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3.1 Baseband Pulse Transmission Line Coding Eye Patterns Intersymbol Interference Nyquist Waveshaping Adaptive Equalization 3.2 Transmission Over Band-Pass Channel Amplitude-Shift Keying (ASK) Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) Phase-Shift Keying (PSK) Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) M-ary Modulation Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Minimum-Shift-Keying

1

Line Coding

How do we mathematically represent the waveform for a digital signal? Binary 1’s and 0’s, such as in PCM signalling, may be represented in various serial-bit signalling formats called line codes. Line codes are also used for controlling and shaping the power spectral density of a digital communication signal so that the spectrum of the transmitted signal matches the spectral characteristics of a baseband or equivalent lowpass channel. Choosing the appropriate line code can minimise the effect of channel distortion and noise in transmission. There are two major categories: return-to-zero (RZ) and nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ).

2

With RZ coding, the waveform returns to a zero-volt level for

**Binary Line Codes
**

Unipolar Signaling : binary 1 is represented by a high level (+A volts) and a binary 0 by a zero level; also called on-off keying. Polar Signaling : binary 1’s and 0’s are represented by equal positive and negative levels. Bipolar Signaling : binary 1’s are represented by alternately positive or negative values. The binary 0 is represented by a zero level, also called alternate mark inversion (AMI) signaling. Manchester Signaling : each binary 1 is represented by a positive half-bit period pulse followed by a negative half-bit period pulse while a binary 0 is represented by a negative half-bit period pulse followed by a positive half-bit period 3 pulse. Also called split-phase encoding.

4 .

A spectrum that is suitable for the channel Transmission bandwidth: This should be as small as possible Error detection capability: It should be possible to implement channel coding techniques.Desirable Properties of Line Codes Self-synchronisation: There is enough timing information built into the code so that bit synchronizers can be designed to extract the timing or clock signal. Transparency: The data protocol and line code are designed so that every possible sequence of data can be 5 transmitted and received. Low probability of bit error: Receivers can be designed that will recover the binary data with a low probability of bit error when the signal is corrupted by noise or ISI. .

at the end of the fixed time interval. The eye pattern derives its name because it resembles the human eye for binary waves. we plot the received signal against time on a fixed-interval axis. wrap around to the beginning of the time axis. Thus the diagram consists of many overlapping curves. To construct an eye pattern. . It provides an excellent way of assessing the quality of the received line code and the ability of the receiver to combat bit 6 errors. The eye pattern is defined as the synchronized superposition of all possible realisations of the signal of interest viewed within a particular signalling interval.Eye Patterns An eye pattern or eye diagram is a simple and convenient tool for studying the effects of intersymbol interference and other channel impairments in digital signal transmission.

7 .

Slope = sensitivity to timing error Best sampling time Distortion at sampling time Noise margin Time interval over which the received signal can be sampled Distortion of zero-crossings 8 Interpretation of the eye pattern .

9 . thereby reducing the margin for additive noise to cause errors. In the presence of ISI and channel noise.The eye pattern provides the following information: The timing error allowed on the sampler at the receiver is given by the width inside the eye. The noise margin of the system is given by the height of the eye opening. traces from the upper portion of the eye pattern cross traces from the lower portion. or near. The sensitivity to timing error is given by the slope of the open eye(evaluated at. This causes the eye to close. the zero-crossing point). called the eye opening. the preferred time for sampling is at the point where the vertical opening of the eye is the largest. Of course.

Eye Diagram: low noise and ISI-free chanel 1.5 -2 Time Eye pattern for binary signalling 10 .5 Amplitude Time 0 0 -0.5 -1 -0.5 -1 -1.5 1 1 0.5 -1.5 Amplitude 0.5 Eye Diagram: noisy and ISI chanel 2 1.

In the case of an multilevel system, the eye pattern contains (L-1) eye openings stacked up vertically one on the other, where L is the number of discrete amplitude levels used to construct the transmitted signal.

Eye Diagram: low noise and ISI-free chanel

Eye Diagram: noisy and ISI chanel

1

1

0.5 Amplitude

0.5 Amplitude

Time

0

0

-0.5

-0.5

-1

-1

Time

**Eye patterns for L= 4 signal
**

11

For PSK (phase-shift keying) modulation, it is customary to display the “eye pattern” as a two-dimensional scatter diagram illustrating the sampled values that represent the decision variables at the sampling instants.

Noiseless and ISI-free channel

1.5

**Noisy and ISI channel
**

1.5

1

1

0.5

0.5

Quadrature

Quadrature

0

0

-0.5

-0.5

-1

-1

-1.5 -1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

-1.5 -1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

In-Phase

In-Phase

**Scatter plot for an 8-PSK signal
**

12

Regenerative Repeaters

When a line code digital signal (such as PCM) is transmitted over a hardwire channel (such as a twisted-pair telephone line), it is attenuated, filtered, and corrupted by noise. Consequently, for long lines, the data cannot be recovered at the receiving end unless repeaters are placed in cascade along the line and at the receiver.

These repeaters amplify and “clean up” the signal periodically. For analog signals, only linear amplifiers can be used (since relative amplitude values would need to be preserved) and the in-band distortion would accumulate from linear repeater to linear repeater. This is one of the disadvantages of analog signaling.

