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UNIT 5

FLUID DYNAMICS

OBJECTIVES

- Potential energy

- Kinetic energy

- Pressure energy

in

- horizontal pipe

- inclined pipe

- horizontal venturi meter

- inclined venturi meter

- small orifice

- simple pitot tube

horizontal venturi meter.

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/2

INPUT

A liquid may possess three forms of energy:

If a liquid of weight W is at a height of z above datum line

Potential energy = Wz

Potential energy per unit weight = z

The potential energy per unit weight has dimensions of Nm/N and is measured

as a length or head z and can be called the potential head.

When a fluid flows in a continuous stream under pressure it can do work. If the

area of cross-section of the stream of fluid is a, then force due to pressure p on

cross-section is pa.

W

Volume passing cross-section =

ω

W

Distance moved by liquid =

ωa

W

Work done = force × distance = p a ×

ωa

p

=W

ω

p p

pressure energy per unit weight = =

ω ρg

Similarly the pressure energy per unit weight p/W is equivalent to a head and is

referred to as the pressure head.

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/3

1W 2

Kinetic energy = v

2 g

v2

Kinetic energy per unit weight =

2g

v2

The kinetic energy per unit weight is also measured as a length and

2g

referred to as the velocity head.

The total energy of the liquid is the sum of these three forms of energy

p v2

Total energy per unit weight = z + +

ω 2g

Bernoulli’s Theorem states that the total energy of each particle of a body of fluid is

the same provided that no energy enters or leaves the system at any point. The division

of this energy between potential, pressure and kinetic energy may vary, but the total

remains constant. In symbols:

v2 p

H=z+ + = cons tan t

ω 2g

Figure 5.1

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/4

By Bernoulli’s Theorem,

Total energy per unit weight at section 1 = Total energy per unit weight at section 2

p1 v12 p v

z1 + + = z2 + 2 + 2

ω 2g ω 2g Do you know :

z = potential head The Bernoulli equation is

p named in honour of Daniel

= pressure head

ω Bernoulli (1700-1782).

v2 Many phenomena

= velocity head regarding the flow of

2g liquids and gases can be

H = Total head analysed by simply using

the Bernoulli equation.

Bernoulli’s Eqution is the most important and useful equation in fluid mechanics. It

may be written,

2 2

v p v p

z1 + 1 + 1 = z1 + 2 + 2

2g ω 2g ω

the equation relates the state at two points along a single streamline (not

conditions on two different streamlines).

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/5

Example 5.1

36 m

Figure 5.2

Water flows through a pipe 36 m from the sea level as shown in figure 5.2. Pressure in

the pipe is 410 kN/m2 and the velocity is 4.8 m/s. Calculate total energy of every

weight of unit water above the sea level.

p v2

=z+ +

ω 2g

= 36 +

410 × 10 3

+

(4.8) 2

= 78.96 J / N

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/6

Example 5.2

N

5m 5m

3m

Figure 5.3

A bent pipe labeled MN measures 5 m and 3 m respectively above the datum line. The

diameter M and N are both 20 cm and 5 cm. The water pressure is 5 kg/cm2. If the

velocity at M is 1 m/s, determine the pressure at N in kg/cm2.

p v p v

zM + M + M = zN + N + N …(1)

ω 2g ω 2g

QM = Q N

vM × aM = v N × a N …(2)

From (2),

vM × aM

vN =

aN

= (1)

(0.2)2

(0.05)2

= 16 m / s

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/7

Given p M = 5 kg / cm 2

5 × 9.81

=

0.0001

= 490.5 kN / m 2

From (1),

⎡ vM 2 − v N 2 pM ⎤

pN = ⎢ + + ( z M − z N )⎥ × ω

⎣⎢ 2g ω ⎦⎥

⎡1 − (16)2 490500 ⎤

=⎢ + + (5 − 3)⎥ × 9810

⎣ 2 × 9.81 9810 ⎦

= 382620 N / m 2

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/8

ACTIVITY 5A

INPUT…!

5.2 Water is flowing along a pipe with a velocity of 7.2 m/s. Express this as a velocity

head in meters of water. What is the corresponding pressure in kN/m2?

