Portal Runtime – Release 6.

0

June, 2003

Table of Contents:
1 PORTAL RUNTIME TECHNOLOGY .........................................................................................................................6 INTRODUCTION AND POSITIONING ...........................................................................................................................................6 CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGY ...............................................................................................................................................7 Portal Environment ............................................................................................................................................................7 Portal Application ..............................................................................................................................................................7 Portal Application Archive (PAR files)...............................................................................................................................7 Portal Components .............................................................................................................................................................7 Portal Services....................................................................................................................................................................7 Portal Component Profile...................................................................................................................................................7 Portal Component Config...................................................................................................................................................7 Portal Runtime Mode..........................................................................................................................................................7 Portal Object Model (P.O.M.) ............................................................................................................................................7 Application Repository .......................................................................................................................................................8 2 PORTAL INFRASTRUCTURE .....................................................................................................................................9 PACKAGING .............................................................................................................................................................................9 CORE APPLICATIONS ...............................................................................................................................................................9 3 PORTAL RUNTIME API .............................................................................................................................................11 COMPONENT ..........................................................................................................................................................................11 IPortalComponent ............................................................................................................................................................11 AbstractPortalComponent ................................................................................................................................................12 SERVICE ................................................................................................................................................................................12 IService .............................................................................................................................................................................12 IServiceContext.................................................................................................................................................................12 REQUEST/RESPONSE ..............................................................................................................................................................13 IPortalComponentRequest................................................................................................................................................13 IPortalComponentResponse .............................................................................................................................................13 4 PORTAL APPLICATION ARCHIVES.......................................................................................................................14 PAR FILE FORMAT ................................................................................................................................................................14 Web Resources..................................................................................................................................................................14 Non-Web Resources..........................................................................................................................................................14 PAR BUILDING .....................................................................................................................................................................15 STRUCTURE OF THE DEPLOYMENT DESCRIPTOR....................................................................................................................16 PORTAL APPLICATION ...........................................................................................................................................................16 Portal Application Configuration.....................................................................................................................................16 PORTAL COMPONENTS ..........................................................................................................................................................18 Portal Component Configuration .....................................................................................................................................18 Portal Component Profiles ...............................................................................................................................................19 PORTAL SERVICES .................................................................................................................................................................21 Portal Service Configuration Properties ..........................................................................................................................22 Portal Service Profiles......................................................................................................................................................22 5 PORTAL APPLICATION LIFE CYCLE....................................................................................................................23 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................................................23 APPLICATION DEPENDENCIES................................................................................................................................................24 HOT DEPLOYMENT ................................................................................................................................................................24 6 PORTAL RUNTIME ARCHITECTURE....................................................................................................................25 REQUEST DISPATCHER ..........................................................................................................................................................25 Dispatcher API .................................................................................................................................................................26 Dispatching a Request ......................................................................................................................................................26 PORTAL RUNTIME API ..........................................................................................................................................................27 PORTAL RUNTIME CORE........................................................................................................................................................27 PORTAL REGISTRY ................................................................................................................................................................30 Central Configuration Storage .........................................................................................................................................30

PORTAL RUNTIME CACHE .....................................................................................................................................................31 Properties .........................................................................................................................................................................31 API....................................................................................................................................................................................31 Caching Expiration...........................................................................................................................................................31 PORTAL APPLICATION REPOSITORY ......................................................................................................................................32 PORTAL CONNECTION FRAMEWORK .....................................................................................................................................32 7 REQUEST CYCLE ........................................................................................................................................................34 NODE.....................................................................................................................................................................................34 PORTAL COMPONENT MODE .................................................................................................................................................35 Accessing to a Mode .........................................................................................................................................................35 Mode Handling .................................................................................................................................................................35 PORTAL HOOKS .....................................................................................................................................................................37 Purpose.............................................................................................................................................................................37 Adding a new Portal Hook ...............................................................................................................................................38 Default hooks....................................................................................................................................................................39 EVENT HANDLING .................................................................................................................................................................40 Internal Portal Runtime Events ........................................................................................................................................40 Request Event API ............................................................................................................................................................40 Component Event API.......................................................................................................................................................41 Event Handling .................................................................................................................................................................41 8 JNDI SUPPORT IN PRT...............................................................................................................................................42 PRT JNDI SUPPORT PACKAGE..............................................................................................................................................42 JNDI Service Providers ....................................................................................................................................................42 JNDI Clients .....................................................................................................................................................................43 JNDI Service Providers Packaging ..................................................................................................................................43 JNDI Provider Resource File Sample...............................................................................................................................44 JNDI CONCEPTS AND RELATED DOCUMENTS .......................................................................................................................44 JNDI Environment............................................................................................................................................................44 JNDI Context ....................................................................................................................................................................44 JNDI Context Factories....................................................................................................................................................45 9 WEB SERVICES SUPPORT ........................................................................................................................................46 APPROACH ............................................................................................................................................................................46 Portal Services as WEB Services......................................................................................................................................46 Portal Applications and external WEB services ...............................................................................................................46 CONCEPTS .............................................................................................................................................................................47 ARCHITECTURE .....................................................................................................................................................................48 10 PAR IDE......................................................................................................................................................................53 APPROACH ............................................................................................................................................................................53 ADDITIONAL FEATURE ..........................................................................................................................................................53 11 COMPATIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS................................................................................................................56 EP 5.0 BACKWARD COMPATIBILITY ......................................................................................................................................56 EP50 Deployment Policy..................................................................................................................................................56 EP50 Class Loading .........................................................................................................................................................56 EP50 Archives ..................................................................................................................................................................56 LIST OF INCOMPATIBILITIES TO EP 5.0 ..................................................................................................................................57 UNIX/WINDOWS COMPATIBILITY .........................................................................................................................................57 12 ADDITIONAL PRT SERVICES ..............................................................................................................................58 NOTIFICATION SERVICE.........................................................................................................................................................58 CONTENT CONVERSION SERVICE ..........................................................................................................................................59 CONTENT CONVERTER SERVICE ............................................................................................................................................60 JCO CLIENT SERVICE ............................................................................................................................................................61 RFC ENGINE SERVICE (UNDER CONSTRUCTION) ..................................................................................................................63 Service Description...........................................................................................................................................................63 Implementation .................................................................................................................................................................64

..........................................81 Resource Bundle packaging ..........................................................................................74 Log Important Exception ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................80 Principle and approach ...................................................................................................................................................72 14 EXCEPTION HANDLING............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................73 Do not make wrong assumptions ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................76 15 APPENDIX....................................................................................................................................................................85 PORTAL OBJECT NAME AND ALIAS ......................................................................................................................................................................................82 JSP Support ...............................................................................................64 13 CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT IN PORTAL APPLICATION.......................................................................................................................................................77 Uploading a PAR File to the Application Repository...............................................72 START THE CONFIG MODE.....................................................86 Example ...........83 Safety level..................................................................................................................................................................................................................80 API.............................................70 Add a listener....................................................................83 Security Zone ....................82 PERMISSION MODEL FOR PORTAL COMPONENTS AND PORTAL WEB SERVICES .................................................................................................................................................................86 Alias.................................................................73 CODING RULES ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................66 Important Points .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................73 ISSUE OVERVIEW.........................................................................................................................................................................75 Log Viewer...........................................80 Locale lookup .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Security Open Issues............77 PAR FLOW ........................xml ........................................................................................88 Local Deployment Overview............................................................................................75 Exception Files ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................87 DIRECTORY STRUCTURE ................................................................................................................................84 Recommendations......................................................................................................72 Remove listener...................................................................................................68 Virtual Components ........................................................................................66 Use Export PAR File of the PAR IDE.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................65 CREATE A CONFIG ARCHIVE ........................................................78 DEPLOYMENT HOOK ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................70 Implement the interface IConfigEventListener ...........68 Sharing Configuration between Applications .....................................................................................................74 ADDING EXTRA INFORMATION ..................................................................................................................................................67 ACCESS DATA .....77 Local Deployment Consistency...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................73 Always include a message ..............................................................................................73 Do not have empty exception handlers ...................................................................................................................................................................................75 Exception Catalog ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................80 Resource Bundle Name....................................................................................................................................................................84 Implementation ................................................................................................66 Config Archive properties file.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................73 Always pass the original exception........................................................................66 Place your configuration files in folders ......................................................................68 Modify portalapp....................................................................69 CONFIGURATION EVENT SUBSCRIPTION .................................................................81 Portal Component Java Code.................................................82 Request/Response handling .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................86 Name..........................................................................................................................................................................69 USE THE CONFIG FRAMEWORK API .....................................................................77 Deployment Policy........................88 ...................................................................................74 Do not only print the stack trace .........................................................................79 TEXT LOCALIZATION AND PORTAL COMPONENTS INTERNATIONALIZATION ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................77 Deploying a PAR File on all PRT Nodes....................

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................102 Declaring JSP as Portal Component...........................................108 ASYNCHRONOUS RESPONSE API..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................98 PORTAL RUNTIME TEST MODE .......................103 Class Loader consideration.................................105 Tag lib packaging ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................102 JSP packaging/Compilation .................106 Java Beans.....................................................97 JNDI Service Providers ..........................................................................................................................................................92 Application Example.............94 SAP J2EE INTEGRATION AND INTERACTION ..............................................................................................................................................102 JSP selected programmatically .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................107 Handling Request Events................89 CLASS LOADING IN THE PORTAL RUNTIME .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .........................Local Deployment of Portal Applications............................................................................96 PORTAL CONTENT ABSTRACTION ..........................................109 INDEX ......................................................................................................................................................101 JSP SUPPORT.....................................................................................................94 How to get the sub context that belongs to the application? .................................................90 Class Loading Examples...................................................................................................................................112 .97 JNDI Basis...................................................................................................................................................103 Supported Features in the PRT.............................................................................................................................................................................................96 Executing a Servlet as a Portal Component..............................................................................................96 Accessing to the Portal Service from a J2EE object.........................97 PORTAL RUNTIME HELP MODE ...............................................103 Portal Runtime extension.....................................................................................................................................................................................100 LOGGER CONFIGURATION ...............................................90 DEPLOYMENT DESCRIPTOR EXAMPLE ......................................................................93 CENTRAL CONFIGURATION STORAGE – HOW TO.............................................97 Starting Portal Objects ..............................................................................................................94 How to store and retrieve config files to/from the central location? ..................................................88 ELEMENTS OF A PORTAL APPLICATION ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The motivation behind the design and the technical implementation of the Portal Runtime are the following: • • Area of concern: The goal of the PRT is very well identified and restricts itself to the life cycle of portal applications. They are: • Portal Components. A Component offering a globally accessible function in the Portal. So the model proposed by the PRT can be extended to support. The Portal Runtime Technology provides a Java based framework to define. a plug able component designed to be executed into a Portal environment. Portal Services. Open and Extensible: Many of the components of the PRT can be changed or customized to be adapted to the environment in which the PRT is executed. and execute Applications in a Portal Environment by allowing the aggregation and the display of various contents such as rich text. • Portal Runtime Technology Page 6 /113 . the Portal Runtime clearly positions itself as one of the key block used to build and execute any kind of Portal. From an application development perspective.1 Portal Runtime Technology Introduction and Positioning The Portal Runtime is one basic part of the SAP Enterprise Portal Environment integrated in the SAP J2EE environment. xml. The portal runtime development model offers a way to implement a clear separation between a Service API and its implementation. build. So. a component that can be displayed into a portal page. The Portal Runtime defines and manages two kinds of objects that define a Portal Application. for example. videos etc… The Portal Runtime Technology provides a runtime and its corresponding services as well as a development environment for Portal applications. different user interface models or different programming models. From a user point of view.

It is the underlying structure of all server-side eventing and it serves as a logical representation of the Portal structure for addressing the request events.) The Portal Object Model is a runtime representation of the portal structure at request time. Portal Application Archive (PAR files) A PAR file is an archive file containing a Portal Application.O. It can be described as a Java Code defined by properties and executed in a particular mode.Concepts and Terminology Portal Environment From the PRT perspective. A PAR file contains the Portal Application Deployment Descriptor (portalapp. The Portal Runtime offers tools to facilitate the construction of Portal Applications. Portal Components This is an executable part of the Portal Application. accessed and finally released. Portal Application The Portal Runtime technology defines an environment in which Portal Application are deployed. Portal Services It is a service offering functionality to other applications of the portal. Portal Runtime Technology Page 7 /113 . Portal Object Model (P.M. instantiated. services and applications on the Internet or the Intranet. Portal Component Config The component config is a set of properties which configures the Portal Component (class name etc…). The POM is only valid during one request. It is a hierarchical representation of the components participating in the processing of a request and in the construction of a response. This file describes the portal application itself and provides information required at runtime. Portal Runtime Mode Portal Runtime Mode allows a Portal component to display a different user interface according to the specified mode.xml). Portal Component Profile The component profile is a set of properties (name-value pairs) representing the dynamic part of a Portal Component that could be customized to change the behavior of a Portal Application. It can also be a JSP. The state is not kept on the server side. a Portal environment is a Web site that serves as a starting point to information.

Portal Runtime Technology Page 8 /113 . It also takes into account the application distribution in a cluster installation.Application Repository The Application repository is the persistence layer of the Portal Runtime. In its most basis form. it offers a JNDI access to Portal Applications. It contains every object persisted by the Portal.

Concerning the application storage. Those applications are also never loaded in the Application repository. On the contrary. SAP J2EE Application Server SAP J2EE Services PRT Bridge Service Core Applications Servlet Container Portal Runtime Other servlets Applications Core Applications The Portal Infrastructure relies on a predefined set of applications to provide core functionalities in the Portal infrastructure. Applications. or because an element of the application is requested to be executed. a regular application is started only when required. This set of applications. the Portal Runtime infrastructure delivers a SAP J2EE service containing all the PRT functionalities and services relying on specific SAP J2EE implementation called PRT bridge as shown in the figure below. non-core applications are always loaded in the Application Repository. either because the application has been marked as “load on startup”. The main motivation behind the design of the Portal infrastructure is to isolate Portal Application from the environment.2 Portal Infrastructure This chapter describes the Portal Runtime Infrastructure. Core applications. The Portal Runtime and its configuration. In addition to the IRJ file. Additional Portal Applications. The core services of the Portal Runtime. Packaging The Portal Runtime relies on the J2EE architecture implemented by the SAP J2EE Application Server. called core applications are ensured to be loaded before any other applications when the Portal is initialized. Portal Runtime Technology Page 9 /113 . As a result the Portal Runtime is packaged in an EAR file called IRJ (iView Runtime for Java). The IRJ file contains 3 main parts: • • • Libraries and configuration files.