13

With digital signaling. The bit synchronizer generates a clocking signal. nonlinear processing can be used to regenerate a “noise-free” digital signal. This type of nonlinear processing is called a regenerative repeater. The amplifying filter increases the amplitude of the low-level input signal so that is compatible with the remaining circuitry and filters the signal so as to minimize the effects of channel noise and ISI. 14 .

VT is selected to be onehalf the expected peak-to-peak variation of the sample values.For each clock pulse.e. If the channel noise and ISI is negligible. 15 . The comparator produces a high-level output only when the sample value is larger than the threshold level. the comparator output will be high only when there is a binary 1 (i. the sample and hold circuit produces the sample value that is held for 1-bit interval until the next clock pulse.. VT . a high level) on the corrupted unipolar NRZ line code at the input to the repeater.

and the value of VT that is selected. The bit error rate is influenced by the SNR at the input to the repeater. Thus. the filter that is used.The comparator (a threshold device) acts as a decision-making device. 16 . the unipolar NRZ line code is regenerated “noise free” except for bit errors that are caused when the input noise and ISI alter the sample values sufficiently so that the sample values occur on the wrong side of VT .

many repeaters may be used in cascade. A repeater is required when the SNR at a point along the channel becomes lower than the value that is needed to maintain the overall probability-of-bit-error specification. 17 .In long-distance digital communication systems. the spacing between the repeaters is governed by the path loss in the transmission medium and the amount of noise that is added. Of course.

3. Frame sync. 2.Bit Synchronization Synchronization signals are clock-type signals that are needed in a receiver for detection of the data from the corrupted input signal. Carrier sync. 18 . to distinguish one bit interval from another. These clock signals have a precise frequency and phase relationship with respect to the received input signal. Bit sync. Bit synchronizers that derive the sync directly from the corrupted signal are more desirable. for passband signalling with coherent detection. Digital communications usually require three types of sync signals : 1. to distinguish groups of data in regard to time-division multiplexing. Systems are designed so that the sync is derived either directly from the corrupted signal or from a separate channel that is used only to transmit the sync information.

PSD for polar NRZ and unipolar RZ line codes 19 .

The filtered polar NRZ waveform is converted to a unipolar RZ waveform by using a square-law (or. The clock signal is then recovered using a filter or a PLL. Example : A unipolar RZ code with a sufficient number of alternating binary 1’s and 0’s is almost trivial. a full-wave rectifier) circuit. the bit synchronizer is slightly more complicated. since the unipolar RZ has a delta function at f = R. For a polar NRZ line code.The complexity of the bit synchronizer circuit depends on the sync properties of the line code. since the PSD of that code has a delta function at the bit rate. 20 . f = R. alternatively. The bit sync clock signal can be obtained by passing the received unipolar RZ waveform through a narrowband bandpass filter that is tuned to f0 = R = 1/Tb.

21 .

. One alternative is to use bit interleaving (i. Manchester NRZ encoding can be used. scrambling).Unipolar. For example. The other alternative is to use a completely different type of line code that does not require alternating data for bit synchronization. polar.e. but it will require a channel with twice the bandwidth of that needed for a polar NRZ code. 22 . and bipolar bit synchronizers will work only when there are a sufficient number of alternating 1’s and 0’s in the data. The loss of synchronization because of long strings of all 1’s or all 0’s can be prevented by adopting one of two possible alternatives.

23 .Intersymbol Interference The absolute bandwidth of rectangular multilevel pulses is infinity.

they will spread in time. control has to be exercised over the pulse shape in the overall system. But…how does ISI arise??? 24 . and the pulse for each symbol may be smeared into adjacent time slots and cause intersymbol interference (ISI). Digital baseband transmission requires a lowpass channel with a bandwidth sufficient to accommodate the essential frequency content of the data stream. If these pulses are filtered improperly as they pass through a communication system.Digital data have a broad spectrum with a significant lowfrequency content. To correct it. Another approach to mitigate ISI is to equip the receiver with an equaliser. ISI is a major source of bit errors in the receiver.

x(t ) x(t ) h(t . τ) h(t .Coherence bandwidth is a measure of the range of frequencies over which all spectral components with approximately equal gain and linear phase. τ) y (t ) y (t ) τ << Ts t 0 Ts X(f ) 0τ t 0 t Ts + τ H( f ) f f fc Y( f ) f fc 25 fc Flat fading channel characteristics .

x(t ) x(t ) h ( t . τ) y (t ) y (t ) t 0 Ts 0 τ H( f ) t 0 Ts t Ts + τ X( f ) f Y( f ) f f fc fc fc Frequency selective fading channel characteristics ISI is generated! 26 . τ) h(t .

27 . the pulses would have rounded tops (instead of flat tops). with restricted bandwidth.Can we restrict the bandwidth without introducing ISI? Of course.

win (t ) = ∑ an h(t ) ∗ δ (t − nTs ) n ⎡ ⎤ = ⎢∑ anδ (t − nTs )⎥ ∗ h(t ) ⎦ ⎣ n 28 .Flat-topped multilevel signal at the input is: win (t ) = ∑ an h(t − nTs ) n where h(t)= ∏(t/Ts) and an may take on any of the allowed L multilevels (L = 2 for binary signaling).

