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FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/1

UNIT 5

FLUID DYNAMICS

OBJECTIVES

General Objective : To understand the measurements of fluids in motion

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you should be able to :

¾ state and write Bernoulli Equation

¾ state the limits of Bernoulli’s Equation

¾ apply the Bernoulli Equation to calculate:


- Potential energy
- Kinetic energy
- Pressure energy
in
- horizontal pipe
- inclined pipe
- horizontal venturi meter
- inclined venturi meter
- small orifice
- simple pitot tube

¾ sketch, label and describe fluid motion mechanism in the


horizontal venturi meter.
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/2

INPUT

5.1 Energy of a flowing fluid


A liquid may possess three forms of energy:

5.1.1 Potential energy


If a liquid of weight W is at a height of z above datum line
Potential energy = Wz
Potential energy per unit weight = z

The potential energy per unit weight has dimensions of Nm/N and is measured
as a length or head z and can be called the potential head.

5.1.2 Pressure energy

When a fluid flows in a continuous stream under pressure it can do work. If the
area of cross-section of the stream of fluid is a, then force due to pressure p on
cross-section is pa.

If a weight W of liquid passes the cross-section

W
Volume passing cross-section =
ω
W
Distance moved by liquid =
ωa
W
Work done = force × distance = p a ×
ωa
p
=W
ω
p p
pressure energy per unit weight = =
ω ρg

Similarly the pressure energy per unit weight p/W is equivalent to a head and is
referred to as the pressure head.
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/3

5.1.3 Kinetic energy

If a weight W of liquid has a velocity v,

1W 2
Kinetic energy = v
2 g
v2
Kinetic energy per unit weight =
2g
v2
The kinetic energy per unit weight is also measured as a length and
2g
referred to as the velocity head.

The total energy of the liquid is the sum of these three forms of energy

Total head = potential head + pressure head + velocity head


p v2
Total energy per unit weight = z + +
ω 2g

5.2 Definition of Bernoulli’s Equation


Bernoulli’s Theorem states that the total energy of each particle of a body of fluid is
the same provided that no energy enters or leaves the system at any point. The division
of this energy between potential, pressure and kinetic energy may vary, but the total
remains constant. In symbols:

v2 p
H=z+ + = cons tan t
ω 2g

Figure 5.1
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/4

By Bernoulli’s Theorem,
Total energy per unit weight at section 1 = Total energy per unit weight at section 2
p1 v12 p v
z1 + + = z2 + 2 + 2
ω 2g ω 2g Do you know :
z = potential head The Bernoulli equation is
p named in honour of Daniel
= pressure head
ω Bernoulli (1700-1782).
v2 Many phenomena
= velocity head regarding the flow of
2g liquids and gases can be
H = Total head analysed by simply using
the Bernoulli equation.

5.3 The limits of Bernoulli’s Equation

Bernoulli’s Eqution is the most important and useful equation in fluid mechanics. It
may be written,

2 2
v p v p
z1 + 1 + 1 = z1 + 2 + 2
2g ω 2g ω

Bernoulli’s Equation has some restrictions in its applicability, they are :

ƒ the flow is steady

ƒ the density is constant (which also means the fluid is compressible)

ƒ friction losses are negligible

ƒ the equation relates the state at two points along a single streamline (not
conditions on two different streamlines).
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/5

5.4 Application of Bernoulli’s Equation

Bernoulli’s equation can be applied to the following situations.

5.4.1 Horizontal Pipe

Example 5.1

36 m

Figure 5.2

Water flows through a pipe 36 m from the sea level as shown in figure 5.2. Pressure in
the pipe is 410 kN/m2 and the velocity is 4.8 m/s. Calculate total energy of every
weight of unit water above the sea level.

Solution to Example 5.1

Total energy per unit weight


p v2
=z+ +
ω 2g

= 36 +
410 × 10 3
+
(4.8) 2

1000 × 9.81 2 × 9.81


= 78.96 J / N
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/6

5.4.2 Inclined Pipe

Example 5.2

N
5m 5m
3m

Figure 5.3

A bent pipe labeled MN measures 5 m and 3 m respectively above the datum line. The
diameter M and N are both 20 cm and 5 cm. The water pressure is 5 kg/cm2. If the
velocity at M is 1 m/s, determine the pressure at N in kg/cm2.

