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FAS Military Analysis Network

FAS Military Analysis Network Russian Missiles

Russian Missiles

S-25

SA-1 GUILD

The S-25 SA-1 GUILD was the first surface-to-air strategic air defense system deployed by the Soviet Union These R-113 missiles were deployed in a ring around Moscow, and remained in service through the mid-1980s. The SA-1 system entered operational service in the late 1950s, and was deployed around Moscow in a dense complex of 56 sites arranged in two concentric rings. There were 22 sites in the inner ring at about 25 nm radius from the center of Moscow and 34 sites on the outer ring at about 45 nm radius. A typical site had 60 launch positions joined by a road network.

The V-301 missile, as originally designed for use with this system, was unboosted and employed a single liquid sustainer motor. Although its maximum speed was on the order of Mach 2.5, it had a low initial velocity which limited its engagement capability against supersonic targets. Its maximum intercept range varied depending upon the approach and type of target; for example, against a directly incoming, high-flying B-252 its range was on the order of 20 n.m. This missile ccould carry an HE or nuclear payload of 450-700 pounds and its CEP was estimated to be 65-120 feet. It was believed to be capable of interceptions from a minimum altitude of 3,000 feet up to 60,000 feet, with some additional capability up to about 80,000 feet, particularly if equipped with a nuclear warhead.

The B-200 guidance system at each site employed a track-while-scan radar (designated "Yo-Yo" by US intelligence) having about 54° coverage in both the vertical and horizontal planes. The system also incorporated fire control equipment which enabled each site to engage as many as 20 targets simultaneously. This capability, with the spacing of adjacent sites for mutual support and the inner ring of sites for backup, enables the system to direct an extremely high rate of fire against incoming targets.

Because of its' cost, immobility, and inflexibility, the SA-1 system was not deployed elsewhere in the Soviet Union apart from Moscow.

V-75

HQ-2 (Chinese versions) Tayir as Sabah (Egyptian versions) The V-75 (SA-2) surface-to-air missile system was designed

The V-75 (SA-2) surface-to-air missile system was designed for the defense of both fixed targets and field forces. The V-75 was designed to cope with the threat posed by small groups of aircraft rather than massed raids. Flexibility and mobility are its chief advantages over the SA-1. In contrast to the massive SA- 1 sites, each of which is capable of defending only a limited sector around the target area, each SA-2 site is capable of 360° coverage. This flexibility is obtained at the expense of target handling capacity and rate of fire relative to the SA-1.

Although there are a variety of arrangement patterns, all sites consist of six launching positions -- usually revetted - deployed around a guidance radar and linked by service roads to facilitate loading. While the sites were permanent installations, all operating components of the system are mounted on wheeled vehicles and are capable of movement by road or raiL

The V-75 was the basic missile defense system for critical urban-industrial areas in the USSR, other than Moscow. The V- 75 deployment began on a wide scale since early 1958, with sites located throughout the western part of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact countries. Deployment patterns and levels of concentration varied according to the geography, size, and shape of the target area, and the Soviet estimate of the worth of individual targets. Between mid-1958 and 1964 more than 600 SA-2 sites were identified by US intelligence in the USSR, mostly in defense of population centers, industrial complexes, and government control centers. Most SA-2 sites defended major centers of population and industry. SA-2 defenses were also deployed for the special protection of nuclear materials production and storage facilities. In addition, some key Soviet field forces and long range bomber bases were included in the SA-2 deployment pattern. The construction of sites and the training and activation of firing units was seasonal, with activity at a minimum during the winter months. The sites in the Moscow area, located within the inner ring of SA-1 sites, were intended to supplement the existing defenses. Deployment of SA-2 installations around Moscow included seven sites as of 1964 as part of a program to supplement the SA-1 system.

Missile defenses were provided for most of the Soviet cities with populations greater than 200,000. SA-2 sites were emplaced at some smaller urban areas which contained government control centers or other installations of critical importance. They were also deployed for defense of naval and port facilities, nuclear production and weapon storage Installations, missile test ranges, and Industrial facilities. Other major military installations, such as long-range missile sites and alrfields of the long-range air force, are also defended by SA-2. A number of sites in border areas, which were unrelated to specific targets, were part of the deployment of peripheral defenses which eventually extended from the Kola Peninsula along the western and southern borders of the USSR into central Asia. Deployment in the Baltic coastal area was particularly dense. In mid- 1962 about 750 sites were operational in defense of more than 200 target areas in the USSR. The Soviets eventually deployed roughly a thousand SA-2 sites in the USSR, with the major portion of the deployment completed by the mid-1960s.

Some SA-2 units were deployed in support of Soviet field forces in East Germany and in the USSR. Although SA-2 units assigned to Soviet field forces were normally emplaced at fixed installations, the system is transportable by road and SA-2 units were observed in field exercises. However, SA-2 units have a limited ability to follow a fast moving front because of the requirement for good roads and the time required to displace to new positions. SA-2 missile defenses for field forces were primarily assigned to such targets as major headquarters, logistic centers, and airfields.

Deployment of SA-2 sites for defense of Warsaw Pact targets began in 1960. The heaviest deployment has occurred in East Germany. About half of the sites were manned by East German troops, and the remainder by units of the Soviet field forces. The East German sites were located in the vicinity of Berlin and in the northern portion of East Germany. The Soviet sites were deployed to defend important Soviet military installations such as major headquarters and airfields.

China

Suspension of Soviet assistance limited the extent of SA-2 deployment in China. Only about a half dozen sites were initially deployed in China, three of them at Beijing. These sites contained Soviet manufactured equipment. The Chinese license-built version of the V-75 was designated the HQ-1. The People's Republic of China developed its own modified version of the V-750 under the designation HQ-2 (Hong Qian = Red Leader), with the Western designation CSA-1.

According to a China sales brochure, the FT-2000A SAM will use a highly-modified HQ-2/ CSA-1 missile that has been equipped with a passive radio frequency homing seeker operating in the 2- to 6-GHz band. The FT-2000A also will contain a new millimeter-wave band fuze, a new guidance-and-control section, and a new 60 kg fragmentation warhead. The missile has a cutoff valve for thrust adjustment while in flight, probably to extend its range. The missile seeker is loaded with the target aircraft’s radio frequency (RF) signature before launch and relies on this information for tracking

and intercept. The missile has an estimated maximum range of 60 km, with a maximum altitude of 18,000 meters.

A stand-alone FT-2000A battery consists of a central control station and twelve

launchers, each holding one missile. The central control station has one master passive sensor and three auxiliary passive sensors. The auxiliary passive sensors coordinate with the master passive sensor through triangulation to determine angle and range of targets emitting in the 2- to 6-GHz band. This configuration is totally passive, relying on the RF emissions of the target.

A composite fire unit consists of FT-2000A launchers and missiles, integrated with

standard SAM components like those of the HQ-2, SA-2, or SA-3. Although a special fire control unit and launcher are required, this configuration allows anti-jamming missiles to replace several of the command guided missiles normally associated with these SAMs.

Egypt

Egyptian technicians have reverse engineered and modified two Soviet SAMs -- the Ayn as Saqr (a version of the SA-7) and the Tayir as Sabah (a version of the SA-2).

V-75 Missile System

The V-75 SA-2 GUIDELINE is a medium to high altitude surface-to-air missile system. This two-stage missile has a large solid propellant booster stage fitted with four very large delta fins. The core stage consists of a storable liquid propellant sustainer rocket motor using inhibited red fuming nitric acid oxidizer and kerosene fuel. A set of four cropped delta-shaped wings are located near the mid-section, with a second in-line set of

smaller fixed fins at the nose, and a third in-line set of slightly larger powered control fins

at the tail.

The guidance system at an SA-2 site can handle only one target at a time, but can direct

three missiles against a target simultaneously. Additional missiles could be fired against the same target after one or more missiles of the first salvo had completed their run. The Soviets apparently believed they must program three or four missiles against each target

in order to achieve acceptable kill probabilities.

The 295 kg nuclear warhead used only on the SA-2E variant is believed to have a yield of 15 kT. The other V-75 variants have an internally grooved fragmentation warhead weighs 195 kg (130 kg of which is high explosive) with proximity, contact and command fusing available. This conventional warhead is fitted forward of the main fins and behind the nose-mounted guidance assembly. At medium and low altitudes the kill radius is about 65 meters and the blast radius for severe damage is 100-120 meters. The maximum blast radius against a high altitude target is approximately 250 meters, due to the rarefied atmosphere. The weapon has a accuracy of 75 meters with the large blast radius compensating for system inaccuracies.

The V-75 system is designed to be simple and easy to operate with the minimum of specialized training. The standard deployment pattern of a battalion site consists of six semi-fixed trainable single rail launchers are deployed in the familiar hexagon arrangement about 60-100 meters apart. The launchers may be dug into pits, left at ground level or hardened in concrete revetments. The battery command post fire control team and its computer, the Fan Song missile control radar, the P-12 Spoon Rest early warning radar, and typically six reload rounds on their articulated trailers are all located in the center of the launchers array.

The Spoon Rest A-band warning and target acquisition radar has a range of 275 km using a large Yagi antenna array.

SPOON REST

   

Function:

 

Target acquisition, early warning

Range

275 km

Frequency

 

A versions: A band (VHF)

 

B versions: VHF below A band

Comments

 

Power 314kw, BW 6x22.5 PRF 310-400pps PW 4-6us Max Alt 32km Scan 2-6rpm

Associated weapon system

 

SA-2 GUIDELINE FAN SONG fire control radar

Recognition

 

Six yagi array with bisecting crossbar Mast mounted on 6x6 truck In transit, two truck carry array and

 

generator

 
 
 
 

KNIFE REST

Type

KNIFE REST A

KNIFE REST B/C

Russian Designation

P-8 Dolfin

P-10

Function

Early Warning

 

Frequency

A-band

A-band

Range

75 km

70 km

Comment 75kw power PW 4-12us Associated weapon system SA-2 Recognition
Comment
75kw power
PW 4-12us
Associated weapon
system
SA-2
Recognition

The maximum radar range of the E-band Fan Song A/B/F radar varies between 60-120 km depending upon target type, altitude and operating conditions. The G-band Fan Song D/E maximum range is extended to between 75-145 km under equivalent conditions.

FAN SONG

 

FAN SONG A/B

FAN SONG C/E

FAN SONG F

Function:

Fire Control & Tracking Can track six targets simultaneously

 

Range

60-120km (A/B

70-145km (D/E/F versions)

versions)

Frequency

E/F bands (A/B versions)

G band (C/E versions)

E/F bands (F version)

Comments

600kw power Vert Ant BW 10

1.0mw power Vert Ant BW

600kw power Vert Ant BW 10

10x2deg

7.5x1.5deg

10x2deg

Hort Ant BW

Hort Ant BW

Hort Ant BW

2x10deg

11.5x7.5

2x10deg

Scan 15.5-17HZ

Scan 15.5-17HZ PRF 828-1440 Search 1656-2880 Trk PW .4-1.2ms us 2-.9ms us

Scan 15.5-17HZ (guidance): PRF

44pps

Associated weapon system

SA-2 GUIDELINE SAM, SPOON REST target acquisition radar

 

Recognition

Trailer-mounted with tilting superstructure Two orthogonal antennas(lewis scanners)

   

E version have 2 additional parabolic dishes Scanners exhibit 'flapping' motion in operation

 Scanners exhibit 'flapping' motion in operation   SIDE NET   PRV-11 Function   Height
 
 

SIDE NET

 

PRV-11

Function

 

Height

Range

28 km 32km Max altitude

Frequency

 

E-band

Associated weapon system

 

SA-2/3/5

Recognition

   
km 32km Max altitude Frequency   E-band Associated weapon system   SA-2/3/5 Recognition    

At regimental HQ there is a fourth Spoon Rest, a van-mounted P-15 Flat Face 250 km range C-band search and tracking radar with two elliptical parabolic reflectors and a PRV-11 Side Net 180 km range E-band nodding height-finder radar mounted on a box- bodied trailer. There is also a radar control truck and a Mercury Grass truck-mounted command communications system for linking the HQ to the three battalions.

Some countries which deploy early versions of the V-75 use the older ground-mounted P- 8 Dolphin Knife Rest-A truck-mounted P-10 Knife Rest-B/C radars instead of the Spoon Rest. These A-band radars have an operating range of about 150-200 km.

