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Ebusiness is a term used to describe businesses run on the Internet, or utilizing Internet

technologies to improve the productivity or profitability of a business. In a more general sense,

the term may be used to describe any form of electronic business —- that is to say, any business
which utilizes a computer. This usage is somewhat archaic, however, and in most contexts
ebusiness refers exclusively to Internet businesses.

The most common implementation of ebusiness is as an additional, or in some cases primary,

storefront. By selling products and services online, an ebusiness is able to reach a much wider
consumer base than any traditional brick-and-mortar store could ever hope for. This function of
ebusiness is referred to as ecommerce, and the terms are occasionally used interchangeably.

Electronic business
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the
claims made and adding references. Statements consisting only of original research
may be removed. More details may be available on the talk page. (September 2007)

Electronic business, commonly referred to as "eBusiness" or "e-business",or an internet business,

may be defined as the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) in support of
all the activities of business. Commerce constitutes the exchange of products and services between
businesses, groups and individuals and can be seen as one of the essential activities of any business.
Electronic commerce focuses on the use of ICT to enable the external activities and relationships of
the business with individuals, groups and other businesses.[1]

Louis Gerstner, the former CEO of IBM, in his book, Who Says Elephants Can't Dance? attributes the
term "e-Business" to IBM's marketing and Internet teams in 1996.

Electronic business methods enable companies to link their internal and external data processing
systems more efficiently and flexibly, to work more closely with suppliers and partners, and to better
satisfy the needs and expectations of their customers.

In practice, e-business is more than just e-commerce. While e-business refers to more strategic focus
with an emphasis on the functions that occur using electronic capabilities, e-commerce is a subset of
an overall e-business strategy. E-commerce seeks to add revenue streams using the World Wide
Web or the Internet to build and enhance relationships with clients and partners and to improve
efficiency using the Empty Vessel strategy. Often, e-commerce involves the application of knowledge
management systems.

E-business involves business processes spanning the entire value chain: electronic purchasing
and supply chain management, processing orders electronically, handling customer service, and
cooperating with business partners. Special technical standards for e-business facilitate the exchange
of data between companies. E-business software solutions allow the integration of intra and inter firm
business processes. E-business can be conducted using the Web, the Internet, intranets, extranets, or
some combination of these.

Basically, electronic commerce (EC) is the process of buying, transferring, or exchanging products,
services, and/or information via computer networks, including the internet. EC can also be benifited
from many perspective including business process, service, learning, collaborative, community. EC is
often confused with e-business.


• 1 Subsets

• 2 Models

o 2.1 Classification by provider and consumer

• 3 Electronic Business Security

o 3.1 Key Security Concerns within E-Business

 3.1.1 Privacy and confidentiality

 3.1.2 Authenticity

 3.1.3 Data integrity

 3.1.4 Non-repudiation

 3.1.5 Access control

 3.1.6 Availability

o 3.2 Common Security Measures for E-Business Systems

 3.2.1 Physical security

 3.2.2 Data storage

 3.2.3 Data transmission and application development

 3.2.4 System administration

o 3.3 Security Solutions

 3.3.1 Access and data integrity

 3.3.2 Encryption

 3.3.3 Digital certificates

 3.3.4 Digital signatures

• 4 See also

• 5 References

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Risks of eBusiness
By Terry Mann, eHow Contributor
updated: February 24, 2010

Handling sensitive information is one risk of doing business online.
Ecommerce is a fantastic way for businesses to connect with customers around the world in
a way that has never before been possible. Yet, that is not to say that ebusiness does not
have risks that entrepreneurs must be aware of before setting up a presence online. Security
is the most obvious risk, as online merchants will be handling and storing sensitive
information. However, a misunderstanding of the ecommerce world--how much time, money
and planning it takes--is often the downfall of merchants as well. Finally, technology is key to
securing the smooth transactions of ebusiness.

2. Security is the most obvious risk for any online merchant. Online merchants are
responsible for handling their customers' information in a safe manner. This means
investing in multiple layers of security. Information must be encrypted throughout the
transaction, secure socket layers are needed to ensure that it is sent only to
authorized parties, and firewalls and the Kerberos protocol ensure that the
information is protected, once it is in the emerchant's server, from internal and
external attacks. . Obviously, information is vulnerable at any point in this chain, and
hackers are becoming more sophisticated, so ebusinesses must ensure that all their
protections are up-to-date and working to the fullest capacity. Consumers that do not
feel that their information is secure will shop elsewhere.