Solution to Example 5.2

Using Bernoulli’s Equation:


p v p v
zM + M + M = zN + N + N …(1)
ω 2g ω 2g

Discharge at section M = Discharge at section N


QM = Q N
vM × aM = v N × a N …(2)

From (2),

vM × aM
vN =
aN

= (1)
(0.2)2
(0.05)2
= 16 m / s
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/7

Given p M = 5 kg / cm 2
5 × 9.81
=
0.0001
= 490.5 kN / m 2

From (1),
⎡ vM 2 − v N 2 pM ⎤
pN = ⎢ + + ( z M − z N )⎥ × ω
⎣⎢ 2g ω ⎦⎥
⎡1 − (16)2 490500 ⎤
=⎢ + + (5 − 3)⎥ × 9810
⎣ 2 × 9.81 9810 ⎦
= 382620 N / m 2
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/8

ACTIVITY 5A

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT


INPUT…!

5.1 Define and write the Bernoulli’s Equation.

5.2 Water is flowing along a pipe with a velocity of 7.2 m/s. Express this as a velocity
head in meters of water. What is the corresponding pressure in kN/m2?
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/9

FEEDBACK ON ACTIVITY 5A

5.1 Bernoulli’s Theorem states that the total energy of each particle of a body of
fluid is the same provided that no energy enters or leaves the system at any
point.

p v2
H=z+ + = cons tan t
ω 2g

5.2 velocity head of water = H =


v2
=
(7.2) = 2.64 m
2

2 g 2(9.81)

p
H= = 2.64
ω
p = 2.64ω
= 2.64(9810 )
= 25898.4 N / m 2
= 25.9 kN / m 2
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/10

INPUT

5.4.3 Horizontal Venturi Meter

Venturi meter : It is a device used for measuring the rate of flow of a


non-viscous, incompressible fluid in non-rotational and steady-stream lined
flow. Although venturi meters can be applied to the measurement of gas, they
are most commonly used for liquids. The following treatment is limited to
incompressible fluids.

Converging Throat
Cone
Entry Diverging Section

Direction of

Section
Leads 2
gauge ρ2
filled with v2
Section
x liquid in
1
pipeline,
ρ1
v1 Spec.wt. of
gauge
liquid= ωg

Figure 5.4
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/11

The arrangement and mode of action of a Venturi Meter ( Figure 5.4 )


ƒ The venture meter consists of a short converging conical tube leading
to a cylindrical portion called “throat” which is followed by a
diverging section.
ƒ The entrance and exit diameter is the same as that of the pipe line into
which it is inserted. The angle of the convergent cone is usually 21o,
the length of throat is equal to the throat diameter, and the angle of the
divergent cone is 5o to 7o to ensure the minimum loss of energy.
ƒ Pressure tappings are taken at the entrance and at the throat, either
from the single holes or from a number of holes around the
circumference connecting to an annular chamber or Piezometer ring,
and the pressure difference is measured by a suitable gauge.
ƒ For continuity of flow velocity v1 at the entry (section 1) will be less
than the velocity v2 at the throat (section 2) since a1v1 = a2v2 and a1 is
greater than a2. The kinetic energy in the throat will be greater than at
the entrance and since by Bernoulli’s theorem the total energy at the
two sections is the same, the pressure energy at the throat will be less
than that at the entrance. The pressure difference thus created is
dependent on the rate of flow through the meter.

Description: The Venturi tube consists of a plain tube


with a smooth constriction in its bore at the middle. It is
found in carburetors, fluid flow meters, and aircraft
airspeed indicators. This version is made of glass and has
three side tubes for attaching a manometer. When high
pressure air is applied from the air tank, the water level in
the three manometer legs is clearly different.

Adapted from :

http://demoroom.physics.ncsu.edu:8770/html/demos/353.
html
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/12

Derivation for the theoretical discharge through a horizontal venture meter and
modification to obtain the actual discharge.

From Figure 5.4

Putting ;
p1 = pressure of section 1

v1 = velocity of section 1

A1 = area of section 1

p2 = pressure of section 2

v1 = velocity of section 1

A1 = area of section 1

ω1 = liquid in pipeline (specific weight, spec.wg)

ωg = liquid in the gauge (specific weight, spec.wg)

g = gravity (9.81 m/s2)

z = height above datum

Bernoulli’s Equation for section 1 and 2 gives :

2 2
v p v p
z1 + 1 + 1 = z1 + 2 + 2
2g ω 2g ω

Ignoring losses for horizontal meter z1 = z2

v 2 − v1 p − p2
2 2

= 1 ——————(1)
2g ω

For continuity of flow, A1v1 = A2 v 2 , giving


A
v 2 = 1 v1
A2
π d2
where A =
4
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/13