⎤ ⎡ wout (t ) = ⎢∑ anδ (t − nTs )⎥ ∗ he (t ) ⎦ ⎣ n where the equivalent impulse response is he (t ) = h(t ) ∗ hT (t ) ∗ hC (t ) ∗ hR (t ) The equivalent system transfer function is H e ( f ) = H ( f )H T ( f )H C ( f )H R ( f ) where ⎡ ⎛ t ⎞⎤ ⎛ sin πTs f H ( f ) = F ⎢∏⎜ ⎟⎥ = Ts ⎜ ⎜T ⎟ ⎜ πT f ⎝ s ⎣ ⎝ s ⎠⎦ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 29 when flat-top pulses are used at the input of transmitter. .The output of the linear system would be just the input impulse train convolved with the equivalent impulse response of the overall system.

.e. The equalizing filter characteristic depends on HC(f). A test bit pattern that is used to adapt the filter electronically for the maximum eye opening (i.The receiving filter is given by HR( f ) = He ( f ) H ( f )H T ( f )H C ( f ) where He(f) is the overall filtering characteristic. as well as on the required He(f). HR(f) is the transfer function of an equalizing filter. 30 Such sequences are called learning or training sequences. the channel transfer function changes from call to call and the equalizing filter may need to be an adaptive filter. the channel frequency response. minimum ISI). When the channel consists of dial-up telephone lines. When He(f) is chosen to minimize the ISI. In this case. the equalizing filter adjusts itself to minimize the ISI..

Nyquist’s First Method (Zero ISI) Nyquist’s first method for eliminating ISI is to use an equivalent transfer function. such that the impulse response satisfies the condition. 31 . and C is a nonzero constant. k ≠ 0 where k is an integer. the received pulse would be aC at t = τ but would not cause interference at other sampling times because he(kTs + τ) = 0 for k ≠ 0. He(f). It means that for a single flat-top pulse of level a present at the input to transmitting filter at t = 0. Ts is the symbol (sample) clocking period. k = 0 he (kTs + τ ) = ⎨ ⎩ 0. ⎧C . τ is the offset in the receiver sampling clock times compared with the clock times of the input symbols.

Absolute bandwidth of this transfer function is B = fs /2. if the transmit and receive filters are designed so that the overall transfer function is 1 ⎛ f ⎞ H e ( f ) = ∏⎜ ⎟ fs ⎜ fs ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ there will be no ISI. where B is the absolute bandwidth of the system. the optimum filtering to produce a minimum-bandwidth system. Let τ =0 and choose sin πf s t he (t ) = πf s t where fs =1/Ts is called the Nyquist rate. The sinc impulse response satisfies Nyquist’s first criterion for zero ISI. 32 . It will allow signaling at a baud rate of D = 1/Ts = 2B pulses/s. Consequently.If we choose a (sin x)/x function for he(t).

(a) Ideal magnitude response. (b) Ideal basic pulse shape. 33 .

8 0.6 -0.2 0 -0.4 0 1 1 0 1 0 Amplitude 0.4 -0.8 -1 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time A series of sinc pulses corresponding to the sequence 1011010 34 .2 -0.Binary sequence 1 1 0.6 0.

e.. we should consider other pulse shapes that have a slightly wider bandwidth. is the raised cosine-rolloff Nyquist 35 filter. This inaccurate sync will cause considerable ISI. Because of these problems. since the sinc pulse decays only as 1/x and is zero in adjacent time slots only when t is at the exact sampling instant. The synchronization of the clock in the decoding sampling circuit has to be almost perfect. which has many desirable features. . This is physically unrealizable (i. the impulse response would be noncausal and of infinite duration). One solution for the equivalent transfer function. The idea is to find pulse shapes that go through zero at adjacent sampling points and yet have an envelope that decays mush faster than 1/x.The sinc type of overall pulse shape has two practical difficulties: The overall amplitude transfer characteristic He(f) has to be flat over –B < f < B and zero elsewhere.

Raised Cosine-Rolloff Nyquist Filtering The raised cosine-rolloff Nyquist filter has the transfer function f < f1 ⎧1. ⎩ 2 fΔ ⎥ ⎬. ⎪1 ⎧ ⎡π ( f − f1 )⎤ ⎫ ⎪ H e ( f ) = ⎨ ⎨1 + cos ⎢ ⎣ ⎪2 ⎩ ⎪0. f1 < f < B ⎦⎭ f >B where B is the absolute bandwidth and the parameters fΔ = B − f0 and f1 = f 0 − f Δ f0 is the 6-dB bandwidth of the filter and the roll-off factor is defined to be f r= Δ f0 The corresponding impulse response is ⎛ sin 2πf 0t ⎞ ⎡ cos 2πf Δ t ⎤ −1 he (t ) = F [H e ( f )] = 2 f 0 ⎜ ⎜ 2πf t ⎟ ⎢1 − (4 f t )2 ⎥ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎣ 0 ⎦ Δ 36 .

