DANIEL. R. DOWLAT 109004491


Glass is an inorganic product of fusion which has been cooled through the glass transition to a rigid condition without crystallizing. Color in glass may be obtained by addition of electrically charged ions that are homogeneously distributed.Finally. other substances are added to common glass to simplify processing. The optical and physical properties of glass make it suitable for applications such as flat glass which is used in the external envelopes of buildings. glass is often of a safety type.g. Glass is generally hard. and by precipitation of finely dispersed particles. while reflecting others. There are many types of glass but the main type of glass used in the construction industry is soda lime glass. is used to form iron polysulfides and produce amber glass ranging from yellowish to almost black. as well as for making windows and doors for buildings. together with carbon and iron salts. However. Glass plays an essential role in science and industry.1 wt% produce a green tint. Soda-lime glasses account for about 90% of manufactured glass. the soda makes the glass water soluble. which lowers the melting point. Glass batch calculation is the method by which the correct raw material mixture is determined to achieve the desired glass composition Many glasses have a chemical composition which includes what are referred to as absorption centers. One is sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). fining agents such as sodium sulfate. impurities in the cullet can lead to product and equipment failure.Large amounts of iron are used in glass that absorbs infrared energy. This is what gives rise to color. Two other common glass ingredients are calumite (an iron industry by-product) and "cullet" (recycled glass). toughened and laminated glass. In soda-lime glass. such as heat absorbing filters for movie projectors. which includes reinforced. Glass is also used for internal partitions and as an architectural feature. some magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3) are added to provide for a better chemical durability. As well as soda and lime. which is usually undesirable. This may cause them to be selective in their absorption of visible lightwaves (or white light frequencies). or antimony oxide are added to reduce the bubble content in the glass. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74% silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass. brittle and transparent. However. while cerium(IV) oxide can be used for glass that absorbs UV wavelengths (biologically damaging ionizing radiation). They absorb certain portions of the visible spectrum. most common glass has other ingredients added to change its properties . Sulfur. Ordinary soda-lime glass appears colorless to the naked eye when it is thin. The recycled glass saves on raw materials and energy. While pure silica can be made into glass for special applications (e. 2 . fused quartz). "soda" refers to the original source of sodium carbonate in the soda ash obtained from certain plants.lime glass is silica (SiO2). The main component of soda. When used in buildings. although iron(II) oxide (FeO) impurities of up to 0. so lime (calcium oxide (CaO). sodium chloride. The frequencies of the spectrum which are not absorbed are either reflected back or transmitted for our physical observation. generally obtained from limestone).

Mesopotamia or Old Kingdom Egypt. and resulting in windows divided by transoms into rectangular panels. initially concentrating on the production of intensely coloured cast glass vessels. window glass is found more frequently. Anglo-Saxon glass has been found across England during archaeological excavations of both settlement and cemetery sites. The 11th century saw the emergence in Germany of new ways of making sheet glass by blowing spheres. archaeological evidence suggests that the first true glass was made in coastal north Syria. Indigenous development of glass technology in South Asia may have begun in 1730 BCE. beads. Sir Alastair Pilkington and Kenneth Bickerstaff of the UK's Pilkington Brothers developed the first successful commercial application for forming a continuous ribbon of glass using a molten tin bath on which the molten glass flows unhindered under the influence of gravity. was extensively traded. What made Venetian Murano glass significantly different was that the local quartz pebbles were almost pure silica. Glass in the Anglo-Saxon period was used in the manufacture of a range of objects including vessels. These panes would be used in windows. The 'cylinders' were 6 to 8 feet (1. due to its limited source areas. But in general. Most window glass in the early 19th century was made using the cylinder method. has been uncovered from the archaeological site in takshashila. ancient India.5 m) in diameter. The first advances in automating glass manufacturing were patented in 1848 by Henry Bessemer. mirrors. 3 . limiting the width that panes of glass could be cut. The spheres were swung out to form cylinders and then cut while still hot. an English engineer. the glassblower would spin approximately 9 pounds (4 kg) of molten glass at the end of a rod until it flattened into a disk approximately 5 feet (1.8 to 2. However. and were ground into fine clear sand that was combined with soda ash obtained from the Levant for which the Venetians had the sole monopoly. The center for glassmaking from the 14th century was the island of Murano. has been used by many Stone Age societies across the globe for the production of sharp cutting tools and. and other luxury items. This technique was perfected in 13th century Venice. The disk would then be cut into panes. dating from the 3rd century BCE.4 m) long and 10 to 14 inches (250 to 360 mm) in diameter. the first unmistakable evidence in large quantities. The Crown glass process was used up to the mid-19th century. During the Late Bronze Age in Egypt and Western Asia there was an explosion in glass-making technology. after which the sheets were flattened. Roman glass production developed from Hellenistic technical traditions. and windows and was even used in jewellery. His system produced a continuous ribbon of flat glass by forming the ribbon between rollers. Between 1953 and 1957. especially obsidian. In this process. From the late 7th century onwards.Naturally occurring glass. This is directly related to the introduction of Christianity and the construction of churches and monasteries. which developed many new techniques and became the center of a lucrative export trade in dinnerware. However. during the first century AD the industry underwent rapid technical growth that saw the introduction of glass blowing and the dominance of colourless or ‘aqua’ glasses.