User management implementation service.portal.notification com.sap.runtime. Portal Runtime Technology Page 10 /113 .sap.runtime.runtime.console com.system.portal.portal.system. The runtime console giving access to administrative tools of the Portal Infrastructure the The notification service relies on the PRT Bridge to send and receive from one PRT to another Security functionalities to authenticate a user in the Portal.portal.sap.repository com.The table below shows the list of the main Portal Runtime core applications. Application name com.authentication usermanagement Description The application repository itself.sap.system.runtime.system.

The Portal Runtime calls the following methods during the Portal Component’s life cycle • Init() The Portal Component is created and loaded in the execution environment and then initialized with the init(). The complete API documentation can be found in the Portal Runtime javadoc. • Portal Runtime Technology Page 11 /113 . A view of the context in which the Portal Runtime runs Components and Services.3 Portal Runtime API The central piece of the Portal Runtime technology is the Portal Runtime API. The following table describes the main elements of the API. It contains Java interfaces that define the contract between the Portal objects (Applications. The configuration of a component or a service (static immutable). The Portal always initializes one instance of the Portal Component and this instance is shared among different users and sessions. Encapsulation of information sent to the client by a Portal Component. components. Portal Event IPortalRequestEvent IPortalComponentEvent Context IPortalComponentContext IServiceContext Component IPortalComponent This is the central abstraction of the Portal Component API. services) and the Runtime environment. API ELEMENTS Portal Component JAVA NAME IPortalComponent AbstractPortalComponent IPortalComponentInit Portal Service Profile Configuration IService IPortalComponentProfile IServiceProfile IPortalComponentConfig IServiceConfig Request Response IPortalComponentRequest IPortalComponentResponse DESCRIPTION The IPortalComponent is the central abstraction of the Portal Runtime API. All Portal Components implement this interface either directly or by extending the AbstractPortalComponent helper class. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main important interfaces of the API. Service() The service() method is called when the Portal Component is asked to process the client’s request. This is the API to receive and send events with the client’s request or between different components. A set of properties attached to a Component or a Service. The Component’s view on the request during Runtime. It defines a Portal Component included in a Portal Application A Portal Service included in a Portal Application.

This allows a Portal Service to be notified when the initialization chain is over. load and destroy of Objects implementing this interface. 2. afterInit() The afterInit() method is called when the init method returns.xml file. The Portal Runtime calls then the following method • init(IPortalComponentInitContext) The Portal Component has an access to its configuration defined in the portalapp. The destroy() method is called when the Service is stopped and discarded • • IServiceContext The IServiceContext gives to the Portal Service a view on the Portal Environment in which it is executed. In the same way. AbstractPortalComponent The AbstractPortalComponent provides default behavior for Portal Components. the doEdit() method is bound to the Edit Mode. to dispatch and handle portal events. Service IService Every objects that want to act as a Portal Service must implement the IService interface. to handle the Portal Modes defined by the Portal Runtime like the Edit.• Destroy() The Portal Runtime calls the destroy() method when the Portal Component is discarded from memory either because the Portal is terminating or because the Portal Runtime needs to free up some memory or during the release of its corresponding application when uploading a new one for example. The PortalServiceContext provides access to the Resources. the Portal Runtime calls the following methods: • init(IServiceContext) The init method is called when the Portal Service is loaded in memory. getConfiguration() The getConfiguration method provides a read-only access to the IServiceConfig of the Service. Portal Runtime Technology Page 12 /113 . However. the Portal Runtime ensures that the afterInit() method is called when all the init() methods are ended. as well as request events. • • • • getResource() getLogger() Returns a IResource object representing a resource. the Portal Runtime will never make the assumption that a Portal Component needs to be a subclass of the AbstractPortalComponent class. this service is then also loaded and initialized by calling its init() method. getProfile() The getProfile() method returns a IServiceProfile instance representing the Profile of the Service. The Portal Runtime is responsible for the creation. destroy() from memory. The logic included in this class implements the default behavior 1. The garbage collector then collects the Portal Component. In a situation where several init() methods are invoked. The Abstract Portal Component implements also a interface called IPortalComponentInit to be notified of its initialization. It is recommended to inherit from this class when developing a Portal Component. For example accessing a Portal Component in the default mode will invoke the doContent() method of the AbstractPortalComponent. Help and About mode. Returns the ILogger implementation to log information. When a Portal Service is referencing another Service. The profile can be customized by the administrator. It also gains information about the application it belongs to. During the life cycle of a Portal Service.

Objects offering user’s information. In general accessing those objects is not recommended. It contains request specific data and it provides access to the environment in which the Portal Component is running. HttpServletResponse.Request/Response IPortalComponentRequest This IPortalComponentRequest is passed to the PortalComponent thought the service() method or the doContent() method. In addition. The following Objects are accessible through the request: • ServletConfig. IRessource. But it is still permitted for very specific actions. returned to the client from the Portal Component. IPortalComponentResponse The IPortalComponentResponse is given to the Portal Component through the service() method or the through the specific mode handler methods. IPortalComponentProfile. request events…). ILogger. IPortalComponentSession. The underlying default implementation of the request is thread safe. the IPortalComponentRequest interface acts as a factory for URLs that the component would have to generate (create component URI. Write a string in a response Include the content of another Portal Component into the response or a resource. The profile of the component. Those objects are the original servlet objects. The following operations are provided through the response: • • • addCookies() write() include() add a cookie in the response. HttpServletRequest. IPortalComponentContext. A ILogger implementation to write information to the logs of the Portal. It encapsulates all the information. Locale. IUserContext. Portal Runtime Technology Page 13 /113 . • • • • • The context in which the current Portal Component is executed A representation of an external resource.

that are used exclusively by the application. This folder contains all class files and other files that define JAVA classes and other class loader relevant resources (e.mf Portal Runtime Technology Page 14 /113 . This folder contains all library files (JAR) that contain definitions of JAVA classes and other class loader relevant resources (e.xml METAINF/manifest. Non-Web Resources All files that are under the PORTAL-INF folder of the PAR file are not accessible via an http(s) request to the portal. Meaning The XML file containing the Deployment Descriptor of the Portal Application. ResourceBundles) are used exclusively by the application. PORTAL-INF/classes PORTALINF/private/lib PORTALINF/private/classes File PORTALINF/portalapp.4 Portal Application Archives PAR File format This chapter describes the Portal Application archive format and how the format is used and interpreted by the runtime.g. that can be shared by referencing Portal Applications. The deployment descriptor describes all Application Entities of the application as far as the runtime is concerned. all files that are NOT under PORTAL-INF fall into this category. It is described more precisely below. ResourceBundles). Within the non-web resources a few folders and files have a special meaning: Folder PORTAL-INF/lib meaning This folder contains all the library files (JAR) that contain definitions of JAVA classes and other class loader relevant resources (e. ResourceBundles) that can be shared by referencing Portal Applications.g. This folder contains all class files and other files that define JAVA classes and other class loader relevant resources (e.g. A PAR file contains all the file-based resources that make up a Portal Application.g. The manifest file of the Portal Archive. ResourceBundles). Resources of a Portal Application fall into the following two categories: Web Resources These are all file-based resources that are supposed to be accessible via http(s) requests to a web server that provides access to the Portal. It contains versioning and origin information. In a PAR file.

MANIFEST.classes | | +-.lib | +-. Read a PAR file and create a project. Write a PAR file from a project. 2.classes Non-WEB resources API: jar files only API: classes only CORE: jar files only CORE: classes only PAR Building The Portal Runtime offers two facilities to build a PAR file.. Portal Runtime Technology Page 15 /113 .MF +-.PORTAL-INF | | | +-.The following picture shows an example of a typical PAR file structure: <Portal Archive> | +-.scripts +-.lib +-..META-INF +-. This tool allows to 1.images +-.private +-. • An Ant task accessible from the SAP Java IDE or from the Ant command prompt.xml | | | +-. • A SAP Java IDE plugin called PAR Open Tool.. | +-.portalapp.

when referencing the application (see Application Configuration Properties) and Portal Components (see Portal Components). the name of the containing PAR file. So use it with care.. Default n. For example <property name="myProperty" value="myPropertyValue"/> The following table describes currently meaningful application configuration properties: Name SharingReference Description This property allows references to other Portal Applications whose API definitions are to be used in this application's API definition. The first thing to know is that the name of the application is the name of the PAR-file.name"> <application-config> .abc.. The root element is the application element.. It effectively reserves a name some other application potentially would like to use. A property element declares a property by name and value. The application element may have an attribute alias. See also Class Loading in the Portal Runtime. </application-config> <services> . These aliases can be used alternatively to the real application name.. Portal Runtime Technology Page 16 /113 . containing a comma-separated list of aliases on the portal application. Portal Application Within the application element the following child elements are allowed: Application-config Components Services Example: <?xml version="1.a.. Note: The concept of aliases is meant to be used for backward compatibility reasons.other.Structure of the Deployment Descriptor The deployment descriptor (portalapp.my.xml) is noted as an XML definition. The properties specified in this section of the deployment descriptor affect the Portal Application as a whole. </components> </application> see Application Configuration Properties see Portal Components see Portal Services Portal Application Configuration The application-config element may contain as many number of property elements as you like.. Admissible value comma-separated list of other Portal Application's names or aliases thereof. </services> <components> .0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?># <application alias="com.

Because PRT allows hot deployment. "false" True The following properties are mainly kept for backward compatibility with 5.g. "transitive" n. it is possible to specify a number of folders in the PAR that are to be preserved during local deployment. comma-separated list of other Portal Application's names or aliases thereof. If set to "true".a. Amissable Values A comma-separated list of application local paths (e.0". ClassLoadingPolicy "transitive" startup "true". Default n. PORTALINF/mystuff). Comma-separated combination of "5. See also Class Loading in the Portal Runtime. They should then set this property to false. DeploymentPolicy This property affects how the Portal Application's resources are treated during local deployment. all applications are releasable and the application instance can be dropped at any time by the system. In particular. In particular this means that it will be locally deployed.0" or <empty> n. See also Compatibility Considerations This property is equivalent SharingReference property.0. See also Compatibility Considerations. The values of this property affects the way class loader resources are exposed by this application to other applications and more. Nevertheless some critical applications may want to avoid the release of their instance when the system runs low in memory. See also Compatibility Considerations. ServicesReference see above see above Portal Runtime Technology Page 17 /113 . this property is also used for backward compatibility since it can be used to enforce the 5.a. to the "5.a. "false" False releasable "true". the application as a whole will be "started" (initialized) on startup of the server. Name PreservedConfigPaths Description Depending on the deployment policy (see above).PrivateSharingReference This property allows references to other Portal Applications whose API definitions are to be used in this application's (nonpublic) implementation. See also Class Loading in the Portal Runtime. "coreAccessInAPI".0 behavior. In general see also Compatibility Considerations.

Portal Component Configuration The component-config section within a component section of the deployment descriptor contains properties that enable the use of a Portal Component with the Portal Runtime. The type of the component.Portal Components All Portal Components of a Portal Application are declared in component sections contained in the components section. <none> Portal Runtime Technology Page 18 /113 . The main properties the developer must be aware of are the following: Name ClassName ComponentType Description The name of the implementation class of the Portal Component.component.. in which case an implementation of IPortalComponent has to be specified by the ClassName property.IPortalComponentConfig.... <components> <component name="myComponent"> <component-config> .. Admissible values are: "servlet"..a. </component-profile> </component> . </component-config> <component-profile> . This attribute specifies the <portal component name>. </components> . "jspnative".. Mandatory yes Each component section may contain one component-config element and one component-profile element. Default is <none>. The following XML attributes apply to the component section: Name Name Description The portal component name within the application.<portal component name>. An absolute Portal Component Name is constructed as <application name>.. <none>... Each property is declared as described in Application Configuration Properties. For example: .portal. Mandatory No No Default n.prt. The properties specified in this section are accessible to Portal Components via the interface com.sapportals.

This Property is only supported for backward compatibility reason. none: also anonymous users Role list : only the roles that are in the list SecurityZone String representing the security zone. the component belongs to. See Configuration management for Portal Application for more details.portal. This path is relative to the private resources (under PORTAL-INF in PAR) of the Portal Application A Portal Component can specify the name of a distinguished resource bundle. The profile is usually abstracted in a personalizable entity. Some properties are PRT specific: Name ConfigRootFolder Description String representing the path within the overall configuration structure of the component specific configuration. these values may be modified. This bundle will be used to look for descriptive texts in generic personalization dialogs. See text localization for more details Initial minimal authentication requirements to execute the Portal Component.IPortalComponentProfile interface at runtime.myapplication.JSP In the case of ComponentType=="jspnative". ResourceBundleName no "localization" AuthRequirement no user: authenticated user admin: administrator only.0 version relies on the security zone concept to control access to the Portal Components.component. The values of properties in this section define the default values. User: The content is private for each user Possible values /com.sap. By administrative modification or personalization. See Permission Model for components for more details.a.sapportals. no n. CachingLevel Shared : The cache content is shared among all users.prt. no Portal Component Profiles The component-profile section contains properties that make up the profile of the Portal Component as accessible from the com.mycomponent Default Portal Runtime Technology Page 19 /113 . the iView. the path of the JSP PageLet to implement the Portal Component. The 6.

the first one “personalization” defines that the property will be in the form during personalization.a. The portal runtime does not make any assumption concerning the semantic of those sub-properties. whether or not a user is connected. Admissible value n. The second one “type” defines the relevant value for this property.a.Session: The content of the component is cached all the time the (servlet) session is running. plainDescription n. For example: <property name="Color" value="red"> <property name="personalization" value="dialog"/> <property name="type" value="select[red. Time period in milliseconds 1: This component does not use the EPCF at all. the effective level is computed as the maximum of all EPCFLevel values on this page. 2: This level includes all EPCF features that use pure JavaScript 3: This level includes all features of level 1 and additional features that use applets. Additional attributes describe how to handle the properties with respect to personalization and meta-data handling. A plain text that can be used in user interfaces to describe the property.green. the property name. Portal Runtime Technology Page 20 /113 . Each property in this section may have further attributes.blue]"/> </property> 2 In this example the property “Color” has two sub properties. The following table describes the property attributes that the developer should be aware of: Name description Description A text token that can be resolved by accessing the component's resource bundle. If two or more embedded iViews with different EPCFLevel values meet on one page (within the same frame). Default n. This will be used if no description attribute is specified. Therefore neither script nor applets will be included. It represents a locale sensitive descriptive text for the property that can be used in user interfaces.a. The property attributes are basically used at design time (by administration tools) or during personalization. This level is used to cache information related to the browser's sessions ValidityPeriod EPCFLevel Defines whether to use the Enterprise Portal Client Framework or not. Attributes of profile properties are denoted by sub-properties.