3. Another big risk of ebusiness is the incorrect assumptions many beginning online
merchants make. Myths about ecommerce abound. People think that it does not take
much time or money. They think they can just set up a website and consumers will
find them, without spending money on advertisement or having a strategy in place to
attract and retain customers. They think they do not need to provide customer
service and that profits will appear almost instantly. Obviously, none of these myths
are true. If online merchants believe them, they will likely fail because they will not
invest enough time and money to plan out their websites and see them through the
difficult, beginning stages when profits and customers are hard to come by.

4. Finally, technology itself poses a risk to ebusiness, simply because ecommerce is so
dependent on it. Infrastructure problems, such as a server malfunctioning, can shut
down a website. Likewise, viruses can delete valuable data, and software glitches
can keep a site from working properly. Of course, outside attacks from hackers, who
want to steal sensitive customer information or deface a site, is also a risk that
ecommerce merchants must try to guard against. Online consumers are quite fickle,
and if they perceive a problem with a company's website even once, they might
never return.
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• Ecommerce Security Issues
• Identifying Risks in Ecommerce
• "Essentials of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management"; Thomas
Zimmerer and Norman Scarborough; 2008

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"PDA" redirects here.
Openshop For other
Markets : uses, see PDA (disambiguation).
It hassolution
It is a complete software been suggested
for the that this article
installation andor operation
section be merged
of with Handheld PC.
successful online market places and shopping malls.
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on
Openshop Stores : page.
the talk
It is a product meant for ISPs and shopping portal operators. A
solution built using Openshop Stores core enables any number of
shops to be created and It needs
 rented outadditional references
to individual or sources for verification. Tagged since July
shop merchants.
The merchants can adminstrate their own shop and pay the ISP a
rent every month or year. Other suitable business models can be
innovated with this extremely cost effective solution offering a high
return on investment.  Its neutrality or factuality may be compromised by weasel words. Tagged

since August 2010.

Key Projects Executed Using Openshop Products
This article uses citations that link to broken or outdated sources.
Please improve the articleor discuss this issue on the talk page. Help on using
footnotes is available. Consider using the Checklinks tool to find, resolve and
repair links. (August 2010)

The Palm TX
EO Personal Communicator (440) fromAT&T

A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a palmtop computer,[1][2] is a mobile devicethat
functions as a personal information manager. Current PDAs often have the ability to connect to
the Internet. A PDA has an electronic visual display, enabling it to include a web browser, but some
newer models also have audio capabilities, enabling them to be used as mobile phones orportable
media players. Many PDAs can access the Internet, intranets or extranets via Wi-Fi orWireless Wide
Area Networks. Many PDAs employ touchscreen technology.

The term PDA was first used on January 7, 1992 by Apple Computer CEO John Sculley at
theConsumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, Nevada, referring to the Apple Newton. In
1996, Nokiaintroduced the first mobile phone with full PDA functionality, the 9000 Communicator,
which grew to become the world's best-selling PDA. The Communicator spawned a new category of
mobile phones: the smartphone. Today, the vast majority of all PDAs are smartphones. Over 150
million smartphones are sold each year, while "stand-alone" PDAs without phone functionality sell only
about 3 million units per year.[specify] Popular smartphone brands include HTC, Apple, Palm,Nokia
Nseries, and RIM.


• 1 Typical features

o 1.1 Touch screen

o 1.2 Memory cards

o 1.3 Wired connectivity

o 1.4 Wireless connectivity

o 1.5 Synchronization

 1.5.1 Wireless synchronization

• 2 Automobile navigation

• 3 Ruggedized PDAs

• 4 Medical and scientific uses

• 5 Educational uses

o 5.1 Recreational uses

o 5.2 PDAs for people with disabilities

• 6 Popular consumer PDAs

• 7 Discontinued PDAs

• 8 Rugged PDAs

• 9 See also

• 10 References

[edit]Typical features
A typical PDA has a touchscreen for entering data, a memory card slot for data storage,
and IrDA, Bluetooth and/or Wi-Fi. However, some PDAs may not have a touch screen, using softkeys,
a directional pad, and a numeric keypad or a thumb keyboard for input; this is typically seen on
telephones that are incidentally PDAs.