Substituting in equation (1)

2⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ p − p2 ⎞
2

v1 ⎜⎜ 1 2 − 1⎟⎟ = 2 g ⎜ 1 ⎟
⎝ A2 ⎠ ⎝ ω ⎠

A2 ⎡ ⎛ p1 − p 2 ⎞⎤
v1 = ⎢2 g ⎜ ω ⎟⎥
(A )
So,
1
2
− A2
2
⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦

A1 A2
Discharge, Qtheory = A1v1 = (2 gH ) ——————(2)
A1 − A2
2 2

p1 − p 2
Where H = = pressure difference expressed as a head of the liquid
ω
flowing in meter venturi.

A1
If area ratio, m = equation (2) becomes,
A2

2 gH
Qtheory = A1
m2 −1

The theoretical discharge Q can be converted to actual discharge by


multiplying by the coefficient of discharge Cd found experimentally.

2 gH
Actual discharge, Qactual = C d × Qtheory = C d A1 —————(3)
m2 −1

If the leads of U-tube are filled with water,

p1 − p 2 = x(ω g − ω )
p1 − p 2 ⎛ωg ⎞
H= = x⎜⎜ − 1⎟⎟
ω ⎝ω ⎠
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/14

Example 5.3

A venture tube tapers from 300 mm in diameter at the entrance to 100 mm in diameter
at the throat; the discharge coefficient is 0.98. A differential mercury U-tube gauge is
connected between pressure tapping at the entrance at throat. If the meter is used to
measure the flow of water and the water fills the leads to the U-tube and is in contact
with the mercury, calculate the discharge when the difference of level in the U-tube is
55 mm.

Solution to Example 5.3

Using Equation (3),

2 gH
Qactual = c d A1
m2 −1
So,
x = 55 mm

ωg
ω = 13.6

H = 0.055 × 12.6 = 0.0706 m2

Cd = 0.98

3.142(0.3)
2

A1 = = 0.0706 m 2
4
2 2
A d ⎛ 12 ⎞
m = 1 = 12 = ⎜ ⎟ = 9
A2 d 2 ⎝4⎠

2 × 9.81 × 0.693
Actual discharge, Qactual = 0.98 × 0.0706
81 − 1
Qactual = 0.0285m 3 / s
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/15

Example 5.4

A horizontal venturi meter measures the flow of oil of specific gravity 0.9 in a 75 mm
diameter pipe line. If the difference of pressure between the full bore and the throat
tapping is 34.5 kN/m2 and the area ratio, m is 4, calculate the rate of flow, assuming a
coefficient of discharge is 0.97.

Solution to Example 5.4

From Equation (3),

2 gH
Qactual = c d A1
m2 −1

The difference of pressure head, H must be expressed in terms of the liquid


following through the meter,

p
H =
ω
34.5 × 10 3
=
0.9 × 9.81 × 10 3
= 3.92 m of oil

3.142(0.075)
2
A1 = = 0.00441 m 2
4

m =4

Cd = 0.97

So,
2 × 9.81 × 3.92
Actual discharge, Qactual = 0.97 × 0.00441
16 − 1
Qactual = 0.0106 m 3 / s
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/16

5.4.4 Inclined Venturi Meter

Derivation is an expression for the rate of flow through an inclined


venturi meter. This will show that the U-type of gauge is used to measure the
pressure difference. The gauge reading will be the same for a given discharge
irrespective of the inclination of the meter.

In Figure 5.5, at the entrance to the meter; the area, velocity, pressure
and elevation are A1, v1, p1 and z1 respectively and at the throat, the
corresponding values are A2, v2, p2 and z2.

ω = spec. wt of
liquid in pipeline
A2, v2,
A1, v1, p2 and
p1 and z2
z1

Spec.wt = ωg

Z1 ( z1-y )
Z2

X
P Q
y

Figure 5.5

From Bernoulli’s Equation,

2 2
v p v p
z1 + 1 + 1 = z1 + 2 + 2
2g ω 2g ω

⎧⎛ p − p 2 ⎞ ⎫
v 2 − v1 = 2 g ⎨⎜ 1 ⎟ + ( z1 − z 2 )⎬
2 2
——————(1)
⎩⎝ ω ⎠ ⎭
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/17