<none> none: cross-user storage. Mandatory yes alias no Each component section may contain one service-config element and one service-profile element. <none> personalization dialog inheritance specifies whether the property can be overridden by a template derivation (e. not shown in personalization dialog: per-user storage and shown in personalization. final. For example . <services> <service name="myService"> <service-config> . The following XML attributes apply to the service section: Name name Description The service name within the application. </service-config> <service-profile> . This attribute specifies how to treat this property with respect to personalization... iView chain).. non-final non-final Portal Services Portal Services are declared in service elements inside the services element.<option>)*]... not shown in personalization no-dialog: per-user storage.. select[<option>(..<portal service name>.type A "visual" type of the property to be respected as a hint by user interfaces. </service-profile> </service> . </services> Portal Runtime Technology Page 21 /113 . A fully qualified Portal Service Name is constructed as <application name>. boolean. This attribute specifies the <portal service name>..g. a name that can be used instead of the fully qualified service name (see above) when looking up the Portal Service.

startup No false Portal Service Profiles The service-profile section contains properties that make up the profile of the Portal Service as accessible from the com. The properties specified in this section are accessible to a Portal Service via the interface com.prt.service.prt. the service will be started on demand.sapportals.service.IServiceProfile interface at runtime.a. There are no predefined service profile properties. the service will be started at startup of the runtime. If not. If set to "true". IServiceConfig. Portal Runtime Technology Page 22 /113 . Mandatory Yes Default n. In contrast to the service config. This class must implement the IService interface.portal. Properties of reserved meaning are: Name className Description The name of the implementation class of the Portal Service. the properties of the service profile may be modified by administrative environments and is available at next start of the service.portal.Portal Service Configuration Properties The service-config section within a service section of the deployment descriptor contains properties that enable the use of a Portal Service with the Portal Runtime.sapportals.

The main purpose of the local deployment is to improve performance by providing fast access to resources and avoid too many accesses to the application repository. some of them (like the Archive Uploader” are used to upload portal applications into the application repository. the local version should not be modified directly. There is only one Application Repository and all PRT nodes of the SAP J2EE cluster are sharing the same content.5 Portal Application Life Cycle This section describes the application life cycle and explains how and when information contained in the PAR file is used to deploy Portal Applications and then to load the corresponding objects in memory. The Administrator will typically use admin tools to create the portal content. Overview DataBase server PAR Upload Application Repository / Database Web servers Local Deployment / File system HTTP Request Application Broker Object Instances Portal Runtime Technology Page 23 /113 . Portal applications are also deployed locally (on each PRT node). First of all. In that sense the local deployment is a cached copy of the original version. it is important to understand that PAR files are stored in the application repository.

PRT tries to get it from the local deployment. services. Each portal application is loaded in its own memory space (cf.When a component or a service of a Portal Application is accessed for the first time (For instance upon an HTTP request) the Portal Runtime has to load the implementation class and instantiate the corresponding object. This step checks the “revision number” of the application to make sure the local deployment is up-to-date. When a new version is available. the PAR Upload will notify all PRT nodes that a new version of the application is available. PRT checks the dependencies that are declared in the deployment descriptor thanks to the “SharingReference” and “PrivateSharingReference” properties. If the object is not yet available. Portal Runtime Technology Page 24 /113 . The content of the PAR File is split into 2 parts. All applications it depends on are deployed and loaded first. If a new version is available in the repository then step 3 is performed. For further details about the directory structure please check: Directory Structure page 88 The Portal Application runs and remains in memory unless a new version is deployed or the administrator decides to release the application. The deployment process gets the PAR File from the repository and deploys it on the file system. the broker loads the class and instantiates the object. Restart load-on-startup services For further detail concerning the PAR Flow please check page 77. This flag has no impact during Hot Deployment. The system can also discard Portal Application instances when the Java VM requires freeing some memory. Note: Application can be marked as non-releasable in their deployment descriptor. This space is divided into a public part corresponding to the API of the application and a private part corresponding to the core implementation. Application Dependencies When loading the application. the local deployment is updated. Internally the portal application broker checks whether the object is already available and returns it. The “non-releasable” property guarantees that PRT will keep the application instance even when the VM runs low in memory. Afterwards. Release this application and all elements (components.: Class Loaders). the application will be release in any case. Update the local deployment (like describe in step 3). Reload the application and the dependents that have been released. and applications) depending on it. This step guarantees that the class loader of application it depends on is ready to use. each PRT node will perform the following operations: • • • • • Check if the application is already loaded and running. Hot Deployment In a cluster scenario (n PRT nodes sharing one repository). Upon the notification.

contactinfo Description If this situation persists.propert ies system/properties/workplace.6 Portal Runtime Architecture The objective of this chapter is to describe the architecture of the Portal Runtime by focusing on its configuration and customization. systemdefault.proper Portal Runtime Technology Page 25 /113 .portal. In the SAP J2EE environment. The Request Dispatcher reads the following configuration files from the file installation: WEB-INF/conf/dispatcher.prefix dispatcher. The first role of the request dispatcher is to match the URL of the request to a Portal connection and forwards the request to this Portal Connection.portal. The Dispatcher can handle all the connections needed. However the Portal Runtime must have a least the default servlet connection called portal installed and started to work properly. True Servlet WEB-INF/portal system/properties/prtDefault. dispatcher.servlet.portal.properties This defines whether an automatic forward to another servlet is allowed This defines the pathinfo prefix to be used defines the portal root directory defines the portal default properties the portal properties Default value Default information message displayed when a dispatcher exception occurs. please contact your system administrator. At startup the role of the request dispatcher is to cover the following functionalities: • Initializing the Portal Runtime Environment. The figure bellow shows the main blocks of the Portal Runtime Architecture Request Dispatcher Portal Connection Portal Registry Portal Component API Cache Portal Application Portal Runtime core Portal Service API Portal Application Repository Request Dispatcher This is the entry point of the Portal Runtime. The reason of the exception is always displayed before or in the source code of the HTML page.system. it is implemented as a Servlet running in the WEB Server environment.allow dispatcher.root dispatcher.properties Property dispatcher.servlet.properties dispatcher.

META-INF portal. Dispatching a Request When a request comes in. The name of the connection is passed in the URL as follow: /irj/servlet/prt/<Connection Name>.log.mail.activation localization.jar prtutil. the dispatcher analyses the incoming URL and find the corresponding connection in order to forward the message..mail.. The name is used as the key to perform a lookup in the connection bound of the Portal Registry.libs portal.classes system/lib classes system/lib system/classes portal. This phase can also be customized with the following parameters of the prtDefault.dispatcher.. javax.protected.defaultconnection dispatcher.resources Dispatcher API The dispatcher contains a set of API that could be accessed from an external Servlet to communicate with the dispatcher.portal.protected. Library name prtdispatcher. javax.xml.classes system/classes com. Portal Runtime Technology Page 26 /113 .version The default connection console mode for the dispatcher Automatically generated version information ties portal Verbose • Setup the class loader hierarchy.console dispatcher.sun. API of the Portal Registry Utility classes of the Portal Runtime.properties file: Description The directory below WEBINF/portal containing the public library of the Portal Runtime Same for the public classes The directory below WEBINF/portal containing the nonpublic library of the Portal Runtime Same for the non-public classes Prefixes for class names that will not be seen from the dispatcher and below Same for resources Default value lib Property Name portal. The different levels of libraries are read from the file installation and the corresponding class loaders are created in memory.sun.com. Those libraries are packaged into the WEB-INF/lib directory.jar prtregistry.jar Description The code of the dispatcher itself JDNI support in PRT.jar prtjndisupport.

properties Portal Runtime Technology Page 27 /113 .jar concurrency. JAR name prtcore.jar Description The Portal Application API.properties prtCentral. JSP support in Portal Runtime. Portal Runtime Testing Framework API. Portal Runtime Core The Portal Runtime Core offers one implementation of the API.jar prtdeployment.jar prtconnection.jar prtgluer.properties. prtDelete.bak extension. Changing the two following files located in the WEB-INF/portal/system/properties can customize some of the functionality of the Portal Runtime Core.jar prtlogger. Helper class implementation to handle the format of PAR Files and the deployment descriptor Utility classes of the Portal Runtime. API to handle the format of PAR Files and the deployment descriptor. prtUpdate. Internal Portal Runtime file. The Portal Runtime API is delivered in a set of 5 JAR files.Portal Runtime API It defines the contract between the Portal Application and the Portal Runtime. When this operation finishes successfully. the file is renamed with a . This is the API to build Portal Components and Portal Services.jar prttest. The Portal Connection API to develop and install a new connection in the Portal.jar Description The Portal Runtime core. This file contains Properties that are going to be stored in the Portal Registry. Concurrent thread access. the Portal Runtime reads this file and stores the corresponding objects into the registry. File name prtDefault. but also the API to cooperate with the infrastructure to extend it and customize it.jar prtdeploymentapi.jar prt_jspapi. The Core implementation is delivered in a set of JAR files described in the table below and packaged by default in the WEB-INF/portal/lib directory. Default logger implementation.properties Description Default value for the properties of the PRT. used to manage upgrade of the version of the Runtime. It also manages the Portal Application life cycle and isolates Portal Application between them by implementing the class loader separation. JAR name prtapi. During its first startup.

doubleByteSupport Description Indicates if the Runtime will support double byte encoding in the request and the response The type of encoding to use when double byte support is activated in the PRT The pool size asynchronous mechanism for the response Default Value true runtime.size UTF-8 100 async.defaultcomponent jsp.mode -1 production Portal Runtime Technology Page 28 /113 .timeout 10000 request.response.default loadlimit. See Security Zone in PRT.off connection.defaultlanguage request.defaultDelegate caching.component.addclasspath En us StandardEditDialog false True PortalAnywhere.pool. If set to test prtroot access is allowed for every component that doesn’t belong to a specified zone. the access to the security zone is tested.runtime. The default Portal Component to start when none is specified. If sets to true.timeout.response.off Monitor. Timeout for the components participating in the construction of the asynchronous response. This is the default language to be used when none is specified Same for the country. If set to development prtroot access is allowed for every component.encoding async.requests portal.The following table gives a list of the most important properties that can be changed to customize the Portal Runtime behavior.permission.pool. 100 default.doubleByteSupport.size The thread pool size to manage the timeout when using the asynchronous response mechanism. If set to production prtroot access is not allowed unless the component belongs to a security zone. Classpath element to add when compiling a JSP in the Portal Runtime Number of maximum concurrent requests managed by the PRT. In that. Name runtime. Default delegate for the personalization of a component If the PRT cache must be turned off by default. monitoring is switched off.defaultcountry personalization.

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the Portal Registry is used for two purposes: • • A global place for an application to store and retrieve objects.modes Central Configuration Storage The Portal Registry also provides access to a JNDI context which can be used to read/write any kind of data to the repository. This feature can be used by any portal application to store additional configuration files or resources that are to be shared by all PRT nodes on the cluster..listeners runtime/hooks/mode runtime/connections runtime/prt. The list of request event listeners The list of mode hooks. in which the Portal Runtime will look for objects to customize its execution. Context applicationContext = context. In general. The context in which deployment hooks bind themselves in order to be notified when a Portal Application is deployed in the Portal. bind. Portal Runtime Technology Page 30 /113 . For further information concerning this topic please check: Central Config Storage – How to page 94.Context. The list of event hooks installed in the runtime.. The Portal Registry is implemented as a hierarchical JNDI context allowing to bind any kind of object. runtime/hooks/event runtime/hooks/event/request. In particular. The modes known and handled by the PRT.getCentralConfigurationContext(). The component hooks list. Components and services can access to the context of the application the belongs to by calling the lookup method on the root context. The Portal Registry is a singleton offering methods to create sub-contexts. The Central Configuration context relies on the JNDI API plus the IStreamSource interface. The connections known by the Portal Runtime. this includes the running services and the Portal Configuration. import javax.lookup(“MyAppName”). The document hooks list. The Portal Runtime is using a set of pre-defined contexts to store objects that are invoked at certain point of time during the Portal execution.naming. A sub context dedicated to the application exists by default. The following table gives the list of contexts. Contains all the response hooks known by the runtime. . Context context = PortalRegistry. Registry Sub-Context runtime/hooks/node runtime/hooks/component runtime/hooks/document runtime/hooks/response runtime/hooks/deployment Description The list of node hooks. This interface is used to read and write the data. and lookup objects.Portal Registry The Portal Registry is the entry point for inspection of almost all Portal runtime information.