The People's Republic of China has deployed a modified version of the V-75 under the designation HQ-2. The license-built version was the HQ-1.

   

Specifications

DOI

1959

Status

Standard

Length (m)

10.60

Diameter (m)

.70

Weight at launch (kg)

2,300

Propulsion system

 

Booster

Solid

Sustainer

 

Liquid

Launch rails/tubes

Single rail, ground mounted (not mobile)

Guidance

Command

Warhead (type)

HE 200kg (295kg SA-2E) 188kg (HQ-2B/F/J/P), possible nuclear

Performance:

 

Max. velocity (Mach)

4.0 B/C/D, 4.5 E/F Mach

Effective altitude

27

B/C/F & HQ-2B/F/J/P, 40 D/E km

Maximum range (km)

35km B/F, 44km C, 50km D/E 35km HQ-2B, 50km HQ-2J

Minimum range (km)

7-9

Kill Radius

65

m

Reload time (min)

10

Associated radars

FAN SONG, SPOON REST

HQ-1 / HQ-2 (Chinese versions)

HQ-1 / HQ-2 (Chinese versions) SJ-202 Radar
HQ-1 / HQ-2 (Chinese versions) SJ-202 Radar
HQ-1 / HQ-2 (Chinese versions) SJ-202 Radar

SJ-202 Radar

HQ-1 / HQ-2 (Chinese versions) SJ-202 Radar

S-125 SA-3 GOA

S-125 SA-3 GOA The S-12 5 SA-3 GOA m edium altitude surface-to-air missile system uses a

US intelligence imagery at Kapustin Yar in late 1959 revealed two probable R&D sites, each of which consisted of four launch pads. A possible launcher on one of the pads held two missile-like objects about 20 feet long. US intelligence subsequntly identified more than 35 sites of this type in the USSR between late 1961 and 1964, usually near SA- 1 or SA-2 sites. The initial SA-3A GOA Mod 0, deployed in 1961, includes command guidance throughout the missile's flight. The subsequent SA-3B GOA Mod 1, first deployed in 1964, incorporated an improved guidance system. The missile's ability to dive allows it to be used against surface targets and naval vessels.

Long-range surveillance and target acquisition is handled by the van-mounted P-15 FLAT FACE) radar. The P-15 radar has been replaced in many S-125 units by the P-15M SQUAT EYE radar, which has the antenna mounted on a 20-30 m mast for improved low altitude coverage. The accompanying PRV-11 SIDE NET E-band height-finding radar has a range of 180 km covering targets at altitudes of up to 32000 meters.

FLAT FACE

P-15

Function:

Target acquisition

Range

200-250 km

Frequency

C band (UHF)

Associated weapon system

SA_3 GOA possibly SA-8 GECKO SAM, LOW BLOW missile control radar

Comments

Can guide three missiles simultaneosly Power 380kw, BW AZ 4.3deg-ELEV 4.3 deg PW 2us, PRF 200-700pps, 70km range at 300m alt, accuracy 650m range, 1.8 deg AZ

Recognition:

Van mounted Two eliptical parabolic reflectors

measuring 11x5.5 m Reflectors arranged one above the other on van roof
measuring 11x5.5 m
Reflectors arranged one above the other on
van roof

Target data generated by these tracking radars is passed to the battalion's LOW BLOW trailer-mounted fire control radar. With a maximum acquisition range of 110 km, the tracking range of this I-band system is between 40-85 km, depending on target size and altitude. The system can simultaneously track six target aircraft and guide one or two missiles. Improved LOW BLOW radars include TV cameras with a range of 25 km to provide the fire control team with the data needed to perform a command guidance intercept in a heavy ECM environment. If the missile fails to intercept it would be commanded to either change trajectory or self-destruct.

LOW BLOW

Function:

Fire Control

Trk/FC

Guidance

Frequency

I band

I band

D band

Range

40 km

40-85 km

29 km

Comments

Power 250kw

PRF 3560-

 

PRF 1750-

3585HZ

3500pps

Scan (Para)

PW .25-5ms(us)

25HZ

BW 12x1.5

Scan (trough)

16HZ

Associated weapon system

SA-3 GOA SAM, FLAT FACE, SQUAT EYE acquisition radar

Recognition:

Four-wheeled trailer-mounted Two scanning parabolic dishes one above the other

acquisition radar Recognition:  Four-wheeled trailer-mounted  Two scanning parabolic dishes one above the other
The S-125 is fired from trainable launchers which are normally fixed, but can be relocated.

The S-125 is fired from trainable launchers which are normally fixed, but can be relocated. The crew loads the missiles with the aid of a conveyor onto the ground- mounted, trainable launcher for firing, with both twin and quadruple launchers in use. A pair of missiles are carried in tandem on a modified truck or tracked vehicle. The S-125 is normally transported from battalion storage areas on modified ZIL-131 (6 x 6) or ZIL- 157 (6 x 6) trucks and loaded onto the launchers. Approximately one minute is required to load the missiles onto the launch rails, but nearly an hour is required between missile launches due to missile preparation, truck transit and other reloading procedures.

SQUAT EYE

P-15M(2)

Function

 

Range

128 km

Frequency

C-band

Associated weapon system

SA-3/5

Recognition

Power 380kw

weapon system SA-3/5 Recognition Power 380kw SIDE NET PRV-11 Function Height Rang e 28 km 32km

SIDE NET

PRV-11

Function

Height

Range

28 km 32km Max altitude

Frequency

E-band

SA-2/3/5

Recognition

 
 
 
 

Specifications

Missile Characteristics:

 

DOI

1961

Status

Standard

Length (m)

6.70

Diameter (m)

.60

Weight at launch (kg)

400

Propulsion system

 

Booster

Solid

Sustainer

Solid

Launch rails/tubes

2 or 4 rails, ground mounted (not mobile)

Guidance

Command, (poss. IR terminal homing)

Warhead (type)

HE

Kill Radius

12.5 m

Performance:

 

Max. velocity (Mach)

3+

Max. altitude (m)

25,000

Min altitude (m)

100

Operational range (km)

25

Minimum range (km)

6

Reload time (min)

50

Associated radars

FLAT FACE, LOW BLOW, SQUAT

EYE

EYE

EYE
EYE
EYE
EYE
EYE

SA-4 GANEF

SA-4 GANEF is a medium to high altitude surface-to-air missile system. Over the years

at least four variants of the missile have been produced, designated 9M8, 9M8M, 9M8M1

and 9M8M2, though external differences are minimal. The 9M8M1 and 9M8M2 variants are the primary types in service. The 9M8M1, introduced in 1967, is a 8.8 meter long- nosed version (the SA-4a) with effective range limits of 8 to 55 km and effective altitude limits of 100 to 27000 m. The 9M8M2, introduced in 1973, is the short-nosed 8.3 m version (SA-4b or GANEF Mod 1). It has improved close-range performance to reduce the dead zone above the TEL at the expense of losing some 3000 m in altitude and 5-10 km in maximum range capabilities. Both versions have a fuselage diameter of 0.86 m, a wing span of 2.3 m and a tail span of 2.73 m. The HE warhead weighs 135 kg and is detonated by a proximity fuse.

The missile is launched by four solid booster rockets mounted externally on the body. The missile is armed 300 meters from the launcher. After launch the boosters burn for about 15 seconds and then fall away when the fueled ramjet kerosene sustainer motor ignition speed of over Mach 1 is attained at about 9 km from the TEL. The four fins are fixed and the four wings, in two pairs, are hydraulically operated.

A battery typically has one TEL fitted with the 9M8M2 and two TELs with the 9M8M1

missile, although some TELs may carry one missile of each type. An electro-optical fire control system is fitted for use in a heavy ECM environment. Targets are initially detected by the long range LONG TRACK early warning E-band radar, which has a 150 km range and 30 km maximum altitude coverage. LONG TRACK is mounted on a lengthened version of the AT-T heavy artillery tractor with a large van body added, and is also used for the SA-6 SAM.

This system passes data to the SA-4 GANEF battery where the H-band PAT HAND continuous wave fire control and command guidance radar takes over. The PAT HAND radar is mounted on the same chassis as the GANEF launcher, with the whole assembly collapsed flat and a grill raised in front of the radar for road transit. This radar acquires the target at about 120-130 km and when it is within the 80-90 km tracking range a single missile is launched and guided to the target by the guidance beam with a semi-active terminal homing phase for the final stage. The missile is tracked in flight by a continuous wave radar transponder beacon attached to one of the tail fins. If required the PAT HAND can handle two missiles per target in order to increase the kill probability.

Target altitude information is also provided by the 240 km range THIN SKIN truck- or trailer-mounted height-finder H-band radar.

The SA-4 TEL (Industrial Index designation 2P24) consists of a tracked armored chassis on top of which is mounted a hydraulically operated turntable carrying two missiles. The launcher can be traversed by 360º with the missiles being elevated up to an angle of 45º on their launcher arms for launching. The vehicle's engine is to the right of the driver with the remainder of the space in the vehicle taken up by the crew and electronics.

Hatches for the other crew members are on either side of the missile turntable. The torsion bar suspension consists of seven dual rubber-tired road wheels with the drive sprocket at the front and the idler at the rear, and four track return rollers. The vehicle has an air filtration and overpressure NBC system and an IR night vision system for the commander and driver but no amphibious capability.

Reserve missiles are carried on Ural-375 (6 x 6) trucks, and reloading the TEL takes between 10 and 15 minutes.

 

Specifications

Deployment

Russia, 9 other countries

Deployment Year

1967

Length

8.8m (SA-4A), 8.4m (SA-4B)

Body Diameter

86 cm

Launch Weight

2,500 kg

Warhead

135kg HE fragmentation effect

Guidance

Radio command, semiactive radar

Propulsion

Ramjet sustainer, 4 solid rocket boosters

Range

55km (SA-4A), 50km (SA-4B)

Design

Lyulev Design Bureau

S-200 SA-5 GAMMON

The S-200 SA-5 GAMMON is a medium to

high -altitude surface-to-air missile system. The single-stage missile has four jettisonable, wraparound solid propellant boosters, each of which is is 4.9 m long and

0.48

m in diameter with a single fin spanning

0.35

m from the booster body. The missile is

10.72 m long overall with a wing span of

2.85 m. The main body is 0.85 m in diameter

and has a solid fuel dual thrust sustainer rocket motor.

Each missile battalion has one 320 km range P-35M BARLOCK-B E/F-band target search and acquisition radar with an integral D-band IFF system, one 270 km range SQUARE PAIR H-band missile guidance radar, and six trainable semi-fixed single rail launchers.

radar, and six trainable semi-fixed single rail launchers. The missile's minimum range of 60 km is
radar, and six trainable semi-fixed single rail launchers. The missile's minimum range of 60 km is

The missile's minimum range of 60 km is due to the booster burn time and jettison requirements, limiting the system to engagements against relatively large unmaneuverable targets at ranges up to 250 km. Guidance beyond the 60 km booster jettison point is by course correction command signals from the SQUARE PAIR radar with the S-200's own active radar terminal homing seeker head activated near the projected intercept point for final guidance.

The large HE warhead is detonated either by a command signal or the onboard proximity fusing system. When fitted with a nuclear warhead only the command detonation option is used.