The elaborate patterns found on figured (or 'Cathedral') rolledplate glass are produced in a similar fashion to the rolled plate glass process except that the plate is cast between two rollers. also known as glass block.. Float glass replaced this process. and the sheet. This was a fairly expensive process. one of which carries a pattern. 8.Float glass. Prism glass can sometimes be found on sidewalks and in this form is known as vault lighting. The finished product has near-perfect parallel surfaces. 90% of the world's flat glass is produced by the float glass process invented in the 1950s by Sir Alastair Pilkington of Pilkington Glass. still soft. 1848.Glass used in the construction industry is known as architectural glass. These include . 15. . . and municipal swimming baths. washrooms. Glass block was originally developed in the early 1900s to provide natural light in industrial factories. The glass used for this purpose is typically whiter in colour than the clear glasses used for other applications. The sheet thus rolled is roughly trimmed while hot and soft. . The glass is taken from the furnace in large iron ladles. This glass can be laminated or toughened depending on the depth of the pattern to produce a safety glass.Drawn Sheet glass was made by dipping a leader into a vat of molten glass then pulling that leader straight up while a film of glass hardened just out of the vat. 12. This film or ribbon was pulled up continuously held by tractors on both edges while it cooled. . which are carried upon slings running on overhead rails. This glass is dimensionally inaccurate and often created visual distortions. 4 .The polished plate glass process starts with sheet or rolled plate glass.Prism glass is architectural glass used around the turn of the century to provide lighting to underground spaces and areas that would otherwise be too difficult to light. Glass is produced in standard metric thicknesses of 2. 10. in which molten glass is poured onto one end of a molten tin bath. There are many types of architectural glass and each type has its own application.Rolled plate (Figured) glass. 19 and 22 mm.Glass brick.Cast plate glass Developed by James Hartley. from the ladle the glass is thrown upon the cast-iron bed of a rolling-table. You may still see this glass in older houses. is pushed into the open mouth of an annealing tunnel or temperature-controlled oven called a lehr. such as underground parking garages. Prism glass uses a unique convex lens design to help illuminate more than ordinary glass. This glass shows a pattern in high relief. These rough panes were ground flat and then polished clear. The tin side is easier to make into a mirror. 6. is an architectural element made from glass used in areas where privacy or visual obscuration is desired while admitting light. . After 12 meters or so it was cut off the vertical ribbon and tipped down to be further cut. A very small amount of the tin is embedded into the glass on the side it touched. . so as to remove those portions of glass which have been spoiled by immediate contact with the ladle. 4. The glass is then annealed in a lehr. 5. 3.