A content developer has two ways to decide when and how a Portal Component needs to cache content. only the content of the request of type “content” will be stored in the cache. indicate the validity of the cache in milliseconds. the cache expiration is controlled by the component either because the validity period expires or the method hasExpired() returns true. whether or not a user is connected. Portal Runtime Technology Page 31 /113 . In that case. A portal administrator could always force the PRT to use the cache properties defined in the Profile of the component by setting the property ForceProfileCachingParams to true. long currentTime) returns true it the cache has expired getCachingLevel(IPortalComponentRequest request) returns a CachingLevel object representing one of the 3 values described above. API The ICachablePortalComponent interface offers the following methods to control how the PRT cache will interact with the content of the component. hasExpired(IPortalComponentRequest request. Using the Portal Runtime API to control the validity and the granularity of the cache. In that case. This cache is used to store and retrieve the content of components that want to be cached. Caching Expiration In general. 3 values are allowed : • • • Shared : The cache content is shared among all the users (one java virtual machine) User: The content is private for each user Session: The content of the component is cached all the time the (servlet) session is running. The request type is a REFRESH An exception is raised when executing the service method that is supposed to be stored in the cache. • • Configure the Portal Component by selecting a set of Properties. long creationTime. Properties A first property identifies at which level the cache needs to be placed by adding the CachingLevel property in your component profile. The node mark has changed on a node.Portal Runtime Cache The Portal Runtime implements by default a memory cache. But the Portal Runtime will mark the cached content as expired in the following circumstances: A request or a component event has been sent to the component. the component needs to change its implementation and inherit from the ICachablePortalComponent interface. This level is used to cache information related to the browser's sessions The property ValidityPeriod will A second property provides information on the validity of the cache.

Portal Connection Framework The Portal Connection Framework offers an API allowing to control the process of a request.system/archives com.bind ("/runtime/connections/MyConnection". This can be done during the initialization of a service that has been marked as load on startup.Portal Application Repository The Application Repository serves to provide information on all available Portal Applications (including Portal Components and Portal Services). Connection implementations are delivered and packaged as regular Portal Applications.system/configuration Description Root context Folders for PAR files Folder containing the list of applications loaded in the repository. This layer allows to plug several “Connection” implementation to the portal.portal. Connnection Name /runtime/connections/portal /runtime/connections/soap Connection registration at startup: The registration must bind an object of type IServletConnection in the “connections” JNDI context of the Portal Registry. } catch (NamingException e) {}} Type Servlet connection Soap connection Description This is the default connection of the portal.portal. mm_connection). Portal Runtime Technology Page 32 /113 .system com. Handle any incoming SOAP request. The configuration of the Applications.portal.sap.sap. Each implementation might have a different request cycle.portal. In Addition the Portal Application Repository provides a central storage of application configuration and arbitrary application data. The connection must register itself to the Portal Registry The connection must implement the IServletConnection interface Two connections are provided by default by the Portal Runtime.sap. The Application repository is packaged and delivered as a standard Portal Service providing a JNDI interface to the following contexts: Folder Name com. The constraints are the following: The application must be declared “Load-on-startup” in the application config section of the deployment descriptor.getInstance(). public synchronized void init(IServiceContext context){ mm_connection = new MyConnection().sap.system/applications com. try { PortalRegistry.

It gives access to the request. and the response.The IServletConnection interface has defined one method called: • handleRequest(IDispatcherContext) The dispatcher context gives access to the environment in which the connection has been started. Portal Runtime Technology Page 33 /113 .

). Node When building the POM. c. All nodes involved in the POM have a chance to perform special actions before the actual content phase start. It offers methods to: • • • • Construct and traverse the tree. For further detail concerning “Runnable Portal Objects” please check: Portal Content Abstraction page 97. the Portal Runtime constructs a tree of special objects called Node. A before content event is sent to all the nodes in the POM. Portal Runtime Technology Page 34 /113 .M.O. The Dispatcher selects the “Portal Connection” according to some information encoded in the URL. Store and retrieve data Access to the Portal Component instance attached to it. Handle Request Event. Send and receive events. An after content event is sent to all the nodes in the POM. Before content phase. 3. Start the content collection phase. Every Portal Component involved in the process of the request is attached to a Node. b. This chapter describes the request cycle as it is performed by the default “Connection” used by the Portal Runtime. 5. 2. The Node semantics is defined in the INode interface. Raise any event defined by using an appropriately generated URL. Authenticate User attached to the request. The name of the Portal Object to start is provided by the prtroot URL parameter. the Portal Runtime notifies the participating elements to create their sub structures in the Portal Object Model and notifies them about their ready state. The default connection will perform the following steps: 1. User authentication. Create the request's Portal Object Model that represents the structure of all components in the portal that participate in event handling and content creation within this request.7 Request Cycle The request cycle starts when the dispatcher receives an HTTP request and ends when the response is sent back to the browser. During creation. Content phase. After content phase. 4. Retrieve the content of all the nodes present in the POM. This is again a 3 steps phase: a. Uses JNDI to get the Portal Object that is to be rendered. Create the Portal Object Model (P.

the Portal Runtime handles a number of pre-defined modes: • • TEST. So a mode must represent a situation. Mode Overloading Portal Component implements their own behavior by overloading the doXxx method as follow: public void doHelp (IPortalComponentRequest request. Modes are abstracting a context in which component can react and display an appropriate UI. EDIT. Accessing to a Mode The default way to render a component in a specific mode is to specify it through the URL used to access the component. CONTENT. HELP. LOGON.The figure below shows a simple POM with 3 Nodes. The Portal Runtime API offers similar mechanisms: • • • getComponentContext (NodeMode) on the IPortalComponentRequest. every components must offer a support for it. Modes are supposed to be general enough. on the IComponentURI interface using the CreateComponentURI Mode Handling When deriving from AbstractPortalComponent. ABOUT. the behavior to handle the mode named xxx is to invoke the doXxx(IPortalComponentRequest. For that reason. The root node called Portal Node. a Node without any component attached to it and a Node with its Component. setNodeMode(NodeMode) on the INode interface. IPortalComponentResponse) on the Portal Component instance. ERROR. setNodeMode(NodeMode) method. Portal Node Node a Component B Node b Portal Component Mode Portal Component Mode allows a component to render a different User Interfaces (UI). which is often encountered by most of the Portal Components. IPortalComponentResponse response) { Portal Runtime Technology Page 35 /113 . The content mode is the default mode of operation when rendering a component.

The setup of such a component is also done in the Portal Application configuration as shown in the following example: <application> <registry> <entry path="/runtime/prt. the Portal Runtime invokes the doEdit method on the component called DelegateComponent. In the above example. Mode Delegation The delegation occurs when a Portal Component decides to forward its rendering to another component. This is done in the configuration of the component in the portalapp.default"/> </property> </component-config> </component "> When the delegation for the xxx mode takes place. The subsequent request events are also sent to the delegate component until the mode is set to default.prt.default..component. In that case.MyComp"/> <property name="mode" value="edit"> <property name="delegate" value="DelegateComponent..modes/admin" name="adminDelegate" type="component” rebind="false"/> </registry> . Default Mode Delegate The delegation mechanism may be defined as a default way to handle a mode.write (“<BR> We are in help mode”).} response.modes of the Portal Registry.sapportals. the doXxx method is called on the delegate component. To do so.xml file as shown in the example below: <component name="mycomp"> <component-config> <property name="ClassName" value="com. </application> System Mode The Portal Runtime comes with a list of pre-defined modes and delegates. a component needs to declare itself as the delegate for a specific mode by binding this mode in a specific folder called /runtime/prt. Mode Name Description System delegate Portal Runtime Technology Page 36 /113 .portal. invoking this bound mode on any component will result in invoking the mode handling method on the delegate. This mechanism allows developing specialized component.

The content conversion feature is implemented as response hook The following picture shows at which of time. Component hooks Executed before the service() method of the component.modes/badUserAgent /runtime/prt. Response hooks Executed before and after the service() method of the component. the different hooks are called: Portal Runtime Technology Page 37 /113 . Display a short text explaining the purpose of the component.modes/error ErrorComponent /runtime/prt. Runtime internal usage. Do a preview component.modes/_release SystemModes ReleaseComponent Portal Hooks Only internal. CRITICAL TOPIC REQUIRING EXPERT KNOWLEDGE Purpose During the request cycle./runtime/prt. In that all the methods signed starting with test and signed with a TestResponse will be invoked. /runtime/prt.modes/edit /runtime/prt.modes/about /runtime/prt. Start the component in a test mode. Event hooks Executed before firing any event. The hook can substitute the original response and is notified when the component has finished to use the response. forward it to another object or cancel the publishing.modes/help /runtime/prt. The Portal Runtime defines 5 types of hooks: • • • • • Document hooks.modes/test SystemModes /runtime/prt.modes/preview /runtime/prt. the Portal Runtime has defined some points that can be customized to add specific processing. It could replace the event. Concerned by the construction of the output HTML document. Those entry points are called Hooks.modes/config Edit and save the profile of a component. of the StandardEditDialog SystemModes SystemModes SystemModes SystemModes Display the UI of the configuration framework starting from the root plugin of the component. Display the help text of the component. Used by the Runtime to display the error returned by a component. It could add some content or replace the content. POM hooks Executed at every creation of a POM node. Runtime internal usage.

INodeHook. d. This is the reason why the hooking API is packaged into the core of the Portal Runtime. So the usage of this API must be reserved for very few occasions. IDocumentHook 3. IEventHook. IComponentHook. a. 1. adding a new Hook in the Portal Runtime will change the default behavior of all applications loaded in the Portal. 2. IResponseHook.Adding a new Portal Hook In general. This entry implements one of the Hook interface defined by the Portal Runtime Hook API. Each hook implementation defines methods called during the hooks processing by the Portal Runtime. c. the Portal Runtime will first traverse the list of hooks declared and then Portal Runtime Technology Page 38 /113 . b. very powerful and also very dangerous. e. Adding a new Hook Portal is basically done in the following steps. At hooking point. This makes the hooking mechanism. Deliver a system service that binds an entry in the Portal Registry hooks context.

The Portal Runtime will continue with the normal process after the hooks chain traversal.xml is a suitable place to declare a default event handler. </component> </components> </application> Portal Runtime Technology Page 39 /113 . each hook returns a status that can have one of the following value: a. Hence a portal component that doesn’t provide Any implementation for a request event (does not overload do<<EventName>> or doRequestEvent) would let the event handling to the component that provides a default implementation for this event. b. The generic registry tag in the portalapp.perform the default behavior.. but the default Portal Runtime process is not performed at the end of the hooks processing.. OK. ERROR The hook indicates that it encounters a problem during its execution. Example: The component named MyEventListener is providing a default implementation for the event named “myevent”. The aim is to write the event handling one time and to make it available for all the portal components. c. <application> <registry> <entry path="/runtime/hooks/event/request.listeners/myevent" name="MyEventListener" type="component"/> </registry> <application-config> <property name="releasable" value="true"/> <property name="startup" value="true"/> </application-config> <components> <component name=" MyEventListener"> . SKIP The hook chain is traversed. Default hooks Request Event Hook A portal component can provide a default request event handler. but the hook chain is still traversed and the default behavior is going to be executed. During the hooks traversal.

AFTER_CONTENT_EVENT IEvent.BEFORE_CONTENT_EVENT IEvent. Those events are then generated in the content of the Portal Component and the methods to handle the events have to be written in the Portal Component. This is can be a good time to release all listener assignments that depend on the current POM structure. Means that we enter content collection next. IEvent.Event Handling The Portal makes the distinction between two kinds of events: • • Request Events POM Events Events sent by the client set in the URL received by the WEB server. Portal Runtime Technology Page 40 /113 .IPortalRequestEventData) returns a request event corresponding to the name and containing the data passed as parameter. Means that the node/component has been assigned to its parent node in the Portal Object Model on its construction in the request cycle.ON_NODE_READY_EVENT Means that the node/component has been assigned to its parent node in the Portal Object Model on its construction in the request cycle. The methods to create the event are defined in the IPortalComponentRequest Object • • IPortalRequestEvent createRequestEvent(String) passed as parameter. Events sent by a Portal Component to another. Internal Portal Runtime Events Several pre-defined events are raised by the Portal Runtime to inform the Portal Components involved in the request processing of the progress of the request cycle. Means that the node is going to be removed from its parent node. IEvent. creates a Request Event with the name IPortalRequestEvent createRequestEvent(String . Receivers that have to assign children in the POM should do it upon handling this event. This is sent on a preorder traversal of the POM. Means that content collection is over.ON_POM_READY_EVENT IEvent. Receivers that have to assign children in the POM should do it upon handling this event.ON_NODE_REMOVE_EVENT Request Event API Request Event must be generated by the standard Portal Component API method used to create event.

Component Event API
Component Event is a mechanism to send and receive special type of POM events which have name and data. It allows a component to listen and filter events sent by others components. The sender component should create a component event and fire it using the Portal Component API. The receiver component should listen to events and react when the events are received. Those events are generated by the Portal Component API using the following methods on the portal node. • IPortalComponentEvent anEvent createPortalComponentEvent (String name) Events are then published by calling the fireEventOnNode method of the Portal Node of the POM. A component event should be fired on the portal node only. • • fireEventOnNode () publish the event to all the nodes of POM.

addEventListener (EventType.COMPONENT_EVENT, IEventListener, IEventFilter) declare an Event Listener and attach an Event filter to receive only events in which the Portal Component is interested

Helper class is provided for component events (AbstractComponentEventFilters).

Event Handling
When deriving from com.sapportals.portal.prt.AbstractPortalComponent the following default behavior applies for the event handling. Corresponding to the events mentioned above the methods doOnNodeReady, doOnPOMReady, doBeforeContent, doAfterContent, doOnNodeRemove will be called. For Request Events there is a special treatment. Given a name xxx of the Event the default implementation will try to call a method doXxx(IPortalComponentRequest, IPortalRequestEvent). If such a method is not available doRequestEvent(IPortalComponentRequest, IPortalRequestEvent) will be called. For Component Events, a similar treatment is executed. Given a name xxx of the Event the default implementation will try to call a public method doXxx(IPortalComponentRequest, IPortalComponentEvent). If such a method is not available doComponentEvent (IPortalComponentRequest, IPortalComponentEvent) will be called. In addition to that, the filter attached to the listener is invoked before proceeding with normal event handling and the filter can decide to accept or reject the event handling in the following method: • boolean accept (IPortalComponentEvent) returns true if the event handling should take place.

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8 JNDI Support in PRT
The standard JNDI way to get access to JNDI Factories assumes that the JNDI service provider classes are in the class path. Unfortunately PRT (like any J2EE engines) implements a class loading separation feature that contradicts with the JNDI approach. This chapter explains how to use JNDI service providers without loosing the benefit of class loading separation.