For continuity of flow,

A1v1 = A2 v 2
or
A1
v2 = v1 = mv1
A2
where
A1
m = area ratio =
A2

Substituting in equation (1) and solving for v1

⎧⎛ p − p 2 ⎞ ⎫
v 2 − v1 = 2 g ⎨⎜ 1 ⎟ + ( z1 − z 2 )⎬
2 2

⎩⎝ ω ⎠ ⎭

⎡ ⎧⎛ p1 − p 2 ⎞ ⎫⎤
⎟ + (z1 − z 2 )⎬⎥
1
v1 = ⎢2 g ⎨⎜
(m 2
)
−1 ⎣ ⎩⎝ ω ⎠ ⎭⎦

Actual discharge, Qactual = C d × A1 × v1

C d × A1 ⎡ ⎧⎛ p1 − p 2 ⎞ ⎫⎤
Qactual = ⎢ ⎨
2 g ⎜ ⎟ + ( z − z )
2 ⎬⎥ ——— (2)
(m 2
−1) ⎣ ⎩⎝ ω ⎠
1
⎭⎦

Where Cd = coefficient of discharge.

Considering the U-tube gauge and assuming that the connections are
filled with the liquid in the pipe line, pressures at level PQ are the same in both
limbs,

For left limb,


p z = p 2 + w(z1 − y )

For right limb,


p z = p 2 + ω ( z 2 − y − x) + wg x
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/18

Thus,
Pressure for left limb = Pressure for right limb

p 2 + ω ( z1 − y ) = p 2 + ω ( z 2 − y − x ) + w g x

p 2 + ω z1 − ω z 2 = p 2 + ω z 2 − ω y − ω x + w g x

p1 − p 2 ⎛ωg ⎞
+ z1 − z 2 = x⎜⎜ − 1⎟⎟
ω ⎝ω ⎠

Equation (2) can therefore be written

C d A1 ⎡ ⎛ωg ⎞⎤
Qactual = ⎢ 2 gx⎜⎜ − 1⎟⎟⎥
( )
m 2 − 1 ⎣⎢ ⎝ω ⎠⎥⎦
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/19

Example 5.5

A vertical venturi meter measures the flow of oil of specific gravity 0.82 and has an
entrance of 125 mm diameter and throat of 50 mm diameter. There are pressure gauges
at the entrance and at the throat, which is 300 mm above the entrance. If the coefficient
for the meter is 0.97 and pressure difference is 27.5 kN/m2, calculate the actual
discharge in m3/s.

Solution to Example 5.5

2
1

z1 z2

In equation (2),

C d × A1 ⎡ ⎧⎛ p1 − p 2 ⎞ ⎫⎤
Q actual = ⎢2 g ⎨⎜ ⎟ + ( z1 − z 2 )⎬⎥
(m 2
−1) ⎣ ⎩⎝ ω ⎠ ⎭⎦

This is independent of z1 and z2, so that the gauge reading x for a given rate of
flow, Qactual does not depend on the inclination of the meter.
Then,

C d × A1 ⎡ ⎧⎛ p1 − p 2 ⎞ ⎫⎤
Q actual = ⎢2 g ⎨⎜ ⎟ + ( z1 − z 2 )⎬⎥
(m 2
−1) ⎣ ⎩⎝ ω ⎠ ⎭⎦
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/20

So,

3.142(0.125)
2
A1 = = 0.01226 m 2
4

p1 − p 2 = 27.5 × 10 3 kN / m 2
ω = 0.82 × 9.81 × 10 3 N / m 2
z1 − z 2 = −0.3 m
2 2
d1 ⎛ 125 ⎞
m= 2 =⎜ ⎟ = 6.25
d2 ⎝ 50 ⎠
Cd = 0.97

Therefore,

C d × A1 ⎡ ⎧⎛ p1 − p 2 ⎞ ⎫⎤
Q actual = ⎢2 g ⎨⎜ ⎟ + ( z1 − z 2 )⎬⎥
(m 2
)
−1 ⎣ ⎩⎝ ω ⎠ ⎭⎦

0.97 × 0.01226 ⎡ ⎛ 27.5 × 10 3 ⎞⎤


Qactual = ⎢2 × 9.81⎜⎜ − 0.3 ⎟⎟⎥ = 0.01535m 3 / s
((6.25) 2
)
−1 ⎣ ⎝ 0.82 × 9.81 × 10
3
⎠⎦
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/21

Example 5.6

The water supply to a gas water heater contracts from 10mm in diameter at A (Figure
5.6) to 7 mm in diameter at B. If the pipe is horizontal, calculate the difference in
pressure between A and B when the velocity of water at A is 4.5 m/s.