37 .

38 .

since the envelope of the impulse response decays faster than 1/|t|(on the order of 1/|t|³ for large values of t). r = 0. the 6-dB bandwidth of the raised cosine-rolloff filter. baud rate. The clock timing requirements are relaxed also.g.5 or r = 1. To determine the baud rate that can be supported by the raised cosine-rollof system. note that the data pulses can inserted at t = n/2f0 where n ≠ 0. although he(t) is still noncausal 2.As the absolute bandwidth is increased (e. The filtering requirements are relaxed. In other words. Therefore. The transmission bandwidth is defined by B = f 0 + f Δ = f 0 + rf 0 = (1 + r ) f 0 39 .. D = 1/Ts = 2f0. f0 is designed to be half the symbol (baud) rate.0) : 1.

and then the filter would be approximately causal.However. We could use a filter with a linear phase characteristic He(f)e-jωTd. the filter is noncausal. Time delay property This would move the peak of the impulse response to the right (along the time axis). since the e-jωTd factor is the transfer function of an ideal delay line. and there would be on ISI if we delayed the clocking by Td sec. h(t − Td ) ↔ H ( f )e − jωTd 40 .

Differences in the number of links in a connection. in a switched telephone network. the channel is usually time-varying. The result is that the telephone channel is random in the sense of being one of an ensemble of possible physical realizations. Consequently. 41 . the use of a fixed equalizer designed on the basis of average channel characteristics may not adequately reduce ISI. To realize the full transmission capability of a telephone channel. there is need for adaptive equalization. For example. we find that two factors contribute to the distribution of pulse distortion on different link connections: Differences in the transmission characteristics of the individual links that may be switched together.Adaptive Equalization In a telecommunications environment.

We study an adaptive equalizer based on the tapped-delay-line filter. which is synchronous in the sense that the tap spacing of the equalizer is the same as the symbol duration T of the transmitted signal. post-channel equalization at the receiver.Adaptive equalizer adjusts itself continuously and automatically by operating on the input signal. by training the filter with the guidance of a suitable training sequence transmitted through the channel so as to adjust the filter parameters to optimum values. . The first approach requires a feedback channel. prior to data transmission. Two types of adaptive equalization: pre-channel equalization at the transmitter. we consider only adaptive equalization at the receiving end of the system. This equalization can be achieved. This equalizer is simple to implement and its performance is a 42 satisfactory.

43 .Block diagram of adaptive equalizer The output yn of the tapped-delay-line equalizer in response to the input sequence {xn} is defined by the discrete convolution sum: yn = k =− N ∑w x k N n−k Where wk is the weight at the kth tap.

size ⎞⎜ ⎛ Updated value ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ of kth tap .The adaptation uses the least mean square (LMS) algorithm. ⎛ Input signal ⎞ ⎛ Old value ⎞ ⎟⎛ Error ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ Step .⎟ + ⎜ parameter ⎟⎜ applied to kth ⎟⎜ signal ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ weight ⎝ ⎠⎜ kth tap .weight ⎟ = ⎜ of kth tap .weight ⎟⎝ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ˆ wk [n + 1] = ˆ wk [n] + μx[n − k ]e[n] Signal-flow graph of the LMS algorithm for the kth tap weight 44 .

a known sequence is transmitted and a synchronized version of this signal is generated in the receiver.There are two modes of operation for an adaptive equalizer. 45 . the training mode and decision-directed mode. where (after a time shift equal to the transmission delay) it is applied to the adaptive equalizer as the desired response. namely. During the training mode.

When the training process is completed. A training sequence commonly used in practice is the so-called pseudo-noise (PN) sequence.The tap-weights of the equalizer are thereby adjusted in accordance with the LMS algorithm. which consists of a deterministic sequence with noise-like characteristics. the adaptive equalizer is switched to its decision-directed mode by using its output directly for adaptation. 46 .

The larger the step-size parameter μ the faster the tracking capability of the adaptive equalizer. an adaptive equalizer operating in a decisiondirected mode is able to track relatively slow variations in channel characteristics.In normal operation the decisions made by the receiver are correct with high probability. a large step-size parameter μ may result in an unacceptably high excess mean-square error (MSE). We therefore find that in practice the choice of a suitable value for the step-size parameter μ involves making a compromise between fast tracking and reducing the excess mean-square error. thereby permitting the adaptive equalizer to operate satisfactorily. Furthermore. This means that the error estimates are correct most of the time. 47 . However.

Convergence characteristics of the LMS algorithm with different step sizes 48 .

on the other hand. An issue of particular concern in baseband pulse transmission is that of pulse shaping designed to bring the ISI under control. The communication channel used for passband data transmission may be a microwave radio link. The major issue of concern here is the optimum design of the receiver so as to minimize the average probability of symbol error in the presence of noise. a data stream represented in the form of a discrete PAM signal is transmitted directly over a lowpass channel. the incoming data stream is modulated onto a carrier (usually sinusoidal) with fixed frequency limits imposed by a bandpass channel of interest. a satellite channel.Transmission Over Bandpass Channels In baseband pulse transmission. or the like. 49 . In digital bandpass transmission.

frequency. This feature makes them impervious to amplitude non-linearity. or phase of a sinusoidal carrier in accordance with the incoming data.The modulation process making the transmission possible involves switching the amplitude. 50 . frequency modulation. and phase modulation. Thus there are three basic digital signaling schemes known as Amplitude shift keying (ASK) Frequency shift keying (FSK) Phase shift keying (PSK) which may be viewed as special cases of amplitude modulation. A distinctive feature of FSK and PSK signals is that they both have a constant envelope. respectively. commonly encountered in microwave radio links and satellite channels.