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/9

FEEDBACK ON ACTIVITY 5A

5.1 Bernoulli’s Theorem states that the total energy of each particle of a body of

fluid is the same provided that no energy enters or leaves the system at any

point.

p v2

H=z+ + = cons tan t

ω 2g

v2

=

(7.2) = 2.64 m

2

2 g 2(9.81)

p

H= = 2.64

ω

p = 2.64ω

= 2.64(9810 )

= 25898.4 N / m 2

= 25.9 kN / m 2

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/10

INPUT

non-viscous, incompressible fluid in non-rotational and steady-stream lined

flow. Although venturi meters can be applied to the measurement of gas, they

are most commonly used for liquids. The following treatment is limited to

incompressible fluids.

Converging Throat

Cone

Entry Diverging Section

Direction of

Section

Leads 2

gauge ρ2

filled with v2

Section

x liquid in

1

pipeline,

ρ1

v1 Spec.wt. of

gauge

liquid= ωg

Figure 5.4

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/11

The venture meter consists of a short converging conical tube leading

to a cylindrical portion called “throat” which is followed by a

diverging section.

The entrance and exit diameter is the same as that of the pipe line into

which it is inserted. The angle of the convergent cone is usually 21o,

the length of throat is equal to the throat diameter, and the angle of the

divergent cone is 5o to 7o to ensure the minimum loss of energy.

Pressure tappings are taken at the entrance and at the throat, either

from the single holes or from a number of holes around the

circumference connecting to an annular chamber or Piezometer ring,

and the pressure difference is measured by a suitable gauge.

For continuity of flow velocity v1 at the entry (section 1) will be less

than the velocity v2 at the throat (section 2) since a1v1 = a2v2 and a1 is

greater than a2. The kinetic energy in the throat will be greater than at

the entrance and since by Bernoulli’s theorem the total energy at the

two sections is the same, the pressure energy at the throat will be less

than that at the entrance. The pressure difference thus created is

dependent on the rate of flow through the meter.

with a smooth constriction in its bore at the middle. It is

found in carburetors, fluid flow meters, and aircraft

airspeed indicators. This version is made of glass and has

three side tubes for attaching a manometer. When high

pressure air is applied from the air tank, the water level in

the three manometer legs is clearly different.

Adapted from :

http://demoroom.physics.ncsu.edu:8770/html/demos/353.

html

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/12

Derivation for the theoretical discharge through a horizontal venture meter and

modification to obtain the actual discharge.

Putting ;

p1 = pressure of section 1

v1 = velocity of section 1

A1 = area of section 1

p2 = pressure of section 2

v1 = velocity of section 1

A1 = area of section 1

2 2

v p v p

z1 + 1 + 1 = z1 + 2 + 2

2g ω 2g ω

v 2 − v1 p − p2

2 2

= 1 ——————(1)

2g ω

A

v 2 = 1 v1

A2

π d2

where A =

4

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/13

2⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ p − p2 ⎞

2

v1 ⎜⎜ 1 2 − 1⎟⎟ = 2 g ⎜ 1 ⎟

⎝ A2 ⎠ ⎝ ω ⎠

A2 ⎡ ⎛ p1 − p 2 ⎞⎤

v1 = ⎢2 g ⎜ ω ⎟⎥

(A )

So,

1

2

− A2

2

⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦

A1 A2

Discharge, Qtheory = A1v1 = (2 gH ) ——————(2)

A1 − A2

2 2

p1 − p 2

Where H = = pressure difference expressed as a head of the liquid

ω

flowing in meter venturi.

A1

If area ratio, m = equation (2) becomes,

A2

2 gH

Qtheory = A1

m2 −1

multiplying by the coefficient of discharge Cd found experimentally.

2 gH

Actual discharge, Qactual = C d × Qtheory = C d A1 —————(3)

m2 −1

p1 − p 2 = x(ω g − ω )

p1 − p 2 ⎛ωg ⎞

H= = x⎜⎜ − 1⎟⎟

ω ⎝ω ⎠

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/14

Example 5.3

A venture tube tapers from 300 mm in diameter at the entrance to 100 mm in diameter

at the throat; the discharge coefficient is 0.98. A differential mercury U-tube gauge is

connected between pressure tapping at the entrance at throat. If the meter is used to

measure the flow of water and the water fills the leads to the U-tube and is in contact

with the mercury, calculate the discharge when the difference of level in the U-tube is

55 mm.