The pressure difference operates the gas control through connections which is taken to
a horizontal cylinder in which a piston of 20 mm diameter moves. Ignoring friction
and the area of the piston connecting rod, what is the force on the piston?

d1 d2

p1 ,v1 p2 v2
A B

Figure 5.6

Solution to Example 5.6

In the Figure 5.6 the diameter, pressure and velocity at A are d1, p1 and v1 ; and at B
are d2, p2 and v2.

By Bernoulli’s theorem, for horizontal pipe,

2 2
v1 p v p
+ 1 = 2 + 2
2g ω 2g ω

This equation can therefore be written,

p1 − p 2 v − v1
2 2

= 2
ω 2g
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/22

For continuity of flow,

A1v1 = A2 v 2
or
⎛ πd 1 2 ⎞ ⎛ πd 2 ⎞
⎜ ⎟v1 = ⎜ 2 ⎟v 2
⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎜ 4 ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
then,
d1 × v1 = d 2 × v 2
2 2

So,
2
⎛d ⎞
v 2 = v1 ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟
⎝ d2 ⎠

Putting v1 = 4.5 m / s , d 1 = 10 mm , d 2 = 7 mm

2
⎛ 10 ⎞
v 2 = 4.5⎜ ⎟
⎝7⎠

= 9.18 m / s
and

p1 − p 2 v 2 − v1
2 2

=
ω 2g

p1 − p 2 9.18 2 − 4.5 2
= = 3.26 m 2
ω 2 × 9.81

p1 − p 2
= 3.26 m 2
ω

p1 − p 2 = 3.26 m 2 × ω

Pressure difference, p1 − p 2 = 3.26 × 9.81 × 10 3 N / m 2


= 31.9 kN / m 3
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/23

π d2
Area of piston = kN / m 3
4

π (0.020)2
= = 0.000314 m 2
4
We all know that,

Force, F = p × A
Where,
p = pressure and A = area

So,
Force on piston = 31.9 × 10 3 × 0.000314 = 10.1 N
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/24

ACTIVITY 5B

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT


INPUT…!

5.3 To get through the Green Alien you should be able to answer his puzzles !

1. What does a Venturi Meter measure ?

2. Name me two types of Venturi Meter that you have


learnt in this unit.

3. Sketch a Horizontal Venturi Meter for me. (Label the


thoat, entry, diverging section and converging cone)

4. What is denoted by ω and ωg ?

If you get all the answers right, you will be sent to earth
immediately on the next space shuttle. Only smart people
can go and stay on the earth!
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/25

FEEDBACK ON ACTIVITY 5B

I think I got it all right !


5.3

1. What does a Venturi Meter measure ?


It is a device used for measuring the rate of flow of a non-viscous, incompressible
fluid in non-rotational and steady-stream lined flow.

2. Name me two types of Venturi Meter that you have learnt in this unit.
Horizontal Venturi Meter and Inclined Venturi Meter.

3. Sketch a Horizontal Venturi Meter for me. (Label the throat, entry, diverging section
and converging cone)

Diverging
Converging section
cone

throat

entry

4. What is denoted by ω and ωg ?


ω denotes the specific weight of lead gauge filled with liquid in pipeline and ωg
denotes the specific weight of gauge liquid.

Just Kidding !
You are already on earth, your answers are correct,
Just sit there and continue your studies.
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/26

INPUT

5.4.5 Small Orifice


The Venturi Meter described earlier is a reliable flow measuring
device. Furthermore, it causes little pressure loss. For these reasons it is widely
used, particularly for large-volume liquid and gas flows. However this meter is
relatively complex to construct and hence expensive especially for small
pipelines. The cost of the Venturi Meter seems prohibitive, so simpler device
such as Orifice Meter is used.
The Orifice Meter consists of a flat orifice plate with a circular hole
drilled in it. There is a pressure tap upstream from the orifice plate and another
just downstream. There are three recognized methods of placing the taps and
the coefficient of the meter will depend upon the position of the taps.

The principle of the orifice meter is identical with that of the venturi
meter. The reduction at the cross section of the flowing stream in passing
through the orifice increases the velocity head at the expense of the pressure
head, and the reduction in pressure between the taps is measured by a
manometer. Bernoulli's equation provides a basis for correlating the increase in
velocity head with the decrease in pressure head.