51 . FSK and PSK signals are preferred to ASK signals for digital passband transmission over nonlinear channels.Therefore in practice.

The l's turn on the carrier of amplitude A. Call a particular sequence of l's and 0's f(t).Amplitude-Shift Keying (ASK) Assume a sequence of binary pulses as shown. Then the amplitudemodulated signal is simply f (t ) = Af (t ) cos ω t c c 52 . the 0's turn it off. The spectrum of the ASK signal will depend on the particular binary sequence to be transmitted.

It contains upper and lower side bands symmetrically distributed about the carrier or center frequency ωc. This is the double-sideband suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) AM signal. (a) Spectrum of modulating signal (b) Spectrum of AM wave 53 .The effect of multiplication by cosωct is simply to shift the spectrum of the original binary signal (the baseband signal) up to frequency ωc.

and centered about. This applies to any other types of pulse shaping. 54 .The shaped modulated signal will have the spectrum the baseband signal shifted up to. Example with sinusoidal roll-off shaping As an example. the carrier frequency. either by shaping the baseband pulses. or by shaping the high-frequency modulated pulses. say that sinusoidal/raised cosine roll-off shaping is used.

The spectrum of the modulated signal looks like the baseband spectrum. The transmission bandwidth is B = f 0 + f Δ = f 0 + rf 0 = (1 + r ) f 0 55 . shifted up to the carrier frequency fc hertz and with a transmission bandwidth BT = 2 B = 1 (1 + r ) Ts with r the roll-off factor.

the transmission bandwidth is 1 BT = 2 B = (1 + r ) Ts 56 .1 Ts = 2 f0 B = f 0 (1 + r ) = 1 (1 + r ) 2Ts Therefore.

symmetrically arrayed about ωc. 57 . 1 1 cos ω m t cos ω c t = cos(ω m + ω c )t + cos(ω m − ω c )t 2 2 The single-line spectral plot representing cosωct is thus replaced by two lines. Then. if f(t) is a finite sum of sine waves (periodic signals). let f(t) = cosωct. a single sine wave of frequency ωc. As an example. Similarly. by trigonometry.The frequency shift of a signal f(t) due to multiplication by cosωct is a general result for AM signals. It is true for all modulating signals f(t) and not just for the binary case we are in the process of considering. each sine wave is translated up in frequency by ωc.

the spectrum of this signal is just the (sinx)/x line spectrum of a pulse of width T. periodic with period 2T. (a) periodic ASK signal. (b) Spectrum (positive frequency only) 58 . translated up to frequency fc.For a binary train of alternating l's and 0's. resulting in a periodically alternating ASK signal.

f1 and f2 >> 1/T. a zero to frequency f2. f 2 = f c + Δf . Generally. An alternative representation of the FSK wave consists of letting f1 = f c − Δf . 59 .Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) Binary FSK modulated signal is represented as: f c (t ) = A cos ω1t ⎫ T T − ≤t≤ ⎬ f c (t ) = A cos ω 2 t ⎭ 2 2 A l corresponds to frequency f1.

and leads to a good rule of thumb regarding FM bandwidths. f1 = m/T. and are synchronized in phase. m and n integers). The frequency spectrum of the FSK wave is difficult to obtain.e. which provides insight into the spectral characteristics of more complex FM signals.. f2 = n/T. − ≤ t ≤ 2 2 The frequency then deviates ±Δf about fc . We consider one special case. If the two frequencies are each multiples of the reciprocal of the binary period T (i. The quantity Δf is commonly called the frequency deviation.The FSK wave can also be written as: T T f c (t ) = A cos(ω c ± Δω)t . Assume that the binary message consists of an alternating sequence of ls and 0s. 60 .

Specifically. that this may also be visualized as the linear superposition of two periodic ASK signals. The spectrum is then the linear superposition of two spectra. one delayed T seconds with respect to the other. however. it can be shown that the positive frequency spectrum has the form sin[(ω1 − ω n )T / 2] sin[(ω 2 − ω n )T / 2] + (−1) n (ω1 − ω n )T / 2 (ω 2 − ω n )T / 2 61 .Then this FSK wave is a periodic function: Note.

Wideband FM 2. Two extreme cases are of interest: 1. with B the bandwidth of the baseband signal.Spectrum of periodic FSK wave (positive frequency only) The bandwidth of this periodic FSK signal is then 2Δf + 2B. Narrow band FM 62 .