2 gH

Qactual = c d A1

m2 −1

So,

x = 55 mm

ωg

ω = 13.6

Cd = 0.98

3.142(0.3)

2

A1 = = 0.0706 m 2

4

2 2

A d ⎛ 12 ⎞

m = 1 = 12 = ⎜ ⎟ = 9

A2 d 2 ⎝4⎠

2 × 9.81 × 0.693

Actual discharge, Qactual = 0.98 × 0.0706

81 − 1

Qactual = 0.0285m 3 / s

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/15

Example 5.4

A horizontal venturi meter measures the flow of oil of specific gravity 0.9 in a 75 mm

diameter pipe line. If the difference of pressure between the full bore and the throat

tapping is 34.5 kN/m2 and the area ratio, m is 4, calculate the rate of flow, assuming a

coefficient of discharge is 0.97.

2 gH

Qactual = c d A1

m2 −1

following through the meter,

p

H =

ω

34.5 × 10 3

=

0.9 × 9.81 × 10 3

= 3.92 m of oil

3.142(0.075)

2

A1 = = 0.00441 m 2

4

m =4

Cd = 0.97

So,

2 × 9.81 × 3.92

Actual discharge, Qactual = 0.97 × 0.00441

16 − 1

Qactual = 0.0106 m 3 / s

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/16

venturi meter. This will show that the U-type of gauge is used to measure the

pressure difference. The gauge reading will be the same for a given discharge

irrespective of the inclination of the meter.

In Figure 5.5, at the entrance to the meter; the area, velocity, pressure

and elevation are A1, v1, p1 and z1 respectively and at the throat, the

corresponding values are A2, v2, p2 and z2.

ω = spec. wt of

liquid in pipeline

A2, v2,

A1, v1, p2 and

p1 and z2

z1

Spec.wt = ωg

Z1 ( z1-y )

Z2

X

P Q

y

Figure 5.5

2 2

v p v p

z1 + 1 + 1 = z1 + 2 + 2

2g ω 2g ω

⎧⎛ p − p 2 ⎞ ⎫

v 2 − v1 = 2 g ⎨⎜ 1 ⎟ + ( z1 − z 2 )⎬

2 2

——————(1)

⎩⎝ ω ⎠ ⎭

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/17

A1v1 = A2 v 2

or

A1

v2 = v1 = mv1

A2

where

A1

m = area ratio =

A2

⎧⎛ p − p 2 ⎞ ⎫

v 2 − v1 = 2 g ⎨⎜ 1 ⎟ + ( z1 − z 2 )⎬

2 2

⎩⎝ ω ⎠ ⎭

⎡ ⎧⎛ p1 − p 2 ⎞ ⎫⎤

⎟ + (z1 − z 2 )⎬⎥

1

v1 = ⎢2 g ⎨⎜

(m 2

)

−1 ⎣ ⎩⎝ ω ⎠ ⎭⎦

C d × A1 ⎡ ⎧⎛ p1 − p 2 ⎞ ⎫⎤

Qactual = ⎢ ⎨

2 g ⎜ ⎟ + ( z − z )

2 ⎬⎥ ——— (2)

(m 2

−1) ⎣ ⎩⎝ ω ⎠

1

⎭⎦

Considering the U-tube gauge and assuming that the connections are

filled with the liquid in the pipe line, pressures at level PQ are the same in both

limbs,

p z = p 2 + w(z1 − y )

p z = p 2 + ω ( z 2 − y − x) + wg x

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/18

Thus,

Pressure for left limb = Pressure for right limb

p 2 + ω ( z1 − y ) = p 2 + ω ( z 2 − y − x ) + w g x

p 2 + ω z1 − ω z 2 = p 2 + ω z 2 − ω y − ω x + w g x

p1 − p 2 ⎛ωg ⎞

+ z1 − z 2 = x⎜⎜ − 1⎟⎟

ω ⎝ω ⎠

C d A1 ⎡ ⎛ωg ⎞⎤

Qactual = ⎢ 2 gx⎜⎜ − 1⎟⎟⎥

( )

m 2 − 1 ⎣⎢ ⎝ω ⎠⎥⎦

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/19

Example 5.5

A vertical venturi meter measures the flow of oil of specific gravity 0.82 and has an

entrance of 125 mm diameter and throat of 50 mm diameter. There are pressure gauges

at the entrance and at the throat, which is 300 mm above the entrance. If the coefficient

for the meter is 0.97 and pressure difference is 27.5 kN/m2, calculate the actual

discharge in m3/s.

