1 - Pleased to Meet You In this episode you can learn how to make introductions in a business setting.

Waiter hands drink to Victor. VICTOR: Thankyou very much SAM: Hello, I don’t think we’ve met. Sam Eriks. VICTOR: Victor Tang. Pleased to meet you. SAM: And what company are you from Mr Tang? VICTOR: OceanWide. I’m the sales representative for this region. SAM: Ah yes. I know your company. Your business is expanding very rapidly at the moment. VICTOR: Yes, we’re doing quite well. And yourself? Who do you work for? SAM: Actually I work for myself. I’m the C.E.O. of a small export and packaging company. We specialise in seafood. VICTOR: It’s a growing market. SAM: Yes, but a very competitive one Mr Tang. VICTOR: Please call me Victor. SAM: Sam. Victor, let me introduce you to someone. Lin – this is Victor Tang – he’s the regional rep. for OceanWide. This is Lin Chan, my sales manager. LIN: How do you do Mr Tang? VICTOR: I’m very well thankyou. Nice to meet you Ms Chan. LIN: And you. VICTOR: Can I get you another drink? LIN: Thankyou. Let's look at introductions. First – how did Sam introduce himself to Victor – who he didn't know? Hello, I dont think we've met. Sam Eriks. Victor Tang. Pleased to meet you.

Sam said hello. We can say hello in most situations. He also said I don't think we've met. This is a good phrase to use if you want to meet someone new. Practise saying Hello, I don't think we've met, and then say your name. Hello. I don't think we've met… (your name) Victor Tang. Pleased to meet you. Victor replied by saying his name and pleased to meet you. Pleased to meet you is a good formal greeting for most situations. After Sam introduces himself, say your name, and 'pleased to meet you'. Hello, I don't think we've met. Sam Eriks. (your name) Pleased to meet you. And the Western tradition is to shake hands when you meet someone. Usually, when we first meet someone in a business situation, we want to find out what they do - what their job, or position is. Let's see how Victor and Sam do this. And what company are you from Mr Tang? OceanWide. I'm the sales representative for this region. Ah yes. I know your company. Your business is expanding very rapidly at the moment. Yes, we're doing quite well. And yourself? Who do you work for? Actually I work for myself. I'm the C.E.O. of a small export and packaging company. We specialise in seafood. Sam asks and what company are you from? There are a few different ways you could ask this question: Let's try some of them: What company are you from? Which company do you represent? What's your line of business? Now you try answering Sam's question with your own answer, saying what company you are from... And what company are you from? I'm from ...... Ah yes, I know that company.

And you can be more specific by asking about someone's job. Practise these... And what's your position there? And what do you do there? Position means the same as job, but it's a more formal term. Listen to how both Sam and Victor describe their positions: I'm the sales representative for this region. I'm the C.E.O. of a small export and packaging company. We describe our job by saying I am or I'm and then naming the position. Notice that Sam says he is the C.E.O. or Chief Executive Officer of his company. When someone asks who you work for, it can be useful to also tell them what your job is. When meeting someone, it helps them if you offer information before they ask. This makes the conversation more relaxed. Now Sam is going to ask you who you work for and what your position is - answer his questions with your own answers: And what company are you from? I’m from ...... Ah yes, I know that company. And what’s your position there? I’m the ...... Oh really. That's interesting. Now, the business of names. Should we use formal titles, such as Mr, Mrs or Ms, or should we use informal, more familiar names. Let's see how Victor solves this problem: It's a growing market. Yes, but a very competitive one Mr Tang. Please call me Victor. Sam. Sam uses Victor's formal title - Mr Tang. But Victor says Please call me Victor. Now that they have met, it's more comfortable for them to use each other's first names - at least in this less formal situation. Practise saying Please call me, and your first name after Sam's statement. Yes, but a very competitive one Mr Tang. Please call me ...... Sam introduces Victor to someone else. Let's watch how he does this. Victor, let me introduce you to someone.

Lin - this is Victor Tang - he's the regional rep. for OceanWide. This is Lin Chan, my sales manager. How do you do Mr Tang? I'm very well thankyou. Nice to meet you Ms Chan. Sam says let me introduce you to someone. This is a very useful phrase. Practise saying it after Sam: Let me introduce you to someone. When Sam introduces Lin, he has four pieces of information. Listen carefully to what they are: This is Victor Tang – he’s the regional rep. for OceanWide. This is Lin Chan, my sales manager. Did you hear the four parts of Sam's introduction? First, he told Lin Victor's full name. Second, he told her what Victor's position was and his company name. Third, he introduced Lin using her full name, and finally he told Victor what Lin's job was. This way both Victor and Lin know enough about each other to start a conversation. When introducing people at a function, it's important to try to make them feel comfortable. Finally, listen again to how Lin and Victor greet each other: How do you do Mr Tang? I'm very well thankyou. Nice to meet you Ms Chan. And you. Lin uses the phrase how do you do. Practise this phrase: How do you do? I'm very well thankyou. How do you do is another formal phrase for introductions. Victor replies with a formal phrase too I'm very well thankyou. Practise this after Lin's question. How do you do Mr Tang? I'm very well thankyou. If someone says How do you do? or How are you? we usually say I'm very well thankyou. And we could ask them how they are, by saying How do you do? or How are you?

Let's review some of the phrases we've learnt today, for introducing yourself and other people. Practise the phrases with our characters Sam, Victor and Lin. Hello, I don't think we've met. And what company are you from? Let me introduce you to someone. This is Lin Chan, my sales manager. Pleased to meet you. Who do you work for? Please call me Victor. I'm very well thankyou. How do you do Mr Tang? Nice to meet you. Remember, when meeting people, tell them something about yourself before being asked. When you ask people questions about themselves in English, use a falling tone - it sounds friendlier. Instead of Who do you work for? (upward inflection) Who do you work for? (downward inflection) And when introducing a colleague, or someone you've met, use the full names of both people, and their positions. And that's all for today on The Business of English. I'll see you next time. Từ vựng sale (n) 1. (dt) việc bán hàng selling We made only two sales in the shop yesterday. 2. (dt) việc bán (no plural) selling a certain thing representative (n) 1. (dt) người đại biểu, người đại diện someone who represents someone else expand (v) 1. (đt) mở rộng, trải ra become bigger

rapidly (adv) 1. (tr) nhanh chóng, mau lẹ quickly specialize (v) 1. (đt) chuyên về; chuyên doanh; nổi tiếng về... carry a certain kind of product This shop specializes in fancy foods. 2. (đt) chuyên về; có chuyên môn về; trở thành chuyên gia về... be an expert in something CEO (abbr) Chief Executive Officer: Giám đốc điều hành 1. (vt) người lãnh đạo cao nhất trong một công ty hoặc một tổ chức, chịu trách nhiệm thực hiện hàng ngày các chính sách của Hội đồng quản trị sales manager (n) 1. (dt) người quản lý các nhân viên bán hàng the person in charge of other salespeople. Episode 2 - Why don't you join us? In this episode you can learn how to make, accept and refuse invitations in a business setting. VICTOR: Well, it's been good to meet you Sam, and very interesting to hear about your business. SAM: Look, we are having a small dinner for some of our clients and friends after this. Why don't you join us? VICTOR: That's very kind of you. I'll just check with my associate whether they have other arrangements for us. SAM: Your associate is most welcome to join us too. VICTOR: Thankyou - excuse me. WALTER: This is Sam Eriks from Eriks imports. He has very kindly invited us to a dinner. SAM: Yes, would you like to join us? WALTER: Unfortunately I have another engagement, but thankyou for the invitation. SAM: Well, perhaps you could join us after that for a drink? WALTER: Sounds great. I'd be happy to. Where shall we meet? SAM: How about the lounge bar here. At about ten? WALTER: I'll see you then. Excuse me… SAM: Lin. Victor's joining us for dinner. LIN: Oh wonderful. VICTOR: I hope you don't mind. LIN: Of course not, you're most welcome. SAM: Well, shall we make a move? LIN: Would you mind if I just say goodbye to a few people? SAM: No problem - we'll see you outside in a few minutes. LIN: Okay. Vocabulary associate with (~) 1. kết giao, quan hệ

be in the company of you associate something with something else especially if something makes you think of something else: I associate certain places with my childhood] You can tell he's a snob since he doesn't associate with people who aren't rich. associate (v) 1. (đt) kết giao, kết hợp, liên hợp, liên kết, cho gia nhập, cho cộng tác engagement (n) 2. (dt) cuộc hẹn an appointment with someone I can't come because I have a previous engagement. lounge (n) 1. (dt) buồng đợi, phòng khách, phòng ngồi chơi (Brit) a living room of a private home; a public room or hall where someone can relax The departure lounge in an airport. Episode 3 - Getting Acquainted In this episode we look at the things you can say to someone you've just met. WAITER: Another drink sir? WALTER: No thankyou. SUE: Excuse me - is anyone sitting here? WALTER: No - please have a seat. SUE: That's better - my feet are killing me! WALTER: Have you been here long? SUE: No, but I just flew in this morning, and I haven't had a chance to sit down since then. WALTER: Oh, where have you come from? SUE: From Manila. WALTER: Is this your first visit to Australia? SUE: No, I have been once before, but it was a long time ago. WALTER: And have you been to Sydney before? SUE: No, it's an amazing city. WALTER: Yes, it has its points. But you're lucky to live in Manila. It's a fascinating city. SUE: What about yourself? Do you live in Sydney?

WALTER: No, I live in Melbourne. I'm just here for the conference. SUE: I'm going to Melbourne later. What's the weather like there? WALTER: Not too good in winter, but at the moment it should be okay. So, how's your hotel? SUE: It's good. Very convenient - just near the harbour. WALTER: Have you seen the Opera House yet? SUE: Yes, we flew right over it! WALTER: Excuse me - there's someone I must talk to. (stands) It's been very nice to meet you. I'm Walter by the way. SUE: You too. I'm Sue. Perhaps we'll meet later. WALTER: I hope so. ----------------------------------------Today we're looking at a typical conversation you might have with someone you've only just met – at a conference for example. What sort of thing can you talk about – and what topics should be avoided? Let's look at how Walter and Sue get acquainted. Sue breaks the ice – or starts the conversation. Excuse me – is anyone sitting here? No – please have a seat. That’s better – my feet are killing me! We can tell from how Sue speaks to Walter, that they haven’t met before. She is very polite, and so is he. But then she says something more personal, and this is the ‘icebreaker’. That’s better. My feet are killing me. Sue is letting Walter know two things – firstly – that she is tired, and secondly that she is willing to have a friendly conversation with him. By making a more personal, or casual remark, she is inviting him to respond. Have you been here long? No, but I just flew in this morning, and I haven’t had a chance to sit down since then. Walter asks ‘Have you been here long?’ To start a conversation like this, it’s fairly safe to talk about what people have just done. For this, we use the present perfect –‘have’. Practise with Walter some typical questions like this

you could ask. Have you been here long? Have you been to Sydney before? Have you seen the Opera House? Have you tried any restaurants? Questions that start with ‘have you’ are yes/no questions, so they have a rising tone: Have you been here long? When answering these questions in a situation like this it is helpful to add some information, not just say yes or no. If you just say ‘yes’ or ‘no’, people may think you don’t really want to talk. Have you been here long? No. Oh. Instead – notice how Sue helps the conversation along by giving some extra information. Have you been here long? No, but I just flew in this morning, and I haven’t had a chance to sit down since then. Oh, where have you come from? Sue has said that she flew in this morning. So this gives Walter an obvious next question. ‘Where have you come from.’ This is a different type of question – it’s asking for information. Questions beginning with ‘where’, ‘when’, ‘what’, ‘why’, ‘who’ are all questions asking for information. Notice the difference between ‘Where have you come from?’ – meaning where did you fly from, and ‘Where are you from?’ – meaning what is your nationality. Notice also the falling tone with these questions: ‘Where have you come from?’ This makes the question sound friendly. But be careful not to ask too many questions like this all together – the other person may think you’re being too nosy. Where are you from?