If the baseband signal is an arbitrary string of binary pulses. r. In narrowband FM.In wideband FM. the bandwidth is essentially just that separation. Δf << B. Here the bandwidth is determined by the baseband signal. each shaped according to sinusoidal shaping with a roll-off factor. It is virtually independent of the bandwidth of the baseband binary signal. This is distinctly different from the AM case. and the bandwidth approaches 2B. the approximate bandwidth of the corresponding FSK signal is given by BT ( FM ) = 2Δf + 2 B B= 1 (1 + r ) 2T with T being the baseband (or FSK) pulse width. Thus in wideband FM. 63 . Δf >> B. and the bandwidth approaches 2Δf.

but its form would be roughly that shown below. Then why use FM? 64 . FSK spectrum. sinusoidal roll-off shaping (positive frequency only) Note that the FM transmission bandwidth is generally much greater than that for AM. that is. which is always 2B.The exact shape of the FSK spectrum is difficult to calculate. twice the baseband bandwidth.

Encoding of pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM) signals into binary pulse code modulation (PCM) results in an expansion of the system bandwidth. A general characteristic of communication systems is that one can generally improve system performance in the presence of noise by encoding or modulating signals into equivalent wideband forms. the modulation index is defined as the ratio of the frequency deviation Δf and base band bandwidth B: Δf β≡ B 65 . but the noise immunity increases considerably. (shown later) This is analogous to the pulse modulation. In FM analysis.It is this wideband property of FM that makes its performance generally far superior to AM in a noisy environment. Binary PCM and FM are examples of such wideband signals.

Narrowband FM systems correspond to β << 1. Wideband FM systems correspond to β >> 1.In terms of β the FM transmission bandwidth is: BT ( FM ) = FM bandwidth = 2Δf + 2 B = 2 B (1 + β) Carson’s rule: 98% of the total power is contained within the bandwidth BT(FM). The modulation index β plays a very significant role in the analysis of FSK systems. 66 .

translated up in frequency. The PSK signal has the same double-sideband characteristic as 67 ASK transmission. − ≤ t ≤ 2 2 Here a 1 in the baseband binary stream corresponds to positive polarity.Phase-Shift Keying (PSK) Binary PSK signal using rectangular shaping is given as: T T f c (t ) = ± cos ω c t . The PSK signal thus corresponds essentially to a polar NRZ binary stream. . and a 0 to negative polarity.

Differential Phase-Shift Keying (DPSK) When serial data are passed through many circuits along a communication channel. DPSK is a noncoherent form of PSK that overcomes this problem while without requiring a coherent reference signal at the receiver. and hence are widely used in wireless communications. For example. the waveform is often unintentionally inverted (data complemented). A DPSK transmitter combines two basic operations: Differential encoding Phase-shift keying 68 . Noncoherent receivers are easy and cheap to build. this can happen in twisted-pair transmission line channel just by switching the two leads at a connection point when a polar line code is used.

69 . the input binary data stream is differentially encoded into a new binary data stream. The new data stream represents a 1 by a change in polarity and a 0 by no change in polarity.In DPSK. (⇒ Exclusive-OR operation) This operation is made clear by the following example.

70 .

71 .

Specifically. If a set of M = 2k symbols is used. 72 . with ideal Nyquist shaping 2 (symbols/s)/Hz can be transmitted over the Nyquist bandwidth of B hertz.M-ary Modulation The bandwidth required for transmitting a baseband digital sequence could be reduced by using multilevel signaling: combining successive binary pulses to form a longer pulse requiring a correspondingly smaller bandwidth for transmission. with k the number of successive binary digits combined to form the appropriate symbol to be transmitted. 2k (bits/s)/Hz may be transmitted using the Nyquist band.

73 .

± 4 4 2 74 . 10. i = 1. 4.Multi-symbol systems include multi-phase. one for each of the binary pairs. and satellite data communications to achieve higher spectrum efficiency. multi-amplitude. microwave.± . can be written T T si (t ) = cos(ω c t + θ i ). 2. is used to trigger a high-frequency sine wave of four possible phases. The ith signal. 11. and the resultant set of four binary pairs. of the four possible ones. 01. and combined multi-phase/multi-amplitude signaling schemes. 00. These are commonly used in telephone. 3. Consider a system in which two successive binary pulses are combined. π θ i = ± . − ≤ t ≤ 2 2 Two possible choices for the four phase angles are: π π 3π θ i = 0. Multi-symbol signals are often called M-ary signals.

respectively. k successive binary pulses are stored up and one of M = 2k symbols is output. The corresponding output symbol is then T = k/R seconds long. They are a special case of multi-PSK (MPSK) signals. If the binary rate is R bits/s. The QPSK signals may be represented in the following form: s i (t ) = a i cos ω c t + bi sin ω c t . each binary pulse interval is 1/R seconds long. In general. − T T ≤t≤ 2 2 where ai and bi are the in-phase and quadrature components. Signals of this type are called quaternary/quadrature PSK (QPSK) signals.In both cases the phases are spaced π/2 radians apart. 75 . Binary PSK signals often labeled as BPSK.

bi). The horizontal axis corresponding to the location of ai.Transmission of this type is often called quadrature transmission. with two carriers in phase quadrature to one another (cosωct and sinωct) transmitted simultaneously over the same channel. is called the in phase axis. is called the quadrature axis. is located. It is useful to represent the MPSK signals in a two-dimensional constellation diagram by locating the various points (ai. QPSK signal constellation 76 . The vertical axis. along which bi.