2

1

z1 z2

In equation (2),

C d × A1 ⎡ ⎧⎛ p1 − p 2 ⎞ ⎫⎤

Q actual = ⎢2 g ⎨⎜ ⎟ + ( z1 − z 2 )⎬⎥

(m 2

−1) ⎣ ⎩⎝ ω ⎠ ⎭⎦

This is independent of z1 and z2, so that the gauge reading x for a given rate of

flow, Qactual does not depend on the inclination of the meter.

Then,

C d × A1 ⎡ ⎧⎛ p1 − p 2 ⎞ ⎫⎤

Q actual = ⎢2 g ⎨⎜ ⎟ + ( z1 − z 2 )⎬⎥

(m 2

−1) ⎣ ⎩⎝ ω ⎠ ⎭⎦

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/20

So,

3.142(0.125)

2

A1 = = 0.01226 m 2

4

p1 − p 2 = 27.5 × 10 3 kN / m 2

ω = 0.82 × 9.81 × 10 3 N / m 2

z1 − z 2 = −0.3 m

2 2

d1 ⎛ 125 ⎞

m= 2 =⎜ ⎟ = 6.25

d2 ⎝ 50 ⎠

Cd = 0.97

Therefore,

C d × A1 ⎡ ⎧⎛ p1 − p 2 ⎞ ⎫⎤

Q actual = ⎢2 g ⎨⎜ ⎟ + ( z1 − z 2 )⎬⎥

(m 2

)

−1 ⎣ ⎩⎝ ω ⎠ ⎭⎦

Qactual = ⎢2 × 9.81⎜⎜ − 0.3 ⎟⎟⎥ = 0.01535m 3 / s

((6.25) 2

)

−1 ⎣ ⎝ 0.82 × 9.81 × 10

3

⎠⎦

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/21

Example 5.6

The water supply to a gas water heater contracts from 10mm in diameter at A (Figure

5.6) to 7 mm in diameter at B. If the pipe is horizontal, calculate the difference in

pressure between A and B when the velocity of water at A is 4.5 m/s.

The pressure difference operates the gas control through connections which is taken to

a horizontal cylinder in which a piston of 20 mm diameter moves. Ignoring friction

and the area of the piston connecting rod, what is the force on the piston?

d1 d2

p1 ,v1 p2 v2

A B

Figure 5.6

In the Figure 5.6 the diameter, pressure and velocity at A are d1, p1 and v1 ; and at B

are d2, p2 and v2.

2 2

v1 p v p

+ 1 = 2 + 2

2g ω 2g ω

p1 − p 2 v − v1

2 2

= 2

ω 2g

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/22

A1v1 = A2 v 2

or

⎛ πd 1 2 ⎞ ⎛ πd 2 ⎞

⎜ ⎟v1 = ⎜ 2 ⎟v 2

⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎜ 4 ⎟

⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

then,

d1 × v1 = d 2 × v 2

2 2

So,

2

⎛d ⎞

v 2 = v1 ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟

⎝ d2 ⎠

Putting v1 = 4.5 m / s , d 1 = 10 mm , d 2 = 7 mm

2

⎛ 10 ⎞

v 2 = 4.5⎜ ⎟

⎝7⎠

= 9.18 m / s

and

p1 − p 2 v 2 − v1

2 2

=

ω 2g

p1 − p 2 9.18 2 − 4.5 2

= = 3.26 m 2

ω 2 × 9.81

p1 − p 2

= 3.26 m 2

ω

p1 − p 2 = 3.26 m 2 × ω

= 31.9 kN / m 3

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/23

π d2

Area of piston = kN / m 3

4

π (0.020)2

= = 0.000314 m 2

4

We all know that,

Force, F = p × A

Where,

p = pressure and A = area

So,

Force on piston = 31.9 × 10 3 × 0.000314 = 10.1 N

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/24

ACTIVITY 5B

INPUT…!