In order to have the functions expected of a PDA, a device's software typically includes an
appointment calendar, a to-do list, an address book for contacts, and some sort of memo (or "note")
program. PDAs with wireless data connections also typically include an email clientand a Web

[edit]Touch screen
Many of the original PDAs, such as the Apple Newton and Palm Pilot, featured a touchscreen for user
interaction, having only a few buttons—usually reserved for shortcuts to often-used programs.
Touchscreen PDAs, including Windows Mobile devices, may have a detachablestylus to facilitate
making selections. The user interacts with the device by tapping the screen to select buttons or issue
commands, or by dragging a finger or the stylus on the screen to make selections or scroll.

Typical methods of entering text on touchscreen PDAs include:

 A virtual keyboard, where a keyboard is shown on the touchscreen. Text is entered by

tapping the on-screen keyboard with a finger or stylus.

 An external keyboard connected via USB, Infrared, or Bluetooth. Some users may choose
a chorded keyboard for one-handed use.
 Handwriting recognition, where letters or words are written on the touchscreen, and the
PDA converts the input to text. Recognition and computation of handwritten horizontal and vertical
formulas, such as "1 + 2 =", may also be a feature.

 Stroke recognition allows the user to make a predefined set of strokes on the touchscreen,
sometimes in a special input area, representing the various characters to be input. The strokes are
often simplified character shapes, making them easier for the device to recognize. One widely-
known stroke recognition system is Palm's Graffiti).

Despite rigorous research and development projects, end-users experience mixed results with
handwriting recognition systems. Some find it frustrating and inaccurate, while others are satisfied with
the quality of the recognition.[3]

Touchscreen PDAs intended for business use, such as the BlackBerry and Palm Treo, usually also full
keyboards and scroll wheels or thumbwheels to facilitate data entry and navigation.

Many touchscreen PDAs support some form of external keyboard as well. Specialized folding
keyboards, which offer a full-sized keyboard but collapse into a compact size for transport, are
available for many models. External keyboards may attach to the PDA directly, using a cable, or may
use wireless technology such as infrared or Bluetooth to connect to the PDA.

Newer PDAs, such as the Apple iPhone, Apple iPod Touch, HTC HD2, and Palm Pre, Palm Pre
Plus, Palm Pixi, Palm Pixi Plus, include more advanced forms of touchscreen that can register multiple
touches simultaneously. These "multi-touch" displays allow for more sophisticated interfaces using
various gestures entered with one or more fingers.

[edit]Memory cards
Although many early PDAs did not have memory card slots, now most have either some form
of Secure Digital (SD) slot or a CompactFlashslot. Although originally designed for memory, Secure
Digital Input/Output (SDIO) and CompactFlash cards are available that provide accessories like Wi-Fi
or digital cameras, if the device can support them. Some PDAs also have a USB port, mainly for USB
flash drives.[dubious – discuss] Some PDAs use microSD cards, which are electronically compatible with SD
cards, but have a much smaller physical size.

[edit]Wired connectivity
While early PDAs connected to a user's personal computer via serial ports or another proprietary
connection,[specify] many today connect via a USB cable. PDAs are not typically able to connect to each
other via USB, as USB requires one machine to act as a "host," which isn't a typical PDA function.
Some early PDAs were able to connect to the Internet indirectly by means off an external modem
connected via the PDA's serial port or "sync" connector,[4] or directly by using an expansion card that
provided an Ethernet port.

[edit]Wireless connectivity
Most modern PDAs have Bluetooth a popular wireless protocol for mobile devices. Bluetooth can be
used to connect keyboards, headsets,GPS receivers, and other nearby accessories. It's also possible
to transfer files between PDAs that have Bluetooth.

Many modern PDAs have Wi-Fi wireless network connectivity, and can connect to Wi-Fi hotspots.

All smartphones, and some other modern PDAs like the Apple iPod touch, can connect to Wireless
Wide Area Networks, such as those provided by cellular telecommunications companies.