SQUAT EYE

P-15M(2)

Function

 

Range

128 km

Frequency

C-band

Associated weapon system

SA-3/5

Recognition

Power 380kw

 
 

TALL KING

P-14

Function

EW

Range

605 km

Frequency

A Band

Associated weapon system

SA-5

Recognition

Scan 2-6rpm

Associated weapon system SA-5 Recognition Scan 2-6rpm SIDE NET PRV-11 Function Height Range 28 km 32km

SIDE NET

PRV-11

Function

Height

Range

28 km 32km Max altitude

Frequency

E-band

Associated weapon system

SA-2/3/5

Recognition

 
Frequency E-band Associated weapon system SA-2/3/5 Recognition   BACK NET   Function EW/GCI

BACK NET

 

Function

EW/GCI

Range

300

km

Frequency

E-band

Associated weapon system

SA-5

Recognition

3-6 rpm Scan

Associated weapon system SA-5 Recognition 3-6 rpm Scan BAR LOCK P-35/37 Function EW Range 200 km

BAR LOCK

P-35/37

Function

EW

Range

200

km

Frequency

E/F-bands

Associated weapon system

SA-5

Comments

1 mw/b power PRF 375pps 7 rpm Scan BW .7deg PW 1.5, 4.5 us Accuracy range 350m AZ .14 deg

Recognition

 
 PRF 375pps  7 rpm Scan  BW .7deg  PW 1.5, 4.5 us 
 

Specifications

Maximum Speed

4 Mach

Effective Altitude

30.5 km

Effective Range

300 km

Warhead

HE 215kg

Fuze

Proximity and command

Kill Radius

Unknown

30.5 km Effective Range 300 km Warhead HE 215kg Fuze Proximity and command Kill Radius Unknown

ZRK-SD Kub 3M9 SA-6 Gainful

The SA-6 GAINFUL is a two stage, solid-fuel, low-altitude SAM. It has radio command guidance with semi-active radar terminal homing. Development of the 3M9 antiaircraft

missile for the Kub [Cube] system ended the career of Ivan Ivanovich Toporov, founder

of the OKB-134 Special Engineering Office. The missile designed had not been

experimentally verified, and it became necessary not only to build the missile but also to simultaneouly conduct basic research. During the initial test launch in 1961, the 3M9 missiles disintegrated in the air. The associated aerodynamic, engine, and guidance problems compelled Toporov to ask the Ministry of Armaments to extend the deadline for submitting the 3M9 to governmental tests. Toporov was removed from his post of chief engineer at the end of August 1961, becoming department chairman at the Moscow Institute of Aviation, and replaced by Andrey Lyapinov as director of the team. This did not accelerate the work on the 3M9. Finally in 1966 the missile together with all the Kub equipment was certified as an operational weapon, and it turned out to be one of the most successful Russian

antiaircraft missiles. Although it is frequently reported that a naval version of the missile

is the SA-N-3 GOBLET, this is evdiently not the case.

The SA-6a missile has a length of 5.7 meters, body diameter of 0.335 meters, a wing span of 1.245 meters, a tail span of 1.524 meters and has a launch weight of 599 kilograms with a 56 kilogram HE-fragmentation warhead. The proximity and contact fuses are armed after some 50 meters of flight. The basic SA-6a has a maximum effective range of 24,000m and has a minimum effective range of 3,000m, the minimum engagement height

is 100m when using the fire control (STRAIGHT FLUSH) radar and 80m when in the

optical tracking mode, the maximum effective altitude is about 11,000m.

A battery is able to relocate to an alternate firing position in approximately 15 minutes

from systems being shutdown. In 1977, a new version - the SA-6b Gainful, was mounted on an SPU medium-tracked transporter. The SPU carried three SA-6b missiles and also an associated FIRE DOME H/I-band missile guidance illuminator radar is fitted on the front end of the launcher assembly. Reload missiles are carried on modified 6x6 trucks and are loaded manually onto the launcher by a crane carried on the rear of the loader vehicle. Reloading an TEL takes approximately 10 minutes. The STRAIGHT FLUSH fire control radar has a maximum range of 55 - 75km and a 10,000m altitude capability depending upon the conditions and target size, and performs limited search, low altitude detection and/or acquisition, pulse Doppler IFF interrogation, target tracking & illumination, missile radar command guidance and secondary radar missile tracking functions. Some modified fire control (STRAIGHT FLUSH) radars use a TV camera with a 30km range to enable the battery to remain in action even if the vehicle's radar is jammed or forced to shut down due to threats from anti-radiation missiles. This radar can also be linked to the launch vehicles by either a radio data link or a 10m long cable for direct data input to the launcher's systems. The data link antenna is carried on the right forward hull corner of the TEL. It also carries the fire control computers for the SA-6 Gainful missile battery.

The foldable 28km range dish antenna is of the conical scanning type and is used for low altitude H-band sector search scans, target tracking and target illumination. The lower parabolic antenna is the G-band medium altitude target acquisition and early warning radar with a 55-75km range, with the lower feed for medium to high altitude coverage and the upper feed for low altitude coverage. The STRAIGHT FLUSH fire control radar can begin target acquisition at its maximum range of 75km, and begin tracking & illumination at 28km. The STRAIGHT FLUSH radar can only illuminate a single target and control three missiles at any one time so normal practice when a target track has been initiated is to normally order the launch of two and sometimes three weapons from one or more TELs.

STRAIGHT FLUSH

 

Function:

Fire control/short range target acquisition Can guide three missiles simultaneosly

Range

60-90km, 10,000m alt

Frequency

G/H band (acquisition, I band (tracking)

Associated weapon system

SA-6 GAINFUL and possibly SA-11 GADFLY SAM, LONG TRACK, THIN SKIN target acquisition radars

Recognition:

Essentially same chassis as SA-6 12ft long search reflector with 7 ft diameter fire control parabolic dish on top Radars mounted on heavy turntable Reflector backs have hvy pressed metal appearance Radars can rotate independently of one another Assembly folds flat in transit

have hvy pressed metal appearance  Radars can rotate independently of one another  Assembly folds

With radar up, reaction time from a dormant condition through the target acquisition, IFF interrogation and lock-on phases to missile launch is about three minutes. If the radar vehicle is already active then the time taken for the sequence is reduced to between 15 to 30 seconds. A battery is able to become mobile and relocate to an alternate firing position in 15 minutes from systems being shutdown.

The LONG TRACK target acquisition radar is also associated with the SA-6 system. After target data has been acquired by the SA-^ regiment's LONG TRACK surveillance radar, target acquistion and fire control are taken over by the STRAIGHT FLUSH missile site radars.

LONG TRACK

 

Function:

Target acquisition

Range

150 km+, 30,000+ alt.

Frequency

E band (UHF)

Associated weapon system

SA-4 GANEF, SA-6 GAINFUL, SA-8 GECKO, PAT HAND fire control radar

Recognition:

Highly modified AT-T chassis Large eliptical parabolic antenna Operators' cab at front

 Highly modified AT-T chassis  Large eliptical parabolic antenna  Operators' cab at front  
 
 

The TELAR vehicle is of all-welded construction with the crew compartment at the front, missiles on the turntable immediately behind the crew compartment and the engine at the rear. The transmission is at the rear of the hull. The torsion bar suspension system consists of six rubber tired road wheels with the drive sprocket at the rear and the idler at the front. There are no track return rollers. The vehicle has an air filtration and over pressure NBC system and infra-red night vision equipment fitted as standard but the vehicle has no amphibious capability. Three SA-6 Gainful missiles are carried on a turntable which can be traversed through a full 360º with the missiles elevated on their launchers to a maximum of 85º. When traveling the turntable is normally traversed to the rear and the missiles are horizontal to reduce the overall height of the vehicle.

Besides being vulnerable to suppresive fires and ECM, the system is slaved to the long- range LONG TRACK radar. Without it the SA-6 is "blind" at high altitudes.

 

Specifications

System designation

Kub (domestic version) or Kvadrat (export version)

Type

Mobile tactical air defense complex

Mission

Protection of troops and objects of thereof from low- flying airplanes and helicopters of adversary under conditions of jamming and fire counteraction (The system was reportedly designed to defend advancing Soviet tank divisions in case of the war)

System Developer

Missile Developer

State Machine-building Design Bureau «Vympel» (Moscow)

Serial Production Facility

Ul'yanovsk Mechanical Plant (for launchers and reconnaissance facility)

CHRONOLOGY

 

Development started

 

late 1950s

Testing started

1965

(Army)

Serial Production started

1968

[1] or 1967 [3]

Production ceased

1983

[3] or 1985 [1]

PERFORMANCES:

 

System Composition

One Self-Propelled Reconnaissance and Targeting Facility and 4 Self-propelled SAM Launchers, each carrying three missiles (all on tracked chassis). Initial version of the system carried 3M9 missiles, Kub-M3 features 3M9M3 missiles

Probability of kill by one missile (within the lethality envelope)

To increase Pk target can be engaged by several missiles, fired from either single or several Launchers

for «non manuevering aerodynamic target»

0.8-0.9 [1], 0.7-0.8 [2] 0.8-0.95 [3]

for manuevering high- speed target

0.5-0.7 [2]

for cruise missile

0.3-0.4 [1] 0.1-0.3 [2]

Missile Guidance

semi-active radar homing (on recently upgraded complexes TV/optical seeker introduced) For protection aganst anti-radar missiles seeker of SAM can lock on target mid-air, after launch

Length:

5.8 m

 

Diameter:

0.335

m

 

Wing span:

1.245

m

 

Max speed:

Mach 2.8

 

Launch weight:

599 kg

 

Max effective range:

24,000 m 24-28 kilometers [1-3] (for M3 and M4 modifications)

Min effective range:

3,700 m 3-3.5 kilometers (for M3 and M4 modifications)

Max effective

12,000 m 14 kilometers (for M3 and M4 modifications)

altitude:

Min effective

(radar mode) 100 m (optical mode) 50 m

altitude:

25

meters (for M3 and M4 modifications)

Propulsion:

integral rocket motor/ramjet booster and sustainer motor assembly

Warhead:

59

kg HE fragmentation with contact and proximity

fuzes

 

Reload time (SPU):

10

min

Time of Deployment for Combat

5 minutes

 

Reaction Time

20

[1] or 22 [3] seconds between target detection and

missile firing

Operational

-50 C

+ 50 C

Temperatures

Performance Upgrade Activity

«In the interests of foreign customers» NIIP currently upgrades the system to increase efficiency of tracking targets at low altitudes and improve jam-resistance of illumination channel. Work is also underway to increase combat performance can be enhanced by inclusion of a newer 9A310M1 Self-propelling Launcher from Buk- M1 (SA-17) system

Exports

Was delivered to 22 [1] or 25 [3] countries, including

Syria and Yugoslavia. Extensively used in the 1973 Israeli-Arab war (64 airplanes were shot down
Syria and Yugoslavia. Extensively used in the 1973 Israeli-Arab war (64 airplanes were shot down

Syria and Yugoslavia. Extensively used in the 1973 Israeli-Arab war (64 airplanes were shot down by 95 fired missiles)

Syria and Yugoslavia. Extensively used in the 1973 Israeli-Arab war (64 airplanes were shot down by
Syria and Yugoslavia. Extensively used in the 1973 Israeli-Arab war (64 airplanes were shot down by
Syria and Yugoslavia. Extensively used in the 1973 Israeli-Arab war (64 airplanes were shot down by
Syria and Yugoslavia. Extensively used in the 1973 Israeli-Arab war (64 airplanes were shot down by
SA-N-3
SA-N-3

SA-N-3

SA-N-3

SA-7 GRAIL 9K32M Strela-2 HN-5 (Hongying 5) China Anza MKI - Pakistan Ayn as Saqr - Egypt

The SA-7 GRAIL (Strela-2) man-portable, shoulder-fired, low-altitude SAM system is similar to the US Army REDEYE, with a high explsive warhead and passive infrared homing guidance. The HN-5 ( Hong Nu = Red Cherry ) is an improved Chinese version with upgraded capabilities. The SA-7 was the first generation of Soviet man portable surface-to-air missiles. Although classed as "fire and forget" types, the missiles were easily overcome by solar heat and, when used in hilly terrain, by heat from the ground.

The SA-7 seeker is fitted with a filter to reduce the effectiveness of decoying flares and to block IR emissions. The system consists of the missile (9K32 & 9K32M), a reloadable gripstock (9P54 & 9P54M), and a thermal battery (9B17). An identification friend or foe (IFF) system can be fitted to the operators helmet. Further, a supplementary early warning system consisting of a passive RF antenna and headphones can be used to provide early cue about the approach and rough direction of an enemy aircraft. Although the SA-7 is limited in range, speed, and altitude, it forces enemy pilots to fly above minimum radar limitations which results in detection and vulnerability to regimental and divisional air defense systems.