5.3 To get through the Green Alien you should be able to answer his puzzles !

learnt in this unit.

thoat, entry, diverging section and converging cone)

If you get all the answers right, you will be sent to earth

immediately on the next space shuttle. Only smart people

can go and stay on the earth!

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/25

FEEDBACK ON ACTIVITY 5B

5.3

It is a device used for measuring the rate of flow of a non-viscous, incompressible

fluid in non-rotational and steady-stream lined flow.

2. Name me two types of Venturi Meter that you have learnt in this unit.

Horizontal Venturi Meter and Inclined Venturi Meter.

3. Sketch a Horizontal Venturi Meter for me. (Label the throat, entry, diverging section

and converging cone)

Diverging

Converging section

cone

throat

entry

ω denotes the specific weight of lead gauge filled with liquid in pipeline and ωg

denotes the specific weight of gauge liquid.

Just Kidding !

You are already on earth, your answers are correct,

Just sit there and continue your studies.

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/26

INPUT

The Venturi Meter described earlier is a reliable flow measuring

device. Furthermore, it causes little pressure loss. For these reasons it is widely

used, particularly for large-volume liquid and gas flows. However this meter is

relatively complex to construct and hence expensive especially for small

pipelines. The cost of the Venturi Meter seems prohibitive, so simpler device

such as Orifice Meter is used.

The Orifice Meter consists of a flat orifice plate with a circular hole

drilled in it. There is a pressure tap upstream from the orifice plate and another

just downstream. There are three recognized methods of placing the taps and

the coefficient of the meter will depend upon the position of the taps.

The principle of the orifice meter is identical with that of the venturi

meter. The reduction at the cross section of the flowing stream in passing

through the orifice increases the velocity head at the expense of the pressure

head, and the reduction in pressure between the taps is measured by a

manometer. Bernoulli's equation provides a basis for correlating the increase in

velocity head with the decrease in pressure head.

From Figure 5.7 the orifice meter is attached to the manometer. There

are Section 1 (entrance of the orifice) and Section 2 (exit of the orifice also

known as vena contracta).

Section 1 :

A1, v1, p1

Section 2 :

A2, v2, p2

Figure 5.7

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/27

Section 1, given :

A1 = area of section 1

v1 = velocity of section 1

p1 = pressure of section 1

Section 2, given :

A2 = area of section 2

v2 = velocity of section 2

p2 = pressure of section 2

2 2

p1v p v

+ 1 = 2 + 2 ——————(1)

ω 2g ω 2g

v 2 − v1 p − p2

2 2

= 1 ——————(2)

2g ω

We know that,

Q = A× v

or

A1v1 = A2v2

So,

A1v1

v2 = ——————(3)

A2

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/28

v 2 − v1 p − p2

2 2

= 1 ——————(2)

2g ω

Av

v2 = 1 1 ——————(3)

A2

Then,

v1

2

⎡ A1 2 ⎤ p1 − p 2

⎢ 2 − 1⎥ =

2g ⎣ A2 ⎦ ω

So,

⎛ p − p2 ⎞

2g⎜ 1 ⎟

v1 = ⎝ ω ⎠

⎛ A1 2 ⎞

⎜ 2 − 1⎟

⎜A ⎟

⎝ 2 ⎠

But,

p1 − p 2

H=

ω

And,

2

A1

m= 2

A2

So,

2 gH

v1 =

( m2 −1 )

Qactual = C d × A1 × v1

So,

2 gH

Q actual = C d × A1

( )

m 2 −1

Example 5.7

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/29

A meter orifice has a 100 mm diameter rectangular hole in the pipe. Diameter of the

pipe is 250 mm. Coefficient of discharge, Cd = 0.65 and specific gravity of oil in the

pipe is 0.9. The pressure difference that is measured by the manometer is 750 mm.

Calculate the flow rate of the oil through the pipe.