Older PDAs typically had an IrDA (infrared) port allowing short-range, line-of-sight wireless
communication. Few current models use this technology, as it has been supplanted by Bluetooth and
Wi-Fi. IrDA allows communication between two PDAs, or between a PDA and any device with
an IrDA port or adapter. Some printers have IrDA receivers,[5] allowing IrDA-equipped PDAs to print to
them, if the PDA's operating system supports it. Most universal PDA keyboards use infrared
technology because many older PDAs have it.[citation needed] Infrared technology is low-cost and has the
advantage of being allowed aboard aircraft.


Most PDAs can synchronize their data with applications on a user's personal computer. This allows the
user to update contact, schedule, or other information on their computer, using software such
as Microsoft Outlook or ACT!, and have that same data transferred to PDA—or transfer updated
information from the PDA back to the computer. This eliminates the need for the user to update their
data in two places.

Synchronization also prevents the loss of information stored on the device if it is lost, stolen, or
destroyed. When the PDA is repaired or replaced, it can be "re-synced" with the computer, restoring
the user's data.

Some users find that data input is quicker on their computer than on their PDA, since text input via a
touchscreen or small-scale keyboard is slower than a full-size keyboard. Transferring data to a PDA
via the computer is therefore a lot quicker than having to manually input all data on the handheld
device.[citation needed]
Most PDAs come with the ability to synchronize to a computer. This is done through synchronization
software provided with the handheld, or sometime with the computer's operating system. Examples of
synchronization software include:

 HotSync Manager, for Palm OS PDAs

 Microsoft ActiveSync, used by Windows XP and older Windows operating systems to

synchronize with Windows Mobile, Pocket PC, and Windows CE PDAs, as well as PDAs
running iOS, Palm OS, and Symbian

 Microsoft Windows Mobile Device Center for Windows Vista, which supports Microsoft
Windows Mobile and Pocket PC devices.

 Apple iTunes, used on Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows to sync iOS devices (such as the
iPhone and iPod touch)

 iSync, included with Mac OS X, can synchronize many SyncML-enabled PDAs

 BlackBerry Desktop Software, used to sync BlackBerry devices

These programs allow the PDA to be synchronized with a personal information manager, which may
be part of the computer's operating system, provided with the PDA, or sold separately by a third party.
For example, the RIM BlackBerry comes with RIM's Desktop Managerprogram, which can synchronize
to both Microsoft Outlook and ACT!.

Other PDAs come only with their own proprietary software. For example, some early Palm OS PDAs
came only with Palm Desktop, while later Palm PDAs—such as the Treo 650—have the ability to sync
to Palm Desktop aor Microsoft Outlook. Microsoft's ActiveSync and Windows Mobile Device Center
only synchronize with Microsoft Outlook or a Microsoft Exchange server.[citation needed]

Third-party synchronization software is also available for some PDAs from companies
like CommonTime and CompanionLink. Third-party software can be used to synchronize PDAs to
other personal information managers that are not supported by the PDA manufacturers (for
example, GoldMine and IBM Lotus Notes).

[edit]Wireless synchronization

Some PDAs can synchronize some or all of their data using their wireless networking capabilities,
rather than having to be directly connected to a personal computer via a cable.

Apple iOS devices, like the iPhone, iPod Touch, and iPad, can use Apple's MobileMe subscription
service to synchronize calendar, address book, mail account, Internet bookmark, and other data with
one or more Macintosh or Windows computers using Wi-Fi or cellular data connections.[6]
Palm's webOS smartphones primarily sync with the cloud. For example, if Gmail is used, information in
contacts, email, and calendar can be synchronized between the phone and Google's servers.

RIM sells BlackBerry Enterprise Server to corporations so that corporate BlackBerry users can
wirelessly synchronize their PDAs with the company's Microsoft Exchange Server, IBM Lotus Domino,
or Novell GroupWise servers.[7] Email, calendar entries, contacts, tasks, and memos kept on the
company's server are automatically synchronized with the BlackBerry.[8]

[edit]Automobile navigation
This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may
be challenged and removed.(August 2010)

Some PDAs include Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers; this is particularly true of
smartphones. Other PDAs are compatible with external GPS-receiver add-ons that use the PDA's
processor and screen to display location information.[9]

PDAs with GPS functionality can be used for automotive navigation. PDAs are increasingly being fitted
as standard on new cars.