The SA-7a (9K32 Strela-2) was introduced for service in 1968, but was soon replaced by the SA-7b (9K32M Strela-2M) which became the most common production model. The SA-7b, differs from the SA-7a primarily by using a boosted propellant charge to increase range and speed. The SA-7a had a slant range of 3.6 km and a kill zone between 15 and 1500 meters in altitude, with a speed of about 430 meters per second (Mach 1.4). The SA-7b has a slant range of about 4.2 km, a ceiling of about 2300 meters, and a speed of about 500 meters per second (Mach 1.75). Both the SA-7a and SA-7b are tail-chase missile systems, and its effectiveness depends on its ability to lock onto the heat source of low-flying fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft targets.

The Anza anti-aircraft missiles give Pakistan a response to India's superiority in modern aircraft -- India has a numerical superiority in modern fighter aircraft of more than 3 to 1 over Pakistan. The Anza MK-1, Anza MK-2, and Anza MK-3 surface to air anti-aircraft missiles have ranges of 4, 6 and 15 km, respectively. The missiles are manufactured by the laboratory named after Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, the father of Pakistan's nuclear program.

The Anza MKI missiles, which have a range of 4.2 km, were manufactured and handed over to the military forces in 1990. It has been reported that the missile was used during the Kargil incidents between Pakistan and India. Pakistan downed two of India's military planes, a MIG-21 and a MIG-27, with the Anza MKI missiles for violating its airspace on 26 May 1999.

Egyptian technicians have reverse engineered and modified two Soviet SAMs -- the Ayn as Saqr (a version of the SA-7) and the Tayir as Sabah (a version of the SA-2). The Ayn as Saqr [Falcon Eye] anti-Aircraft missile system is designed to counter air-ground attack by all types of aircraft flying at low and very low altitudes due to its simplicity of operation, accuracy, light weight, mobility & versatility (either by one man or to be integrated into other overall A/D systems). Also it can be mounted on any combat vehicle, light or armored. Moreover the basic equipment can be fitted with IFF & night vision units.

 

Specifications

Date of Introduction

1972

Proliferation

Worldwide

Crew

1

Launcher Name

9P54M

Length (m)

1.47

Diameter (mm)

70

Weight (kg)

4.71

Reaction Time

5-10 seconds (acquisition to fire)

Time Between

 

Launches (sec)

INA

Reload Time (sec)

6-10

Missile Name

9M32M

Max. Range

5,500 meters

Min. Range

500 meters

Max. Altitude

4,500 meters

Min. Altitude

18 meters

Length (m)

1.40

Diameter (mm)

70

Weight (kg)

9.97

Missile Speed (m/s)

580

Propulsion

Solid fuel booster and solid fuel sustainer rocket motor.

Guidance

Passive IR homing device (operating in the medium IR range)

Seeker Field of View

1.9°

Tracking Rate

6°/sec

Warhead Type

HE

Warhead Weight (kg)

1.15

Fuze Type

Contact (flush or grazing)

Self-Destruct (sec)

15

FIRE CONTROL

Launcher has sighting device and a target acquisitionindicator. The gunner visually identifies and acquires the target.

Gunner Field of View

INA

Acquisition Range

 

(m)

INA

VARIANTS

SA-N-5 Naval version HN-5A Chinese version Strela 2M/A Yugoslavian upgrade Sakr Eye Egyptian upgrade Mounted in several types of vehicles in four, six, and eight-tube launcher varieties. Can be mounted on several helicopters (Mi-24, S-342 Gazelle)

ANZA MK-1 Specifications

helicopters (Mi-24, S-342 Gazelle) ANZA MK-1 Specifications Type 2-stage, low altitude Length (missile, with

Type

2-stage, low altitude

Length

(missile, with retracted tail fins) 1.44 m

Weight

(total launch assembly in firing condition) 15 Kg (Missile at launch) 9.8 Kg

Propulsion

solid fuel booster and solid fuel sustainer rocket motor

Guidance

uncooled Pbs passive infrared homing seeker

Warhead

HE fragmentation (containing 0.37 Kg HE) with contact and graze fuzing

Average missile

 

cruise speed

500 m/s

Max missile

 

manoeuvring

6 g

Self destruction time

14-17 s

Max target speed

(receding target) 260 m/s

Max effective slant range

4,200 m

Min effective slant range

1,200 m

Max effective altitude

50 m

Weapon reaction time

less than 5 s

Time from march to ready

less than 10 s for operation

Battery operation time

more than 40 s

less than 5 s Time from march to ready less than 10 s for operation Battery
HN-5 (Hongying 5)
HN-5 (Hongying 5)

HN-5 (Hongying 5)

HN-5 (Hongying 5)

Anza MK-1

Anza MK-1 Ayn as Saqr
Anza MK-1 Ayn as Saqr

Ayn as Saqr

Anza MK-1 Ayn as Saqr

SA-8 GECKO 9K33M3 Osa-AKM

The SA-8 GECKO is a single-stage, solid-fuel, short-range, low-altitude, all-weather SAM system. The first production version of this system was identified as SA-8a, which only had 4 launcher rails and exposed missiles. The SA-8b typically has two BAZ-5937 resupply/transloader vehicles, carrying 18 missiles each (boxed in sets of three) that supports a battery of four TELARs. A target can be brought under fire both with one missile as well as a volley of two missiles. This system is also air transportable.

The SA-8a (GECKO Mod 0) high acceleration missile (Factory Index number 9M33) has a launch weight of about 130 kg. Maximum speed is Mach 2.4, minimum altitude is 25 meters, maximum effective altitude 5000 meters. The minimum range is 1500 meters and the maximum range 12000 meters. The SA-8b or GECKO Mod 1, introduced in 1980, is mounted in a rectangular launch box and incorporates improved guidance and higher speed providing an increased maximum range of 15000 meters. The warhead of both missiles is fitted with proximity and contact fuses, and the 19 kilogram warhead's lethal radius at low altitude is about 5 meters. The system reload time is five minutes, and combat deployment time is four minutes with system reaction 26 seconds. The LAND ROLL conical-scan fire control radar operates in the H-band with a 360º travers, with a maximum range of 35 kilometers and an effective range of around 30 kilometers against a typical target. LAND ROLL also has a short-range target acquisition capability. The radar, at the rear of a one-man gunner-radar operator position, folds back 90º to reduce the overall height of the vehicle for air transport and high speed road travel. The pulsed- mode tracking radar operates in the J band with a range of 20 to 25 kilometers. The two I- band guidance radars make it possible to launch two missiles at the same target, each one responding to a different frequency to frustrate ECM.

Mounted on top of each missile guidance radar is an low light level TV optical assist system for target tracking in low visibility and heavy ECM.

The SA-8 transporter erector launcher and radar (TELAR) vehicle is a six-wheeled design designated BAZ-5937. Four command-guided missiles are carried ready to launch, two either side. The driver's compartment at the front of the vehicle has accommodation for two, the driver and commander, with access via a hatch in the roof. The engine is at the very rear, and the vehicle is fully amphibious, being propelled in the water by two water jets at the rear of the hull. The vehicle is fitted with an air filtration and overpressure NBC system together with IR systems for the commander and driver.

There are at least three major families of SA-8 launch vehicles. The first, a pre-series prototype, had a very blunt nose. The standard production model has a sharper nose, and variants of this vehicle with feature minor changes in the detail of hull fittings. The SA- 8b vehicle is basically similar to the SA-8a vehicle aside from the launcher which accommodates six missile canisters. Variants of the SA-8b launcher feature a

reconfigured rear end, while some SA-8b TELs include an additional small radar antenna fitted above the surveillance radar associated with a newIFF system.

Each battery has two missile transloaders based on the same chassis with a long tarp- covered structure covering the cargo space and crane which slides to the rear when operating. A total of 18 reloads in boxed sets of three are transferred to the TELARs by the centrally-mounted hydraulic crane.

Regimental maintenance batteries include a single radar collimation vehicle using the same chassis. The collimation antenna lies on both sides of the vehicle and overhangs the rear during transit. In operation it is raised and mounted on each side of the hull directly behind the cab.

 

Specifications

Date of Introduction

1980

Proliferation

At least 25 countries

Crew

3

Combat Weight (mt)

9

TELAR

BAZ-5937 6x6 amphibious cross-country capable vehicle

Length (m)

9.14

Height (m)

4.2 (with surveillance radar folded down)

Width (m)

2.75

Engine Type

D20K300 diesel

Cruising Range (km)

500

Max. Road Speed

80 km/h

Max. Swim Speed

8 km/h

Radio

R-123M

Protection

NBC Protection System

Launcher Name

9P35M2

Length (m)

3.2

Diameter (mm)

INA

Weight (kg)

35

Reaction Time (sec)

INA

Time Between

4

Launches (sec)

 

Reload Time (min)

5

Fire on Move

No

Emplacement Time (min)

4

Displacement Time (min)

Less than 4 (est.)

Missile Name

9M33M3

Max. Range

15,000 meters

Min. Range

200

meters

Max. Altitude

12,000 meters

Min. Altitude

10

meters

Length

3158

mm

Diameter

209.6 mm

Weight

170

kg

Missile Speed

1020

m/s

Propulsion

Solid propellant rocket motor

Guidance

RF CLOS

Warhead Type

Frag-HE

Fuze Type

Contact and proximity

Warhead Weight

16

kg

Self-Destruct

25-28 seconds

FIRE CONTROL

Sights w/Magnification LLLTV/optical assist (for target tracking in low visibility and heavy ECM)

IFF

Yes

Radar Name

LAND ROLL

Function

Target Acquisition

Detection Range (km)

20-30

Tracking Range (km)

20-25

Frequency

6-8 GHz

Frequency Band

H

Radar Name

Monopulse Target Tracking Radar

Function

Target Tracking

Detection Range (km)

20-25

Tracking Range (km)

INA

Frequency

14.2-14.8 GHz

Frequency Band

J

Missile tracking radars

2

Frequency

10-20 GHz

VARIANTS

SA-8a Initial production model that carries four missiles on exposed rails. 4K33 Osa-M (SA-N-4) Naval variant

VARIANTS SA-8a Initial production model that carries four missiles on exposed rails. 4K33 Osa-M (SA-N-4) Naval
VARIANTS SA-8a Initial production model that carries four missiles on exposed rails. 4K33 Osa-M (SA-N-4) Naval

SA-9 GASKIN 9K31 Strela-1

The SA-9 GASKIN is a short-range, low-altitude self-propelled SAM-carrying system based on the BRDM-2 chassis. The vehicle carries quadruple SA-9 SAM launchers on a revolving mount in place of the KPV/PK machine gun turret. The missiles are usually fired in pairs against each target to increase the kill probability, with an interval between rounds of about five seconds. Reloading is performed manually and takes about five minutes. The 30 kilogram Mach 1.5 Strela-1 missile is 1.8 meters long and 0.12 meters in diameter with a wing span of 0.375 meters. It carries an HE-fragmentation warhead and proximity fuse with a lethal radius of 5 meters and damage radius of 7.6 meters. The original version of the Strela-1 was known as the 9M31 (SA-9A GASKIN Mod 0) and used an uncooled first-generation lead sulfide (PbS) infra-red (IR) seeker operating. This was supplemented by the 9M31M variant (SA-9B GASKIN Mod 1) which has an improved seeker providing greater target sensitivity and lock on ability. The minimum range of the 9M31 is 800 m and the maximum range 6500 m within altitude limits of 15 to 5200 m. The minimum range of the 9M31M is 560 meters and the maximum range 8000 meters (increasing to a possible 11000 meters when used in a tail-chase engagement) within altitude limits of 10 to 6100 meters. When engaging a head-on target the system has a considerably reduced range.

One SA-9 TEL (SA-9 Mod A, BRDM-2A1 or SA-9A TEL) in each battery is fitted with FLAT BOX A passive radar detection antenna, one either side of the hull above the front wheel housings, one under the left launch canisters pointing forward and one mounted on a small frame above the rear engine deck plate pointing rearwards to give 360º coverage. The TEL without the FLAT BOX A system is known as the SA-9 Mod-B, BRDM-2A2 or SA-9B.

The BRDM-2 transporter erector launcher (TEL) has the chain-driven belly wheels removed and the normal turret replaced by one with four ready to launch SA-9 container- launcher boxes. These are normally lowered to the horizontal when traveling to reduce the overall height of the vehicle. The vehicle crew of three consists of the commander, driver and gunner. An air-filtration and overpressure NBC system are standard.