PRT JNDI Support Package
The PRT JNDI support package provides a different implementation of the following core JNDI classes: javax.naming.NamingManager javax.naming.DirectoryManager javax.naming.InitialContext javax.naming.InitialDirContext The standard JNDI implementation is not able to find classes that are not in the class path. The implementation that PRT provides simply changes the way the classes are loaded. More precisely, PRT tries its own mechanism and if it fails, delegates to the standard implementation. The PRT Implementation is delivered in the JAR File: prtjndisupport.jar. The classes that should be used to solve class loading issues are the following: com.sapportals.portal.prt.jndisupport.NamingManager com.sapportals.portal.prt.jndisupport.DirectoryManager com.sapportals.portal.prt.jndisupport.InitialContext com.sapportals.portal.prt.jndisupport.InitialDirContext Note that only the package name has been changed (not the class name). As a consequence the impact on the code is minimal since changing the import statement might be sufficient.

JNDI Service Providers
To take benefit of the PRT JNDI Support, JNDI Service Providers will have to compile against this new “com.sapportals.portal.prt.jndisupport” package and delegate to the PRT implementation instead of calling directly the core classes provided by the “javax.naming” package.

import com.sapportals.portal.prt.jndisupport.DirectoryManager; // convert the persistenceObject to a semantic object Object semanticObject; semanticObject = DirectoryManager.getObjectInstance( null, name, this, env, objectAttributes);

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JNDI Clients
JNDI clients have to change the way they get the InitialContext. They must used the PRT Implementation of the Initial Context class instead of the standard one like below:
import com.sapportals.portal.prt.jndisupport.InitialContext; ... try { Context initialContext ; Hashtable env = new Hashtable(); env.put( Context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY, "com.sapportals.portal.pcd.gl.PcdInitialContextFactory"); initialContext = new InitialContext(env); Object o = initialContext.lookup(aName); } catch ( NamingException e ) { e.printStackTrace(); }

JNDI Service Providers Packaging
A typical JNDI service provider will be deployed in the portal like any portal application by providing a PAR File. In order to register itself to the PRT JNDI Support, the application have to include a java property file named jndiprovider.properties in its PAR File and be declared as “load-on-startup” in its deployment descriptor. The location of this “JNDI Provider Resource File” in the PAR file must be:
/PORTAL-INF/properties/jndiprovider.properties

This file is a regular “JNDI Provider resource file” and when loading the portal application, PRT uses it to get the following JNDI properties:
java.naming.factory.initial java.naming.factory.object java.naming.factory.state java.naming.factory.url.pkgs

Note that properties for object and state factories might provide a colon-separated list of class names. For more details about these properties, please check the JNDI Tutorial at:
http://java.sun.com/products/jndi/tutorial/beyond/env/overview.html

PRT also expects from that file additional properties defining the schemes that the JNDI Service Provider will support at runtime:
com.sapportals.portal.prt.jndisupport.scheme com.sapportals.portal.prt.jndisupport.schemes

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jndisupport.factory.factory.Context interface.sun. This environment typically includes user authentication information.TravelStateFactory # # # Object factories # java. lookup and list.tm.pkgs=com.sun.scheme=tm # # State factories # java.naming.initial=com.tm. the state factory will be used to update/store objects in the persistence layer and the scheme will avoid naming conflicts with other JNDI providers.naming. JNDI Tutorial: http://java.tm. A typical “JNDI Provider Resource File” could be: # # Initial Context Factory # java.sap.state=com.application.naming.jndi.portal.object=com.sapportals.prt. It allows to organize data hierarchically.TravelObjectFactory # Each factory declared in that file are playing a specific role at runtime.url.JNDI Provider Resource File Sample Let’s imagine a “Travel Management Portal Application” that want to plug its own content to the portal.sap.TravelInitialContextFactory # # List of packages where to look for URL Context Factory # java.naming.naming.factory.application. The Object Factory will be used to get the raw data from the persistence layer and load it in memory as Java objects. The “Initial Context Factory” will be the root node to the specific content.providers # # scheme supported by this JNDI service provider # com.html JNDI Context A JNDI context is an implementation of the javax.sap. Portal Runtime Technology Page 44 /113 . Please check the link: http://java.com/products/jndi/tutorial/beyond/env/overview.factory. which provides basic operations like: bind.com/products/jndi/tutorial/ JNDI Environment The environment is a property set (Hashtable) used to specify various preferences and properties that define the environment for which the contexts are created. JNDI Concepts and Related Documents The JNDI Tutorial provides in-depth information concerning the JNDI API and how to implement it.application.tm.sap. This application could have its own factories and its own scheme (tm:).

sun.sun.html JNDI Context Factories The initial context factory is the object used to create initial context instances. The JNDI Naming Manager internally used factories to get Context instances.3/docs/api/javax/naming/Context.com/j2se/1.com/j2se/1.3/docs/api/javax/naming/spi/InitialContextFactory.More detail at: http://java.html Portal Runtime Technology Page 45 /113 . Factories are necessary because only the factory knows about the context implementation. More detail at: http://java.

Thus. This done.xml makes the trick. The following line must be added : WebEnable=”true” (If you want to use a proxy. Portal Components SOAP Service LAYER SOAP Protocol . By providing a SOAP connection to the Portal Services. Portalapp. The WSDL file informs what are the accessible methods in the service. Portal Services as WEB Services Turning a Portal Service to a Web Service is something very smooth and easy after using the open tool (ToolKitWebServicePRT). The related tool Portal Runtime Technology Page 46 /113 . A simple modification of the portalapp. The first one consists in offering Portal services as WEB services. Approach The Portal Runtime offers two convenient ways to use the WEB services. Only the WSDL file of this external WEB service is requested (even if it is only accessible via Internet). It is accessible via an URL of the type : irj/servlet/prt/soap/PortalServiceName?wsdl .NET / INQMY / SOAP APACHE WEB SERVICE IMPLEMEN TATION Portal Services … The external WEB service is accessed like every other service within the portal. In the same way.9 WEB Services Support A natural extension of the concept of Portal Services is the WEB Services technology. Portal Components and Portal Services can easily access to external WEB Services to build Portal Applications The purpose of this chapter is to describe how work WEB Portal Services. the Portal Runtime provides tools and facilities to generate Proxies to external WEB Services. generated with the ToolKitWebServicePRT you have to set the property WebProxy=”true”) .xml property WebEnable=”true” WebProxy=”true” Effect Turn the service into a WEB service Force the use of the proxy of the service Portal Applications and external WEB services External WEB services can be accessed by portal components or portal services. the Portal Service is a Portal Web Service. external components can access to the services and applications developed with the Portal Runtime technology using the SOAP protocol. The second one allows portal applications to access external WEB services.

Concepts The principle of the WEB services into the portal is shown below. each access to the soap service is converted by the runtime to a soap message. The portal service of the requestor is wrapped by the open tool (ToolKitWebServicePRT) from the WSDL file to the external WEB service. The whole process (or so) is hidden to the user.(ToolKitWebServicePRT) allows you to configure your development environment. And when a soap message is received. Nevertheless as it interacts a lot with the WSDL files it is useful to know a little how it works. identifications. The answer is waited and when this one arrives the process can go on. For emitter as for receiver. All is wrapped by the portal runtime. etc…) The needed operations are shown more precisely into the architecture part. the message is interpreted by the runtime and redirected to the specified portal service. Very few things are requested to allow a WEB service to run into the portal. Service Requestor Web Services tool (Open Tools) Service Invocation Implementation Service Wrapper Service Provider Web Services tool (Open Tools) D E S I G N Service Implemen -tation WSDL WSDL Generator SOAP Service D E V R U N T I M E Service Invocation SOAP Consumer SOAP Service WSDL Soap Service Service SOAP Connection PRT Service SOAP Message Portal Runtime Technology Page 47 /113 . for the provider. It is done if the security is respected (rights. The open tool do almost all the work needed. All the manipulations done by the open tool are done before making the PAR file. There is no intervention of the open tool in the runtime sequence. Then. It can be seen on the schema. It is as easy as developing a portal service. the WSDL file of the soap service within the portal is generated by the open tool (the same as before). On the other side. the soap message is not directly handled by the portal service.

Architecture In this part. A Web Service is an interface that describes a collection of operations that are network-accessible through standardized XML Messaging. SOAP can potentially be used in combination with a variety of other protocols. the main architectural aspects of the portal WEB services will be detailed. a set of encoding rules for expressing instances of applicationdefined data types. WSDL is an XML format for describing network services as a set of endpoints operating on messages containing either document-oriented or procedure-oriented information. Soap Framework SOAP is a lightweight protocol for exchange of information in a decentralized. however. the only bindings defined in this document describe how to use SOAP in combination with HTTP and HTTP Extension Framework.wsdl Open Tool Open Tool Proxy SOAPProxyP Par Reflection + Connection Information WEB Service development process 1. Portal Runtime Technology Page 48 /113 . IService Open Tool . and a convention for representing remote procedure calls and responses. It is an XML based protocol that consists of three parts: an envelope that defines a framework for describing what is in a message and how to process it. distributed environment. wsdl From External Service IXXXService methodA methodB Simple and Complex Types … IX.

We provide • An interpreter for WSDL Language o o • • • o to make portal services to address external web services Be able to cope with custom types Serializers / Deserializers generator Complex Object wrapper Web services configuration stored in the Central Config Storage 1. Java proxies generation. dynamic service methods invocation…. which needs to contact external Web Services.2 The Portal WEB Services give to developer an easy way to create Web Service. The portal WEB services implementation is able to receive SOAP Messages. This implies different functionalities as SOAP interpreter. o o • o Be listener Address Message to the SM Be able to decode SOAP Message Address call to the good service Decode parameter Construct answer • Implements JAXR Specifications o Publish our service to external new calls Provide WSDL Description of service Automatic process or not • Web services configuration stored in the Central Config Storage Interpreter for WSDL Language One unique entry point The advantage of this approach is that there is no need to provide multiple URL. The developer. The portal WEB services implementation is also able to deal with the WSDL concept.0 Implementation (based on the JavaTM API for XML Messaging (JAXM) version1. The open tool is able to generate a portal service from a WSDL file. we use the new libraries inqmysoap.0) which was developed as JSR067 under the Java Community Process. In this case. the Portal Runtime will also provide his own implementation to generate proxy for Web services Connection. will also use the portal WEB services implementation to the address them.1. For that. to be connected.jar. a JAXM 1. It also allows us to only provide one ServletConnection to understand SOAP Calls. These URLs are of this type : irj/servlet/prt/soap/AliasApplication Portal Runtime Technology Page 49 /113 .1 The Portal WEB Services give a common architecture to connect external Web Services. We provide • Open simple way to receive SOAP Messages.

The specialized registries are loaded in the class loader of the corresponding service. Processor The processor insures the method invocation. the only provided processor is a portal service. SOAPConsumer class is able to read the Soap Message and its possible attachments in collaboration with the ServiceManager to retrieve. This process works also on interfaces and copes with inheritance (if a class has no deserializer. The Soap Consumer is also in charge of the answer construction. If the XML Soap Message description is well formatted and if the called service exists on the Portal Runtime environment then the Soap Consumer can work correctly. selected with the open tool Modify the “portalapp.irj/servlet/prt/soap/ApplicationName. For processing a soap message you need to unmarshal it. Soap connection The SOAP Connection registers itself to the Portal Plug in Framework. to receive request call. Soap Consumer The Soap Consumer is in charge of processing the Soap message. the MimeHeaders and the ServletInputstream. That means that it must verify whether the Soap message is Portal Runtime Compliant. the parent class is asked for it – and so for as many levels as needed). And. It calls the Service Manager to access the called service. another one the value and so on. The xml content is converted to java code. 2. 4. These serializers and deserializers are included into the deployed PAR files. It gets from the request. A list of processors is maintained by the portal. Create the associated PAR file and upload this PAR file. 5. Each service refers to its Specialized Registry to deals with custom types. The Soap message is deserialized to transform it in a java method call. The service developers need to provide: The exposed methods wanted. to recreate the incoming Soap message. The developer of the Portal Services will have to provide a few extra works. Some other processors are in development like the WSRP processor.xml” file (description of the portal applications) to declare the service as WebEnabled (proceed the same way for the WebProxy). Other ones are linked to services. contains all the Soap types and some common Java types. the Mapping Registry. on the contrary. The difference is that this approach allows us to easily include the Soap listening to our Connection Layer. 3. Now. another a type. This class could be compare to the JAXMServlet class from Sun. when a soap message is constructed. Registries Supported types (serialization and deserialization) are maintained by registries. Proxies Portal Runtime Technology Page 50 /113 . load dynamically the Portal Runtime Services and address them the call. 6. the Java object is serialized to an xml content (marshal of the soap message).ServiceName Easy use of Portal Services The Portal Runtime Services are called dynamically by the SOAP Listener (or Consumer). extract Soap messages from it and to pass them to the Soap Consumer SOAPConnection Class is able to receive HttpRequest. It implements IServletConnection. An xml tag represents a method. A global one.

There is also be a protection/verification of incoming Soap messages in order to avoid the execution of our services via Soap attacks.e. 8.org/2001/12/soap-faults"> <SOAP-ENV:Body> <SOAP-ENV:Fault> <faultcode>%TYPE_ERROR% </faultcode> <faultstring>%DESCRIPTION_ERROR%</faultstring> <faultactor>%[SERVER_NAME] COMPONENT NAME%</faultactor> <detail> <stackTrace >%JAVA_STACKTRACE%</stackTrace> </detail> </SOAP-ENV:Fault> </SOAP-ENV:Body> Portal Runtime Technology Page 51 /113 . It means the use of https protocol and single sign on (sso) identification (into the soap header). It provide efficient security to the portal WEB services. The proxy is automatically created. it is converted automatically in SOAP Fault Message with the following structure : <SOAP-ENV:Envelope xmlns:SOAP-ENV="http://schemas. The other way implemented to increase security for soap messages is to block the method call for users who do not have the permission to use them.org/soap/envelope/" xmlns:fault="http://www.The open tools can generate a proxy for each portal service turned into a WEB service. on request by the open tool. The whole process is once more hidden from the user. Soap messages are included in HttpRequest. Other messages (i. Use of the “CRC” principle. So the normal process of authentication included in the Portal Runtime environment can do the authentication process. outgoing Soap messages) need to be encrypted. The proxies are also used for the call of external WEB services. There are two ways for doing it. The service then manipulates the proxy for its soap calls. The proxy externalizes the method call. SOAP Fault Process • The invoked method generates an exception SOAP FRAMEWORK Portal Service SOAP Request Invoked Method Exception throws SOAP Response (Fault) SOAP Fault Message During the invoke of the Web Service’s method if an exception is throw. The header also contains a way to check the Soap message integrity.w3. 7. Security Soap messages from a SAP Enterprise Portal to our Soap processors may not be encrypted. it wraps all the requested methods and decompose them.xmlsoap.