Manila. What do you do? I’m an accountant. Why are you here? I’m on business. Who are you with? My boss. Excuse me. Where are you going? Of course – some questions like this are alright – but try not to sound too inquisitive – and offer some information or ideas yourself. Is this your first visit to Australia? No, I have been once before, but it was a long time ago. And have you been to Sydney before? No, it’s an amazing city. Yes, it has its points. But you’re lucky to live in Manila. It’s a fascinating city. Sue doesn’t just answer ‘yes’ or ‘no’ – she adds some extra information. And Walter finds the opportunity to give his opinion, and to compliment the place Sue comes from. Now it’s Sue’s turn to ask a question. What about yourself? Do you live in Sydney? No, I live in Melbourne. I’m just here for the conference. Sue wants to ask Walter about himself – this is showing interest. So she says ‘What about yourself?’ Practise some useful phrases to introduce a question. And what about yourself? And how about you? These phrases should be followed by a question. Practise again, with the question to follow. And what about yourself? Do you live in Sydney?

And how about you? Have you been here before? When meeting someone new on business, but in a social setting – there are a few safe topics – we can talk about travel and accommodation, basic questions about the other person, about the city you are in, interesting sights to see, and of course, the weather. I’m going to Melbourne later. What’s the weather like there? Not too good in winter, but at the moment it should be okay. Finally, let’s look at how Walter ends the conversation. He needs to make sure the other person doesn’t think he is bored. Excuse me – there’s someone I must talk to. It’s been very nice to meet you. You too. Perhaps we’ll meet later. I hope so. He gives a reason why he must go, then says ‘It’s been very nice to meet you.’ Practise some useful phrases for ending a conversation, with Walter and Sue. Well, it’s been very nice to meet you. Nice to meet you too. It’s been good to meet you. You too. I have enjoyed talking to you. So have I. I hope we can meet again. So do I. Perhaps we’ll meet again. I hope so. In conversation, when asking questions remember to use a rising tone for yes/no questions – such as those starting with ‘do you’ or ‘are you.’ Questions starting with ‘Do you’ ask about regular actions, and about likes and dislikes, or opinions:

‘Do you travel often?’ ‘Do you like the weather here?’ ‘Do you think this session will be interesting?’ Questions starting with ‘Are you’ are asking for personal information: ‘Are you from Manila?’ or intentions: ‘Are you going to the dinner?’ Questions starting with where, when, what, why or who are asking for information, and they often have a falling tone: ‘Where do you come from?’ ‘When are you going back?’ People from different cultures have different ideas about what are reasonable topics for conversation between strangers – so at first, it is safest to stick to general topics – such as travel, the weather, places, and of course the business you are in. And remember, to keep the conversation going – offer information, don’t just ask questions. That’s all today on the Business of English. See you next time. Vocabulary break the ice do or say something at a party or meeting to help people feel relaxed conference (n) 1. (dt) hội nghị a meeting for the purpose of discussing something convenient (adj) 1. (tt) thuận tiện helpful; making life easier Amazing (adj) 1. (tt) làm kinh ngạc, làm sửng sốt, làm ai ngạcnhiên hết sức The magician did the most amazing tricks. fascinating (adj) 1. (tt) hấp dẫn, lôi cuốn, quyến rũ It's fascinating to watch a baby grow. harbour (n) 1. (dt) bến tàu , cảng a place where ships are safe; a port acquaint (v) 1. (đt) giới thiệu, làm quen give information Episode 4 - Any Other Business

In this episode we look at how to chair a meeting. You can watch the video or just listen to the audio. DENISE: Has everybody got a copy of the agenda? Would you mind taking minutes John? JOHN: Not at all. DENISE: Good. Well, then let’s get started. First of all, thankyou everyone for attending at short notice. As you know, the objective of this meeting of the Capital Works Committee is to discuss a proposal for some urgent building work at our Southside plant. As we’ve got to reach a decision which may involve spending, we’ll run it as a formal meeting. Now, you’ve read the proposal, so without further ado, I’d like to open it up for discussion. Perhaps if we can start with you Tan – what’s your view? TAN: Well, I’m not convinced that the work is as urgent as this report suggests, so perhaps we should… DENISE: So, to sum up – I think we are all aware that some urgent work does need to be done, and we will need to work on a longer term plan for a major refit. Well, if there’s no more discussion – we’ll put it to a vote. We’re recommending that tenders be called for the urgent work needed. All those in favour? All those against? Then that’s agreed.. Any other business? Then we’ll close the meeting. Thankyou everyone. The next meeting will be in two weeks, at the same time… Meetings. We love them or hate them – but we have to have them. Of course there are many different kinds of meetings –from an informal chat, to a Board meeting, or even an Annual General Meeting – and some are more formal than others – and so the language used in them changes. Today we’re looking at a more formal meeting – and in particular at the role of the chairperson – or the person who runs the meeting. Our Chairperson is Denise. Let’s look at how she starts things off. Has everybody got a copy of the agenda? Would you mind taking minutes John? Not at all. Good. Well, then let’s get started.

Denise first makes sure everyone has an agenda – or a list of the items to be discussed at the meeting. Then she asks someone to take minutes – or keep a record of the meeting. Then she announces the start of the meeting – she officially begins it. Let’s practise some useful phrases for these three purposes… Has everybody got a copy of the agenda? Does everyone have an agenda? Everybody should have received an agenda. Would you mind taking minutes John? Could somebody take the minutes please? Well, then let’s get started. What does the chairperson do after formally beginning the meeting? First of all, thankyou everyone for attending at short notice. As you know, we needed to convene this meeting of the Capital Works committee to discuss a proposal for some urgent building work at our Southside plant. As we’ve got to reach a decision which may involve spending, we’ll run it as a formal meeting. Now, you’ve all read the proposal, so without further ado, I’d like to open it up for discussion. Did you notice the different parts of that introduction by the chairperson? First, she thanked people for attending the meeting. Even though it may be their job – it’s good practice to thank people for attending. First of all, thankyou everyone for attending at short notice. Next, Denise states the objective of the meeting. Of course a meeting may have more than one objective, but often meetings have one main objective, or aim. The Chair should state the objective of the meeting. In this case it is to discuss a proposal, and to reach a decision. A proposal is simply a more formal word for a suggestion – but it is usually a detailed suggestion, in a written form. Let’s look at some different ways of stating the objective of a meeting… The objective of today’s meeting is to discuss the proposal… We’re here today to discuss a proposal… The purpose of our meeting today is to discuss the following proposal… The next job of the chair is to invite discussion. Let’s look at how Denise does this…

Now, you’ve all read the proposal, so without further ado, I’d like to open it up for discussion. Perhaps if we can start with you Tan – what’s your view? Denise says ‘without further ado, I’d like to open it up for discussion’. ‘Without further ado’ just means without any more procedure. We’re going to discuss it straight away. Then she says ‘I’d like to open it up for discussion.’ ‘it’ refers to the proposal she has just outlined. Try repeating this phrase after me: ‘Let’s open it up for discussion.’ Let’s open it up for discussion Okay – now, you can open a topic for general discussion – which means anyone can have a say. The Chairperson controls the discussion. Or, the Chairperson may invite particular people to speak. This is what Denise does – watch again… Perhaps if we can start with you Tan – what’s your view? Denise invites Tan to start the discussion. Let’s practise a few phrases for asking someone to speak… Who’d like to start the discussion? What’s your view Tan? Let’s hear from Tan. Do you have a view on this Tan? Another job for the Chair is to summarise the discussion – that is, concisely state the main points made during the meeting. So, to sum up – I think we are all aware that some urgent work does need to be done, and we will need to work on a longer term plan for a major refit. Denise summarises the main points from the discussion. To introduce this she could use various phrases – practise these: To sum up… In summary… So the main points are… The outcome of a meeting might be a suggestion for an action. Depending on what kind of meeting it is, this could be called a motion, or a recommendation. In our example, Denise puts the

recommendation of the meeting to a vote. Well, if there’s no more discussion – let’s put the recommendation to a vote. We’re recommending tenders be called for the urgent work needed. All those in agreement? Anyone against? Then that’s agreed.. Any other business? Then we’ll close the meeting. Thankyou everyone. The next meeting will be in two weeks, at the same time. Notice how Denise controls the meeting – she doesn’t say ‘Is there any more discussion?’ She says ‘If there’s no more discussion we’ll put it to a vote.’ She is controlling the meeting by moving on. She then reiterates, or re-states the recommendation and calls for votes by saying ‘All those in favour’ – that is those who agree, and ‘All those against’. Votes are only taken in a formal meeting procedure – in a less formal procedure, a decision can be taken by consensus – by everyone agreeing during the discussion. Notice that after the vote, Denise says ‘Then that’s agreed.’ A meeting agrees, or doesn’t agree to a recommendation. If it’s a more formal motion – we say the motion is ‘carried’ or ‘not carried’. Often at the end of the meeting a chairperson will call for ‘any other business’, before they officially announce the meeting is closed, and announce the time for the next meeting. Episode 5 - Hear Hear! In this episode we look at how to keep to the point in meetings. You can watch the video or just listen to the audio. TAN: Well, I'm not convinced that the work is as urgent as this report suggests, so perhaps we should… LIN: Oh come on - the building is practically falling down! DENISE: Sorry Lin - I don't think Tan had finished. We'll get to you in a minute. LIN: Sorry. TAN: As I was saying, perhaps we should get a second opinion before we spend any money. DENISE: Thankyou Tan. What's your opinion Walter? WALTER: Well, as far as I'm concerned, it's a question of safety. So I think we should go ahead. TAN: Are you suggesting that someone could get hurt? WALTER: In my opinion, yes. If you ask me, there is a serious risk of an accident. And it's not a recent problem…

TAN: Are you implying we should have done something earlier? WALTER: Much earlier. It's a real concern. LIN: Hear hear! TAN: In that case, I agree - we should do something now. JOHN: I think so too. DENISE: Thankyou Walter. Well, if there's no… BARBARA: Excuse me Madame Chairperson. DENISE: Yes Barbara. BARBARA: What about the problem with parking? There were no places again this morning. WALTER: Maybe if you got to work on time… DENISE: All comments through the chair if you don't mind Walter. Parking isn't on the agenda for this meeting - perhaps you could suggest it for our next meeting Barbara. Well, if there's no more discussion - we'll put it it to a vote. JOHN: Hear hear! Today we're looking again at meetings. In meetings, especially formal meetings, it's important to keep the discussion relevant, and to the point. So we're looking at some words and phrases that a Chairperson might use to stop irrelevant discussion and interruptions. We're also looking at ways of stating an opinion, and agreeing or disagreeing. First of all - notice how Tan states that he doesn't agree with the report. Well, I'm not convinced that the work is as urgent as this report suggests. Tan says 'I'm not convinced.' He means he disagrees with the report. But by saying he's 'not convinced' - he is leaving himself open to another point of view. Let's look at some phrases you can use to express disagreement. I'm afraid I'm not convinced. I don't entirely agree. I'm not sure about that. I can't agree with you there. I don't think that's quite correct.