Missile Specifications

9M31

9M31M

Length:

1.803 m

1.803 m

Diameter:

0.12 m

0.12 m

Wing span:

0.36

0.36

Max speed:

Mach 1.8

Mach 1.8

Max target speed:

300

m/s

300

m/s

Launch weight:

32

kg

32

kg

Max effective range:

4,200 m

8,000 m

Min effective range:

800

m

560

m

Max effective altitude:

3,500 m

6,100 m

Min effective altitude:

30

m

10

m

Guidance:

1-3 waveband uncooled PbS passive IR homing seeker

1-5 waveband cooled PbS passive IR homing seeker

Propulsion:

single-stage solid propellant rocket motor

single-stage solid propellant rocket motor

Warhead:

2.6 kg HE fragmentation with contact and proximity fuzing

2.6 kg HE fragmentation with contact and proximity fuzing

basic load on vehicle

4

reload time (min)

5

radar(s)

Passive radar detection antenna giving 360º coverage

emplace/displace time (min)

25895

chassis

Modified BRDM-2 chassis

 
 

4 wheels

 

speed, road

100

water

10

road range (kg)

750

crew

3

S-300PMU

SA-10 GRUMBLE SA-N-6 GRUMBLE HQ-10/15 (Chinese licensed copy)

forces.

The S-300PMU [SA-10 land-based, SA-N-6 naval version] surface-to- air missile system is able to engage a number of targets simultaneously, countering intensive aircraft raids at low-to-high altitude. The SA-10 offers significant advantages over older strategic surface-to-air missile systems, including multitarget handling and engagement characteristics, a capability against low altitude targets with small radar cross-sections such as cruise missiles, a capability against tactical ballistic missiles, and possibly a potential to intercept some types of strategic ballistic missiles. The first SA-10 site became operational in 1980. Over 80 sites were operational by 1987, when work was progressing on at least another 20 sites. Nearly half of these sites were located near Moscow. This emphasis on Moscow as well as the deployment patterns noted for the other SA-10 sites suggested a first priority on terminal defense of command-and-control, military, and key industrial complexes. A program to replace all of the older strategic SAM systems with the SA- 10, well under way by 1996, has been considered by experts to be one of the most successful reequipment programs of the post-Soviet armed

This vertically launched missile uses a single-stage solid propellant rocket motor. It is normally armed with a 100 kg HE-fragmentation warhead with a proximity fuse, though a low yield tactical nuclear type is believed to be an alternative warhead option. The missile's vertical launch trajectory provides fastest available reaction time capability to counter targets approaching from any azimuth. Missile engagement altitude extend from 25 m up to about 30000 m. The maximum engagement range is stated as at least 90000 m, though in practice it is probably greater.

The SA-10A launch complex consists of a missile battery which includes a battery command post and engagement control center, the large CLAM SHELL 3D continuous wave pulse Doppler target acquisition radar, the FLAP LID A I-band multi-function phased-array trailer-mounted engagement radar with digital beam steering in hardened sites, and up to 12 semi-trailer erector-launchers which mount four tubular missile container-launchers. The towing unit for the semi-trailer erector-launcher is the KrAZ- 260V (6 x 6) tractor truck. The launchers are usually positioned on concrete pads with the trailers being leveled by the use of four hydraulic jacks. An S-300PMU Regiment comprises three such batteries and employs the BIG BIRD 4 meter tall F-band long-

range, 3D surveillance and tracking radar at the Regimental command post for initial target detection.

at the Regimental command post for initial target detection. In the mid-1980s design work on the

In the mid-1980s design work on the mobile S-300PMU SA-10B GRUMBLE Mod 1 was completed. This version of the weapon is carried and vertically launched from a dedicated four-round capacity transporter-erector launcher vehicle based on the MAZ-7910 (8 x 8) truck chassis. The combined engagement radar and control station is mounted on the same chassis. The SA-10B mobile missile battery comprises the combined FLAP LID B engagement radar and engagement control/command post station mounted on a MAZ-7910 chassis, up to 12 TELs (SPU: mobile launcher unit), a trailer-mounted 36D6; CLAM SHELL 3D 360º scanning target designation radar, and a maintenance section. The SA-10B Regiment consists of three such batteries with an additional radar section and a number of TZM (transport-loader vehicles) MAZ-7910 transloaders for resupply purposes. The TEL carries a total of four sealed container-launcher cylinders, each of which is used for the storage, transport and launching of a missile. When traveling the launcher system is carriedin the horizontal position but at the launch site is elevated to an angle of 90º.

The combined FLAP LID-B radar/engagement control vehicle has the 2.75 m2 planar array antenna on a box-like antenna mount and support systems container. When traveling the array is carried horizontally, and when deployed it is raised above the container to an angle of approximately 60º.

The battery takes only five minutes to deploy once it comes to the halt. The vehicles have electronic inter-vehicle communications and data transmission links with elevatable pole- type antenna, and thus it does not require interconnecting vehicle cables. Each of the MAZ-7910 derivative vehicles has four hydraulic jacks positioned either side between the first/second and third/fourth road wheels which are lowered to the ground to provide a more stable and level environment.

Missile guidance is of the Track-Via-Missile (TVM) type with the FLAP LID guidance radar capable of engaging up to six targets simultaneously, with two missiles assigned per target to ensure a high kill probability. Maximum target velocity is stated as 4200 km/h with the battery capable of firing three missiles per second.

If the battery is employed in rugged terrain or forest then the engagement radar system can be mounted on a special trailer-mounted extendible 24.4 m high tower to improve radar coverage. The use of this extended-range radar for low level engagements increases the system's range to 43,200 m from the original 32,000 m. In its sealed container- launcher cylinder the missile is considered to be a round of ammunition and is said not to require any check-ups or adjustments for a period of 10 years.

The S-300PMU1 is an extended range version of S-300PMU with a limited anti-ballistic missile capability, including capabilities against aerodynamic targets with speeds up to 3 kilometers/second.

The S-300PMU2 Favorit variant is a new missile with larger warhead and better guidance with a range of 200 km, versus the 150 km of previous versions. Unveiled at the MAKS'97 exhibition in August 1997, it represents a thorough modification of the S- 300PMU1. The first tests were performed on 10 August 1995 at the Kapustin Yar firing range. One new element is the entirely new 96L6E autonomous mobile radar, which works in conjunction with the 83M6E2 control post and S-300MPU2 launchers. The new 48N6E2 missile, developed by MKB Fakel, weighs 1,800 kg, and is 7.5 m long and 0.5 m in diameter. After a cold start in the upright position with help of a catapult, the 48N6E2 accelerates up to 1,900 m/s in 12 sec time, and then approaches the target from above. The 48N6E2 differs from the older 48N6E in having a new warhead specially designed for destroying ballistic missiles, with a warhead weight of 145 kg versus 70-100 kg.

missiles, with a warhead weight of 145 kg versus 70-100 kg. The S-300PMU2 Favorit can engage

The S-300PMU2 Favorit can engage targets flying from 10 m to 27 km above the surface at a speed of up to 10,000 km/h. It is claimed that it has a kill ratio ranging from 0.8 to 0.93 against aircraft and from 0.8 to 0.98 against Tomahawk-class cruise missiles.

Export Sales

China In the early 1990s China imported 100-120 S-300 missile systems which are deployed aroung Bejing, and it has been suggested that China intends to obtain a license to produce them, with a designation variously reported as either HQ-10 or HQ-15. The first Chinese copy have been tested, but all the components of the first copy version were imported from Russia. The October 1999 parade celebrating the 50th anniversary of the People's Republic of China in Beijing featured a large number of truck towed quad-cannister systems associated with the SA-10. India Since 1995 India has been negotiating with Russia regarding purchase of the S- 300, in response to Pakistan's deployment of M-11 missiles from China. In 1995 Russian Defense Deputy Minister Kokoshin offered to sell S-300 missiles during his trip to India. Following this offer Indian officials started negotiations with the Russian manufacturers, and in August 1995 the Indian Defense Secretary Nambiar went to Russia to observe tests of the missiles near Moscow. The $1 billion purchase is said to include six S-300 systems, with each combat system consisting of 48 missiles. Reportedly in June 1996 27 S-300 missiles were delivered to India. Cyprus signed an agreement with Rosvooruzhenie (Russian Armament) state arms-trade agency on 4 January 1996.

South Korea discussed possible purchase of the SA-10, prior to deciding in late 1999 to purchase the American Patriot PAC-3.

Specifications

Builder

Almaz Scientific-Production Association

Lemgth

7.0

m

7.5

m - 48N6 S-300PMU1

Diameter

0.45

m

0.50

m - 48N6 S-300PMU1

Weight

1,480 kg 1,800 kg - 48N6 S-300PMU1

Propulsiom

Single-stage, solid-fuel rocket

 

45

km - 5V55K

Range, (km)

90

km - 5V55R

150-200 km - 48N6 S-300PMU1

Altitude, (m)

30,000 m

Basic load on vehicle

 

Detection range, km

 

Reaction time, sec

 
 

1.7

km./sec S-300P

Speed

2.0

km./sec S-300PMU

Reload time

 

Warhead

70-100 kg high explosive - 5V55K 145 kg high explosive - 48N6 S-300PMU1

Command guidance

 

Radar(s)

Flap Lid or Tombstone engagement radar Clam Shell acquisition radar Big Bird designation radar

Emplace/displace time (min)

 

Support vehicles

 

Chassis

 
SA-N-6

SA-N-6

SA-N-6

SA-11 GADFLY 9K37M1 BUK-1M

The SA-11 GADFLY is a medium-range, semi-active, radar-guided missile using solid- rocket propulsion that provides defense against high-performance aircraft and cruise missiles. The SA-11 represents a considerable improvement over the earlier SA-6 GAINFUL system, and can engage six separate targets simultaneously, rather than the single target capability of the SA-6. Single-shot kill probability are claimed to be 60-90% against aircraft, 30-70% against helicopters, and 40% against cruise missiles, a significant improvement over the SA-6. The system is more mobile, taking only about 5 minutes to move from road march to engagement. The new system also offers significantly greater resistance to ECM than previous systems. The SA-11 system is comprised of the TELAR (9A310M1), Loader/Launcher (9A39M1), SNOW DRIFT Surveillance Radar (9S18M1), and Command and Control vehicle (9S470M1). The Mach 3 semi-active homing 9M28M1 missile has a maximum slant range of 28 km and a minimum range of 3 km. It is capable of engaging targets between altitudes of 30 and 14000 m and can sustain 23 g maneuvers. The solid fuel missile is 5.6 meters long with a diameter is 0.4 m and a wing span is 1.2 m. The launch weight is 650 kg, which includes a 70 kg HE warhead with a 17 meter lethal radius. The SNOW DRIFT warning and acquisition radar provides target height, bearing and range data. The SNOW DRIFT has a detection range of 85 km against high-flying targets, 35 km against targets at an altitude of 100 meters, and 23 km against targets flying nap-of-the-earth (NOE). The radar's tracking range extending from 70 km for high- flying targets to 20 km for NOE targets. Tracking of helicopters hovering at 30 m can be made as far as 10 km. Once a target is identified it is turned over to an TELAR via a data link for tracking and attack. The SNOW DRIFT receives early warning from brigade- level surveillance radars such as the SPOON REST.

The H/I-band FIRE DOME monopulse guidance and tracking engagement radar has an effective guidance range of 3-32 km and an altitude envelope 15 meters to 22 km, and can engage approaching targets moving at a maximum of 3000 km/h (1860 mph). The radar guides as many as three missiles against a single target.

The SA-11 GADFLY system also can be fitted with a supplementary electro-optical sighting system for use in a severe jamming environment, which would overwhelm the normal semi-active radar homing system -- in which case the missile uses radio- command guidance.

The TELAR, based on the GM-569 tracked chassis, carries four ready to fire missiles on a turntable that can traverse a full 360º and FIRE DOME radar. The tracked Surveillance Radar vehicle uses the same chassis and carries the SNOW DRIFT radar. The Command and Control vehicle works in conjunction with the SNOW DRIFT radar. The Loader/Launcher vehicle (LLV) resembles the normal TELAR, but replaces the FIRE DOME fire control radar with a hydraulic crane for reloading 9M38 missiles. The LLV

can load itself in rear areas from the 9T229 transporter in 15 minutes, and take those missiles to reload the TELAR in about 13 minutes. The LLV can also launch missiles, though it requires radar guidance from a nearby TELAR.