Given,

d1 = 100 mm = 0.10 m

d2 = 250 mm = 0.25

Cd = 0.65

ωoil = 0.9

p1 - p2 = 750 mm = 0.75 m

So,

πd 2

A1 =

4

3.124(0.25)

2

= = 0.049m 2

4

p1 − p 2 ⎡ ω Hg ⎤

H= = x⎢ − 1⎥

ω oil ⎣ ω oil ⎦

⎡13.6 ⎤

= 0.75⎢ − 1⎥

⎣ 0.9 ⎦

= 10.58 m

m=

d1

2

=

(0.25)2

d2

2

(0.10)2

= 6.25

Therefore,

2 gH

Qactual = C d × A1

(

m2 −1 )

2 × 9.81 × 10.58

Qactual = 0.65 × 0.049

( )

6.25 2 − 1

= 0.074m / s 3

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/30

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/31

x

h

A y

B

Figure 5.8

y 1 1

= vertical falls = gravity × time 2 = g × t

2 2

h = head of liquid above the orifice

Cv v

= Coefficient of Velocity = C v =

2 gH

t = time for particle to travel from vena contracta A to point B

Coefficient of Velocity, Cv =

Theoretical velocity

v

Cv =

2 gH

Example 5.8

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/32

A tank 1.8 m high, standing on the ground, is kept full of water. There is an orifice in

its vertical site at depth, h m below the surface. Find the value of h in order the jet may

strike the ground at a maximum distance from the tank.

x = v×t

and

1

y= g ×t

2

2v 2 y

x=

g

y = 1.8 – h

h = head of liquid above the orifice

v

Cv =

2 gH

t = time for particle to travel from vena contracta A to point B

So,

x=

[

2 Cv (2 gh )] × (1.8 − h )

2

C v 4 gh(1.8 − h )

2

x=

g

= 2C v [h(1.8 − h )]

[h(1.8 − h )] = 1.8 − 2h = 0

h

So,

h = 0.9 m

Example 5.9

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/33

5.9), and has a coefficient discharge of 0.65. The pipe conveys oil of specific gravity

0.9. The pressure difference between the two sides of the orifice plate is measured by a

mercury manometer, that leads to the gauge being filled with oil. If the difference in

mercury levels in the gauge is 760 mm, calculate the flowrate of oil in the pipeline.

Pipe Area, A1

P1 P2

V1

V2

X

Orifice area A2 C C

Figure 5.9

orifice, and v2 and p2 are the corresponding values in the orifice. Then,

ignoring losses, by Bernoulli’s theorem,

2 2

p1v p v

+ 1 = 2 + 2 ——————(1)

ω 2g ω 2g

v 2 − v1 p − p2

2 2

= 1 ——————(2)

2g ω

We know that,

Q = A× v

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/34

or

A1v1 = A2v2

So,

A1v1

v2 = ——————(3)

A2

v 2 − v1 p − p2

2 2

= 1 ——————(2)

2g ω

Av

v2 = 1 1 ——————(3)

A2

Then,

v1

2

⎡ A1 2 ⎤ p1 − p 2

⎢ 2 − 1⎥ =

2g ⎣ A2 ⎦ ω

So,

⎛ p − p2 ⎞

2g⎜ 1 ⎟

v1 = ⎝ ω ⎠

⎛ A1 2 ⎞

⎜ 2 − 1⎟

⎜A ⎟

⎝ 2 ⎠

A2 ⎛ p − p2 ⎞

v1 = 2g⎜ 1 ⎟

(A )

——————(4)

1

2

− a2

2

⎝ ω ⎠

So,

Qactual = Cd × A1 × v1 ——————(5)

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/35

A2 ⎛ p − p2 ⎞

Qactual = Cd × A1 × 2g⎜ 1 ⎟

(A )

——————(6)

1

2

− a2

2

⎝ ω ⎠

but,

2

A1

m= 2

A2

C d A1 ⎛ p − p2 ⎞

Q actual = Cd × A1 × 2g⎜ 1 ⎟

(m 2

−1 ) ⎝ ω ⎠

p1 + ω x = p 2 + ω q x

p1 − p 2 ⎛ p −p ⎞

= x⎜ 1 2 ⎟

ω ⎝ ω ⎠

ω g 13.6

= = 15.1

ω 0.9

p1 − p 2

= 0.76 × 14.1 = 10.72 m of oil

ω

C d = 0.65

πd 2

A1 = = 0.0497 m 2

4

m=

A1 d1

= 2 =

(0.25)2 = 15.1

2

A2 d 2 (0.10)2

m 2 = 6.17

0.65 × 0.0497

Qactual = (2 × 9.81 × 10.72)

6.17

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/36

along a streamline (Figure 5.10). The pitot tube has two

tubes: one is a static tube (b), and another is an impact

tube(a).

direction. The opening of the static tube is parallel to the

direction of flow.

equivalent device for measuring small pressure differences.