It contains an example of external WEB service use (Google WEB service.0 (the name is soap. normally a SOAP Fault message is generated by the WebService and returned as response(4). mssoap. The second form of the log is the soap debug information. a proxy generator and a complex objects wrapper. • The SOAP Call return a fault message WEB SERVICE SOAP Request 2 SOAP FRAMEWORK 3 Error Server SOAP Fault Message SOAP (Fault) Response PRTSOAP Call 1 Web Portal Service SOAP Fault Message 4 Create 5 Throws PRT Fault Exception PRTFault When a WebService Portal Proxy Service invoke a webservice method (1). apache…). 9. allows searches on Google) and an example of client proxy use (This proxy is open tool generated). the SOAP Logger file is stored in the log folder of EP6. It also contains an example which shows a way of using the WSDL generator (on the fly WSDL file reading and writing).log). Within the portal. two other tools can be found. All exceptions throws in the SOAP framework and the Portal Web services are logged in the SOAP Logger. It contains Interoperability tests (round 1 – to check the compatibility between the portal WEB services and other implementations). and it throws in the WebService Portal Proxy. it exists two forms of log different.net. . the soap admin tool (for configuration needs) and the Soap test suite. to enable the soap logger to store the soap message and debug information you must select the property “ Log” in the Configuration menu of SOAP Admin component Related tools Some tools are quite useful for developing portal WEB services. The PRTSOAP Call converts the SOAP Fault message by a PRTFault Exception (extends SOAPServiceException) (5). You may also find interesting the SAPParWizard (for both Eclipse and JBuilder) for development operations about PAR files. By default the information logger is disable. It verifies the compatibility of the round 1 tests with the main soap platform available on the market (systinet. a serializer and deserializer generator. The main one is the ToolKitWebServicePRT (a JBuilder open tool) which contains a WSDL Generator. the PRTSOAP Call class in the PRT SOAP Framework generates the SOAP Request (2) and in the case an where an error will be occur in the Web Service Server (3) during the SOAP process. For that the property “Debug Mode” must be deselect in the configuration menu.In SOAP Admin tool. SOAP Logger In the PRT SOAP Framework. Portal Runtime Technology Page 52 /113 . all soap messages are logged in the SOAP Logger if it is enable. it is possible to disable the display of java stack trace in the SOAP Fault Message.

The objective of the PAR IDE is to speed up the Portal Application development process. Edit. Create a Portal WEB Services from a WSDL or Portal Service The complete documentation can be found in the iView studio WEB site: http://www. Portal Runtime Technology Page 53 /113 . PAR Export Upload Create PAR IDE Portal Application Development Cycle PRT PAR Import Execute and Test The goal of the PAR IDE is allow a Portal Application developer to cover all the development steps in one environment: • • • Export/Import/Create PAR files. Supported objects are Portal Components. compile and add resources to Portal Application. It allows Portal Application developers to extend the original Portal Application development model. Portal Services.com/ Approach The following picture shows the Portal Application development model: A Portal application has to be packaged in a Portal Archive (PAR) file and must be uploaded in the Portal before being executed.10 PAR IDE The PAR IDE is an eclipse plugin supporting the Portal Application development model. It allows to: • • • • Import PAR file Export PAR file Add a Portal Object to a PAR. Upload/Execute/Debug Portal Application.iviewstudio. Additional Feature The PAR IDE offers also an API to register a plug-in that can be called during the creation of the PAR File. Portal WEB Services. code.

an add-on plugin must implement the com. 3. and where org. the additional tool will be call after the initial unpacking of the PAR file. It must be loaded at the eclipse startup. the additional tool will be called before the final packing of the PAR file. This add-on is also an eclipse plugin and must follow few simple rules: 1.portal.general.ui.portal. In order to achieve this follow the instructions. one for the packing the other for the unpacking.. Call of the static method of com. Eclipse startup The plugin add-on has to be loaded when eclipse starts.sap..eclipse.startup"> </extension> In the base class of the add-on plugin (the first class called when the add-on plugin is started. During the packing operation. In order to create such a tool. IParIdePlugin aPlugin). 2. 1. it can be assumed that the add-on plugin is loaded at startup. And during the unpacking operation.AbstractUIPlugin is extended) the interface org. <extension point="org.developmentTools.ui.Istartup with its unique method (earlyStartup()) must be implemented. Register Now. 3.api. it can register itself to the PAR plugin. The plugin id must be unique. 2.eclipse.You can interfere with both process concerning the packing and unpacking of the PAR file. The interface to implement To register.IparIdePlugin and give the implementation class as parameter when it registers. So in its constructor. …in order to register to the PAR plugin.sap.ui.developmentTools.eclipse.xml the following extension point has to be added.PortalPlugin class: registerPlugin(String pluginId. Other important notes The add-on plugin has to clearly specify the final state of the operation using the method setFinalState(int status) from the class Portal Runtime Technology Page 54 /113 . In the plugin.eclipse. It will allow this add-on to register into the PAR plugin. 4.ideSpecific. you have to produce a PAR plugin add-on.plugin. It must implement two interfaces.

developmentTools. Portal Runtime Technology Page 55 /113 .portal.sap. If the final state is OK or warning then the PAR process will go on otherwise it will be stopped.api.com. Inside the IfinishResult. you can also add as many messages with their level as you want. These will be displayed into the task view of Eclipse.IfinishResult.general.

In that case the old folder is not removed and the the deployment process simply overrides the folder with the new content.11 Compatibility Considerations EP 5. This property provides a comma-separated list of paths or file names that are protected.0” then the deployment is backward compatible with the EP50 version of the portal.0 version to enable backward compatibility EP50 Deployment Policy The local deployment of a portal application is done taking care of the “DeploymentPolicy” property declared in the application config section of the deployment descriptor. - EP50 Class Loading "ClassLoaderPolicy": if set to "5.wcm. Those files and paths will not be replaced by the new version.sapportals.sap. By default they will.properties"/> <property name="ClassLoadingPolicy" value="5.service. It is important to know that those generated deployment descriptors will by default enable the EP50 Deployment and Class Loading Policy. API definitions of referenced Portal Applications via the "SharingReference" property will not be visible to referencing applications automatically. In that case the deployment policy also takes care of the deprecated “PreservedConfigPaths” property.0".portal.0"/> </application-config> <components/> <services> <service name="default" alias="knowledgemanagement"> <service-config> <property name="className" value="com.km. Example of deployment descriptor enabling backward compatibility properties <?xml version="1.0 Backward compatibility The following section describes some mechanisms that were kept or introduced in the 6.0 model assumes that definitions made accessible via the "SharingReference" property can be considered part of the Applications API and should therefore be also made visible to a referencing application.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <application name="com. When EP50 archives are uploaded to the portal the EP60 Deployment descriptor is dynamically generated and stored in the repository. If this property is set to “5. EP50 Archives EP50 PAR Files and ZAR Files were using a different format and the XML based deployment descriptor as it is today was missing.KMServiceImpl"/> <property name="classNameFactory" value=""/> <property name="classNameManager" value=""/> <property name="poolFactory" value="0"/> <property name="startup" value="false"/> </service-config> Portal Runtime Technology Page 56 /113 .application" alias="knowledgemanagement"> <application-config> <property name="releasable" value="false"/> <property name="PreservedConfigPaths" value="/PORTAL-INF/lib/config_local. See also Class Loading in the Portal Runtime. The 6.0"/> <property name="DeploymentPolicy" value="5.

a Portal Application is portable from Windows to Unix. and proposes a development model relying on the Java Technology.permission. This check produces a warning message each time that the name of the resource in the file system is not the same than the name passed as parameter of the API regarding its capitalization. In order to help Portal Application developers to identify those kind of problems on the Windows platform. a common portability problem often encountered by Portal Application developers when running on Unix an application developed on Windows is the case-sensitive issue. The warning message is logged in a new file called diagnostic.mode property to development Portal Runtime Technology Page 57 /113 . the PRT should run on Windows and in development mode by setting the portal. this is the same in EP 5. Portal Application developers can fix their applications on Windows without having to wait to see their applications crashing on Unix. However. the error will occur only in Unix and will be hidden in Windows. PRT offers a case-sensitive check when accessing WEB resources via the Portal Component API.2 UNIX/Windows compatibility As the PRT is written in Java.0 since SP 4. With this mechanism.</service> </services> </application> List of Incompatibilities to EP 5. To enable this check.0 • • jco service is deprecated jcoclient service: the different getJCOClientPoolEntry() methods throw a TimeoutException (a RuntimeException). If a file name or a WEB resources is wrongly capitalized.runtime.log.

TopicDataContainer Representation of the message sent from a PRT to another PRT.portal. The service use to subscribe and receive message ITopicListener. the Notification Service uses the PRT Bridge to manage the communication between the different nodes of the cluster. This implies that a version of the Notification Service should exist for every supported platform. the message is sent to all the PRTs declared in the cluster.sap. The API is built around the following objects: o o o • INotificationService. In this example. In the SAP J2EE environment. The Notification Service implementation must understand the cluster configuration. PRT 1 Component A Notification Service PRT 2 Component B Notification Service PRT Bridge PRT Bridge SAP J2EE cluster configuration Portal Runtime Technology Page 58 /113 .system. The notification service has two goals: • Deliver an API to send and receive messages between different WEB servers.12 Additional PRT Services Notification Service Application name: com. the component B on PRT2 is registering to a specific topic and the component A is publishing a message associated to the topic in which the component B is interested in. The following figure illustrates the architecture of the Notification Service. This is the only service having such knowledge of the execution infrastructure. The PRT Bridge uses the SAP J2EE cluster configuration to obtain this knowledge.runtime. Interface implemented by objects that want to listen for messages associated to a certain topic. When the component A publishes on PRT1.notification The notification Service is responsible to provide a support for communication between PRT instances running in different Portal Environments. Maintain the cluster information.

The Content Conversion Service will convert them all to the target type which is the type of the PortalResponse. A content converter is capable of converting content of one content type to another.portal. The content type defined by the property ContentType is the content type a component generates at the beginning of the content generation. Portal Runtime Technology Page 59 /113 . it can call the method: public void setContentType(PortalComponentContentType type) defined on IPortalComponentResponse. If a component wants to change the content type during generation. but a Portal Component can decide to generate content of another type like XML or WML. Content converters are provided to the PRT by content converter factories that implement IContentConverterFactory. the converter has access to the components resources and can locate any scripts/parameters that the component might provide to perform the conversion. Everything written from this point on is treated as belonging to the content type set. It uses internally the PRT mechanism of a response hook. Such a component can also participate in a WEB service scenario. The value of ContentType must be the text representation of an instance of PortalComponentContentType. The target content type of this conversion is the content type defined by the PortalResponse. e. After the component has finished its content generation. With this mechanism a component can even generate multiple content types during one content generation. PortalComponentContentType toType) The factory must be registered in the Portal Registry.runtime.sap.contentconversion In general Portal Components are generating HTML content. The path in the registry where the factories must be registered can be obtained by calling getContentConverterRegistryRoot() defined on IContentConversionService. This interface contains the method: public IContentConverter getConverter(PortalComponentContentType fromType. A component that wants to generate a content type other than HTML must specify the property: ContentType in its configuration. The Content Conversion Service allows Portal Components to generate such alternative content types. text/wml At runtime such a component receives a PortalComponentResponse in which the component can write multiple content types.Content Conversion Service Application name: com. It implements the interface IContentConverter that defines the method: String convert(String content. Content Converters To perform the conversion the service uses content converters. a conversion of the content takes place.g. IPortalComponentRequest request) Using the parameter request.application.

Instances of XSLConverter are used to do conversions using XSL style sheets. PortalRegistry.RSS. The two content types must be URL encoded.toString()). See the API documentation for more details: public XSLConverter(File styleSheet. Here is an example that registers myFactory to provide a converter that can convert from RSS to HTML: IContentConversionService contentConversion = (IContentConversionService)mm_serviceContext.encode(PortalComponentContentType. String styleSheetReference) throws FileNotFoundException Portal Runtime Technology Page 60 /113 .The key to register the factory must be the concatenation of the two content types that the factory is able to provide a converter for.KEY).HTML.getService(IContentConversionService.contentconverter This service provides a generic XSLConverter that implements IContentConverter (see Content Conversion Service). String fromType = URLEncoder.portal. String toType = URLEncoder.getContentConverterRegistryRoot(). String mm_rootKey = contentConversion.toString()).bind(mm_rootKey + "/" + mm_RSSToHTMLConverterRegistryString.runtime.encode(PortalComponentContentType. The Content Converter Service registers during startup the following content converter factories: RSS -> HTML XML -> HTML The converters provided by these factories are instances of XSLConverter. myFactory). String mm_RSSToHTMLConverterRegistryString = fromType + toType. An XSLConverter can be created by specifying a style sheet to be used or/and the converter can look for a style sheet at runtime in the components resources.getInstance().sap. Content Converter Service Application name: com. This is the constructor of XSLConverter.application.