 

Specifications

SA-11 GADFLY

 

Missile Characteristics:

 

DOI

 

1979

Status

Standard

Length (m)

5.7

Diameter (m)

 

0.13

Weight at launch (kg)

55

Propulsion system

 

Booster

 

Solid

Sustainer

 

Solid

Launch rails/tubes

2

or 4 canister tubes

Guidance

Semiactive radar homing

Warhead (type)

HE

Performance:

 

Max. velocity (Mach)

3

(est.)

Max. altitude (m)

15,000 (est.)

Min altitude (m)

25-30 (est.)

Operational range (km)

30 (est.)

 

3

(est.)

Reload time (min)

 

INA

Associated radars

U/I acquistion radar; U/I tracking radar; possible STRAIGHT FLUSH

Recognition:

 
 

Variant ZSU-23-4 chassis

 

4 missiles mounted side-by-side on launch rails

 

Entire missile system mounted on turntable

Vehicle:

Tracked, transporter, erector, and launcher (TTEL)

   Entire missile system mounted on turntable Vehicle: Tracked, transporter, erector, and launcher (TTEL)

S-300V

SA-12A GLADIATOR and SA-12B GIANT

HQ-18

S-300V SA-12A GLADIATOR and SA-12B GIANT HQ-18 The S-300V (SA-12) low-to-high Altitud e, tactical surface to
S-300V SA-12A GLADIATOR and SA-12B GIANT HQ-18 The S-300V (SA-12) low-to-high Altitud e, tactical surface to

The S-300V (SA-12) low-to-high Altitude, tactical surface to air missile system also has anti-ballistic missile capabilities. The HQ-18 reportedly the designation of a Chinese copy of the Russian S300V, though the details of this program remain rather conjectural. In early 1996 Russia astounded the United States Army by marketing the Russian SA-12 surface-to-air missile system in the UAE in direct competition with the United States Army's Patriot system. Rosvooruzheniye offered the UAE the highest-quality Russian strategic air defense system, the SA-12 Gladiator, as an alternative to the Patriot at half the cost. The offer also included forgiveness of some of Russia's debt to the UAE.

The S-300V consists of:

9M82 SA-12b GIANT missile

9M83 SA-12a GLADIATOR missile

9A82 SA-12b GIANT TELAR

9A93 SA-12a GLADIATOR TELAR

9A84 GIANT Launcher/Loader Vehicle (LLV)

9A85 GLADIATOR Launcher/Loader Vehicle (LLV)

9S15 BILL BOARD Surveillance Radar system

9S19 HIGH SCREEN Sector Radar system

9S32 GRILL PAN Guidance Radar system

9S457 Command Station

The 9M83 SA-12a GLADIATOR is a dual-role anti-missile and anti-aircraft missile with a maximum range between 75 and 90 km. The 9M82 SA-12b GIANT missile, configured primarily for the ATBM role, is a longer range system [maximum range between 100 and 200 km] with a longer fuselage with larger solid-fuel motor.

The 9A82 SA-12b GIANT and 9A93 SA-12a GLADIATOR TELAR vehicles are similar, though the 9A83-1 carries four 9M83 SA-12a GLADIATOR missiles, whereas the 9A82 carries only two 9M82 SA-12b GIANT missiles. The configuration of the

vehicles command radar is also different. On the 9A83-1 the radar is mounted on a folding mast providing 360º coverage in azimuth and full hemispheric coverage in elevation. The radar on the 9M82 TELAR is mounted in a semi-fixed position over the cab, providing 90º coverage on either side in azimuth and 110º in elevation. The TELARs are not capable of autonomous engagements, requiring the support of the GRILL PAN radar.

The 9S457-1 Command Post Vehicle is the command and control vehicle for the SA-12 system, which is supported by the BILL BOARD A surveillance radar and the HIGH SCREEN sector radar. The CPV and its associated radars can detect up to 200 targets, track as many as 70 targets and designate 24 of the targets to the brigade's four GRILL PAN radar systems for engagement by the SA-12a and SA-12b TELARs.

The BILL BOARD A radar provides general surveillance, with the antenna rotating every 6-12 seconds. The radar, which can detect up to 200 targets, provides target coverage of 0-55º in elevation and 10-250 km in range with an accuracy is 30-35 min of arc in azimuth and 250 m in range. and.

The HIGH SCREEN sector radar supporst the ATBM role, providing surveillance of anticipated azimuths of threat missiles. The radar is switches to a tracking mode when high speed targets are detected, automatically transmiting the trajectory parameters to the Command Post Vehicle. The CPV prioritizes the threat and instructs the HIGH SCREEN radar to track specific missiles, with the maximum being 16 simultaneous targets.

The GRILL PAN radar system controls the battery's launcher vehicles (TELARs and LLVs). It can simultaneously track up to 12 targets and control up to six missiles against these targets The radar can acquire targets with a radar cross-section of 2m2 at a range of 150 km in manual mode and 140 km in automatic mode. The GRILL PAN tracks targets assigned to it by the CP while simultaneously maintaining a horizon search for new targets.

The LLVs (9A85 GLADIATOR and 9A83 GLADIATOR) resemble normal TELARs, but with a loading crane rather than command radars. While the primary role of the LLV is to replenish the TELARs, they can also erecting and launch missiles if needed, though they are dependent on the use of command radars from neighboring TELARs.

Specifications

Specifications SA-12a Range, (km) Altitude, (m) 25 km Basic load on vehicle Detection range, km Reaction

SA-12a

Range, (km)

Altitude, (m) 25 km

Basic load on vehicle Detection range, km

Reaction time, sec Speed Reload time Warhead Command guidance

Radar(s)

6-75 km

4 missiles on launcher

1.7 km./sec

150 kg, HE Combined, inertial with semi-active self-guidance GRILL PAN missile guidance radar, BILL BOARD surveillance radar, HIGH SCREEN sector scan radar

5

TELAR, Transloader, command post Variations of the MT-T chassis are used for the launch vehicle, loader-launcher vehicle, missile guidance station, command post vehicle, and the radars.

Emplace/displace time (min) Support vehicles

Chassis

Specifications

Specifications SA-12b Range, (km) Altitude, (m) Basic load on vehicle Detection range, km Reaction time, sec

SA-12b

Range, (km) Altitude, (m) Basic load on vehicle Detection range, km Reaction time, sec Speed Reload time Warhead Command guidance

Radar(s)

Emplace/displace time (min) Support vehicles

Chassis

13-100 km

1-30 km

2 missiles on launcher

2.4 km./sec.

150 kg, HE Combined, inertial with semi-active self-guidance GRILL PAN missile guidance radar, BILL BOARD surveillance radar, HIGH SCREEN sector scan radar

5

TELAR, Transloader, command post Variations of the MT-T chassis are used for the launch vehicle, loader-launcher vehicle, missile guidance station, command post vehicle, and the radars.

SA-13 GOPHER ZRK-BD Strela-10

The SA-13 GOPHER [ZRK-BD Strela-10] is a short-range, low altitude SAM system. The SA-13 missile (9M37) is 2.2 m long, 0.12 m in diameter with a 0.4 m wingspan and has a maximum speed of Mach 2. It carries a 5 kg HE warhead and is fitted with either an improved passive lead sulfide all-aspect infra-red seeker unit, or a cryogenically cooled passive all-aspect infra-red seeker unit. The estimated minimum range of the SA-13 is 500 meters and the maximum effective range of 5000 meters with altitude engagement limits of 10 to 3500 meters. The SA-13 Strela-10M3 variant is designed to defend troops on the march from low level aircraft and helicopters, precision-guided munitions and reconnaissance RPVs. The major change is the adoption of a dual mode guidance system for the missile seeker - optical 'photo-contrast' and dual band passive IR. The 9M333 missile weighs 42 kg at launch and when in its container-launcher the box-like canister has a total mass of 74 kg. Target acquisition range using the optical 'photo-contrast' channel is between 2000-8000 meters while for the IR channel it is between 2300-5300 meters. Altitude engagement limits are from 10 meter up to 3500 meters at a maximum range of 5000 meters. Average missile speed is 550 m/s. The HE-fragmentation rod warhead weighs 5 kg in total (including 2.6 kg of HE) and uses both contact and active laser proximity fusing systems. The actuation radius of the proximity fuse is up to 4 meters. The dual mode passive optical 'photo- contrast/IR seeker ensures good IR decoy counter-countermeasures discrimination capability and optimum use of the system against extremely low altitude targets and in adverse weather conditions. The SA-13 incorporates the range-only HAT BOX radar which provides the operator the targets range to the system to prevent wastage of missiles outside the effective range of the system. The HAT BOX circular parabolic radar antenna is located between the two pairs of missile canisters. There are two versions of the SA-13 transporter erector launcher and radar (TELAR). The TELAR-1 carries four FLAT BOX B passive radar detection antenna units, one on either corner of the vehicle's rear deck, one facing aft and one between the driver's vision ports at the front, whereas the TELAR-2, which is used by the SA-13 battery commander, has none. The SA-13 TELAR is a modified MT-LB amphibious armored tracked vehicle with the machine-gun turret removed. The launcher pedestal mounted to the rear of center of the vehicle is 360º traversable. It incorporates the operators position behind a large, rectangular window at its base. Normally the TELAR carries four ready to fire SA-13 missile container-launchers and eight reloads in the cargo compartment but it can also carry either SA-9 GASKIN container-launcher boxes in their place or a mixture of the two. This enables the the cheaper SA-9 (Strela-1) to be used against the easier targets and the more expensive and sophisticated SA-13 (Strela-10) against the difficult targets. The missile mix also allows a choice of infra-red (IR) seeker types on the missiles for use against extremely low altitude targets and in adverse weather.

Specifications Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum
Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead Weight
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Effective range
600-5000 meters
Altitude
10-3500 meters
Guidance mode
IR homing, cooled seeker, dual frequency
Single-shot hit
probability
basic load on vehicle
8
reload time (min)
3
fire control
IR homing, cooled seeker, dual frequency
radar(s)
SNAP SHOT (range only)
PIE RACK (IFF)
emplace/displace time
(min)
40 sec
support vehicles
14631
chassis
MT-LB
speed, road
60
water
6
road range (kg)
500
crew
3

SA-14 GREMLIN 9K34 Strela-3

SA-14 GREMLIN (Strela-3 9K34) man-portable SAM is the successor to the SA-7/SA- 7b (Strela-2 9K32 and Strela-2M 9K32M). The system consists of the 9P59 gripstock, 9P51 thermal battery/gas reservoir, and 9M36-1 missile. The external appearance of the SA-14 is very similar to the SA-7, and the gripstock, launch canister and aft missile body are almost identical. The most significant differences are the new seeker system and the substitution of a ball-shaped 9P51 thermal battery and gas reservoir for the SA-7's canister shaped battery. The SA-14's new nitrogen-cooled lead sulfide seeker allows it to home in on the exhaust plume of jet engines, turboprop and helicopter gas turbine engines. The enhanced seeker allowed the SA-14 to be fired against targets from much broader angles, as well as defeating countermeasures such as exhaust shrouds. Optical filtration was added to the seeker to reduce vulnerability to typical IRCM flares. The warhead of the SA-14 was nearly doubled in weight over the small warhead of the SA-7. The guidance electronics were reduced in weight and a new solid-propellant motor was introduced, compensating for the heavier warhead and improving aerodynamic performance. The SA-14 has a maximum range of 4500 meters, and a maximum altitude of 3000 meters.