PDA-based GPS can also display traffic conditions, perform dynamic routing, and show known
locations of roadside mobile radar guns.TomTom, Garmin, and iGO offer GPS navigation software for

[edit]Ruggedized PDAs
Some businesses and government organizations rely upon rugged PDAs, sometimes known
as enterprise digital assistants (EDAs), for mobile data applications. EDAs often have extra features
for data capture, such as barcode readers, radio-frequency identification (RFID) readers, magnetic
stripe card readers, or smart card readers.

Typical applications include:

 supply chain management in warehouses

 package delivery

 route accounting

 medical treatment and recordkeeping in hospitals

 facilities maintenance and management

 parking enforcement

 access control and security

 capital asset maintenance

 meter reading by utilities

 "wireless waitress" applications in restaurants and hospitality venues

[edit]Medical and scientific uses

This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may
be challenged and removed.(August 2010)

Many companies have developed PDA products aimed at the medical professions' unique needs, such
as drug databases, treatment information, and medical news. Services such as AvantGo translate
medical journals into PDA-readable formats. WardWatch organizes medical records, providing
reminders of information such as the treatment regimens of patients and programs to doctors
making ward rounds. Pendragon and Syware provide tools for conducting research with PDAs,
allowing the user to enter data into a centralized database using their PDA. Microsoft Visual Studio
and Sun Java also provide programming tools for developing survey instruments on the handheld.
These development tools allow for integration with SQL databases that are stored on the handheld
and can be synchronized with a desktop- or server-based database.

PDAs have been shown to aid diagnosis and drug selection and some studies[who?] have concluded that
when patients use PDAs to record their symptoms, they communicate more effectively with hospitals
during follow-up visits.

The development of Sensor Web technology may lead to wearable bodily sensors to monitor ongoing
conditions, like diabetes or epilepsy, which would alert patients and doctors when treatment is required
using wireless communication and PDAs.

[edit]Educational uses
This article is written like a personal reflection or essay and may
require cleanup. Pleasehelp improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic
style. (December 2007)
This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may
be challenged and removed.(August 2010)

As mobile technology becomes more common, it is increasingly being used as a learning tool. Some
educational institutions have embracedM-Learning, integrating PDAs into their teaching practices.

PDAs and handheld devices are allowed in many classrooms for digital note-taking. Students can
spell-check, modify, and amend their class notes on the PDA. Some educators[who?] distribute course
material through the Internet or infrared file-sharing functions of the PDA. Textbook publishers have
begun to release e-books, or electronic textbooks, which can be uploaded directly to a PDA, reducing
the number of textbooks students must carry.[10]
Software companies have developed PDA programs to meet the instructional needs of educational
institutions, such as dictionaries, thesauri,word processing software, encyclopedias, and digital lesson

[edit]Recreational uses
PDAs may be used by music enthusiasts to play a variety of music file formats. Many PDAs include
the functionality of an MP3 player.

Road rally enthusiasts can use PDAs to calculate distance, speed, and time. This information may be
used for navigation, or the PDA's GPS functions can be used for navigation.

Underwater divers can use PDAs to plan breathing gas mixtures and decompression schedules using
software such as "V-Planner."

[edit]PDAs for people with disabilities

This section is written like an essay or argument for universal design and may
requirecleanup. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic
style. (August 2010)
This section may stray from the topic of the article into the topic of another
article,occupational therapy. Please help improve this section or discuss this issue
on the talk page.(August 2010)
This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may
be challenged and removed.(August 2010)

PDAs offer varying degrees of accessibility for people with differing abilities, based on the particular
device and service. People with vision, hearing, mobility, or speech impairments may be able to use
PDAs on a limited basis. This use may be enhanced by accessibility software (e.g., speech
recognition for verbal input instead of manual input). Universal design is relevant to PDAs as well as
other technology, and a viable solution for many user-access issues, though it has yet to be
consistently integrated into the design of popular consumer PDA devices.

PDAs are useful for people with traumatic brain injury or posttraumatic stress disorder, as seen in
troops returning home from the Iraq Warand Operation Enduring Freedom. PDAs help address
memory problems, helping affected people with daily life organization and reminders. As of quite
recently[when?], the Department of Veterans' Affairs has issued thousands of PDAs to troops who need
them. Occupational therapists have taken on a crucial role within this population helping these
veterans return to the normality of life they once had.