Notice that all of these ways of disagreeing are polite. If you use stronger terms of disagreement - it can sound rude, or argumentative. Well, I'm not convinced that the work is as urgent as this report suggests, so perhaps... Don't be ridiculous! Excuse me? When disagreeing, the speaker normally also gives a reason for their opinion, and may use an expression showing that it is their opinion. Listen to Walter. Well, as far as I'm concerned, it's a question of safety. So I think we should go ahead. Are you suggesting that someone could get hurt? In my opinion, yes. Let's practise some phrases you can use to introduce your opinion about something. In my opinion... As far as I’m concerned... If you ask me... The way I see it is this... And of course you can simply state ‘I think…’ or ‘I believe’... Notice that Tan asks for clarification of the point Walter makes. He wants to make sure he understands what Walter is saying. Let’s look at some ways of seeking clarification, and checking understanding. Practise these with Tan. Are you suggesting that someone could get hurt? Are you saying that someone could get hurt? Do you mean someone could get hurt? Are you implying that someone could get hurt? One of the roles of the Chairperson is to make sure everyone gets to have their say. All discussion should go through the chair - that is, people talk to the Chairperson, not to each other directly. So the Chairperson sometimes has to interrupt, or stop someone from speaking. Let's see how Denise does this.

Well, I'm not convinced that the work is as urgent as this report suggests, so perhaps... Oh come on - the building is practically falling down! Sorry Lin - I don't think Tan had finished. We'll get to you in a minute. Sorry. By saying 'I don't think Tan had finished', Denise is politely telling Lin that she shouldn't interrupt, and Lin apologises. But what should you do if someone keeps trying to interrupt? So perhaps... Oh come on - the building is practically falling down! Sorry Lin - I don't think Tan had finished. We'll get to you in a minute. Well it's obvious... Yes, but we do need to hear everyone's views on this... Let's just vote on it All in good time Lin. Please go on Tan... Notice that the language the chairperson uses is always polite, but firm. She uses 'sorry' 'thankyou' and 'please' as a way of respecting the other members of the committee - although she is in charge. On the other hand, there is a time factor - it may be necessary to cut people short. ...and furthermore, if we look more closely at some of the estimates, we can see... Excuse me - sorry Tan, perhaps we should move on. I'm nearly finished. Yes but we do have to keep an eye on the time. Perhaps we can come back to that point later. I think it's quite important. It is important, but I think it's more important we hear everyone's views on this. Barbara? There were two key phrases used to stop Tan from sending everyone to sleep. The first one 'perhaps we should move on' is phrased as a suggestion - but it is said in a firm way - with a falling intonation at the end. Practise with me: 'Perhaps we should move on.' Perhaps we should move on.

This falling intonation makes it a more definite statement, rather than a suggestion. The second one was put as a reason for moving on - that time is short - notice the emphasis on the word 'do', and practise after me: 'We do have to keep an eye on the time.' We do have to keep an eye on the time. Remember we said the discussion has to be relevant. What do we do if someone makes an irrelevant comment? What about the problem with parking. There were no places again this morning. Maybe if you got to work on time... All comments through the chair if you don't mind Walter. Parking isn't on the agenda for this meeting - perhaps you could suggest it for our next meeting Barbara. When Walter makes a comment directly to Barbara, Denise says: 'All comments through the Chair if you don't mind'. This is a way of reminding Walter of correct meeting procedure. 'All comments through the chair' means he must speak to the meeting, not directly to one person at the table. Denise suggests that 'Parking isn't on the agenda for this meeting'. But so that Barbara doesn't feel bad - she suggests it could be discussed at another time. Finally - we've looked at disagreeing, let's look at ways of agreeing with a point. Are you implying we should have done something earlier? Much earlier. It's a real concern. Hear hear! Well, in that case, I agree - we should do something now. I think so too. Agreeing is simpler than disagreeing, as you don't have to state a reason. Repeat these phrases after me: I agree I agree In that case, I agree. In that case, I agree. I'll go along with you. I'll go along with you. I couldn't agree more. I couldn't agree more. That's right.

That's right. I concur. I concur. Absolutely! Absolutely! Let's review some of the other important expressions we've looked at in today's episode. I'm afraid I'm not convinced. Are you suggesting that someone could get hurt? I can't quite agree with you there. As far as I'm concerned, it's a question of safety. Perhaps we should move on. We do have to keep an eye on the time. When giving opinions in a meeting, it's important to use phrases such as 'in my opinion'; 'From my point of view' or 'I think' - instead of just stating your opinions as facts. This is respectful of other people who may have different views. But when you strongly agree with something someone else says - you can say 'Hear Hear!' That's all for today - see you next time on The Business of English. Vocabulary convince (v) 1. (đt) làm cho tin; làm cho nghe theo; thuyết phục make someone believe or do something by giving reasons; persuade concerned (adj) 1. (tt) lo âu, băn khoăn worried He is very concerned about his health. as far as 1. xa bằng, không xa hơn no less far The bus station is as far as the train station from here. 2. không xa hơn nữa no farther This is as far as the bus goes, you have to change buses to go farther. 3. tới mức, tới một chừng mực to the extent that go ahead(v) 1. (đt) tiến hành; bắt đầu làm cái gì không do dự start to do something; do it

risk (n) 1. (dt) mối hiểm hoạ, sự nguy hiểm a danger that you take on yourself imply (v) 1. (đt) gợi ý gián tiếp, nói bóng gió, ngụ ý suggest; hint at Chairperson(n) 1. (dt) chủ toạ, chủ tịch (từ này dùng cho cả nam và nữ) the person in charge of a meeting or at the head of a committee. Episode 6 - What are the Options? In this episode we look at the options or choices that have to be made. You can watch the video or just listen to the audio. DENISE: Now we're looking at the options for handling our on-line orders. They're going through the roof and frankly the lead-time for delivery is blowing out. We need to improve our performance in this area. Any suggestions? TAN: Well, as I see it, we have three options. The obvious one is to employ more people to do the job. Another alternative is to automate the system more - cut down on the physical handling. JOHN: And the third option? TAN: We could outsource. DENISE: What are the pros and cons? BARBARA: Well, looking at increasing staff versus automation, we have to consider the cost. Automating has a higher capital cost than putting on more staff. On the other hand, employing more people is more expensive over a long term. If we keep growing, it'll cost more in the long run. DENISE: How likely is it that we'll see continued growth? TAN: I'd say it's a certainty. JOHN: I'd say a high probability. Nothing's certain in business. DENISE: So what about the third option? TAN: Outsourcing? Well, it does take the problem off our hands. But we lose contact with our customers. DENISE: What about the bottom line? BARBARA: Outsourcing is the cheapest option, and the easiest - in the short term. But if we want to keep the operation in-house, the best option is automating our system. The only down side is,

we're taking a risk that our business will keep growing. JOHN: Which we hope it will. DENISE: We certainly do. We've looked before at formal meetings. Today's meeting is a more informal one, to discuss a specific issue. The discussion is more free-flowing, or uncontrolled. Let's look first at some of the language used by Denise when she introduces the problem. Now we're looking at the options for handling our on-line orders. They're going through the roof and frankly the lead-time for delivery is blowing out. We need to improve our performance in this area. Denise says 'we're looking at the options'. 'Options' are different solutions, or answers, to a problem. What is the problem? 'On-line orders are going through the roof'. 'On-line orders' are orders for goods received through the internet, and if they're 'going through the roof', they are increasing in number very rapidly. The 'lead-time' for delivery is the amount of time it takes from when the order is received to when it's delivered, and if it's 'blowing out' - that time is becoming too long. We use the expression 'blowing out' for something which is becoming too great, in a bad way. So to 'improve our performance' means, in this case, to shorten the time it takes to deliver goods. Let's look at Tan's suggested options. Well, as I see it, we have three options. The obvious one is to employ more people to do the job. Another alternative is to automate the system more - cut down on the physical handling. And the third option? We could outsource. Tan describes three options. First he lets us know that this is his opinion, by saying 'As I see it'. Practise with Tan some different ways of letting someone know that what you're stating is your opinion. As I see it, there are three options. In my opinion there are three options. From my point of view there are three options. As far as I'm concerned, there are three options.

The three options are: employ more people, automate, and outsource. To 'outsource' means to use an outside company. When presenting different options, we can order them by numbers, like this. Firstly, we could employ more people, secondly we could automate, and thirdly we could outsource. We can also use phrases, such as 'one option is to' and 'another option is to...' We can also use linking words, such as 'or' and 'alternatively'. Or, we can use a combination of these methods. Now let's look at the language used to discuss these options. Well, looking at increasing staff versus automation, we have to consider the cost. Automating has a higher capital cost than putting on more staff. On the other hand, employing more people is more expensive over a long term. When considering two options, we are comparing them. Barbara talks about increasing staff versus automation. She is saying that she is going to compare these two things. Another phrase she could use is 'as against'. Practise with her. Let's look at increased staff versus automation. Let's look at increased staff as against automation. When comparing two things, we use comparative adjectives. Listen to Barbara again, and see if you can hear the two comparative adjectives. Automating has a higher capital cost than putting on more staff. On the other hand, employing more people is more expensive over a long term. She says automating has a higher capital cost than putting on more staff. 'Higher' is a comparative adjective. We often use 'than' for the option that is being compared. Remember for words of longer than two syllables, we use 'more' for the comparative. Employing more people is 'more expensive'. Because Barbara has already said what the second option is, automating, she doesn't need to say 'employing more people is more expensive than automating'. Notice that she uses the phrase 'on the other hand'. This is used to introduce another side to an argument. Practise this with Barbara. On the one hand automation is expensive. On the other hand it's more efficient. Another way of comparing two ideas is to use linking words such as 'but' ,'although' and 'however'. Automation is expensive, but it's more efficient. Although automation is expensive, it's more efficient.