 

Specifications

Designation

9K34 Strela-3

Date of Introduction

1978

Proliferation

Worldwide

Crew

1

Launcher Name

9P59

Dimensions

 

Length (m)

1.40

Diameter (mm)

75

Weight (kg)

2.95

Reaction Time (sec)

14

Time Between

 

Launches (sec)

35-40

Reload Time (sec)

25

Missile Name

9M36 or 9M36-1

Max. Range (m)

6,000

Min. Range (m)

600

Max. Altitude (m)

6,000

Min. Altitude (m)

50

Length (m)

1.4 m

Diameter (mm)

75 mm

Fin Span (mm)

INA

Weight (kg)

10.3

Missile Speed (m/s)

600

Propulsion

2-stage solid-propellant rocket

Guidance

passive IR homing

Seeker Field of View

INA

Tracking Rate

INA

Warhead Type

Frag-HE

Warhead Weight (kg)

1.0

Fuze Type

Contact/grazing

Self-Destruct (sec)

14-17

FIRE CONTROL

Sights w/Magnification Launch tube has simple sights

Gunner Field of View ( o )

INA

Acquisition Range

 

(m)

INA

IFF

Yes

VARIANTS

Igla 9M39 (SA-N-8) Naval version

9K331 Tor SA-15 GAUNTLET

SA-N-9

HQ-17

The 9K331 Tor [SA-15 GAUNTLET land-based, SA-N-9 naval version] low-to-medium altitude SAM system is capable of engaging not only aircraft and helicopters but also RPVs, precision-guided weapons and various types of guided missiles. The HQ-17 is a copy of Tor-M1, that China will use it to replace the aging HQ-61 SAMs, will enter service around the year 2005. Although it is an autonomous system it can be interfaced into an integrated air defense network. SA-15b is designed to be a completely autonomous air defense system (at division level), capable of surveillance, command and control, missile launch and guidance functions from a single vehicle. The basic combat formation is the firing battery consisting of four TLARs and the Rangir battery command post. The TLAR carries eight ready missiles stored in two containers holding four missiles each. The SA-15b has the capability to automatically track and destroy 2 targets simultaneously in any weather and at any time of the day. The single stage solid propellant missile has a maximum speed of 850 m/s and is fitted with a 15 kg HE-fragmentation warhead detonated by a proximity fusing system. The missile is approximately 3.5 meters long with a diameter of 0.735 meters and a launch weight 170 kilograms. The cold launch ejection system propels the missile upwards to a height of 18-20 meters, whereupon thruster jets ignite and turn the weapon to the target bearing. The main sustainer rocket motor then ignites and the missile is command guided to the intercept point where the proximity fuse is triggered. Effective range limits are from 1500 to 12000 m with target altitude limits being between 10 and 6000 m. The maximum maneuvering load factor limit on the weapon is 30 g. The missile launcher consists of a box container extending down below the level of the hull top, holding two groups of four ready to fire missiles in the vertical position. Each missile is in a maintenance-free factory-sealed container-launcher box. The system is reloaded by a dedicated transportation/loader vehicle.

The 3D pulse Doppler electronically beam steered E/F-band surveillance radar provides range, azimuth, elevation and automatic threat evaluation data on up to 48 targets for the digital fire control computer processing system. Automatic track initiation can be performed on the 10 most dangerous targets, which are categorized and prioritized in order of threat for engagement. The operator reconfirms the highest priority target choice and tracks this target before firing the missile. The maximum radar range is stated as 25 kilometers, but the rapid five to eight second reaction time [including fire control target prioritization] suggests a somewhat greater range. The radar antenna, on top of the turret, is swung through 90º to the horizontal position for travel. Target radar surveillance is carried out on the move but the vehicle would normally come to a halt for missile launch.

The phased-array pulse Doppler G/H-band tracking radar is located at the front of the turret. This electronically steered radar is capable of simultaneously tracking two targets traveling at speeds of up to 700 km/h in all weather conditions, and countering threat ECM operations. The antenna assembly can be folded down for travel. Mounted on the top left of this radar is a small vertical pointing antenna which serves to initially acquire the missile after launch before it is handed over to the main tracking/guidance system. On the lower right side of the tracking radar is an automatic TV tracking system with a range of 20000 m that complements the tracking radar and enables the system to operate in a heavy ECM environment. The Tor is not amphibious although it is airportable. An NBC system is fitted as standard as is a built-in training system. The chassis of the vehicle is almost identical to that used for the 2S6 self-propelled hybrid air defense system and is based on the GM-569 tracked vehicle. The three man crew consists of the vehicle commander, system operator and vehicle driver, seated at the front of the vehicle with the large box-like unmanned turret in the center and the engine compartment at the rear. This arrangement is similar to that of the Kub (SA-6) and Shilka (ZSU-23-4) vehicles. The vehicle suspension consists of six dual rubber tired roadwheels with the idler at the front, drive sprocket at the rear and three return rollers. An auxiliary gas turbine powers a 75 kW generator, allowing the main diesel engine to be shut down when the system is deployed to conserve fuel. The Russian company Antei which produces anti-aircraft missile systems has developed a new efficient system Tor M1. A number of countries have precision weapons and a reliable shield is necessary against these weapons. The new Russian anti-aircraft missile system Tor is such a shield. The system consists of a special vehicle and two radars to detect targets and to accompany flying targets and missiles, a computer, and equipment for launch and navigation. The missile unit is a transportation and launch container with four missiles. A anti-aircraft guided missile is a one-stage missile with a solid fuel engine. The system is operated by 3 or 4 people. The Tor system ensures reliable protection for government, industrial and military sites and ground troops from all types of missiles, unpiloted aircraft, aircraft bombs, aircraft and helicopters with stealth capabilities. The Tor system is the only system in the world which can detect and identify various targets. It can detect targets at a height ranging from 10 meters to 6 kilometers. The Tor system is autonomous and has short reaction time. The latest technologies of Russia's defense industry are used in it.

Specifications

Designations

9K331 Tor-M1

Date of Introduction

1990

Proliferation

At least 5 countries

Crew

3

TLAR

9A331 combat vehicle

Chassis

GM-355

Combat Weight (mt)

34

Length (m)

7.5

Height (m)

5.1 (TAR up)

Width (m)

3.3

Engine Type

V-12 diesel

Cruising Range (km)

500

Max. RoadSpeed

65

(km/h)

Radio

INA

Protection

NBC Protection System

Launcher Reaction Time (sec)

5-8

Reload Time (min)

10

Fire on Move

Yes

Emplacement Time (min)

5

Displacement Time (min)

Less than 5

Missile Name

 

9M331

Max. Range (m)

 

12,000

Min. Range (m)

100

Max. Altitude

6,000 (m)

Min. Altitude

10

(m)

Length

2,900 (mm)

Diameter

235 (mm)

Weight (kg)

167

Missile Speed (m/s)

850

Propulsion

INA

Guidance

Warhead Type

Fuze Type

15

INA

FIRE CONTROL

 

Electro-optical (EO) television system

Range

20 km

IFF

Yes

Radar Function

Target Acquisition

Detection Range (km)

25

Tracking Range (km)

INA

Frequency

INA

Frequency Band

H-band Doppler

Radar Function

Target Tracking and Guidance

Detection Range (km)

INA

Tracking Range (km)

25

Frequency

INA

Frequency Band

K-band Doppler, Phased Array

VARIANTS

SA-N-9 Naval version

(km) 25 Frequency INA Frequency Band K-band Doppler, Phased Array VARIANTS SA-N-9 Naval version
(km) 25 Frequency INA Frequency Band K-band Doppler, Phased Array VARIANTS SA-N-9 Naval version

SA-N-9

SA-N-9

SA-16 GIMLET Igla-1 9K310

SA-16 GIMLET (Igla-1 9K310) man-portable surface-to-air missile system, a further development from the SA-7 & SA-14 series, is an improved version of the SA-18 GROUSE, which was introduced in 1983, three years before the SA-16. The SA-16 feattures a new seeker and modified launcher nose cover. Whereas the the SA-18 9M39 missile is fitted with an aerodynamic spike on the nose, the 9M310 missile of the SA-16 has the spike replaced with an aerodynamic cone held in place with a wire tripod. On the SA-18 the protective cover of the seeker is conical, on the SA-16 it is tubular with a prominent lip at the forward edge. The 9M313 missile of the SA-16 employs an IR guidance system using proportional convergence logic, and an improved two-color seeker, presumably IR and UV). The seeker is sensitive enough to home in on airframe radiation, and the two-color sensitivity is designed to minimize vulnerability to flares. The SA-16 has a maximum range of 5000 meters and a maximum altitude of 3500 meters.

 

Specifications

Maximum Speed

2+ Mach

Effective Altitude

3,500 m

Effective Range

500 -- 5,000 m

Altitude

10-3500 m

Warhead

HE 2kg

Guidance

passive 2-color IR and UV homing

Fuze

Contact and graze

Kill Radius

Unknown

HE 2kg Guidance passive 2-color IR and UV homing Fuze Contact and graze Kill Radius Unknown

SA-17 GRIZZLY / Buk-M1-2 SA-N-12 GRIZZLY / Yezh

HQ-16

SA-17 GRIZZLY is a new mobile SAM system to augment and eventually replace the SA-11 GADFLY. The new system uses the same launch vehicle chassis, and overall has a similar configuration to the SA-11 GADFLY. The SNOW DRIFT surveillance radar is also carried on the modified GM-569 tracked vehicle chassis. Russia is upgrading the Belorussian Buk (NATO: SA-11 Gadfly) air defence missile system at the Uliyanovsk Mechanical Plant. The new Buk-M1-2 (SA-17 Grizzly) system has increased fire power, and guarantees hits against six targets flying simultaneously from different directions and at different altitudes. The Yezh naval version [SA-N-12] of the SA-17 is visually Identical to SA-N-7.

The HQ-16 is a joint development project between China and Russia that apparently represents a further evolution of the Russian Grizzly. The system would represent a significant overall improvement in Chinese air defense capabilities. The HQ-16 will reportedly have a range of 50 miles and the ability to hit both high and low flying targets.

SA-18 GROUSE Igla 9K38 SA-N-10 GROUSE Igla-M

The SA-18 GROUSE (Igla 9K38) is an improved variant in the the SA-7 & SA-14 series of manportable SAMs. As with the earlier SA-14, the SA-18 uses of a similar thermal battery/gas bottle, and the SA-18 has the same 2 kilogram high-explosive warhead fitted with a contact and grazing fuse. But the missile of entirely new design with substantially improved range and speed,. The new seeker and aerodynamic improvements extend its effective range, and its higher speed enables it to be used against faster targets. The SA- 18 has a maximum range of 5200 meters and a maximum altitude of 3500 meters. The 9M39 missile SA-18 employs an IR guidance system using proportional convergence logic. The new seeker offers better protection against electro-optical jammers; the probability of kill against an unprotected fighter is estimated at 30-48%, and the use of IRCM jammers only degrades this to 24-30%.

The Igla-M [SA-N-10 ] is the naval version of the SA-18.

 

Specifications

Contractor

 

Entered Service

 

Total length

 

Diameter

 

Wingspan

 

Weight

 

Warhead Weight

 

Propulsion

 

Maximum Speed

 

Maximum effective range

5200 meters

altitude, (m)

10-3500

Guidance mode

passive IR homing

emplace/displace

 

time

13 sec

Single-shot hit

probability

Single-shot hit probability

SA-19 GRISOM 9M111 Pantsyr S1

The SA-19 GRISOM (9M111) is a radar command guided, two-stage surface to air missile mounted on the 2S6 Integrated Air Defense System. The 2S6 vehicle is fitted with two banks of four missiles in blocks of two, which can be elevated vertically independent of each other. The SA-19 can engage aerial targets moving at a maximum speed of 500 meters/second at altitudes ranging from 15 to 3,500 meters, and at slant ranges from 2400 to 8000 meters. The missile's high-explosive fragmentation warhead is actuated by a proximity fuse if the missile passes within 5 meters of the target. The SA- 19 is supported by the HOT SHOT radar system, which consists of a surveillance radar with a maximum range of 18 km, and a tracking radar with a maximum range of 13 km. The semi-automatic radar to command line-of-sight engagement requires the gunner to track the target using the roof-mounted stabilized optical sight. The SA-19 is claimed to have a kill probability of 0.65.