The in-phase (cosine) and quadrature (sine) representation of the QPSK signals si(t) suggests a method to generate these signals:

Two successive binary input pulses are stored up, and the pair of numbers (ai,bi ), taken every T = 2/R seconds, is used to modulate two quadrature carrier terms, cosωct and sinωct respectively.

QPSK modulator

77

It is apparent that demodulation is carried out by using two synchronous detectors in parallel, one in quadrature with the other. A comparison of the two detector outputs then determines the particular binary pair transmitted.

QPSK demodulator

78

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)

More general types of multi-symbol signaling schemes may be generated by letting ai and bi take on multiple values themselves. The resultant signals are QAM signals. Therefore QAM is a combined multi-phase/multi-amplitude signaling scheme. These signals may be interpreted as having multilevel amplitude modulation, applied independently on each of the two quadrature carriers.

Four level (16-symbol) QAM constellation

79

bi). an individual output symbol. 80 . As the result of shaping. signal shaping must be used to reduce ISI. In practice. may now span several T-second intervals. the bandpass output signals would be passed through an appropriate bandpass shaping filter before being transmitted. nominally designed to fit into the interval T seconds long. Alternatively. An actual modulator would have the input binary pulses shaped before modulating the carrier.The general QAM signal may also be written: si (t ) = ri cos(ω c t + θ i ) with the amplitude ri and phase angle θi given by the appropriate combinations of (ai. A phase-detector-amplitude-level-detector combination could then also be used to extract the digital information.

2 -0.4 -0.8 0.2 0 -0.Binary sequence 1 1 0.4 0 1 1 0 1 0 Amplitude 0.8 -1 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time A series of sinc pulses corresponding to the sequence 1011010 81 .6 -0.6 0.

A typical signal at time t. in the current slot. QAM spectrum with pulse shaping (a) Base band spectrum (b) QAM spectrum 82 . may thus be written as: n n ⎤ ⎡ s (t ) = ∑ ⎢a n h(t − ) cos ω c t + bn h(t − ) sin ω c t ⎥ T T ⎦ n ⎣ h(t) represents the impulse response of the shaping filter.

We know previously that BT = 2 B = 1 (1 + r ) Ts Therefore the symbol rate that may be transmitted over a channel with baseband bandwidth B hertz is 1 2B Rs = = Ts (1 + r ) where the roll-off factor r varies from an ideal value of 0 (for ideal low-pass filtering) to 1 (for raised-cosine filtering). then this corresponds to a baseband bandwidth of B =BT/2 hertz. If the transmission bandwidth is BT hertz. for transmitting specified bit rates over various channels. 83 .We can determine the particular form of QAM. and the type of shaping required.

The symbol rate allowable over the equivalent transmission channel of bandwidth BT hertz is thus Rs = BT symbols/s (1 + r ) For a QAM signal with M = 2k possible symbols or states. the allowable bit rate is kBT Rb = bits/s (1 + r ) 84 .

the phase spacing between signals reduces correspondingly. 85 . the roll-off factor may be found. The channel noise and phase jitter makes it more difficult to distinguish individual points in a constellation as the number of point increases.kBT Rb = bits/s (1 + r ) Given a transmission bandwidth BT. the desired bit rate and a particular QAM constellation. There is thus a limit on the number of QAM states that may be used. This will produce more errors at the receiver. Why not go on indefinitely increasing the size of the QAM signal constellation to achieve indefinitely high bit rate? As the number of constellation size increases.

PSK signal constellations (a) M=4 (b) M=8 Shannon channel capacity theorem: ⎛1 + S ⎞ C = B log 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ N⎠ C = channel capacity (bits/s) 86 .

87 .Minimum-Shift-Keying (MSK) In BPSK modulation. In communication systems with a non-linearity following the signal generation point this would result in a broadened signal spectrum and hence increased signal bandwidth. This would be smoothed out with appropriate signal shaping but would clearly result in a varying-amplitude signal. phase discontinuities may occur at the bit transition point.

y (t ) = G [ x(t )] x Transfer characteristic of a nonlinear device 88 .

X(f ) -f2 -f1 0 f f1 f2 (a) Y(f ) -2f2 -(f1+f2) -2f1 -f2 -f1 -(f2-f1) 0 f f2-f1 f1 f2 2f1 f2+f1 2f2 (b) (a) Input spectrum. (b) Output spectrum at the output of a nonlinear channel. 89 .

This is the highly non-linear region and will result in a extraneous sidebands when passing a signal with amplitude fluctuations (due to a mechanism called AM-to-PM conversion). These signals are commonly used in satellite transponders because of their reduced bandwidth requirements.g. the main lobe contains 90% of the signal energy. It is thus of interest to consider constant envelope modulation. These sidebands deprive the information signals of some of their portion of transponder power and interfere with nearby channels. In QPSK. Amplifiers in satellite systems are operated near their power saturation point for better efficiency (e. 90 . Other high-power communication systems pose a similar problem..A similar problem arises in the generation and transmission of QPSK (4-phase PSK) signals. Class C amplifiers).