Automation is expensive, however it's more efficient. Now listen to the discussion about the likelihood of continued growth. How likely is it that we'll see continued growth? I'd say it's a certainty. I'd say a high probability. Nothing's certain in business. Denise asks how likely continued growth is. In looking at words to describe likelihood, we can use these words: unlikely Possible Probable Certain So we can say: It's unlikely It's possible And so on. We can also qualify these with words such as 'very' 'quite', 'highly' or reasonably 'It's very unlikely' It's quite possible' "Its highly probable' 'It's reasonably certain And in a different kind of sentence, we can use them as nouns: It's a certainty It's a possibility There's a probability There's a high likelihood But we don't say 'there's an unlikelihood. We say 'There's no likelihood.' Finally, look at what happens when we compare more than two options. Outsourcing is the cheapest option, and the easiest - in the short term. But if we want to keep the operation in-house, the best option is automating our system. Did you hear the superlative adjectives used to compare more than two things. Listen again. There are three. Outsourcing is the cheapest option, and the easiest - in the short term. But if we want to keep the operation in-house, the best option is automating our system. Well our bottom line is that that's all we have time for today - so I hope it's quite certain I'll see you next time for The Business of English. Vocabulary

handle (n) 1. (dt) cán, tay cầm, móc, quai the part of a thing that you hold in your hand I can't drink hot coffee from this cup, the handle is broken. handle (v) 1. (đt) cầm, sờ, mó touch something with your hands Please don't handle anything on this desk. 2. (đt) vận dụng, sử dụng, điều khiển (bằng tay) manage; deal with; control The teacher can't handle this class. Please let me handle my own problems. 3. (đt) quản lý take care of [handled, handling] Who handles the correspondence in this office? blow out (~) 1. thổi tắt put a fire out with air performance 3. (dt) thành tích (no plural) how well you do something option (n) 1. (dt) sự lựa chọn a choice You don't have any option - you must do it. pros and cons (~) 1. (~) những lý lẽ tán thành và phản đối (plural) the good points (pros) and the bad points (cons, from contrary) They discussed the pros and cons of moving to another city. versus (prep) 1. (gt) chống, chống lại, đấu với (nhất là trong thi đấu thể thao against bottom line (n) 1. (dt) điểm mấu chốt,điểm cốt yếu the most important point or result So, what's the bottom line? 2. (dt) lượng tiền kể cả lãi hay lỗ sau một phi vụ tài chính the amount of money, either profit or loss, at the end of a financial statement. Episode 7 - A Report on Progress Today's focus is on the verb tenses used in reports. You can watch the video or just listen to the audio.

DENISE: Today we're looking at our new widget plant being built at Southside. I've asked Barbara to report on progress and bring us up to date and up to speed. Barbara? BARBARA: Thanks Denise. I'll just outline the process we've been through, identify some problems, and give you an estimate on completion time and the outcome financially. JOHN: Is it good news or bad news? BARBARA: Bear with me. Now, if you recall, after a feasibility study, we put the project out to tender eighteen months ago, and selected Ezybuild as our project manager. Work commenced about fifteen months ago, and it's been progressing to schedule until recently. DENISE: What's the problem? BARBARA: Unfortunately there are three: Firstly, there's been a delay in materials - specifically steel because of industrial issues at the suppliers. Secondly, we've lost days due to the weather. And finally, there's been a resulting cost blowout. JOHN: So what are we going to do? BARBARA: Well, they've managed to get another supplier now. I suggested moving the completion date back. That way, there's no penalty, and they agreed to re-deploy their workers until building can start again. JOHN: Smart thinking. BARBARA: We've been waiting for the rain to stop - but we can't control the weather! DENISE: And the cost? BARBARA: At this stage, just a small overage. But I'll be watching it very closely over the next few months. With no more delays, we're expecting to complete the project just one month behind schedule. DENISE: Good work Barbara. JOHN: Humph Today's episode is a focussed meeting with a specific purpose. Barbara has been asked to report on the progress of a project. Our focus today is on the verb tenses she uses to report. Firstly, let's look at how Denise asks for Barbara's report. Today we're looking today at our new widget plant being built at Southside. I've asked Barbara to report on progress and bring us all up to date and up to speed. Denise says 'Today we're looking at our new widget plant'. She uses the present continuous tense.

'We're looking' or 'We are looking' - because she's telling them what they are doing, and what they are going to do at the meeting now. She doesn't use the simple present 'we look', because that is used for regular actions. Then she says 'I've asked Barbara to report'. She uses the present perfect tense: 'I have asked' because she asked Barbara to report before the meeting, and Baraba is about to give her report We'll look more at present perfect later. And she wants Barbara to bring them 'up to date' and 'up to speed'. These are common expressions - to bring someone 'up to date' is to tell them what has happened up to the present. And to bring someone 'up to speed' is to make sure they know all the relevant facts. How does Barbara respond? Thanks Denise. I'll just outline the process we've been through, identify some problems, and give you an estimate on completion time and the outcome financially. She says 'I'll just outline the process…" She uses the future tense: I will, because she's talking about something she's going to do in the next few minutes. Notice that the 'will' is not repeated, but it applies to all three of the things she says she is going to do. Let's see how Barbara reports on progress. Now, if you recall, after a feasibility study, we put the project out to tender eighteen months ago, and selected Ezybuild as our project manager. Because Barbara is describing events in the past, she uses the simple past tense. We put the project out to tender. We selected Ezybuild as the project manager. These events happened in the past, and they are finished. Work commenced about fifteen months ago, and it's been progressing to schedule until recently. Again we see the simple past in the phrase: Work commenced about fifteen months ago. The work started at a particular time in the past. But look at the next phrase: "It's been progressing to schedule" When we look at continuous events - things that happen over a period of time, we use a continuous tense. The work started in the past, and it has continued until the present. This is called the present perfect continuous tense. 'It's' here is short for 'It has'. Try some other examples with Barbara. Work's been going on since last year.

We've been monitoring progress continuously. I've been checking the work regularly. Now let's look at how Barbara describes the three problems. Firstly, there's been a delay in materials - specifically steel because of industrial issues at the suppliers. Secondly, we've lost days due to the weather. And finally, there's been a cost blowout. Notice the verb tense Barbara uses. There's been a delay; 'we've lost days'; 'there's been a cost blowout.' These are all present perfect verbs, using 'has' or 'have'. 'There has been', 'we have lost.' Present perfect tense is used to describe events which began in the past and are still true now. In business it can be important to use the correct verb tense - using the wrong one can change the meaning - for example, if Barbara said 'There was a delay' - it means this delay happened in the past, and there is no delay now. If she says 'there is a delay', she means that delay is still happening - they are still losing time. But if she says 'there has been a delay', she means the delay started in the past and has continued up until the present. But as we'll see - she is now fixing the problem. Well, they've managed to get another supplier now. I suggested moving the completion date back. That way, there's no penalty, and they agreed to re-deploy their workers until building can start again. Let's look at the verb tenses here... 'They've managed to get another supplier.' They managed to get another supplier in the past, and that supplier is still now supplying the materials. I suggested moving the completion date back. She suggested it at a particular time in the past. There's no penalty. There is no penalty now. They agreed to redeploy their workers - they agreed at a particular time in the past. Redeployed means they were sent to work somewhere else. Look now at the last part of the scene. We've been waiting for the rain to stop - but we can't control the weather! And the cost? At this stage, just a small overage. But I'll be watching it very closely over the next few months. With no more delays, we're expecting to complete the project just one month behind schedule.

Here we see some examples of continuous tenses to help meaning. We've been waiting - we have been waiting for the rain to stop, and we are still waiting. I'll be watching - I will be watching in the future over a long time. We're expecting - we are expecting at the moment, and we will continue to expect in the future. Notice also how Denise asks a question. but we can't control the weather! And the cost? She says 'and the cost?' The upward inflection in her voice - 'and the cost?' tells us this is a question, although it's not a complete sentence. The complete sentence would be - 'What will it cost?' In spoken English, this is very common. Practise some examples with Denise. And the cost? And the result? And the reason? Today we looked at reporting back. Remember, first summarise what you are going to report on. We also focussed on the different verb tenses, which help exact meaning. That's all we have time for today, so I hope we'll be seeing you next time for The Business of English. Vocabulary Từ Vựng: bring up (~) 1. nuôi dưỡng, giáo dục, dạy dỗ take care of and educate children until they are grown up His grandmother brought him up after his parents died. 2. nêu (vấn đề), lưu ý về( vấn đề) mention something feasibility (n) 1. (dt) tính có thể thi hành được, tính khả thi a feasibility study. E p i s o d e 8 - G r a p h s a n d Tr e n d s Today we're looking at presenting information using charts and graphs. You can watch the video or just listen to the audio. TAN: Now, I'd like to refer to the first graph - as you can see this is a bar graph measuring net sales over the first ten months of the year. You'll notice that sales rose steadily in the first few months, then there was a marked increase in April. They peaked in May at around 3.2 million, and levelled off, then there was a dramatic drop

in the following month, followed by a significant increase in August, and this trend has continued up until the present. JOHN: What was the reason for the sudden drop in July? TAN: This was mainly due to a drop off in air conditioner sales - so it's a seasonal effect. DENISE: Could it be a consequence of the negative effect of the interest rate rise? TAN: Possibly. Now, if I could draw your attention to this next diagram. This is a line graph of sales - the blue line represents air conditioner sales, the red line shows heaters. As you'll note, air conditioner sales dropped steadily from January to July, bottoming out then, while heater sales experienced a sharp increase from March to June, then dropped markedly from June to July, then declined through to September, with a pronounced drop in October. JOHN: Does this explain the fluctuation in total sales? TAN: Largely - if we look at this pie diagram, you can see that air conditioners and heaters together represent more than half of our total sales - but they vary seasonally, while other appliances are fairly steady through the year. JOHN: Well, we can't sell air conditioners when it's cold. What's the solution? TAN: Export to Europe and America! DENISE: Easier said than done. Today we're looking at presenting information using charts and graphs. We saw three types of diagram: A bar or column graph A line graph And a pie chart. Look at how Tan introduced his presentation Now, I'd like to refer to the first graph - as you can see this is a bar graph measuring net sales over the first nine months of the year. Tan says 'I'd like to refer to the first graph.' When referring to a diagram or graph, first direct your audience's attention to that diagram. Practise with Tan some phrases to use for this. I'd like to refer to the first graph... If we have a look at this graph... If I could direct your attention to the graph. Looking at the graph on the screen... Let's look at the language Tan uses to describe what the graph shows. You'll notice that sales rose steadily in the first few months, then there was a marked increase in April. They peaked in May at around 3.2 million, and levelled off, then there was a dramatic drop

in the following month, followed by a significant increase n August, and this trend has continued up until the present. Here's our graph. Tan said the sales rose steadily at first, then there was a marked increase in April. This levelled off, then there was a dramatic drop, and then a significant increase. In describing trends, we use two words - one of those words is a noun or verb. For example we may talk about an increase, or a decrease in numbers. Other words for an increase are rise, climb, improvement, upturn. Most of these words can also be used as a verb: to increase; to rise; to climb; to improve. Other words for a decrease are fall, decline, worsening, downturn. These also have verbs from them: to decrease; to fall; to decline; to worsen. So we say - there was an improvement in the figures for April, or the figures for April have improved. There has been a decline in sales since June, or sales since June have declined. But we often add more descriptive words -adjectives and adverbs. Remember adjectives go before nouns, and adverbs go after verbs. These describe the change in figures - was it big or small, fast or slow? Other words for a big change are significant, marked, massive, pronounced, substantial. Most adjectives can also be made into adverbs, just by adding 'ly' or 'lee'. There is no adverb for 'big', but informally we say 'a lot'. Other words for small are slight, insignificant, and their adverbs slightly, insignifanctly. Other words for a fast or quick change are sharp, dramatic, sudden, and again we add 'ly' for the adverbs. And for a slow or medium change, we can use steady or moderate, and the adverbs steadily and moderately Now - try changing the phrases from noun phrases into verb phrases - for example - if Tan says 'There was a dramatic increase in sales' - you say 'Sales increased dramatically.' Have a try. There was a steady rise in sales. Sales rose steadily.