 

Specifications

Chassis:

Ural-53234 8 x 8 truck

Crew

3

Armament

12

57E6 SAMs, 2 2A72 30 mm guns

Missile

 

Guidance system

radio commands with IR or radio direction finding

Maximum speed

1,100 m/sec

Time of flight to 10 km range

14

sec

Weight

 

With container

90

kg

Launch weight

65

kg

Container diameter

170

mm

Length in container

 

3.2 m

Warhead type:

fragmentation rod

Warhead weight

16

kg

Gun

 

Calibre

30

mm

Total rate of fire

700

rds per minute

Muzzle velocity

 

960

m/sec

Projectile weight

0.97 kg

Ammunition load

 

750

rounds

Radar

 

Range, with target reflection surface of 2- 3 sq cm

 

Target detection

at least 30 km

Target tracking

at least 24 km

Kill zone

 

Missiles

 

Range

1,000 to 12,000 m

Altitude

5

- 8,000 m

Guns

 

Range

0.2 - 4,000 m

Altitude

0

- 3,000 m

Number of

 

simultaneously

2

engaged targets

Number of targets handled per minute

10 - 12

Reaction time

5

- 6 sec

2 engaged targets Number of targets handled per minute 10 - 12 Reaction time 5 -

S-400 SA-20 Triumf

The Triumf S-400 is a new generation of air defense and theater anti-missile weapon developed by the Almaz Central Design Bureau as an evolution of the S-300PMU [SA- 10] family. This new system is intended to detect and destroy airborne targets at a distance of up to 400 km (2- 2.5 times greater than the previous S-300PMU system). The Triumf system includes radars capable of detecting low-signature targets. And the anti- missile capability of the system has been increased to the limits established by the ABM Treaty demarcation agreements -- it can intercept targets with velocities of up to 4.8 km/sec, corresponding to a ballistic missile range of 3,500 km.

The system was developed through the cooperation of the Almaz Central Design Bureau, Fakel Machine Building Design Bureau, Novosibirsk Scientific Research Institute of Instruments, St. Petersburg Design Bureau of Special Machine Building and other enterprises.

The Fakel Machine Building Design Bureau has developed two new missiles for Triumf.

The "big" missile [designation otherwise unknown] has a range of up to 400 km

and will be able to engage "over- the-horizon [OTH]" targets using a new seeker head developed by Almaz Central Design Bureau. This seeker can operate in both

a semiactive and active mode, with the seeker switched to a search mode on

ground command and homing on targets independently. Targets for this missile include airborne early warning and control aircraft as well as jammers.

The 9M96 missile is designed to destroy aircraft and air- delivered weapons at ranges in excess of 120 km. The missile is small-- considerably lighter than the ZUR 48N6Ye used in the S-300PMU1 systems and the Favorit. The missile is equipped with an active homing head and has an estimated single shot kill

probability of 0.9 for manned aircraft and 0.8 for unmanned maneuvering aircraft.

a gas-dynamic control system enables the 9M96 missile to maneuver at altitudes

of up to 35 km at forces of over 20g, which permits engagment of non- strategic ballistic missiles. A mockup of the missile was set up at an Athens arms exhibition in October 1998. One 9M96 modification will become the basic long- range weapon of Air Force combat aircraft, and may become the standardized missile for air defense SAM systems, ship-launched air defense missile systems, and fighter aircraft.

These new missiles can be accomodated on the existing SAM system launchers of the S- 300PMU family. A container with four 9M96's can be installed in place of one container with the 5V55 or 48N6 missiles, and thus the the standard launcher intended for four 48N6Ye missiles can accommodate up to 16 9M96Ye missiles. Triumf provides for the greatest possible continuity with systems of the S-300PMU family (PMU1, PMU2), making it possible to smoothly change over to the production of the new generation system. It will include the previous control complex, though supporting not six but eight

SAM systems, as well as multifunctional radar systems illumination and guidance, launchers, and associated autonomous detection and target indication systems.

The state tests of the S-400 system reportedly began in 1999, with the initial test on 12 February 1999. As of May 1999 the testing of S-400 air defense system was reportedly nearing completion at Kapustin Yar, with the first systems of this kind to be delivered to the Moscow Air Force and Air Defense District in the fourth quarter of 1999. However, as of August 1999 government testing of the S-400 was slated to begin at the end of 1999, with the first system complex slated for delivery in late 2000. The sources of the apparent one-year delay in the program are unclear, though they may involve some combination of technical and financial problems with this program. Russian air defense troops conducted a test of the new anti-aircraft missile system S-400 on 07 April 2000. At that time, Air Force Commander Anatoly Kornukov said that serial production of the new system would begin in June 2000. Kornukov said air defense troops would get one S-400 launcher system by the end of 2000, but it would be armed with missiles of the available S-300 system.

On condition of normal funding, radars with an acquisition range of 500-600 km should become operational by 2002-2003. However, other sources report that while it was ordered by the Defence Ministry, the military has nothing to pay for it with, so it is unclear when the Russian military will get this new weapon.

The Russian Air Force is studying a reduction in the number of types of air defense weapons, and it is possible that Triumf will become the only system being developed, providing defense both in the close-range and mid-range as well long-range zones.

 

Specifications

Contractor

Almaz Central Design Bureau Fakel Machine Building Design Bureau

Entered Service

 

Total length

 

Diameter

 

Wingspan

 

Weight

 

Warhead Weight

 

Propulsion

 

Maximum Speed

 

Maximum effective range

120

km 9M96 missile

400

km "big" missile

Guidance mode

 
Single-shot hit probability
Single-shot hit
probability
Single-shot hit probability

SA-X-21 Mysk

In 1996 there were reports of that US sources had suggested the fact of the existence of a new Russian SAM system in development with the US designators SA-X-21 and the Russian system nomenclature believed to be Mysk. However, no additional information has been forthcoming concerning either a Russian system designated Mysk, or any other system that might be associated with the SA-X-21 designator. The Ballistic Missile Defense Simulation Support Center's Extended Air Defense Simulation [EADSIM] modeling database does contain an entry for the SA-21, though publicly available details are lacking. The Extended Air Defense Simulation is a system-level simulation used to assess the effectiveness of Theater Missile Defense (TMD) and air defense systems against the full spectrum of extended air defense threats. EADSIM models performance and predicts effectiveness of ballistic missiles, surface-to-air missiles, aircraft missiles, and cruise missiles in a variety of user defined scenarios. EADSIM is being used by all four U.S. military services, individually and jointly, at over 300 subscriber sites around the world. It is also being used by the United Kingdom, Israel, Australia, and the SHAPE Technical Center under Memoranda of Agreement with the U.S. Army. EADSIM has been used in support of the TMD Advanced Warfare Experiment, as well as TMD Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis studies. EADSIM was used successfully by the U.S. Air Force Studies and Analyses Agency to analyze attrition, Suppression of Enemy Air Defense missions, and refueling operations during Desert Shield and Desert Storm.

AA-1 ALKALI K-5 (RS-1U / RS-2)

PL-1

In 1955 the Kaliningrad (Moscow Oblast) Series Production Plant, which was producing gun turrets for M-4 bomber aircraft and similar equipment, began series production of the first K-5 and K-8 guided air-to-air missiles.

The R-55 (K-55, Object 67), a modification of the K-5 missile, was series-produced throughout the 1967-77 period and quite widely used. By then the Almaz team had given up work air-to-air missiles, and the development of the K-55 missile was assigned to the engineering office at the Kaliningrad (Moscow Oblast) Series Production Plant. This plant was producing aircraft weapons (artillery turrets for M-4 bomber aircraft, sights, etc.), then in 1955 began series production of the first K-5 and K-8 guided air-to-air missiles. Developing the K-55 missile was the first task ever assigned to this team alone (and the only one concerning air-to-air missiles in the history of this team). Currently this engineering office in Kaliningrad, under the name Zvezda, is the leading Russian creator of strategic guided air-to-ground missiles.

During the 1966-168 period the two teams working on air-to-air missiles were renamed -- Bisnovat's OKB-4 team was renamed Molniya and Andrey Lyapin's (who replaced Ivan Toropov in 1961) team was designated Vympel. During later part of the 1960s the Vympel team began working on modifications to the R-55 which resulted in the R-55M missile, with a cooled homing head, a radio rather than optical closing-in igniter, and a more potent warhead. The PL-1 [Pili = Thunderbolt, or Pen Lung = Air Dragon] medium range air-to-air missile was a Chinese copy of the AA-1.

Specifications Contractor Entered Service 1957 Total length 2.83 m Diameter Wingspan Weight 83.2 kg Warhead
Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
1957
Total length
2.83
m
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
83.2
kg
Warhead Weight
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
2 - 6 km

range

 

Guidance mode

Radio Controlled

Single-shot hit

 

probability

Carried by

MiG-17PFU, MiG-19P, MiG-21F, Yak-25, Yak-28

Radio Controlled Single-shot hit   probability Carried by MiG-17PFU, MiG-19P, MiG-21F, Yak-25, Yak-28

AA-2 ATOLL K-13 (R-3 or Object 310) PL-2 / PL-3 / PL-5

The 24 September 1958 Chinese acquisition of an American AIM-9B Sidewinder missile marked the beginning of a breakthrough in the development of Soviet air-to-air missiles. The missile, fired from a Taiwanese F-86 Sabre aircraft, lodged without exploding in a

Chinese MiG-17. The missile was sent to Toropov's engineering office to be copied, and the product the K-13, long the most popular Soviet air-to-air missile. The Sidewinder had

a number of valuable features, not least of which was the modular construction that

facilitated ease in production and operation. The simplicity of the AIM-9 was in marked contrast to the complexity of contemporary Soviet missiles. The Sidewinder's infrared- guided homing head contained a free-running gyroscope and was much smaller than Soviet counterparts, and the steering and in-flight stabilization system were equally superior. Gennadiy Sokolovskiy, later chief engineer at the Vympel team, said that "the Sidewinder missile was to us a university offering a course in missile construction technology which has upgraded our engineering education and updated our approach to production of future missiles." The Soviets soon made advances over the original Sidewinder model, making dozen of modifications to the initial design. In 1960 series-production of the K-13 missile (also called R-3 or Object 310) began. In 1962 the R-3S (K13A or Object 310) became the first version to be produced in large numbers, though its homing operation took much more time (22 seconds instead of 11 seconds). In 1961 development began of the high-altitude K-13R (R-3R or Object 320) with a semiactive radar head, which was entered service with combat aircraft in 1966. The training versions were the R-3U missiles ("uchebnaya", barrel with a homing set, not fired from an aircraft) and the R-3P ("prakticheskaya" differing from the combat version by absence of an explosive charge). The RM-3V (RM denoting "raketa-mishen" [target-missile] served as an aerial target.

During late 1960s the Vympel team began working on the K-13M (R-13M, Object 380)

modification of the K-13 missile, which in 1973 was certified as an operational weapon.

It has a cooled homing head, a radio rather than optical closing-in igniter, and a more

potent warhead. Analogous modifications of the R-55 resulted in the R-55M missile. The last version of the K-13 is the R-13M1 with a mofified steering apparatus.

The K-13 missile was produced in China as the PL-2 (updated versions PL-3 and PL-5) and also in Romania as the A-91. The PL-5E [Pili = Thunderbolt, or Pen Lung = Air Dragon] air-to-air missile has a maximum mobility overload of 40g, exceeding the 35g of the AIM-9L of the United States. Mobility overload a unit for measuring the mobility of aircraft. The larger the value the better the aircraft can adapt to violent mid-air mobility. An air-to-air missile with a great overload means that the attacked side is less likely to escape the attack). The speed of the missile is Mach 2.5 (2.5 times sound speed) and its maximum range is 14,000 meters.

 

Specifications

Year

1961

Type

short-range missile

Modifications

AA-2 - infra-red guidance AA-2-2 "Advanced Atoll" - semi-active radar guidance

Wingspan (AA-2)

0.45

m

Wingspan (AA-2-2)

0.53

m

Length (AA-2)

2.8

m

Length (AA-2-2)

3.0

m

Diameter

0.12

m

Launch weight

70 kg

Max. speed

2850 km/h

Maximum range

6.5

km

Propulsion

solid propellant rocket motor

Guidance

passive infra-red homing or semi-active radar homing

Warhead

proximity-fuzed blast fragmentation, 6 kg

Service

USSR, India, South Yemen, Romania, Afghanistan, North Yemen, North Vietnam, Albania, Nigeria, Uganda, Iraq, Poland, Syria, Algeria, Sudan, Morocco, Somalia, Angola, Bangladesh, Peru, Yugoslavia, Mozambique, China, Libya, Hungary, Laos, North Korea, Ethiopia, East Germany, Finland, Czechoslovakia, Cuba, Bulgaria.

AA-2