[edit]Popular consumer PDAs

 Abacus PDA Watch

 Acer N Series

 AlphaSmart

 Amida Simputer

 BlackBerry

 Encore Simputer


 Fujitsu Siemens Computers Pocket LOOX


 HTC Corporation (Dopod, Qtek)'s series of Windows Mobile PDA/phones (HTC)

 HTC, especially the HTC P3470 (a.k.a. Pharos)

 I-mate

 Apple Inc. iPod touch, iPhone

 Palm, Inc. (Tungsten E2, TX, Treo, Zire Handheld, Pre, and Pixi)

 PocketMail (email PDA with built-in acoustic coupler)

 Royal

 Samsung Moment

 Sharp Wizard and Sharp Zaurus - obsolete

[edit]Discontinued PDAs

 Apple Newton

 Atari Portfolio

 Casio Pocket Viewer

 Dell Axim

 GMate Yopy

 Handspring (company)

 iPAQ

 HP Jornada Pocket PC

 LifeDrive

 NEC MobilePro

 Osaris running EPOC OS distributed by Oregon Scientific

 Palm (PDA)

 Philips Nino

 Psion
 Roland PMA-5 (Personal Music Assistant)[11]

 Sony CLIÉ

 Sony Magic Link with the Magic Cap operating system

 Tapwave Zodiac

 Toshiba e310

[edit]Rugged PDAs

 Motorola (Symbol Technologies)

 Intermec

 Psion Teklogix

 Datalogic Mobile

 Honeywell (Hand Held Products)

 Pidion

 Skeye (Hoeft & Wessel AG)

 Trimble Navigation

 Handheld Group

 American industrial systems (Mil-Spec, IP67)

 Unitech

[edit]See also

 Automotive navigation system

 Construction field computing

 Danger Hiptop

 Desknote

 G1

 Graffiti (Palm OS)

 Hipster PDA

 Information appliance

 iOS (Apple)

 Laptop

 Medical calculator

 Mobile software
 MLearning

 Mobile Web

 Netbook

 Palm OS

 Personal area network

 Personal communicator

 Personal Information Display

 Personal information management

 Personal navigation assistant(PNA)

 Screen protector

 Smartphone

 Subnotebook

 Tablet PC

 Ultra-Mobile PC

 Wearable computer

 Sena Cases

 Timex Datalink

 Virtual assistance


Wikimedia Commons has

media related to: Personal
digital assistants

1. ^ The History of Personal Digital Assistants 1980 – 2000

2. ^ History of the HP 95LX computer

3. ^ Handwriting recognition accuracy:

 Kahney, Leander (August 29, 2002). "Apple's Newton Just Won't Drop". Wired. Condé

Nast Publications. Retrieved August 21, 2010.

 Ringel, Edward (1997), "Newton? Get Serious!", MacTech Magazine 13 (4):

Software, ISSN 1067-8360, "In sum, I would not be averse to using stylus input for routine

"burst" entry on the MP2000."

 Blickenstorfer, Conrad M. (June 2000), From the editor: Commentary by Pen Computing

Magazine's editor-in-chief, "I have used [handwriting recognition] for years, taking notes

during lectures and often writing whole articles while on airplanes."

 See user testing results discussed in part 6 of this A.I. Magazine article on Newton

HWR[broken citation]

 MessagePad 2000 review at Small Dog Electronics[broken citation]

 Klingsporn, Geoffrey (May 1997). "The Postgraduate Newton: a month in academia with

Apple's new handheld computer". The History and Macintosh Society. note-taking. Retrieved

August 21, 2010.

 Wittmann, Michael C.. "What's Right With The Newton: Part I: Handwriting recognition".

Retrieved August 21, 2010.

4. ^ Patrick (December 14, 2006). "Palm PDA Cables". DeepWave. Retrieved August 21,


5. ^ For example: "HP LaserJet 5P and 5MP Printers - Product Specifications". HP Business

Support Center. Hewlett-Packard. Retrieved August 21, 2010.

6. ^ Mobileme#iOS

7. ^ "BlackBerry - Enterprise Server - BlackBerry BES Server". Research In Motion.

Retrieved August 21, 2010.

8. ^ "BlackBerry - Business Software Features". Research In Motion. Retrieved August 21,


9. ^ "Palm Support: Palm GPS Navigator 3207NA". Retrieved August 21, 2010.