There was a significant fall in sales. Sales fell significantly. There was a slight recovery in sales. Sales recovered slightly. Now let's look at how Tan handles a question about the graph. What was the reason for this sudden drop in July? This was mainly due to the drop off in air conditioner sales - so it's a seasonal effect. Could it be a consequence of the negative effect of the interest rate rise? Here are four useful phrases for describing causes: Due to The drop in sales is due to an interest rate rise. A consequence of The drop in sales is a consequence of an interest rate rise. Because of The drop in sales is because of an interest rate rise. A result of The drop in sales is a result of an interest rate rise. How does Tan explain his next diagram? This is a line graph of sales - the blue line represents air conditioner sales, the red line shows heaters. As you'll note, air conditioner sales dropped steadily from January to July, bottoming out then, while heater sales experienced a sharp increase from March to June, then dropped markedly from June to July, then declined through to September, with a pronounced drop in October. He says air conditioner sales 'bottomed out' in July. This means they reached their lowest level. Then he says they 'experienced a sharp increase'. And he says there was a 'pronounced' drop in heater sales in October. 'Pronounced' here means significant, or large. Finally, look at how Tan talks about his pie diagram. ...if we look at this pie diagram, you can see that air conditioners and heater sales together represent more than half of our total sales - but they vary seasonally, while other appliances are fairly steady through the year. Tan says air conditioners and heaters 'represent' more than half of sales. This means they account for more than half of the sales. We could put this another way: More than half of sales are represented by air conditioners and heaters. We could say washing machines represent 15% of sales. Washing machines account for 15% of sales. Washing machines make up 15% of sales. And that's accounted for our time today in the Business of English. See you next time. Vocabulary

graph (n) 1. (dt) đồ thị a chart with lines that shows the connection between different things trend (n) 1. (dt) xu hướng, khuynh hướng something that is temporarily fashionable a new fashion trend. 2. (dt) phương hướng, chiều hướng a direction in which something is moving peak (n) 1. (dt) đỉnh, chỏm, chóp (núi) the top of a mountain The peak of the mountain was covered with snow. 2. (dt) tột đỉnh, cao điểm the top point of something He is at the peak of his career. peak (v) 1. (đt) (làm cho) đạt tới đỉnh cao nhất reach a high point level (v) 1. (đt) san bằng, phá sập, phá đổ destroy buildings or other structures consequence (n) 1. (dt) kết quả; hậu quả a result fluctuation (n) 1. (dt) sự dao động, sự lên xuống, sự thay đổi thất thường a fluctuation in temperatures. Episode 9 - A Customer Survey We look again at presentations. You can watch the video or just listen to the audio. ........... TAN: Today I’m going to look at the results of our customer survey. First I’ll go through the survey questions, then summarise the results, and finally I’ll outline the conclusions. After that, there’ll be time for questions and discussion. So, let’s start with the survey questions... Turning to the results, as you can see from the diagram, most people decided what to buy when they saw the product at the showroom. About one third made their decision based on what the salesperson said. The others knew what they wanted to buy already. Most of those made their decision on the recommendation of a friend. Only a few said they relied on advertising... Let’s move on to the conclusions.The first one is that it’s very important that salespeople on the floor know about our products. Another is that after-sales service is critical. People who experience good after-sales service are more likely to recommend a brand.And finally, advertising – it’s expensive, so we need to make sure we’re getting results.

In today's program, we look again at a presentation. Tan is presenting the results of a survey. Let's see how he does it. How does Tan start his presentation? Today I'm going to look at the results of our customer survey. When giving a presentation it's important to state clearly what you are going to talk about at the beginning. What is your topic? For this, Tan uses the future tense 'I'm going to…'. He could also have said 'I will…' And instead of 'look at' he could have used other words: examine, analyse, review, discuss. After introducing the topic, what does Tan do next? First I'll go through the survey questions, then summarise the results, and finally I'll outline the conclusions. After that, there'll be time for questions and discussion. Tan outlines the structure of his presentation. There were three parts. Notice how he signals this by using sequencing words: first, then, and finally. The structure of his talk is: Introduction, then part 1, survey questions; part 2, survey results; part 3 survey conclusions. There's one more sequencing signal in his introduction. Did you hear it? After that, there'll be time for questions and discussion. Even though Tan said 'finally' he would talk about conclusions, he has something 'after that'. This is because the questions are not part of his presentation. He's telling his audience that after he's talked about conclusions, it will be time to ask questions. So sequencing words are very useful - they tell your audience how many parts are in your talk and they can signal when you are moving from one topic to the next one. Sequencing words are words like firstly, secondly, thirdly, then, next, finally, after that, following that, and later on. Another type of signal can be used to show you are moving from one part of your talk to another. Here are three that Tan uses - practise them with him. So, let's start with the questions... Turning to the results... Let's move on to the conclusions. When we speak in English, pauses and intonation are as important as the words we use - because they help people understand. Listen. Let's move on to the conclusions. The first one is that it's very important that salespeople on the floor know about our products. Another is that after-sales service is critical. Without pauses or intonation, it's much harder to understand - and it sounds boring. Let's add pauses.

Let's move on to the conclusions. (pause) The first one (mini-pause) is that it's very important (mini-pause) that salespeople on the floor (mini-pause) know about our products. (pause) Another(mini-pause) is that after-sales service is critical. Pauses should come between sentences - here. But you'll notice small pauses in the middle of sentences - after phrases. These help the listener to follow what is being said. Now we add intonation and stress. Let's move on to the conclusions. The first one is that it's very important that salespeople on the floor know about our products. Another is that after-sales service is critical. Intonation is the way we pronounce sentences. Note the downward intonation at the end of sentences - 'Let's move on to the conclusions'; 'about our products'; 'After sales service is critical.' Stress occurs in words, and sentences. In words - one syllable is stressed. The wrong stress makes it hard to understand. So: Conclusion, not conclusion Products, not products. Even more important in speaking, is to stress the important words in a sentence. This helps the meaning of what you are saying - it gives emphasis. So Tan says Let's move on to the conclusions, stressing 'conclusions' because it's the key word in this sentence. The other words stressed are the key words for understanding. Let's listen to Tan once more, noting the pauses, intonation, word and sentence stress. Let's move on to the conclusions. The first one is that it's very important that salespeople on the floor know about our products. Another is that after-sales service is critical. Let's look at the diagram, and how we can describe numbers, or statistics. First, Tan says 'most people decided what to buy at the showroom'. Because more people decided at the showroom than at home, we can say 'most', 'the majority', or 'over half'. To describe people deciding at home, which is less than fifty percent, we could say 'a minority' or 'less than half'. Looking at the reasons for decisions, we are comparing four groups of people. We can use descriptive words such as 'many', 'some', ' a few'. And we can say 'the greatest number' or 'the highest percentage'. The greatest number of people went by the salesperson's recommendation. We could say 'only a few' relied on advertising. And we can use words like approximately, about, nearly, over and under. Approximately one third About a quarter Over a quarter

Under a third. Finally, let's look at Tan's conclusions. The first one is that it's important that salespeople on the floor know about our products. Another is that after-sales service is critical. People who experience good after-sales service are more likely to recommend a brand. And finally, advertising - it's expensive, so we need to make sure we're Vocabulary survey: khảo sát, điều tra, nghiên cứu summarise:tóm tắt, tổng kết outline: phác thảo conclusion: kết luận diagram : biểu đồ salesperson: người bán hàng critical: thời điểm quyết định, then chốt Episode 10 - Wrapping it up Today we’re looking at how to end a presentation, and how to deal with questions. You can watch the video or just listen to the audio. BARBARA: So, I'd like to end with a summary of what I've looked at today, and some recommendations. The figures show that sales are strongly seasonal, and that customers depend on good information on the showroom floor. So I'd like to recommend we concentrate on discounting in the off-seasons, and spend more time on briefing our sales representatives. That's all I have for now. Are there any questions? DENISE: You mentioned that the sales figures may also reflect economic trends. Can you expand on that? BARBARA: Well, we are always going to depend on the economy. As I understand it, we can look forward to an improvement this year. Does that answer your question? TAN: Are you saying we're in for a period of growth? BARBARA: Well, I'm afraid that's a bit outside my area of expertise, but that's what the papers are suggesting. JOHN: If you believe it. DENISE: You suggested that we might be spending too much on advertising. Can you clarify that? BARBARA: It's hard to quantify without better data. TAN: Sorry. Could you repeat that? BARBARA: We don't have the figures to really know how effective our advertising is. DENISE: In my experience you can't do without advertising.

BARBARA: Time for one last question. JOHN: I have one. BARBARA: Yes John? JOHN: Is it time for coffee? BARBARA: Okay, we'll wrap up now. Thankyou for your input everyone. DENISE: Thankyou. Today we're looking at how to end a presentation, and how to deal with questions. Let's look first at how Barbara concludes, or finishes her presentation. I'd like to end with a summary of what I've looked at today, and some recommendations. Barbara says she'd like to end with a summary, and some recommendations. When ending a presentation or a talk, you may do this with a summary - this is a short statement of your main points - with a conclusion, which is a result of all the information you've presented, or recommendations, which are things you think should be done. In all cases, they should be clear and concise, or not too long. Practise with Barbara some phrases you can use to introduce your final points. I'd like to end with some recommendations I'll finish with a summary... What can we conclude from all this? Listen to the difference between the summary and the recommendations. The figures show that sales are strongly seasonal, and that customers depend on good information on the showroom floor. So I'd like to recommend we concentrate on discounting in the off-seasons, and spend more time on briefing our sales representatives. Her summary consists of the main points from her talk about sales figures. There are two points. Her recommendations are what she thinks the company should do in the future, and there are two of these as well. Here are some phrases you can use to introduce a summary and recommendations. In summary... To summarise... I'd like to recommend that... My recommendations are... Let's look at how Barbara finishes her talk, and asks for questions. That's all I have for now. Are there any questions? Here's Barbara with some useful phrases for you to practise if asking for questions. Are there any questions? I'll answer any questions now.