0. It exists in EP 6.0 as well for backward compatibility reasons.portal. Please refer to the corresponding documentation therefore. The JCO Client Service provides the following functionality: • • • • • • Provide JCO clients to Portal Components Connection pooling HTTP session timeout detection Close connections when user logs off Maintain a connection limit (configurable) Authorization Trace (configurable) Following is a usage scenario to explain this functionality: User 1/ Session 1 User 1/ Session 2 User 2/ Session 1 a b c a b b Portal Runtime a c d e JCO Client Service R/3 R/3 System 2 f System 1 f Portal Runtime Technology Page 61 /113 .runtime. however is the connector framework. The recommended way to obtain JCO connections with EP 6.application.sap.0 to provide JCO clients to Portal Components.jcoclient This service is used in EP 5.JCO Client Service Application name: com.

each user is allowed to use 10 connections to R/3 System 1 in the scenario above. Portal Runtime Technology Page 62 /113 .In the above scenario User 1 is logged on with two different sessions and User 2 with one session. than the service ensures that this limit does not exceed the sum of connections in both sessions used by User 1. All function modules accessed by a specific user are traced (configurable). a b c d e f Related documentation: • • • JCO Client Service API documentation. Available in iViewStudio and PRT documentation. If the HTTP session timeout occurs. The JCO Client Service maintains a timeout for connections contained in each pool. In this scenario the JCO Client Service provides the following functionality: If the user logs off from the Portal. This can be configured per destination. Technical Article: How to share JCO connections in iViews. all JCO connections requested in this session will be closed. This is used to generate the user definition in R/3 with the appropriate authorizations to execute a specific business package. It is assumed that both users use the R/3 System 1 and System 2. If for example. all JCO connections requested in this session will be closed If a connection limit (configurable) is defined in the JCO Client Service for a specific destination. Available in iViewStudio. this limit is maintained for each user over several sessions. Connections are pooled. Connections that are no more referenced in Portal Applications are identified by the VM garbage collector and deducted from the connection limit. JCO Client Service Tutorial.

RFC Engine Service The RFC Engine Service allows to invoke a Portal Service from a R/3 system via an ABAP call to the Portal Runtime. IPRTRFCListener • Portal Service should then register in their afterInit() method the RFC it want to cover using the following function of the RFC Engine Service. } return function.Function function. IUserContext userCtx) throws Throwable { try { JCO.IPRTRFCListener. JCO.getName().getExportParameterList().setValue(input. public JCO.rfc.getImportParameterList(). service. the Portal Service must implement the function handleRequest to receive calls from R/3 system.setFunctionCallListener ("MY_R3_FUNCTION".Function handleRequest(JCO. “My Service or application name”). Portal Runtime Technology Page 63 /113 .portal. String nameOfService) IRFCEngineService service = (IRFCEngineService) mm_serviceContext. if (function. output.sapportals.ParameterList input = function.service. • The Portal Application has to reference the PRTRFCEengine Service.equals("STFC_CONNECTION")) { output. public class TestRFCEngineService implements Iservice.ParameterList tables = function. JCO. The PRT RFC Engine Service registers itself to the SAP J2EE service as an EJB.getService (IRFCEngineService."RESPTEXT"). This service knows and maintains a list of EJBs accessible from R/3 system via a RFC. Service Description • Portal services that want to be called via RFC must implement a new interface com."ECHOTEXT"). setFunctionCallListener(String nameOfFunction. <application alias="TestRFC"> <application-config> <property name="ServicesReference" value="RFCEngine"/> <property name="releasable" value="true"/> </application-config> • Finally.getTableParameterList().setValue("This is a response from the TestRFCService side!". The implementation of the RFC Engine Service is based on the rfc-engine service provided by SAPJ2ee.getString("REQUTEXT").KEY).prt.ParameterList output = function.

service. which registered the function name.Function function. under the name “PRT_RFC”. With the actual version ramp-up and SAP J2ee. it looks in its 5.20 of the rfcengine service. by asking for the IRFCListener registered in the bridge under the name “PRT_RFC”. The PRTRFCEngine service is registering itself to the PRTBridge Service.Implementation 1.On its start-up the Portal Service listener of RFC registers itself to the PRTRFCEninge Service. 6.sapportals.The PRTRFCEngine is registering the new Function to the SAP J2ee RFCEngine service. IUserContext userCtxt). This issue will be fixed in the future version. the parameter IUserContext is not fill in. With the version SAPJ2ee 6.The PRTBase EJB transmits the call to the PRT Bridge. in method handleRequest. 4When an R/3 System calls a function for the registered RFC-destination. This triggers the registration of an EJB call PRTBase to the SAP J2EE RFC Engine. 3.prt. Portal Runtime Technology Page 64 /113 . we are not able to know what is the R/3 user.The EJB transmits the call the PRT RFCEngine 7.On start-up. Security Open Issues We need an authenticated Portal user in order to interact with some Portal services when being called via RFC.portal.Function handleRequest (JCO.The Portal RFC engine transmits the call to the Portal Service. which had generated the calls.rfc. 2. to find which is the EJB registered under the function name. context.IPRTRFCListener and so to define the method: JCO. This Portal Service has to implement the interface com.

• • • For more information please see: http://help.com/portals/ or refer to the document on meta-data from the Configuration Framework. The following points will be covered in this chapter: • • • • • • Create a config archive Package the config archive with the PAR Export Tool Accessing the data Config Framework API React to Configuration events Start the config mode. This functionality is based on the Configuration Framework delivered as one of the core services of the Portal Runtime: the Configuration Framework Services. A Portal Application defines its own configuration containing any information that needs to be adapted to the environment to customize the behavior of the Portal Application Load in the environment the definition of the configuration. Manage (Create/Update/Delete) the configuration objects of the Portal Application. load and manage its own configuration in the Portal. The configuration management of a Portal Application provides a model to: • Define the configuration element of an application. Read/Write/Update/Delete via an API. This Framework offers a set of libraries to define and manage configuration elements of an application. Portal Runtime Technology Page 65 /113 . The load of this configuration is able to merge and upgrade already existing configuration elements.13 Configuration Management in Portal Application The objective of this chapter is to describe how a Portal Application can define. those configurations objects and react to changes occurring of those objects. This is achieved by a standard administration UI invoked by but this could also be done during the load of the Portal Application by creating some default instances of the configuration.sap.

In order to build the Config Archive (and its Config Meta Archive) properly. It contains the configurables as they were on the file system and it gathers all the config classes (meta data) in a Config Meta Archive.prototype) is called the Root-Plugin. the plugin name. more precisely the directory in which the configuration is stored (meta as well as data. The names of the directory must match properly under meta and data! From a configuration perspective.portal. The Config Archive will be copied in <root project>/dist/PORTAL-INF/config folder as a consequence it will be packaged automatically in the PAR file and it will be deployed when the PAR is uploaded by the PAR IDE. the Portal Application needs to provide some information in a specific file called configArchive. The Export PAR functionality of the PAR IDE. Portal Runtime Technology Page 66 /113 . This is import for ConfigRootFolder considerations (this will be detailed later). allows to build the Meta Config Archive and the Config Archive transparently.Create a Config Archive Place your configuration files in folders • • Data files: <project root>/config/data/<plugin name> Meta files: <project root>/config/meta/<plugin name> Important Points • • • The plugin name should be the name of the PAR file (this is a good way to guarantee its uniqueness). Use Export PAR File of the PAR IDE The deployment unit of the configuration is called the Config Archive.sap.prt. in this case: com.config.properties placed at the root of the config folder.

dependencies ca.version=6.0.time cma.1.sap.user cma.1 cma.machine Manifest CA-Name CA-Version CA-Dependencies CA-Creation-Time CA-Creation-Date CA-Creation-User CA-Creation-Machine Mandatory No Yes No No No No No Default Project name Time Date User name Machine name CMA Properties cma.prt.prototype.user ca.creation.dependencies cma.0.prt.storage cma.hello cma.portal.time ca.name ca.version=6.date ca.creation.creation.name=com.config.creation.prototype ca.config.storage=pcd CA Properties ca.portal.creation.creation.name cma.date cma.Config Archive properties file The plugin will place automatically the default value If non-mandatory values are specified as shown in the example below: ca.1 cma.machine Manifest CMA-Name CMA-Version CMA-Dependencies CMA-Storage CMA-Creation-Time CMA-Creation-Date CMA-Creation-User CMA-Creation-Machine Mandatory No Yes No Yes No No No No Default Project name The possible values are: • sfs • pcd Time Date User name Machine name Portal Runtime Technology Page 67 /113 .sap.version ca.name=com.1.creation.creation.version cma.

<component name="HelloWorld"> <component-config> <property name="ClassName" value="com.runtime. This represents the path within the overall configuration structure of your component specific configuration.config"/> </application-config> Note that although the Config mode will use the Config FWK component to display the configuration. the Config Component will take the name of the application as a default (the name of the PAR file).sap. It just need the dependency on the Configuration Framework service in order to access the APIs.config.hooks"/> </application-config> Then the virtual Portal Component is created as an instance of the Config Component.runtime.Access data Modify portalapp. Configuration data for a service.prt. the Portal Application needs to specify a Private Sharing Reference in portalapp. The virtual Portal Component will use the delegate Component to the config mode. Portal Runtime Technology Page 68 /113 .xml The configuration of an application can be administered via the general Configuration UI or via the config mode of the portal application. This is done by adding the following lines in the portalapp.xml: <application-config> <property name="PrivateSharingReference" value="com.HelloWorld"/> </component-config> <component-profile> <property name="ConfigRootFolder" value="/com.config.sap.portal.xml: <application-config> <property name="PrivateSharingReference value="com. A Portal Component can also specify a property called the ConfigRootFolder. the application itself does not need a direct dependency on the Config Component.prt.portal.sap. can be administered by using a virtual configuration component To access the Config Framework APIs.system.portal.portal.runtime.portal. If no ConfigRootFolder info has been specified. com.config.sap.prototype"/> </component-profile> </component> Virtual Components Portal Service configuration are managed by creating virtual Portal Component while giving it a right ConfigRootFolder.sap.

prt.config.component.runtime.portal.Note that in the example below the ConfigRootFolder is set as the subfolder font of the plugin com. Use the Config Framework API • Get the Configuration Service IConfigurationService service = Configuration.getConfigurable("hello_text").sapportals.createContext()).portal.prototype"). The path /com.sap.portal.ConfigComponent"/> </component-config> <component-profile> <property name="ConfigRootFolder" value="/com.getConfigManager(IConfigClientContext.prototype matches the Root-Plugin name.sap. • Get the Config Manager IConfigManager manager = service. • Get the Property Value String text = configurable.config.getConfigPlugin("/com.getInstance().prototype. <component name="FontConfiguration"> <component-config> <property name="ClassName" value="com. • Get the Configurable IConfigurable configurable = plugin. This is the mechanism used to have different Portal Applications sharing the same configuration.prt. • Get the Config Plugin IConfigPlugin plugin = manager.config. Portal Runtime Technology Page 69 /113 .prototype/font"/> </component-profile> </component> Sharing Configuration between Applications If the Root-Plugin name is not the same as the application name then the ConfigRootFolder has to match the Root-Plugin (see also).prt.portal.runtime.config.sap.portal.sap.getPropertyValue("value").

Of course if within a application there is a need for only ONE Config listener.CONFIGURABLE_ADDED) { . } Add the required methods Two methods have to be implemented: • public String getConfigListenerId(): return the ID of your listener public String getConfigListenerId() { return "com. CONFIGURABLE_ADDED: A new configurable has been added.the application can just use its name. • public void configEvent(ConfigEvent event): is called when an action occurred on the specified Configuration public void configEvent(ConfigEvent event) { if (event.getType() == ConfigEvent. CONFIGURABLE_UPDATED: A configurable has been updated.sap.prototype..CONFIGURABLE_UPDATED) { ... In this case we have com.getType() == ConfigEvent. } else if (event. It is a good pattern to use a combination of the application name and the component name.. } This will uniquely identify the listener’s application throughout all the applications.prt.HelloWorld".prt. this application has to implement the interface IConfigEventListener.portal. } else if (.. CONFIGURABLE_DELETED: A configurable has been deleted.prototype as the application name and HelloWorld which is the component name .. CONFIGURATION_UPDATED: The configuration has been updated (by a queued update). public class HelloWorld extends AbstractPortalComponent implements IConfigEventListener { . CONFIGURABLE_LOADED: A new configurable has been loaded from store..config.portal. } List of events type: • • • • • • • CONFIGMANAGER_INITIALIZED: A configmanager has been initialized.Configuration Event Subscription Implement the interface IConfigEventListener If a Portal Application wants to be notified about modifications on its configuration.. CONFIGMANAGER_TERMINATED: A configmanager has been terminated.sap.config. Portal Runtime Technology Page 70 /113 .

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addConfigEventListener(this. // add listener on domain String[] domains = {"/com.config"}.getConfigEventServiceInstance(). IConfigEventService eventService = configurationService. the Portal Application has to subscribe to the IconfigEventService and by specifying domains for which the application wants to receive notifications. } Start the Config Mode The configuration of a Portal Component can be displayed by executing the component in config mode. Page 72 /113 .printStackTrace().removeConfigEventListener(this). Specifying domains allows the Configuration Framework to perform a preliminary filtering on the events that will be sent to the listener. } catch (InvalidEntryException e) { e.printStackTrace(). try { // get Configuration Service IConfigurationService configurationService = Configuration. the listener receives only the events that are relevant the application. Remove listener When the application is released. The system configuration delegue will open the Config Framework UI.portal. This is achieved as any other mode by adding /prtmode/config/ at the end of the prtroot URL.getInstance().getInstance().prt. IConfigEventService eventService = configurationService.Add a listener To be notified about changes on the configuration data. eventService. // remove listener eventService. Configuration of Portal Service can be displayed by creating a virtual component as described above. try { // get Configuration Service IConfigurationService configurationService = Configuration. it has to remove any listeners of the IConfigEventService.printStackTrace().printStackTrace().getConfigEventServiceInstance(). domains). configurables or config items generally speaking. } catch (InitialConfigException e) { e. } catch (InvalidEntryException e) { e. In that case. Application registers the listener in the method init(IPortalComponentInitContext context) of the Portal Component. } Elements of domains can be plugins. } catch (InitialConfigException e) { e.sap. The UI display the configuration starting at the root folder of the component.