10. ^ "10 tips to save on college textbooks". Centre Daily Times. August 20,

2010. Retrieved August 21, 2010.

11. ^ Roland PMA-5

[show]v · d · eMobile operating systems

[show]v · d · eComputer sizes

Categories: Personal digital assistants | Mobile computers | Information appliances | Time


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Home > topics> Technology Email this page
Article Rating
What is a Personal Digital Assistant
Average Score: 5
(PDA) - Overview Votes: 5
Author: wikipedia, Posted on Tuesday, May 02 @ 02:50:29 IST
by RxPG

Add to My Pages Printer Friendly Email Story

Download Story Technology alerts

Most Read Article

Personal digital assistants (also called PDAs) are handheld
devices that were originally designed as personal What is a Personal Digital
organizers, but became much more versatile over the years. A Assistant (PDA) - Overview
basic PDA usually includes date book, address book, task list,
memo pad, clock, and calculator software. Newer PDAs also have
both color screens and audio capabilities, enabling them to be
used as mobile phones, web browsers or media players. Many Related Links
PDAs can access the Internet, intranets or extranets via Wi-Fi, or
Wireless Wide-Area Networks (WWANs).


Touch screen
Many original PDAs, such as the Palm Pilot, featured touch
screens for user interaction, having only a few buttons usually · Technology section
reserved for shortcuts to often used programs. Touch screen · Articles by wikipedia
PDAs, including Windows Pocket PC devices, usually have a · Add to my pages
detachable stylus that can be used on the touch screen. · Printer friendly version
Interaction is then done by tapping the screen to activate buttons · PDF version
or menu choices, and dragging the stylus to for example highlight · Email article
text. · Feedback on this article
· Medical tutorials
Text input is usually done in one of two ways:
* Using a virtual keyboard, where a keyboard is shown on the · Related forum posts
touch screen. Input is done by tapping the letters. · Related articles
* Using letter or word recognition, where letters or words are · Related downloads
written on the touch screen, and then "translated" to letters in the · Submit article
currently activated text field. · Technology alerts
· Technology books
PDA's for business use, including the BlackBerry and Treo, have a · Technology past papers
full keyboard and scroll wheel or thumb wheel to facilitate data
entry and navigation. Most read story about
Synchronization What is a Personal Digital
An important functionality for PDAs is the possibility of Assistant (PDA) - Overview
synchronizing data with a contact database, such as Microsoft
Outlook or ACT!, hosted on a personal computers or corporate
server. The data synchronized ensures that the PDA has an
accurate list of contacts, appointments and e-mail, allowing users
to access the same information on the PDA as the host computer.

The synchronizing also prevents the loss of information stored on

the device in case it is lost, stolen, or destroyed. Another
advantage is that data input is usually a lot quicker on a personal
computer, since text input via a touch screen is still not quite
optimal. Transferring data to a PDA via the computer is therefore
a lot quicker than having to manually input all data on the
handheld device.

Most PDAs come with the ability to synchronize to a personal

computer. This is done through synchronization software provided
with the handheld, such as HotSync Manager, which comes with
Palm OS handhelds, or Microsoft ActiveSync, which comes with
Windows Mobile handhelds.

These programs allow the PDA to be synchronized with a personal

information manager. This personal information manager may be
an outside program or a proprietary program. For example, the
BlackBerry PDA comes with the Desktop Manager program which
can synchronize to both Microsoft Outlook and ACT!. Other PDAs
come only with their own proprietary software. For example,
some early Palm OS PDAs came only with Palm Desktop while
later Palms such as the Treo 650 has the built-in ability to sync to
Palm Desktop and/or Microsoft Outlook. Third-party
synchronization software is also available for many PDAs from
companies like Intellisync and CompanionLink. This software
synchronizes these handhelds to other personal information
managers which are not supported by the PDA manufacturers,
such as GoldMine and Lotus Notes.

Like a personal computer, it is possible to install additional
software on most PDAs. Software can be bought or downloaded
from the Internet, allowing users to personalize their PDAs to
their liking. Some PDAs also allow for adding hardware. The most
common is a memory card slot, which allows the users to get
additional and exchangeable storage space on their handheld
devices. There are also miniature keyboards that can be
connected to some PDAs for quicker text input. PDAs with
Bluetooth can also use Bluetooth devices like headsets and
foldable keyboards with their PDAs.