Does anyone have any questions? At the end of a talk, you may ask for questions, or for comments, or for a general discussion. You need to let your audience know what you want them to do... like this: Are there any comments? I'd like to open it up for discussion. Let's look at how Denise asks a question. You mentioned that the sales figures may also reflect economic trends. Can you expand on that? Denise does two things - first she re-states something Barbara said, then she asks her to 'expand' on it, or say more about it. It's a good idea when asking a question to state what you think the speaker said - so everyone knows what the question is about... You might say You mentioned that... You suggested that... You stated that... In the question you can ask the speaker to respond in different ways. Denise asks her to expand, but she could also clarify (or make clearer), or explain further. Practise some phrases you can use for this: Can you expand on that? Can you clarify that? Could you explain that a bit further? Listen to how Barbara answers Denise's question. Well, we are always going to depend on the economy. As I understand it, we can look forward to an improvement this year. Does that answer your question? In her answer Barbara uses the phrase 'As I understand it'. By using this phrase she is signalling that this is not really her area of expertise. She is getting her information from somewhere else. You could also use phrases like: 'As far as I know' or 'My information is that…' Notice that she also checks whether Denise is satisfied with her answer by saying: 'Does that answer your question?' If she wanted to, Denise could ask a further question, but Tan does it for her. Are you saying we're in for a period of growth? Well, I'm afraid that's a bit outside my area of expertise, but that's what the papers are suggesting. Tan is asking for clarification. He wants Barbara to say more about her point. He does this by checking that he has understood her. Practise with Tan some phrases you can use to ask for clarification. Are you saying..?

So you're saying that... So, are you suggesting that..? If I follow you, you're suggesting that... Let's look at some more questions now. You suggested that we might be spending too much on advertising. Can you clarify that? It's hard to quantify without better data. Sorry. Could you repeat that? We don't have the figures to really know how effective our advertising is. Notice that, as before, Denise restates what she thinks Barbara said, by saying 'You suggested that…' then asks her to clarify, by saying 'Can you clarify that? And Tan asks her to repeat something simply by asking 'Could you repeat that?' Notice too that when Barbara answers Tan, she uses different words. If someone asks you to repeat, or clarify, it's better to rephrase, than simply say the same thing again. Notice how Denise puts in her own comment. In my experience you can't do without advertising. This is Denise's comment, or opinion, not a question. She shows this by starting 'in my experience'. She could also have said 'in my opinion', or 'As I understand it,...'. Let's see now how Barbara finishes her presentation. Time for one last question. I have one. Yes John? Is it time for coffee? Okay, we'll wrap up now. Thankyou for your input everyone. Thankyou. The person giving the talk is in control, so she needs to signal that she is finished. She does this by saying 'Time for one last question.' Practise some phrases you could use to end a presentation. Time for one last question... Are there any more questions? I think we'll wrap it up now. So remember - after a talk, give a summary and perhaps some recommendations or conclusions. Ask for questions or comments. When asking questions, state what you understood from the speaker first, and then say what you want them to do - clarify, or explain, or expand. Well, that about wraps us up for today. Thanks for listening, and I'll see you next time on The Business of English.

Vocabulary brief (adj) 1. (tt) ngắn,vắn tắt, gọn short They wrote me a brief letter. expertise (n) 1. (dt) sự tình thông, thành thạo an expert knowledge or skill E p i s o d e 1 1 - C a n I H e l p Yo u ? We look at how to make business calls. You can watch the video or just listen to the audio. TAMMY: Wilson & Wilson, can I help you? LIN: Yes, this is Lin Chan from Acme Appliances. I'd like to speak to Mr Wilson if he's available please? TAMMY: Would that be Mr Wilson Senior or Mr Wilson Junior? LIN: Mr Wilson senior. TAMMY: I'll just see if he's available - hold the line please. It's a Lin Chan from Acme. I'm sorry, Mr Wilson's in a meeting at the moment. May I take a message? LIN: Yes, could you ask him to phone me please. My number's 23115654. TAMMY: I'm sorry, I didn't catch your name. LIN: Lin Chan, Acme Appliances. TAMMY: Let me check the number, 23115654. LIN: That's right. TAMMY: I'll pass that message on. Thankyou. LIN: Thanks. Bye. ************* LIN: Acme Appliances, Lin Chan speaking. WILSON: This is Tom Wilson returning your call. LIN: Ah yes, Mr Wilson. Thanks for calling back. I wanted to set up a meeting with you to discuss your requirements for next year.

WILSON: Yes certainly. How about Thursday about two-thirty. LIN: That would be fine. WILSON: Okay, I look forward to seeing you then. LIN: Thursday, 2.30. See you then. Goodbye. WILSON: Goodbye When we use the phone we can't see the other person, so we have to listen carefully and speak clearly. Often we deal with a switchboard operator or personal assistant, but the language we use on the phone follows conventions. Wilson & Wilson, can I help you? Yes, this is Lin Chan from Acme Appliances. I'd like to speak to Mr Wilson if he's available please? When answering the phone, a switchboard operator will usually say the name of the company, then 'can I help you?' or 'How can I help you?' Or they may not say anything after the name of the company. In any case, the caller normally says their name, by saying 'this is' and their name, then the name of their company after the words 'from' or 'of', and then who they would like to speak to. Don't wait to be asked, but offer the information. On the phone, unless you know the other party personally, always use polite, formal language. Wilson & Wilson. What do you want? Lin Chan here. Put me through to Wilson. He doesn't want to speak to you. Mr Wilson might not want to speak to Lin - but it's not polite to say this. Notice that Lin says she wants to speak to Mr Wilson 'if he's available'. Often it's not convenient to speak to someone straight away. 'If he's available' really means, 'If he wants to speak to me at the moment.' Here's some useful phrases for asking for someone on the phone: Is Mr Wilson available please? Could I speak to Mr Wilson if he's available? Could you put me through to Mr Wilson?' I'd like to speak to Mr Wilson if possible please. So we can say: 'I'd like to speak to Mr Wilson' Or 'Could I speak to Mr Wilson?' < And 'If he's available', or

'If possible' And you always add 'please'. And another phrase is: 'Could you put me through please?' The receptionist says: 'I'll just see if he's available', then 'hold the line please'. But Mr Wilson isn't available, so this is what she says: I'm sorry, Mr Wilson's in a meeting at the moment. 'In a meeting' is code for it's not convenient for him to talk at the moment'. He may be in a meeting, but he could also be out, or doing something else. Here's some phrases to practise, that can be used for this situation. I'm sorry, he's in a meeting at the moment. I'm sorry, he's not available at present. I'm sorry, he's out of the office at the moment. And here's one not to use. I'm sorry, he's busy. Too busy to talk to me obviously. To say someone can't talk because they're busy, suggests that your call is not important. But the receptionist knows what to say, and to ask if there's a message. May I take a message? Yes, could you ask him to phone me please. My number's 23115654. It's best to keep messages simple and to the point. Here are a few simple phrases to use when leaving a message. Practise them with Lin. Could you ask him to phone me please. Could you get him to return my call please. If he could call me back, that would be great. Of course the important detail here is the actual phone number. It's important to pronounce each number carefully. Two three, double one, five six five four. In America they would probably say: Two three one one, five six five four. Try saying these numbers: 04146831 oh four one four, six eight three one 9882 6776 nine double eight two, six double seven six or

nine eight eight two, six seven seven six. And the receptionist must also make sure she has all the details correct. Here are some phrases you can use to check details. I'm sorry, I didn't catch your name. Could you just repeat the number please? Could I have your number again please? Would you mind repeating that? When Tom Wilson returns her call, Lin answers like this... Ah yes, Mr Wilson. Thanks for calling back. I wanted to set up a meeting with you to discuss your requirements for next year. Yes certainly. How about Thursday at two-thirty. That would be fine. Okay, I look forward to seeing you then. Thursday, 2.30. See you then. Goodbye. Goodbye. First Lin thanks him for calling back. She says 'Thanks for calling back'. She could also say, 'Thankyou for returning my call.' Then she states the purpose of her call, and they make the arrangements for the meeting. Because she wants the meeting, Lin lets Wilson suggest a time. This is polite, because he is the customer in this situation. Then he says 'I look forward to seeing you then.' Again, this is a polite way of ending a conversation - as well as being a signal that there is no more to say. Notice too, that Lin repeats the day and time of the meeting so that both people are sure about it. Let's now just review the key phrases for phone calls when calling someone, and making an arrangement. Repeat them with the receptionist and Lin. Wilson & Wilson, can I help you? I'll just see if he's available. Would you mind holding the line? Would you like to leave a message?

Sorry, I didn't quite catch your name. I'd like to speak to Mr Wilson Could you put me through to Mr Wilson? This is Lin Chan returning your call. Thanks for returning my call. I look forward to seeing you then. The key points when using the phone are to speak clearly and give essential information. Don't speak too fast, and check that the other person has understood. If not, you may need to rephrase. Use polite, formal language - these conventional phrases are signals for the other person. We need to respond in the right way, or the conversation could be quite short. Acme Applicances, Lin Chan speaking. This is Tom Wilson returning your call. Ah yes, Mr Wilson. Thankyou for calling me back. That's alright. Goodbye. And it's goodbye from The Business of English for today. See you next time. Vocabulary available: có rỗi để gặp hold the line: giữ mãy catch set up: thành lập, tổ chức requirement: nhu cầu, yêu cầu Episode 12 - Negotiating part 1 We look at negotiating. You can watch the video or just listen to the audio. LIN: Hello, Lin Chan, Sales Manager for National Sugar - and my associate John Martin. VICTOR: Very pleased to meet you. I'm Victor Tang, and this is my legal adviser Sue Panay. JOHN: I hope you had a pleasant flight over. SUE: Yes, we did thanks. JOHN: Are you staying for a few days? VICTOR: Unfortunately we need to get back to Manila tomorrow. LIN: Well, we'd better get down to business. Mr Tang, to start off with, I just want to say we believe we can offer you a very good deal and come up with a win-win result. VICTOR: Well, from our point of view, we see it as an exploratory talk - testing the water you

might say. SUE: We don't intend to reach any agreements at this meeting - in any case we would need to run it past our board first. JOHN: You haven't heard our terms yet - you may find them hard to resist! (Victor and Sue exchange a raised eyebrow) LIN: Of course we understand you need time to consider any offer. My first priority is to keep the negotiations open. VICTOR: What's your proposal Ms Chan? LIN: We're prepared to offer a very attractive price for a minimum sale, in exchange for a two-year contract. John will clarify the terms. A negotiation is a discussion that should result in an agreement or business contract. The discussion is usually between two parties - or organisations - trying to reach an agreement satisfactory to both. In a negotiation, we need to reach a position that it is not too difficult for either side to accept, so the language we use is important - and it's also important to listen carefully. When starting a negotiation, begin with a greeting, and what we call 'small-talk' - something to 'break the ice', or make the meeting a friendly one. Hello, Lin Chan, Sales Manager for National Sugar - and my associate John Martin. Very pleased to meet you. I'm Victor Tang, and this is my legal adviser Sue Panay. I hope you had a pleasant flight over. Yes, we did thanks. Are you staying for a few days? Unfortunately we need to get back to Manila tomorrow. Lin starts by introducing herself and her associate. It's important that everyone at the meeting knows their roles, so Victor also introduces Sue by telling them her job. Before they start the negotiations, John asks about their journey. He says 'I hope you had a pleasant flight', and asks how long they are staying. This way, the negotiation starts in a relaxed and friendly atmosphere. Here are a few phrases you could use to put the other party at ease. I hope you had a pleasant flight. Are you enjoying Sydney? How is your hotel? In some cultures, it is usual not to talk about business straight away, but in others, it is expected that you will get down to business quickly. You just have to judge the situation, and feel your own