From Figure 5.7 the orifice meter is attached to the manometer. There
are Section 1 (entrance of the orifice) and Section 2 (exit of the orifice also
known as vena contracta).
Section 1 :
A1, v1, p1
Section 2 :
A2, v2, p2

Figure 5.7
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/27

Section 1, given :

A1 = area of section 1

v1 = velocity of section 1

p1 = pressure of section 1

Section 2, given :

A2 = area of section 2

v2 = velocity of section 2

p2 = pressure of section 2

From Bernoulli’s Equation,

Total energy at section 1 = Total energy at section 2

2 2
p1v p v
+ 1 = 2 + 2 ——————(1)
ω 2g ω 2g

v 2 − v1 p − p2
2 2

= 1 ——————(2)
2g ω

z1 = z2 because the two parts are at the same level

We know that,
Q = A× v

For continuity of flow, Q1 = Q2

or
A1v1 = A2v2

So,
A1v1
v2 = ——————(3)
A2
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/28

Putting (3) into (2),

v 2 − v1 p − p2
2 2

= 1 ——————(2)
2g ω
Av
v2 = 1 1 ——————(3)
A2
Then,

v1
2
⎡ A1 2 ⎤ p1 − p 2
⎢ 2 − 1⎥ =
2g ⎣ A2 ⎦ ω

So,
⎛ p − p2 ⎞
2g⎜ 1 ⎟
v1 = ⎝ ω ⎠
⎛ A1 2 ⎞
⎜ 2 − 1⎟
⎜A ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠
But,
p1 − p 2
H=
ω

And,

2
A1
m= 2
A2

So,
2 gH
v1 =
( m2 −1 )

To determine the actual discharge, Qactual ;

Qactual = C d × A1 × v1
So,
2 gH
Q actual = C d × A1
( )
m 2 −1

Where Cd = coefficient of discharge.


Example 5.7
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/29

A meter orifice has a 100 mm diameter rectangular hole in the pipe. Diameter of the
pipe is 250 mm. Coefficient of discharge, Cd = 0.65 and specific gravity of oil in the
pipe is 0.9. The pressure difference that is measured by the manometer is 750 mm.
Calculate the flow rate of the oil through the pipe.

Solution to Example 5.7

Given,

d1 = 100 mm = 0.10 m
d2 = 250 mm = 0.25
Cd = 0.65
ωoil = 0.9
p1 - p2 = 750 mm = 0.75 m
So,
πd 2
A1 =
4
3.124(0.25)
2
= = 0.049m 2
4

p1 − p 2 ⎡ ω Hg ⎤
H= = x⎢ − 1⎥
ω oil ⎣ ω oil ⎦
⎡13.6 ⎤
= 0.75⎢ − 1⎥
⎣ 0.9 ⎦
= 10.58 m

m=
d1
2

=
(0.25)2
d2
2
(0.10)2
= 6.25
Therefore,
2 gH
Qactual = C d × A1
(
m2 −1 )
2 × 9.81 × 10.58
Qactual = 0.65 × 0.049
( )
6.25 2 − 1
= 0.074m / s 3

5.4.5.1 Types of orifice


FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/30

1. Sharp-edged orifice, Cd = 0.62

2. Rounded orifice, Cd = 0.97

3. Borda Orifice (running free), Cd = 0.50

4. Borda Orifice (running full), Cd = 0.75

5.4.5.2 Coefficient of Velocity, Cv


FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/31

x
h

A y
B

Figure 5.8

From Figure 5.8 ,

x = horizontal falls = velocity × time = v × t


y 1 1
= vertical falls = gravity × time 2 = g × t
2 2
h = head of liquid above the orifice
Cv v
= Coefficient of Velocity = C v =
2 gH
t = time for particle to travel from vena contracta A to point B

Actual velocity at vena contacta


Coefficient of Velocity, Cv =
Theoretical velocity

v
Cv =
2 gH

Example 5.8
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/32

A tank 1.8 m high, standing on the ground, is kept full of water. There is an orifice in
its vertical site at depth, h m below the surface. Find the value of h in order the jet may
strike the ground at a maximum distance from the tank.