Other functionality
Other functions are commonly added to PDAs. Some examples
* Audio recording
* Camera functionality, allowing users to take photos or short
video clips
* Map functionality, with a GPS receiver for localization
* Cell Phone functionality, which lets users make and receive
phone calls, SMS and MMS messages.
* Media Player abilities

Ruggedized PDAs
For many years businesses and government organizations have
relied upon rugged PDAs for mobile data applications. Typical
applications include supply chain management in warehouses,
package delivery, route accounting, medical treatment and record
keeping in hospitals, facilities maintenance and management,
parking enforcement, access control and security, capital asset
maintenance, meter reading by utilities, and "wireless waitress"
applications in restaurants and hospitality venues.

The term "personal digital assistant" was coined on January 7,
1992 by then Apple Computer CEO John Sculley at the Consumer
Electronics Show in Las Vegas, Nevada, referring to the Apple
Newton. Earlier devices like the Psion and Sharp Wizard already
had the functionality to be considered PDAs, however. In fact,
PDAs by other names were available as early as the mid-1970s --
first as very advanced calculators, then as electronic organizers,
and later as palmtops. [1].

PDAs are some times referred to as "Palms" or "Palm Pilot" after

an early PDA created by Palm, Inc. This usage is a case of
genericized trademark, similar to referring to a tissue as a
"Kleenex", a bandage as a "Band-Aid", or a pen as a "Biro".

The currently major PDA operating systems are:
* Palm OS - owned by Palm, Inc.
* Windows Mobile (Pocket PC), (based on the Windows CE kernel)
- owned by Microsoft
* RIM for the BlackBerry - owned by Research In Motion
* Many operating systems based on the Linux kernel - free (not
owned by any company) These include:
o GPE - Based on GTK+/X11
o OPIE/Qtopia - based on Qt/E Qtopia is developed by Trolltech,
OPIE is a fork of Qtopia developed by volunteers
* Symbian OS (formerly EPOC) owned by Ericsson, Panasonic,
Nokia, Samsung, Siemens and Sony Ericsson

Many PDAs run using a variation of the ARM architecture (usually
denoted by the Intel XScale trademark). This encompasses a class
of RISC microprocessors that are widely used in mobile devices
and embedded systems, and its design was influenced strongly by
a popular 1970s/1980s CPU, the MOS Technology 6502.

Increasing popularity
According to a Gartner market study, the overall market for PDAs
grew by 20.7% in the third quarter (Q3) of 2005, compared to Q3
2004, with marketshare resolving as follows (by operating
* Palm OS for Palm, Inc. PDAs and some other licensees- 14.9%
* Windows Mobile for PDAs that comply with the Microsoft's
Pocket PC specifications - 49.2% (increasing)
* RIM BlackBerry for BlackBerry PDA (produced by Research In
Motion) - 25.0% (increasing)
* Symbian OS - 5.8% (increasing)
* Various operating systems based on the Linux kernel for various
special designed PDAs (many other supported) - 0.7% (stable)
* Other - 4.4% (stable)

The reason usually cited for the resumption in PDA market growth
(after market declines in 2002 - 2004) is the growing interest in
PDAs as Personal Communicators offering wireless email
capabilities (such as BlackBerries), and PDAs with built-in GPS
capabilities for navigation. It is possible that Smartphones, mobile
phones with PDA-like abilities, will curtail growth in the sales of
PDAs without telephony capabilty in the near future, as they
subsume more of the same functions.

Popular Consumer PDAs

* Palm IIIxe PDA
* Enlarge
* Palm IIIxe PDA
* Psion
* Apple Newton
* BlackBerry
* hp iPAQ Pocket PC (Originally Compaq iPAQ until HP merged in
* Palm Pilot, Tungsten, LifeDrive, Treo and Zire
* Sharp Wizard and Zaurus
* Sony CLIÉ
* High Tech Computer Corporation's series of Windows Mobile
* Tapwave Zodiac
* AlphaSmart Dana
* Dell Axim
* GMate Yopy
* Fujitsu Siemens Loox
* List of Palm OS Devices
* Abacus PDA Watch
* PocketMail (email PDA with inbuilt acoustic coupler)

Note: This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation

License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Personal digital

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