The sidelobes are smaller than the main lobe by only 14 dB. . The considerable power outside the main lobe will be a source of serious interchannel interference when QPSK is to be used for 91 multi-channel communication on adjacent carriers.

. Recall this: 92 .The large sidelobes are due to the character of the baseband signal. using rectangular pulse).g. and abrupt changes give rise to spectral components at high frequencies. This signal consists of abrupt changes (e.

93 . Since only one component can make a transition at one time. In Offset QPSK (OQPSK). the timing of the pulse stream dI(t) and dQ(t) is shifted such that the alignment of the two streams is offset by T. However…the filtering does not necessarily resolve the problem! In QPSK. the phase changes are limited to 0° and ±90° every T seconds. the carrier phase can change only once every 2T. Due to this alignment between dI(t) and dQ(t). also called staggered QPSK (SQPSK).The problem of interchannel interference in QPSK is so serious that regulatory and standardization agencies will not permit these system to be used except with appropriate pulse shaping at the transmitter to suppress the side lobes. the odd and even pulse streams are both transmitted at the rate of 1/2T bits/s and are synchronously aligned. The phase change can be as large as 180°.

dk(t) 1 d0 d1 d2 d3 3T 4T d4 5T d5 d6 d7 t -1 0 dI(t) 1 T 2T 6T 7T 8T d0 d2 -1 d6 t d4 4T 6T 8T 0 dQ(t) 1 2T d1 d3 -1 d5 d7 t 0 s(t) d0 = 1 d1 = 1 2T d2 = -1 d3 = -1 4T d4 = -1 d5 = 1 6T d6 = 1 d7 = 1 8T t -1 0 2T 4T 6T 8T QPSK (constant envelope using rectangular pulses) 94 .

dk(t) 1 d0 d1 d2 d3 3T 4T d4 5T d5 d6 d7 t -1 0 dI(t) 1 T 2T 6T 7T 8T d0 d2 -1 d6 t d4 4T 6T 8T 0 dQ(t) 1 2T T d1 d3 -1 d5 d7 t 0 d0 = 1 d1 = 1 2T d2 = -1 d3 = -1 4T d4 = -1 d5 = 1 6T d6 = 1 d7 = 1 8T s(t) t -1 0 2T 4T 6T 8T OQPSK (constant envelope using rectangular pulses) 95 .

The rectangular data produce a (sincx)2-type power spectrum that has large undesirable spectral sidelobes. 96 . the envelope of the QPSK/OQPSK signal is constant.For rectangular-shaped data pulses.

all of the undesirable frequency sidelobes.Now it turns out that when QPSK/OQPSK waveforms with abrupt phase changes. at the same time. However. are filtered so suppress sidebands. we need an alternative QPSK scheme which possesses constant envelop and maintains phase continuity. Minimum shift keying (MSK) is one such scheme. is to cause substantial changes in the amplitude of the waveform. In other words. If these signals are used in satellite channels employing highly nonlinear amplifiers. which can interfere with nearby channels and other communication systems. 97 . the effect of the filter. at the times of the abrupt phase changes. the constant envelope will tend to be restored since the nonlinearity suppresses the amplitude variations. are also restored. This suggests that further improvement is possible if the OQPSK format is modified to avoid phase transitions.

98 .

or a special case of OQPSK with (smoother) sinusoidal symbol weighting.MSK can be viewed as either a special case of continuous-phase FSK (CPFSK). 99 .

If the carrier has an integer number of half cycles within the symbol interval T.Mathematically. 2. The waveform si(t) has constant envelope. bi = ±1 Note that the effect of the sinusoidal weighting terms is to multiply each carrier by a term going to zero at the bit transition point. This says that we should set m 1 mR = fc = 2T 4 with m an integer. There is phase continuity in the RF carrier. we can write the MSK signal as ⎛ πt ⎞ ⎛ πt ⎞ si (t ) = ai cos⎜ ⎟ cos ωc t + bi sin ⎜ ⎟ sin ωc t . ⎝T ⎠ ⎝T ⎠ ai . 100 . and R = 2/T the input bit rate. One may deduce the following facts from MSK waveforms: 1. then there is no phase discontinuity at bit transition points.

101 .

Its first-lobe transmission bandwidth. with the first zero crossing at f = 0.5R = 3/T. The MSK baseband signal has a broader first lobe. centered about fc is BT = R = 2/T.5R = 1/T. The actual MSK signal thus has a first lobe bandwidth. the sidelobes generated by these smoother waveforms will be smaller than those associated with the rectangular waveforms and hence easier to suppress as is required to avoid interchannel interference. of BT = 1. while that for the QPSK signal is 8R = 16/T. The bandwidth of MSK to the 99-percent power point is 1.75R = 3/2T. The QPSK signal. The higher frequency content of the MSK signal drops off more rapidly. 102 . centered about the carrier frequency fc.As we may expect. has a corresponding baseband first zero crossing of f =0.2R = 2. however.4/T.

103 .

Performance Evaluation of BPSK modulation Based Spectrum Sensing over Wireless Fading Channels in Cognitive Radio

by International Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)

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