MICROFOSSIL REPORT

F2T115 TEREMBU REEF SABAH

Thiyagu A/L Rajoo 14062 Dr. Aaron W. Hunter

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Using binocular microscope. name and genus. petri dish. Collected fossils were grouped into four major groups and classified based on taxanomy. painting brush. The primary aim of this project is to identify microfossil content in the sample. Next aim will be to classify the microfossil based on taxanomic name which include order.Introduction Microfossils are the fossilized remains of tiny plants and animals found in rocks. Forceps. Microfossils are commonly used to environment analysis rather than macrofossils because they are the most abundant and most easily accessible fossils. Third aim is study the relationship between environment of deposition (EOD) and distribution of microfossil. 2 . minimum of 50 microfossils were picked from sample to deduce about the population. AphiaID were determined from World Register of Marine Species. glass dish were material used in the process of collecting fossil. Methods Few grams of sand sample from Terembu Reef Sabah was collected and labelled F2T115.

Material • Gastropod Phylum = Mollusca (AphiaID: 51) Class = Gastropoda (AphiaID: 101) Order Hypsogastropoda Littorinimorpha Rissoidea Family Cerithiidae Littorinidae Assimineidae Hydrobiidae Genus Colina Gourmya Royella Littorina Assiminea Mercuria AphiaID 456388 473019 205642 138135 137681 153668 Figure 1 Colina Figure 4 Littorina Figure 2 Gourmya Figure 3 Royella 3 . echinodia( spicule) and bivalves.Systematic Paleontology The four major groups are gastropods. Some of the fossils were broken and it classified into groups based on physical properties of fossil. foraminifera.

operculate fresh or brackish-water snails of considerable antiquity. air breathing snails inhabiting brackish water estaries on tropical and semitropical continental coatlines and islands. Hydrobiidae. Material • Bivalve Phylum = Mollusca (AphiaID: 51) 4 . axial ribs and nodules. Littorinidae .Figure 5 Assiminea Mercuria Figure 6 Description Cerithiidae -Their shells are elongate and high spired. . amphibious.They have a short but distinct anterior canal.They are small.Hydrobiids are small to very minute usually conical. Assimineidae .Periwinkles have solidly built shells with typically sharp round protuberances. The sculpture consists of beaded spiral cords.

The genus Calcarina have a coiled spirally shape while the genus Coscinospira have an irregular shape with some having spines.Class: Bivalvia Description Veneroids are generally thick-valved. Sample two have many small bumps on its surface and short spines. Sample one has many whorls and forms a hook-like shape. Their length ranges from 1mm to 2mm Remarks The microfossil is from the phylum foraminifera or forams in short. ORDER NAME Rotaliida Miliolida FAMILY NAME Calcarinidae Peneroplidae GENUS NAME Calcarina Coscinospira AphiaID 112119 112063 5 . and isomyarian ORDER NAME Veneroida FAMILY NAME Ungulinidae GENUS NAME Diplodonta AphiaID 138621 Figure 7 Diplodonta Material • Foraminifera Phylum: Foraminifera Class: Polythalamea Description The samples have a rough surface. equal valved.

Spicules in sponges for example are structures that support its soft tissues Figure 9 spicules 6 . Remark The spicules can come from any type of organisms such as corals or sponges.Figure 8 Calcarina Material • Spicules Description Spicules are translucent and their surface looks rough. The longest spicules in the sample are 4mm. Some of them are straight needle-like but some are curved like a hook. covered with small little nodules.

EOD of spicules hard to define.58 100 Figure 10 Distribution of microfossil Discussion Based on finding. food. substrate. 7 .94 26. Spicules are not an organism. Their functions are as diverse as their origin. It is followed by bivalve which commonly found in shallow marine setting. temperature. For example. spicules serve as a structural function in sponges. The photic zone is deeper in tropical waters with depth less than 200m.38 15. They are tiny spike-like structure that originates from different organism. the major group is gastropods.Result Fossil Gastropod Foramminifera Bivalve Spicules TOTAL Amount 32 11 18 8 69 Percentage (%) 46. and water depth.09 11. Presence of particular type of forams indicates it from coastal area. Foraminifera are very sensitive to its environment. Their diversity depends on the light intensity (photic zone). Gastropods are mostly benthos that lives in shallow marine often found in lagoon sediments or shallow marine. Third major group is foraminifera. salinity.

org/aphia. 1887 .php?p=search 5.Goldstein (1999). A. from World Register of Marine Species: http://www. Sponges.org/aphia.Gastropods. Comparing fossil record with EOD we could estimate the place sample was collected in shallow marine setting or low energy lagoon with coral reef surrounding it. (n.marinespecies. Introduction to marine micropaleontology. Bivalve is second largest group found in sample followed by microfossil Foraminifera and spicules.pdf 4. Heliodiscus asteriscus Haeckel. Retrieved November 9. Hunter. W.php?p=taxdetails&id=412928 3. W.1978 Haq & Boresma 2. Stromatoporoids and Archaeocyathids.marinespecies.). Microfosiils of the Middle Missippian.kyanageo. A.).org/articles/Salem_Microfossils.Salem Limestone:Midwest USA. (n.d. (n.). 2010.d. http://www.d. Hunter.).Conclusion The common fossils in the sample collected from Terembu Reef coastline in Sabah is gastropods. W. 8. 8 . Hunter. 6. References 1. A. 7. Molluscs 1 . A.d. Introduction to Micropalaeontology. http://www. (n. 9.

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