Solution to Example 5.8

x = v×t
and
1
y= g ×t
2

Eliminating t these equation give,


2v 2 y
x=
g

y = 1.8 – h
h = head of liquid above the orifice
v
Cv =
2 gH
t = time for particle to travel from vena contracta A to point B

Putting y = 1.8 − h and v = C v (2 gh )


So,

x=
[
2 Cv (2 gh )] × (1.8 − h )
2

C v 4 gh(1.8 − h )
2

x=
g

= 2C v [h(1.8 − h )]

Thus x will be a maximum when h(1.8 − h ) is maximum or,


[h(1.8 − h )] = 1.8 − 2h = 0
h
So,
h = 0.9 m

Example 5.9
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/33

An orifice meter consists of a 100 mm diameter in a 250 mm diameter pipe (Figure


5.9), and has a coefficient discharge of 0.65. The pipe conveys oil of specific gravity
0.9. The pressure difference between the two sides of the orifice plate is measured by a
mercury manometer, that leads to the gauge being filled with oil. If the difference in
mercury levels in the gauge is 760 mm, calculate the flowrate of oil in the pipeline.

Pipe Area, A1

P1 P2
V1
V2
X
Orifice area A2 C C

Figure 5.9

Solution to Example 5.9

Let v1 be the velocity and p1 the pressure immediately upstream of the


orifice, and v2 and p2 are the corresponding values in the orifice. Then,
ignoring losses, by Bernoulli’s theorem,

2 2
p1v p v
+ 1 = 2 + 2 ——————(1)
ω 2g ω 2g

v 2 − v1 p − p2
2 2

= 1 ——————(2)
2g ω

z1 = z2 because of the two parts are at the same level

We know that,
Q = A× v

For continuity of flow, Q1 = Q2


FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/34

or
A1v1 = A2v2

So,
A1v1
v2 = ——————(3)
A2

Putting (3) into (2),

v 2 − v1 p − p2
2 2

= 1 ——————(2)
2g ω
Av
v2 = 1 1 ——————(3)
A2
Then,
v1
2
⎡ A1 2 ⎤ p1 − p 2
⎢ 2 − 1⎥ =
2g ⎣ A2 ⎦ ω

So,
⎛ p − p2 ⎞
2g⎜ 1 ⎟
v1 = ⎝ ω ⎠
⎛ A1 2 ⎞
⎜ 2 − 1⎟
⎜A ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠

This equation can therefore be written,

A2 ⎛ p − p2 ⎞
v1 = 2g⎜ 1 ⎟
(A )
——————(4)
1
2
− a2
2
⎝ ω ⎠

So,

Actual disch arg e = coefficient of disch arg e × theoretical disch arg e

Qactual = Cd × A1 × v1 ——————(5)

Putting v1 into (5)


FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/35

A2 ⎛ p − p2 ⎞
Qactual = Cd × A1 × 2g⎜ 1 ⎟
(A )
——————(6)
1
2
− a2
2
⎝ ω ⎠
but,
2
A1
m= 2
A2

so putting m into (6),

C d A1 ⎛ p − p2 ⎞
Q actual = Cd × A1 × 2g⎜ 1 ⎟
(m 2
−1 ) ⎝ ω ⎠

Considering the U-tube gauge, where pressures are equal at level CC

p1 + ω x = p 2 + ω q x
p1 − p 2 ⎛ p −p ⎞
= x⎜ 1 2 ⎟
ω ⎝ ω ⎠

Putting x = 760 mm = 0.76 m and,

ω g 13.6
= = 15.1
ω 0.9

p1 − p 2
= 0.76 × 14.1 = 10.72 m of oil
ω
C d = 0.65

πd 2
A1 = = 0.0497 m 2
4

m=
A1 d1
= 2 =
(0.25)2 = 15.1
2

A2 d 2 (0.10)2

m 2 = 6.17

0.65 × 0.0497
Qactual = (2 × 9.81 × 10.72)
6.17

= 0.00524 × 14.5 = 0.0762 m 3 / s


FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/36

5.4.6 Simple Pitot Tube

Figure 5.10 Pitot Tube

- The Pitot Tube is a device used to measure the local velocity


along a streamline (Figure 5.10). The pitot tube has two
tubes: one is a static tube (b), and another is an impact
tube(a).

- The opening of the impact tube is perpendicular to the flow


direction. The opening of the static tube is parallel to the
direction of flow.

- The two legs are connected to the legs of a manometer or an


equivalent device for measuring small pressure differences.
The static tube measures the static pressure, since there is no
velocity component perpendicular to its opening.

- The impact tube measures both the static pressure and


impact pressure (due to kinetic energy).