way. How does Lin signal that it is time to start the negotiation? Well, we'd better get down to business. Lin says 'we'd better get down to business'. Notice that she makes it a suggestion. She is suggesting they should talk business. Practise some phrases for suggesting it's time to talk business. Well, we'd better get down to business. Shall we get down to business? Well, how about we get down to business? The next thing Lin does is make an opening statement. An opening statement should tell the other person what you are expecting to get out of the meeting. The opening statement would normally be made by the person who requested the meeting. Mr Tang, to start off with, I just want to say we believe we can offer you a very good deal and come up with a win-win result. Lin says 'to start off with', and then she states what she wants to achieve. She says she is going to offer 'a very good deal', and that she wants to achieve a 'win-win' result. She is signalling to the other party that she wants both of them to be happy with the outcome. Practise, with Lin, some phrases to introduce an opening statement. Let me start off by saying... I'd like to begin by saying... Let me kick things off by saying... To 'kick things off' is to start a discussion. How do Victor and Sue respond? Well, from our point of view, we see it as an exploratory talk - testing the water you might say. Sue: We don't intend to reach any agreements at this meeting - in any case we would need to run it past our board first. Victor says 'from our point of view', and Lin says 'we don't intend'. They use the words 'our' and 'we', instead of 'my' and 'I' because they are talking as representatives of the company, not as individuals. If Victor was on his own, he might use 'I' and 'my' - especially as the C.E.O. of the company. Here are some other phrases Victor could use to state their point of view: 'From our perspective...' 'Our position is that...' 'As far as we're concerned...' Victor says they see it as an 'exploratory talk'. He means they are 'exploring options', or finding out what Lin has to offer. He is suggesting by this that they aren't going to make a decision at this meeting - and he is letting Lin know this. He describes this in another way by saying they are 'testing the water'. Notice too that Sue reinforces this. She says 'we don't intend to reach any agreements at this meeting.' She is stating clearly the outcome that they are expecting from the meeting. She says they would have to 'run past the board' any proposals made. A proposal is a formal offer or suggestion made by one business to another, and to 'run something past the board' means to get the board's

approval or feedback. In a negotiation, each party needs to respond to what the other says for the negotiation to proceed. How does Lin respond to Victor and Sue's statement. Of course we understand you need time to consider any offer. My first priority is to keep the negotiations open. She says she understands they are not going to agree at this meeting. She says 'My first priority is to keep the negotiations open.' A priority is an important goal. A first priority is your most important goal. Notice the reaction when John speaks. We don't intend to reach any agreements at this meeting - in any case we would need to run it past our board first. You haven't heard our terms yet - you may find them hard to resist! (Victor and Sue exchange a raised eyebrow) John hasn't listened to what Victor and Sue have said, and they don't like it. But Lin makes a conciliatory statement. That is, she makes a concession. She backs down from her first position. When negotiating, you usually need to make some concessions to reach an agreement. If nobody makes a concession, the negotiation can't proceed...like this... I just want to say we believe we can offer you a very good deal and come up with a win-win result. Well, from our point of view, we see it as an exploratory talk - testing the water you might say. I'm sure we'll be able to resolve everything today. We need to run anything past our board first. Why bother the board? We can settle this deal right now! I'm afraid that won't be possible. (silence around the table) If we don't listen carefully to what the other party is signalling, negotiations can break down very quickly. Now that each side has made their position clear, they can talk about the details of the proposal. What's your proposal Ms Chan? We're prepared to offer a very attractive price for a minimum sale, in exchange for a two-year contract. John will clarify the terms. Let's review the main points from today. In negotiations, begin with introductions and then some informal talk. Then each side makes an opening statement -this should state clearly what they want to achieve. Then, whichever party called the meeting begins the negotiation by giving an opening proposal. And remember - it's important to listen to signals and the opening statements carefully, otherwise the negotiation can quickly go in the wrong direction.

That's all for The Business of English for today. See you next time. E p i s o d e 1 3 - We M i g h t H a v e A D e a l ! We take a further look at negotiating. You can watch the video or just listen to the audio. LIN:….so that's our offer. We think it's a fair one, with advantages for both sides. VICTOR: Yes, well, we're prepared to consider your offer Ms Chan, if you can accept some conditions. SUE: And subject to consideration by the board… JOHN: What are the conditions? VICTOR: Well, firstly the price you're proposing. Would that be variable depending on currency fluctuations? The issue is that we're in an unstable environment at the moment - the exchange rate could affect us negatively. JOHN: Us too! VICTOR: True, but the problem is that we're tied to the U.S. dollar. LIN: We could consider hedging against currency in both directions. SUE: That would be acceptable. VICTOR: Another problem we may have is that of supply. Our customers often need supply at short notice. If we do get large orders, we need to guarantee delivery - so we need to stockpile. The difficulty there is the capital outlay. How would you feel about a partial offset against our sales? JOHN: You mean a loan. VICTOR: I suppose so. SUE: Would you be agreeable to a deferred payment? We can provide security of course. LIN: I think that would be acceptable. Unfortunately, I would need to get Board approval for it. SUE: Of course. VICTOR: Then I think we might have a deal! LIN: In principle. JOHN: Time to celebrate! In negotiations, it's usual for each side to have conditions that make the deal better, or safer for them. A condition is a change in the terms of a deal which is necessary before one side or the other agrees. Yes, well, we're prepared to consider your offer Ms Chan, if you can accept some conditions. Notice that Victor uses language carefully.

He doesn't say 'we agree to your offer', he says 'we're prepared to consider your offer'. He is signalling to the other side that there is a chance for agreement by using the word 'consider', which means 'think about'. He then makes this conditional by saying 'if you can accept some conditions'. In English, using the word 'if' in this way is called a conditional. Victor is saying 'We can consider your offer if you can accept some conditions.' One part of the sentence is conditional on, or depending on the other. The negative is also true. If they can't accept the conditions, Victor can't consider the offer. Notice that Sue adds: 'subject to consideration by the board'. 'Subject to' is another type of conditional phrase. She means 'We can agree if the board agrees.' 'Subject to' is a legal phrase meaning 'only if', or 'only after'. There are a number of expressions you can use when giving a condition. Try them after me: ...subject to the board's agreement. ...conditional on the board's agreement. ...providing that the board agrees. ...as long as the board agrees. ...on condition that the board agrees. Let's look now at Victor's first condition. Firstly the price you're proposing. Would that be variable depending on currency fluctuations? The issue is that we're in an unstable environment at the moment - the exchange rate could affect us negatively. When Victor is talking about conditions - he is exploring various scenarios - or things that could happen. Notice that he explains what the problem is... He says 'The issue is that we're in an unstable environment.' 'The issue' means the problem, or the thing that needs discussing. Practise with Victor some ways of introducing a problem. The issue is the exchange rate. The problem is the exchange rate. The difficulty we have is with the exchange rate. One thing that could happen is that the exchange rate, the amount of money you can exchange in one currency for another, may change. Notice that Victor uses the words 'would' and 'could'. 'Would' is like a conditional. One thing might result in another thing happening.

The exchange rate might change. Victor is talking about the price for their product. He asks 'would that be variable depending on currency fluctuations'. 'Fluctuations' are changes. We can express this another way: 'If the currency changes, will the price change?' 'Could' is used to express a possibility - something that might happen. Victor says 'the exchange rate could affect us negatively'. Notice that you can say something will affect you negatively - it will have a negative, or bad effect, or positively - it will have a positive , or good effect. What is Lin's response to this first condition, or concern of Victor's? We could consider hedging against currency in both directions. That would be acceptable. Like Victor, Lin is being careful. She uses the word 'consider' rather than just agreeing. She's waiting until the whole deal is clear. We can give both questions and answers using these 'could' and 'would' phrases. Practise them after Lin and Victor. Would you consider hedging against currency? Would you agree to hedging against currency? We could consider hedging against currency. We could agree to hedging against currency. Sue comments: 'That would be acceptable'. 'Acceptable' simply means 'able to be accepted'. They can agree to this solution. Practise with Sue some phrases you can use to agree, and disagree, to conditions. That would be acceptable. We can agree to that. We would be agreeable to that. That wouldn't be acceptable I'm afraid. I'm afraid we can't agree to that. We wouldn't be agreeable to that. Notice that to 'agree with' someone, is to think they are right. To 'agree to' something, is to accept a proposal. What is Victor's second condition? Let's see. If we do get large orders, we need to guarantee delivery - so we need to stockpile. The difficulty there is the capital outlay. How would you feel about a partial offset against our sales? You might use the phrase 'how would you feel about' something if you think it may be a difficult condition for the other side to accept. Sue puts this proposal a different way.

Would you be agreeable to a deferred payment? We can provide security of course. I think that would be acceptable. Unfortunately, I would need to get Board approval for it. Sue uses the phrase 'would you be agreeable'. 'Would you be agreeable to a deferred payment.' A deferred payment is when you pay later for something you buy. Lin thinks this condition is acceptable, but she makes it conditional on Board approval by saying 'I would need to get Board approval.' Notice the stress on 'would'. Practise some phrases you can use for this type of condition. That would have to have Board approval. The Board would need to approve that. That would be subject to Board approval. Sometimes conditions depend on other conditions. One side might say, 'we agree to your condition if...' So it's very important when negotiating to listen for words that signal a condition: words like 'if', 'could','would', 'provided' or 'providing', 'as long as' and 'subject to'. And words that might signal a problem, such as 'problem', 'unfortunately', and 'however'. Notice that even at the end, they are being careful about what they say. Then I think we might have a deal! In principle. Lin agrees 'in principle'. This means they have agreed on terms among themselves, but as she needs Board approval, she can't authorise the agreement right now. And right now we've reached the end of today's program. See you next time on the Business of English. Episode 14 - A Formal Speech We look at how to make a formal speech. You can watch the video or just listen to the audio. DENISE: Our keynote speaker is a man who I'm sure is very well known to all of you. He's Professor of Fruitology at Dubbo University and has written many books on the subject of tropical fruit. So without further ado, I'd like to introduce our keynote speaker, Doctor Sam Eriks. SAM: Thankyou Denise. The Honourable Judith Bryant, Minister for Trade, Professor Eric Vogel, Professor of Economics at Wagga University, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen. Today's topic 'why bananas are bent' is a very significant one in terms both of international trade, and culture. In thinking about the topic, I felt it would be appropriate to address briefly the history of bananas and banana farming, the many qualities of bananas, both positive and negative, and of course examine the uses of the banana. But first let me tell you a story about a banana. ********* Ladies and gentlemen, I hope I've been able to clear up a few misconceptions, and leave you with some new ideas about how we might view bananas in the future.