Chemically strengthened glass is a type of glass that has increased strength. automotive and other technical applications. The glass is chemically strengthened by submerging the glass in a bath containing a potassium salt. Toughened glass is typically four to six times the strength of annealed glass. to create a single sheet of glass. and thus. when the surface of chemically strengthened glass is deeply scratched. Float glass is annealed during the process of manufacture. The interlayer can also give the glass a higher sound insulation rating. It is used when strength. but tempering is not an option. Heat strengthened laminated glass is stronger than annealed. for example in bathrooms.Laminated glass is manufactured by bonding two or more layers of glass together with layers of PVB. The first is a photocatalytic effect. and is intermediate in strength between annealed and toughened glasses.Toughened glass (also known as tempered glass) is a type of safety glass that has increased strength and will usually shatter in small. the PVB interlayer keeps the layers of glass bonded and prevents it from breaking apart.A recent innovation is so-called self-cleaning glass. . square pieces when broken.Annealed glass is glass without internal stresses caused by heat treatment. When broken it still shatters in long pointed splinters similar to float glass.. It has a larger break pattern than tempered. . but not as strong as tempered. . thermal resistance and safety are important considerations. Chemically strengthened glass is typically six to eight times the strength of annealed glass. On breaking. Annealed glass breaks into large. Tempered laminated glass is designed to shatter into small pieces. it is not considered a safety glass and must be laminated if a safety glass is required. For this reason. aimed at building. this area loses its additional strength. chemically strengthened glass may be cut after strengthening. Similarly. When both pieces of glass are broken it produces a "wet blanket" effect and it will fall out of its opening. under heat and pressure. in door panels. It is often used where security is a concern. A nanometre-scale coating of titanium dioxide on the outer surface of glass introduces two mechanisms which lead to the self-cleaning property. structurally loaded applications and door lites and vision lites adjacent to doors. making it much more difficult to get through. fire exits and at low heights in schools or domestic houses. but loses its added strength within the region of approximately 20 mm of the cut. . but not to the extent of causing it to "dice" on breaking in the manner of tempered glass.Heat-strengthened glass is glass that has been heat treated to induce surface compression. When broken. Building codes in many parts of the world restrict the use of annealed glass in areas where there is a high risk of breakage and injury. most toughened glass is made from float glass that has been specially heat-treated. preventing possible injury. In commercial structures it is used in unframed assemblies such as frameless doors. in which ultra-violet rays catalyse the breakdown of organic compounds on the 5 . However. heat-strengthened glass breaks into sharp pieces that are typically somewhat smaller than those found on breaking annealed glass. Unlike toughened glass. . jagged shards that can cause serious injury. the reason it is considered a hazard in architectural applications. but because it holds its shape it remains in the opening and can withstand more force for a longer period of time. Laminated glass that is made up of annealed glass is normally used when safety is a concern.

7. The extreme thinness of evacuated glazing offers many new architectural possibilities. it may increase the budgeted cost of construction work. Use of glass in construction work adds beauty to the building. . 3. Glass is an excellent material for thermal insulation. it saves energy in air conditioning of building. For making glass partition on upper floors.window surface. 2.Insulated glazing. ADVANTAGES OF USING GLASS 1. one can have good interior design with the use of glass in transparent staircase. forming a thin sheet which washes away the broken-down organic compounds. DISADVANTAGES OF USING GLASS 1. particularly in building conservation and historicist architecture. As toughened glass is available. 6 . Use of glass also enhances the cost of security. it saves the space inside the building. Glass is also unsafe for earthquake proven area. 5. . no extra design is required for slab as glass is light in weight. heat retention and energy saving. where evacuated glazing can replace traditional single glazing. 6. 3. 4. This type of glazing has functions of thermal insulation and noise reduction. As glass is very costly material. the second is a hydrophilic effect in which water is attracted to the surface of the glass. 8. Its use appear a sense of openness and harmonious. Its use fulfills the architectural view for external decoration.Another recent innovation for insulated glazing is evacuated glass. which as yet is produced commercially only in Japan and China. or double glazing is a piece of glazing consisting of two or more layers of glazing separated by a spacer along the edge and sealed to create a dead air space between the layers. Glass cladding in building fulfill functional requirement of lighting. 4. ceiling etc. water proofing and energy conservation. 2. 9. Glass is bad conductor of heat. Its use in hilly area and desert may cause more maintenance cost. colored shelves. By using glass in interior.



REFERENCES 9 .org/wiki/Soda-lime_glass http://en.

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