- In terms of heads, the impact tube measures the static


pressure head plus the velocity head.
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/37

H
A B

Figure 5.11 Simple Pitot Tube


Actual Velocity, V

ƒ From Figure 5.11, if the velocity of the stream at A is v, a particle moving


from A to the mouth of the tube B will be brought to rest so that v0 at B is
zero.
By Bernoulli’s Theorem : Total Energy at A = Total Energy at B or
2 2
p1 v1 p2 v2
+ = + ——————(1)
ω 2g ω 2g

p
ƒ Now d = and the increased pressure at B will cause the liquid in the
ω
vertical limb of the pitot tube to rise to a height, h above the free surface so
p0
that h + d = .
ω

v 2 p0 − p
ƒ Thus, the equation (1) = = h or v = 2 gh
2g ω

ƒ Although theoretically v= (2 gh ) , pitot tubes may require calibration.

The actual velocity is then given by v=C (2 gh) where C is the


coefficient of the instrument.
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/38

Example 5.10

A Pitot Tube is used to measure air velocity in a pipe attached to a mercury


manometer. Head difference of that manometer is 6 mm water. The weight density of
air is 1.25 kg/m3. Calculate the air velocity if coefficient of the pitot tube, C = 0.94.

Solution to Example 5.10

v air = C 2 gH

p water = p air
ρghwater = ρghair
hwater × ω water = hair × ω air
ω water 1000
hwater = 0.006 × = 0.006 ×
ω air 1.25
= 4.8 m
So,

v = 0.94 2 × 9.81 × 4.8


= 9.12 m / s
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/39

ACTIVITY 5C

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT


INPUT…!

5.4 Fill in the blanks in the following statements.

1. The Orifice Meter consists of a flat orifice plate with a circular hole drilled in it.
There is a _____________upstream from the orifice plate and another just
downstream.

2. The reduction of pressure in the cross section of the flowing stream when passing
through the orifice increases the __________________at the expense of the
pressure head. The reduction in pressure between the taps is measured by a
manometer.

3. The formula for Meter Orifice actual discharge, Qactual. =_______________

4. The Pitot Tube is a device used to measure the local velocity along a streamline.
The pitot tube has two tubes which are the_______________and the
____________.
5. Although theoretically v = (2 gh ) , pitot tubes may require______________.

6. The actual velocity is given by __________ where C is the coefficient of the


instrument.
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/40

FEEDBACK ON ACTIVITY 5C

5.4

1. The Orifice Meter consists of a flat orifice plate with a circular hole drilled in it. There
is a pressure tap upstream from the orifice plate and another just downstream.

2. The reduction pressure in the cross section of the flowing stream when passing
through the orifice increases the velocity head at the expense of the pressure head.
The reduction in pressure between the taps is measured by a manometer.

3. The formula for Meter Orifice actual discharge, Qactual. =


2 gH
Qactual = C d × A1 × v1 and Qactual = C d × A1
(m 2 − 1)
4. The Pitot Tube is a device used to measure the local velocity along a streamline. The
pitot tube has two tubes which are the static tube and the impact tube.

5. Although theoretically v = (2 gh ) , pitot tubes may require calibration.

6. The actual velocity is given by v = C (2 gh ) where C is the coefficient of the


instrument.
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/41

SELF-ASSESSMENT

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section
and check your answers with those given in the Feedback on Self-Assessment. If you
face any problems, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.

5.1 A venturi meter measures the flow of water in a 75 mm diameter pipe. The
difference between the throat and the entrance of the meter is measured by the
U-tube containing mercury which is being in contact with the water. What
should be the diameter of the throat of the meter in order that the difference in
the level of mercury is 250 mm when the quantity of water flowing in the pipe
is 620 dm3/min? Assume coefficient of discharge is 0.97.

5.2 A pitot-static tube placed in the centre of a 200 pipe line conveying water has
one orifice pointing upstream and the other perpendicular to it. If the pressure
difference between the two orifices is 38 mm of water when the discharge
through the pipe is 22 dm3/s, calculate the meter coefficient. Take the mean
velocity in the pipe to be 0.83 of the central velocity.

5.3 A sharp-edged orifice, of 50 mm diameter, in the vertical side of a large tank,


discharges under a head of 4.8 m. If Cc = 0.62 and Cv = 0.98, determine;
(a) the diameter of the jet,
(b) the velocity of the jet at the vena contracta,
(c) the discharge in dm3/s.
FLUID DYNAMICS J3008/5/42

FEEDBACK ON SELF-ASSESSMENT

Answers :

5.1 40.7 mm

5.2 0.977

5.3 (a) 40.3 mm

(b) 9.5 m/s

(c) 12.15 dm3/s