The static tube measures the static pressure, since there is no

velocity component perpendicular to its opening.

impact pressure (due to kinetic energy).

pressure head plus the velocity head.

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/37

H

A B

Actual Velocity, V

from A to the mouth of the tube B will be brought to rest so that v0 at B is

zero.

By Bernoulli’s Theorem : Total Energy at A = Total Energy at B or

2 2

p1 v1 p2 v2

+ = + ——————(1)

ω 2g ω 2g

p

Now d = and the increased pressure at B will cause the liquid in the

ω

vertical limb of the pitot tube to rise to a height, h above the free surface so

p0

that h + d = .

ω

v 2 p0 − p

Thus, the equation (1) = = h or v = 2 gh

2g ω

coefficient of the instrument.

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/38

Example 5.10

manometer. Head difference of that manometer is 6 mm water. The weight density of

air is 1.25 kg/m3. Calculate the air velocity if coefficient of the pitot tube, C = 0.94.

v air = C 2 gH

p water = p air

ρghwater = ρghair

hwater × ω water = hair × ω air

ω water 1000

hwater = 0.006 × = 0.006 ×

ω air 1.25

= 4.8 m

So,

= 9.12 m / s

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/39

ACTIVITY 5C

INPUT…!

1. The Orifice Meter consists of a flat orifice plate with a circular hole drilled in it.

There is a _____________upstream from the orifice plate and another just

downstream.

2. The reduction of pressure in the cross section of the flowing stream when passing

through the orifice increases the __________________at the expense of the

pressure head. The reduction in pressure between the taps is measured by a

manometer.

4. The Pitot Tube is a device used to measure the local velocity along a streamline.

The pitot tube has two tubes which are the_______________and the

____________.

5. Although theoretically v = (2 gh ) , pitot tubes may require______________.

instrument.

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/40

FEEDBACK ON ACTIVITY 5C

5.4

1. The Orifice Meter consists of a flat orifice plate with a circular hole drilled in it. There

is a pressure tap upstream from the orifice plate and another just downstream.

2. The reduction pressure in the cross section of the flowing stream when passing

through the orifice increases the velocity head at the expense of the pressure head.

The reduction in pressure between the taps is measured by a manometer.

2 gH

Qactual = C d × A1 × v1 and Qactual = C d × A1

(m 2 − 1)

4. The Pitot Tube is a device used to measure the local velocity along a streamline. The

pitot tube has two tubes which are the static tube and the impact tube.

instrument.

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/41

SELF-ASSESSMENT

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section

and check your answers with those given in the Feedback on Self-Assessment. If you

face any problems, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.

5.1 A venturi meter measures the flow of water in a 75 mm diameter pipe. The

difference between the throat and the entrance of the meter is measured by the

U-tube containing mercury which is being in contact with the water. What

should be the diameter of the throat of the meter in order that the difference in

the level of mercury is 250 mm when the quantity of water flowing in the pipe

is 620 dm3/min? Assume coefficient of discharge is 0.97.

5.2 A pitot-static tube placed in the centre of a 200 pipe line conveying water has

one orifice pointing upstream and the other perpendicular to it. If the pressure

difference between the two orifices is 38 mm of water when the discharge

through the pipe is 22 dm3/s, calculate the meter coefficient. Take the mean

velocity in the pipe to be 0.83 of the central velocity.

discharges under a head of 4.8 m. If Cc = 0.62 and Cv = 0.98, determine;

(a) the diameter of the jet,

(b) the velocity of the jet at the vena contracta,

(c) the discharge in dm3/s.

FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/42

FEEDBACK ON SELF-ASSESSMENT

Answers :

5.1 40.7 mm

5.2 0.977

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