, day or night, immunity to countermeasures, and fire and forget capabilities was still highly desired.

AT-15 Khrizantema
The development of the Khrizantema missile system provides the Russian Army with a weapon system that will significantly upgrade its antitank capability. Even with the improved capabilities the AT-14 Kornet has over earlier systems, an ATGM with allweather, day or night, immunity to countermeasures, and fire and forget capabilities was still highly desired. In July 1996, Russia's KBM Engineering Design Bureau revealed a dual-guidance missile system with the desired capabilities. A new long-range ATGM, the Khrizantema (9M123), capable of firing six-kilometer-range supersonic missiles, incorporating both radar and laser command guidance receivers, is in its last stage of testing. KBM expects production to begin in 1998. The key role of the Khrizantema (Russian for "chrysanthemum") is to destroy armored vehicles at long range. In addition, it could be used to destroy bunkers, and to engage slow- or low-flying helicopters. The Khrizantema missile system is mounted on a modified BMP-3 infantry combat vehicle chassis. The chassis is designated the 9M157-2, and has the amphibious capability of the BMP-3. Two models of the 9M123 missile have been developed. One has a tandem highexplosive antitank (HEAT) warhead; designated the 9M123-2, it apparently can penetrate over 1000 millimeters of steel armor protected by explosive reactive armor (ERA). The second model, the 9M123-F-2, has a high explosive warhead. The maximum range of the missile is 6000 meters with a maximum speed of 400 meters per second; thus it is supersonic. The missile has two movable control surfaces at its rear, with four wraparound wings about three-quarters of the way down its body toward the rear. For the first time in the world, an automatic radar target detection and tracking system, with simultaneous missile control during its guidance to the target, was developed for the Khrizantema ATGM. The unique feature of the missile is that it has two modes of guidance: automatic, where it is guided by a roof-mounted radar; and by a semiautomatic laser beam rider, using the sight mounted in the front of the hull on the right side. There is no known comparable missile in the West under development or in service with a similar guidance system. The Russian Army is now faced with the option of purchasing the less expensive BMP-3 mounted Kornet system, which is a follow-on to the AT-5, or the more expensive Khrizantema, a more powerful system capable of engaging more targets at greater ranges, possibly employing the Kornet at regimental level and the Khrizantema at division level. Regardless of its placement in the Russian Army, many nations may find it desirable and allocate a portion of their budgets to purchase the extremely capable Khrizantema missile system.

Ataka-V VIKhR 9M120 (AT-16)
A modification of the Shturm-V family is the Ataka-V family of missiles used on Mi-28 helicopters and on the latest Ka-50 helicopter. The Vikhr antitank missile is also the main weapon of the Su-39. The aircraft is armed with 16 such missiles The Ataka-V family includes several versions, the basic one being the 9M120 with a shaped-charge warhead against armored targets and its improved version being the 9M220. Addition of a second warhead, a demolition warhead, has created the Fugasnaya [High-Explosive] 9M120F. Another version used against airborne targets is the 9A2200 with a rod warhead. All these missiles of the Ataka-V family have semiautomatic radio command guidance and a 6000 m range, the producer quoting a 0.95 probability of a hit. Missiles of the MalutkaFalanga-Shturm-Ataka families were built by the "Mashinostroyenie" Design Bureau in Izhevsk, which had been established by Boris Shavyrin and is now directed by Sergey Niepobiedimyy.

Specifications
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Penetration Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability 10,000 m Effective against ground & air targets at converging speeds to 800 km/h. 900 mm Laser Beam Rider SACLOS 0.95 probability claimed HEAT NPO Mashinostroyenie