We've seen, in looking at their history, that bananas have a significant role in many cultures. I've also noted their positive nutritional qualities. And in addressing the main question, why bananas are bent - we've learned that the reasons are many and complex. Madam Chair, thankyou for the opportunity to address the conference today, and thankyou ladies and gentleman for your kind attention. Making a formal speech to an audience is a scary thing for many people - even more so if it's in a language that is not your first language. What are the things you can do to prepare a formal speech in English? First of all, let's look at the structure of the speech. In a formal situation, like a keynote address, the speaker will be introduced by someone else. Our keynote speaker is a man who I'm sure is very well known to all of you. He's Professor of Fruitology at Dubbo University and has written many books on the subject of tropical fruit. When introducing a speaker, research their background and accomplishments - that is, the important things they've done, such as books they may have written, important positions they've filled, and of course their proper title or qualifications, such as Professor. Here are some useful phrases to use when introducing a speaker. Practise them with Denise: Our next speaker is well known to all of you. Our next speaker needs no introduction. Without further ado, I'd like to introduce… Please make him welcome, Doctor Sam Eriks. When giving a formal speech to an audience, we need to be aware of protocol. Protocol means the proper or customary way of doing things in formal situations. Part of the protocol for a formal speech is addressing the audience at the beginning. A keynote speaker needs to know who the important people are at the meeting, and address them using their formal titles, starting with the most important people. Thankyou Denise. The Honourable Judith Bryant, Minister for Trade, Professor Eric Vogel, Professor of economics at Wagga University, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen. If there is a representative of government, such as a minister, they would be acknowledged first then any other people of particular note. Include their title,(pause) name (pause) and position. Then he addresses 'distinguished guests' - this can include anyone who has been invited to attend the event. And finally he says 'ladies and gentlemen', which means everyone else. What does Doctor Eriks do next? In thinking about the topic, I felt it would be appropriate to address briefly the history of bananas and banana farming, the many qualities of bananas, both positive and negative, and of course examine the uses of the banana. He outlines the three main parts of his speech. Listen to him again. What are the three parts of his talk? I felt it would be appropriate to address briefly the history of bananas and banana farming, the many qualities of bananas, both positive and negative, and of course examine the uses of the

banana. The first one is 'the history of bananas and banana farming', the second one is 'the many qualities of bananas', and the third one is 'the uses of the banana'. In listing things like this in a speech, it's important to use pauses in speech so that the audience can follow and hear the three points. How does it sound without pauses? I felt it would be appropriate to address briefly the history of bananas and banana farming, the many qualities of bananas, both positive and negative, and of course examine the uses of the banana. In making a speech, it's important to use pauses to help make your point. In the list, pause before each point in the list. Pause between sentences, and before making a major point, like this: The point I want to make is this: not all bananas are bent. Stress and intonation are important too. In saying 'not all bananas are bent' - Doctor Eriks stresses the word 'all' because it is the most important word in that statement. In listing the three parts of his speech, notice how his intonation is rising in the first two parts, and then falling for the last - this indicates to the audience he has finished the list: The history of bananas, the many qualities of bananas, and the uses of the banana. In describing his topic, he said 'I felt it would be appropriate to address…' and then names the parts of his speech. To 'address' something here means to talk about it. You could also use words like 'consider', 'discuss', 'outline', 'cover'. Pronunciation is important too - it's a good idea to practise your speech out loud - especially any difficult words. I've also noted their positive nutrishal, nutrishishional, nutritional qualities. What does Doctor Eriks do next in his speech? But first let me tell you a story about a banana. He says he is going to tell a story about a banana. When making a speech, it's good to put in some personal touches - a story of something that happened or a joke. We move now to the end of Sam's speech. How does he finish? Ladies and gentlemen, I hope I've been able to clear up a few misconceptions about bananas, and leave you with some new ideas about how we might view bananas in the future. First, he signals that he is ending his speech, by repeating 'ladies and gentlemen'. Then he says 'I hope I've been able to clear up a few misconceptions'. By using the present perfect 'I have been able' he signals that he is talking about his speech up to now. Practise with Doctor Eriks some ways of signalling the end of a speech: I hope I've been able to clarify the issue. I hope I've addressed the major concerns about this issue. Next he restates the major points he's made. We've seen, in looking at their history, that bananas have a significant role in many cultures. I've also noted their positive nutritional qualities. And in addressing the main question, why bananas are bent - we've learned that the reasons are many and complex. Notice the use of the present perfect in re-stating these points. We've seen; 'I've noted';

'we've learned'. There are other phrases that could be used in this way: 'We've observed'; 'I've outlined'; 'I've referred to…' and so on. Finally, how does Doctor Eriks wrap up his speech? Madam Chair, thankyou for the opportunity to address the conference today, and thankyou ladies and gentleman for your kind attention. Well, there's a lot more we can say about making formal speeches, but I hope you've learned some useful tips today. Thankyou for your attention, and I'll see you next time for The Business of English. Episode 15 - Until Next Time We look at ways of saying goodbye. You can watch the video or just listen to the audio. Waiter serves drinks… SAM: Thankyou. VICTOR: Well, it has been a great pleasure to meet you Sam, and Lin. SAM: Yes, we've enjoyed meeting you too Victor. LIN: Yes, it's been great. What a pity you have to go home. VICTOR: Well, all good things must come to an end. But I'm sure we'll meet again. SAM: Yes, I hope so. LIN: And good luck with your business. I'm sure it will go well. VICTOR: And I wish you every success too. SAM: Well, I think we should drink a toast to the end of the conference, and to ourselves. Here's to us. Cheers VICTOR: Cheers LIN: Cheers. SAM: We should keep in touch. VICTOR: Yes. Have I given you my card? SAM: No - thanks very much. Here's mine. VICTOR: Do you have a card Lin?

LIN: Yes. VICTOR: Thankyou. I'll send you an email. And if you're ever in Singapore, you must look me up. SAM: We certainly will. And you have my number. When you're next in Sydney, give me a call we'll have a drink. WAITER: May I take these? (takes glasses) VICTOR: Well, I'd better get going or I'll miss my flight. SAM: (shakes hands) Have a good flight home. Bon voyage. LIN: Goodbye. Until next time. VICTOR: Goodbye. For the final programme in the series we're looking at some of the phrases you may use when you're saying goodbye to someone - either for a short time, or a long time. In our example, Victor is from another country, and he's about to go back home. At a conference, he's met Sam and Lin. It has been a great pleasure to meet you Sam and Lin. We've enjoyed meeting you too Victor. Yes, it's been great. What a pity you have to go home. There are various phrases you can use to express how enjoyable it was to meet someone. Which one you use depends on how well you got to know them. Practise some of these phrases with Victor. It's been a great pleasure to meet you. I have enjoyed meeting you. I'm so glad to have met you. Nice to meet you. The phrase 'nice to meet you' would be used after one short meeting. You can also use this phrase when you are introduced to someone. What about the replies? Practise them with Lin. Nice to meet you. You too. It's been a pleasure to meet you. And you. Glad to have met you. Glad to have met you too. Notice that the reply should match the statement. So if someone says: 'I have enjoyed meeting you', the reply can be 'So have I'.

If someone says 'It's been a pleasure to meet you', the reply can be 'A pleasure to meet you too', or just 'And you.' Victor also says 'I'm sure we'll meet again.' Here are some useful phrases to do with meeting again. Practise them with Victor. I'm sure we'll meet again. Hopefully we'll meet again. I hope we'll meet again soon. Notice again here - that the reply should match the statement, so if someone says: 'I'm sure we'll meet again.', then the reply also uses 'am' 'So am I'. After the statement 'I hope we'll meet again', the reply should be: 'So do I'. Another part of saying goodbye can be wishing someone well for the future. And good luck with your business. I'm sure it will go well. And I wish you every success too. Sam proposes a toast. Watch how he does this… Well, I think we should drink a toast to the end of the conference, and to ourselves. Here's to us. Cheers Cheers Cheers. This is an informal toast. Sam says 'I think we should drink a toast'. Another phrase he could use is: 'Let's drink to' - for example… 'Let's drink to the end of the conference' or 'Let's drink to our future meeting'. Then they clink their glasses together and say 'Cheers'. Here's another version of the toast: Sam: Let's drink to our next meeting. Victor: Our next meeting! Lin: Cheers And of course, the toast doesn't have to be alcohol - it can be any kind of drink. The next part of their conversation is about keeping in touch - or keeping in contact. We should keep in touch. Yes. Have I given you my card? No - thanks very much. Here's mine. Do you have a card Lin? Yes.

Thankyou. I'll send you an email. Repeat the phrases after Sam… We must keep in touch. We must keep in contact. Here's my card. Would you like my card? Do you have a card? The next part of their conversation is about meeting again. Listen… And if you're ever in Singapore, you must look me up. We certainly will. And you have my number. When you're next in Sydney, give me a call - we'll have a drink. To 'look someone up' just means to arrange a meeting. When Victor says 'You must look me up', he is inviting Sam and Lin to meet him if they are in Singapore. This is more of a social invitation, than a business one. Using the word 'must' is not like an order here - it suggests that Victor will be very happy if Sam sees him in Singapore. In the same way, Sam says 'Give me a call' to Victor. It sounds like an order, but in fact it's an invitation. It's important to get the intonation - the way you say it - right - so that it sounds like an invitation, and not an order. You must look me up when you're in Singapore. And if I don't? I'll never speak to you again! Practise these kinds of invitations with Victor. You must look me up next time you're in town. You must come and see me. Why don't you give me a call when you're in town? Ring me if you're in town. Finally let's look at how the three friends say goodbye. Remember this is a semi-formal situation. Well, I'd better get going or I'll miss my flight. Have a good flight home. Bon voyage. Goodbye. Until next time. Goodbye. There are a few ways of saying goodbye - but the simplest and best is simply 'Goodbye'. Sam says 'Bon voyage' - a French phrase which is also quite common for someone who is travelling. Now, let's review and practise some of the phrases we've learnt today.

It's been a pleasure to meet you. I'm sure we'll meet again. We must keep in touch. Give me a call when you're in town. I've enjoyed meeting you. I wish you every success for the future. May I give you my card? Best wishes for the future. I hope you have a good flight home. The language you use in each situation may be slightly different depending on how well you know the other people, and how friendly you are with them. If the situation is social, and you have become quite friendly, you may use slightly less formal language. But it's important not to forget the usual expressions of good wishes - such as for a good flight home, and to say how you've enjoyed meeting the other person. But don't go too far. Well, I'd better get going or I'll miss my flight. I'm going to miss you Victor. So am I. What will we do without you? Be strong. Will we meet again? I know we will. Goodbye. Goodbye Victor - and bon voyage. You forgot my card! Well, I've enjoyed helping you with 'The Business of English', and I hope you've enjoyed learning some useful phrases and expressions in English - and that you'll be able to put them into practice soon. Goodbye and good luck!

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