Coding Rules Always pass the original exception Issue Always pass the original exception on Example (negative)/ Explanation catch (IOException e) { throw new RuntimeException("Problem in I/O. this should not introduce problems. e.").getComponent()). However. There is always additional information which is useful to the user.14 Exception Handling This chapter gives general rules and guidelines to manage exception in the Portal Applications.g. Issue Overview Exception handling influences the quality of Java programs because: • • It ensures that the program can continue in error conditions. An exception that caused the termination of a Portal Application should lead to the causing problem by giving a meaningful information. the original problem might be hidden. } There are many subclasses of NamingException and the reason might be another. Better is to use a constructor which can take an exception as argument as well. e) Always include a message Issue Always include a message Example (negative)/ Explanation throw new IOException(). The original exception can be passed on by adding them to the message ("message: " + e). new PortalRuntimeException("Error in I/O.". This chapter also describes a framework implemented by the Portal Platform to enrich the information associated to exceptions. It allows the user to find the problem which caused a thread to terminate. Do not make wrong assumptions Issue Do not make wrong assumptions Example (negative)/ Explanation catch (NamingException e) { throw new PortalRuntimeException("Registry not found:" + e). Page 73 /113 . Following example produces a NullPointerException if context is null: throw new RuntimeException("Error in "+ context. If possible this information should be constructed dynamically. } By not doing this.

Assuming somebody needs to find such a problem at the customer site. The exception caught might be a subclass of the specified one. The following line logs the stack trace of the exception above: PortalRuntime. The console however might not always be there or accessible.g. when important information is lost in an exception handler because it is not passed on it should be logged. " Exception while reading service parameters. Nobody can find the problem caused by an exception handled this way. } In general. In addition there is sometimes to much output on the console thus making it impossible to follow the output. Page 74 /113 . thus hiding a problem. thus presenting another problem than expected. If there is really a need for an empty exception handler there should be a good reason which should be commented and the exception should be logged.Do not have empty exception handlers Issue Do not have empty exception handlers Example (negative)/ Explanation catch (Exception e) { // ignore } This interrupts the exception flow without doing something.printStackTrace(). it might take hours to search and then one ends up in an empty exception handler. The exception should be logged. Log Important Exception Issue Log important Exception Example (negative)/ Explanation catch (IOException e) { throw new RuntimeException ("Exception while reading service parameters: " + e). e.severe(e. Do not only print the stack trace Issue Do not only print the stack trace Example (negative)/ Explanation catch (NamingException e) { e."). the application was started using javaw which does not open a console. } If stdout is not redirected. the exception is only visible on the console.getLogger().

This is the purpose of this key word. you only need to know the relevant stack trace line. Just put it there. filter information to retrieve the most relevant information out of the Java stack trace. Exception Files Exception Files are test files containing the following key word: Key word stacktrace Description Give the exclusion filter used to parse the stack trace. You then specify that you want to exclude them (stacktrace:java. by proposing an Exception catalog and a tool to display this information to the users. Search for specific patterns in a log file or a list of log files present in a directory." You can also add an advise referring to this exception. The LogViewer offers 4 main functionalities • • • • browse a file system to locate log files. After an exception. message action For this specific error you may want to display a particular message. The functionality that analyzes errors and exceptions is a mechanism based on a Exception Catalog made of a set of Exception files containing: • • additional info for the exception. Analysis error and exception logged in a specific files.javax) and the first stack trace line starting with anything else than "java" or "javax" will be selected and displayed in the result. The goal of this approach is to help Portal administrators to diagnostic in a very fast and effective way problems occurring in the Portal Platform. the java exceptions are not always relevant. For example: "message: This is the specific message for this exception." Page 75 /113 .Adding Extra Information The Portal Platform allows a developer to add extra information to exceptions thrown by Portal Applications. Log Viewer The PRT provides a tool called LogViewer used to analyze Portal Platform Log files in order to facilitate the diagnostic of errors and problems occurring in the Portal Platform. View and download log files to a local system. For example: "action: Please contact you system administrator. For the portal.

customer. Example: The Portal Applicaion CustomerInfo PortalApplication sends an exception named com.portal. The error occurs in the “CutomerInfo” class but it is the call of that class which is not correct.sap. It means that the first line of the stack trace will be selected as the correct one (indicating the file. as there are no information after “stacktrace”. the help window of the LogViewer will clearly extract from the stack trace the file.CustomerInfo” will be kept and parsed (to display the file. A new deployment hook will be developed and will store in the PCD.testException.sap.sap. In that case. In that case.InvalidCustIDException.err Page 76 /113 . Exception Catalog The exception catalog is located in the private errors folder of the LogViewer Portal Application. And the message and action information will also appear in the display window. every Exception Files defined in the private errors folder of Portal Applications Example: PORTAL-INF/errors/com.InvalidCustIDException. And of course the message and action will appear. The initial error and message will also be displayed.portal.portal.portal. the method name and the line of the caller of the CustomerInfo application that should be corrected.sap. the class name. All these values will be displayed by the help window of the LogViewer.portal. the method and the line where the error occurred).customer.customer.portal.err will use the stacktrace keyword to filter out from the stacktrace analysis any references to the CustomerInfo application stacktrace:com. only the relevant information is shown. So only the caller should be displayed. That means that the first stack trace line which does not start with “com.CustomerInfo Message: Customer ID is not valid Action: Check your application to verify that the customer ID has a valid format. For the next version of the PRT (SP2). the method and the line where the error occurred).testException can be described in the Exception catalog in a file called: com. the keyword can be omitted. Action: Check that the test configuration has been set up correctly in the test directory In that case.Example: The com.err containing the following information: stacktrace: Message: A test Exception occurs.customer. the catalog will be moved to the Application Repository and Portal Applications will be allowed to enrich the catalog during PAR uploading. the associated Exception file com.portal.sap.testException. In that case.sap. It is what the LogViewer is doing.sap. It contains a pre-defined list of exception files either sent by the Portal or representing the standard Java Exception.

Deploying a PAR File on all PRT Nodes Once the Upload to the Application Repository is completed. The local deployment avoids additional round trip to the application repository and in that sense must be considered as a cache for portal applications. He or she can also import content to the portal using some external tools that are provided by the persistence layer. To solve that problem. components and services) that are depending on the current application. That step also checks and drops all entities (applications. This step will update the “local deployment” of the portal application on each server. It is important to understand that there is only one Application Repository and all PRT nodes of the SAP J2EE cluster are sharing the same content. This process gets the PAR File from the repository and updates the local deployment by expanding the archive content. In both cases the upload proceeds in two steps: • • It uploads the PAR file into the Application Repository It notifies all PRT nodes that a new Version of the application is available Uploading a PAR File to the Application Repository The PAR file is stored in the application repository. PRT also checks the local deployment before loading the application into the memory. It means that the Upload procedure is to be done only once.15 Appendix PAR Flow This chapter describes the PAR Flow and explains how PAR Files are deployed to make the corresponding portal application available on all PRT nodes of a SAPJ2EE cluster. this is why all portal applications are releasable. Each PRT node proceeds as described below: • It checks if the application is already loaded and drops the corresponding instance. Page 77 /113 .xml) all information requiring fast access at runtime. • • The main purpose of the local deployment is to improve performance at runtime by providing a fast access to classes and to portal application resources. The Portal Administrator typically uses the “Archive Uploader” component to upload and deploy a Portal Applications to the portal. Local Deployment Consistency The upload process updates all PRT nodes. The update of the local deployment requires Hot Deployment capabilities. the upload process notifies all PRT nodes in order to guarantee that all nodes will take care of the latest changes. This procedure of course can’t succeed when the server is down. It also extracts from the deployment descriptor (portalapp. It then restarts all portal applications that have been dropped. It starts the deployment process. Basically this the PAR Upload procedure stores the whole archive in the underlying persistence layer (ie: a DataBase).

If the deploymentPolicy property is missing. - Page 78 /113 .The check is done by comparing a “revision number” (updated during the PAR Upload). It is important to understand that the EP60 deployment logic assumes that the application doesn’t store any configuration locally. the old deployment folder is removed and then replaced by the new one.0” then the deployment is backward compatible with the EP50 version of the portal. If this property is set to “5. Deployment Policy The local deployment is done taking care of the “DeploymentPolicy” property declared in the deployment descriptor. everything should be store in the repository. In that case the old folder is not removed and the deployment process simply overrides the folder with the new content. If the revision number of the local deployment differs from the repository then the local deployment is updated before loading the application. a regular deployment is done.

the rest of the process is executed. 2. The PRT defines two kinds of deployment event. Page 79 /113 . If the value is false. The handler can execute custom code on each entry of the PAR. The handler can execute custom code on each entry of the PAR. the normal behavior is not executed. The PAR is about to be deployed in the Portal Environment. DeploymentEventType. </service> </ services > </application> This service implements the IDeploymentHook interface defining the following method: • IDeploymentHandler createHandler(IDeploymentEvent) returns a deployment handler depending on the deployment event set by the Portal Runtime.BEGIN_DEPLOYMENT. A deployment hook is a service delivered in a Portal Application that binds some name in the portal registry deployment folder. If the value is true. <application> <registry> <entry path="/runtime/deployment/com.myPackage. 1.. A IDeploymentHandler instance returned by the deployment hook has then the chance to implement specific code in the following method: • boolean handleEvent(IDeploymentEvent) The deployment event passed as parameter gives access to the PAR currently loaded.BEGIN_UPLOAD The PAR has been loaded in the portal repository. DeploymentEventType..Deployment Hook The Portal Runtime has implemented a hook called deployment to allow custom code to be executed at some pre-defined points of the deployment process.myDeploymentHook" name="myDeploymentHook" type="service” </registry> <services> <service name="myDeploymentHook"> . The boolean value returned by the handler will condition the execution of the normal deployment/upload process.

Principle and approach The approach used by the Portal Runtime to support internationalized application is based on the choice to use the Unicode character set to take advantage of the Java’s internationalization capabilities in the following 3 areas of a Portal Application.Text localization and Portal Components internationalization This section examines issues involved in designing and developing portal applications that support multi language environment. The value returned is determined at runtime depending on multiple parameters described later on.util. the locale of the component is fr_CH. and collation of data.util. java.Locale getLocale() Return the locale object associated with a Portal Component. For a Portal Application. • Resource Bundle Name The name of the resource bundle is defined by the property ResourceBundleName of the Profile of the Portal Component. resource bundle lookup will search for the following classes. A locale defines a set of culturally-specific conventions for the display.ResourceBundle getResourceBundle() Return the Resource Bundle associated with a Portal Component. For example. format. In Java. Those modules can then be independently added to or removed from the application. a Locale object specifies a locale. It involves isolating the locale-specific resources of the source code into modules called ResourceBundle. • java. The first part of the internationalizing process is the resourcing. which is simply a container for strings identifying a particular language and country. How data is presented to the user. The Resource Bundle returned by this method depends on the Locale of the application and on the resource bundle name defined in the Portal Application profile. • • • How data is passed to the Portal Application by the browser. all the locale-specific strings and objects are stored in a set of ResourceBundle packaged with the PAR file. API The Portal Runtime API offers two methods defined in the PortalComponentRequest to make the Portal Application aware of localization aspects. The rules to find the resource bundle are the rules defined by the Java language. Internationalization is the process of designing or converting an existing program so it is capable of being used in more than one locale. and the resource bundle name is localization. Manipulated those data in the Java/JSP code of the Portal Component. in order: • • • • • localization _fr_CH localization _fr localization _en_US localization _en localization Page 80 /113 . if the current default locale is en_US.

Component locale. User locale . The locale of the component is specified by the following two properties and allows forcing a component to use one specific local. 4.properties by the following two properties: a.… +-. request. the localization properties must be packaged in a folder of the PAR file accessible by the Java Class Loader. For example. The Java default locale defined by the system. This is defined in the prtDefault.defaultlanguage b. ForcedRequestCountry 2. (Either the operating system.META-INF +-. ForcedRequestLanguage b. So. 5. it could a JAR file in PORTAL-INF/private/lib or just a single file in the PORTALINF/private/classes directory. This is used for example for anonymous user or users without locale defined in their profiles.properties Page 81 /113 . a. or the Java virtual machine) Resource Bundle packaging The Java implementation is excepting the resource bundles to be accessible by the Java Class loading mechanisms. This is the local attached in the user’s profile logged in the system.mandatorycountry 3. a. This could be used for administration components.properties and forces a Portal installation to use one and only one local. This locale is defined in the prtDefault.classes | | +-. <Portal Archive> | +-.mandatorylanguage b. Request locale. Administrators to setup a portal environment use this locale.private | | +-.my_Bundle_fr. System Default locale. Portal Default locale.defaultcountry 6. Portal Mandatory locale.my_Bundle. request. The Request locale is defined by the browser. request.MF +-. request.properties | | +-.PORTAL-INF | | | +-.Locale lookup The locale lookup rule implemented by the Portal Runtime follows the order described below: 1.MANIFEST.

prt. The runtime.util.encoding property is also used to encode the data sent by the Portal Component and presented to the user in the browser.component. If the property runtime.encoding property).doubleByteSupport.sapportals. the data is converted by the Portal Runtime according to the following properties defined in the Portal Configuration file Name runtime.doubleByteSupport runtime. public class HelloWorldComponent extends AbstractPortalComponent { public void doContent(IPortalComponentRequest request.doubleByteSupport.*. response.getString("GREETING")).write(resource.prt. the Portal Runtime needs to understand the character set that has been used to create the file.sapportals.getResourceBundle(). This is done by specifying the encoding in which the page has been saved in the pageEnconding directive of the JSP file as shown in the following example: <html> <%@page pageEncoding=”shift_JIS” %> … Page 82 /113 .*.doubleByteSupport is set to false.resource. Thus the Portal Runtime can parse the file in the correct encoding and generates the corresponding Portal Component in UTF-8 encoding encoding (or in any encoding specified in the runtime. the encoding used by the Portal Runtime is the encoding defined at the servlet container level. JSP Support When a portal application uses a JSP resource containing double byte characters.doubleByteSupport.encoding Description Convert data sent by the browser Encoding used to convert the data received from the browser Default value true UTF-8 The data are read in a Unicode format and are then manipulated accordingly. import java. the corresponding PAR must contain one resource bundle per supported language. } Request/Response handling When a data is sent from the browser to the Portal Component for processing. In this example. import com.Portal Component Java Code The following is a code example showing how to access to a resource bundle from a Portal Component Java code.portal. IPortalComponentResponse response) { java.portal.ResourceBundle.util.ResourceBundle resource = request. import com. The locale of the browser can be found by the getLocale() method of the original servlet request.

The Portal application developer doesn’t have to any knowledge of the name of the roles or of the name of the users that will be present in the Portal environment in which the Portal Application will be installed. ConfigComponent • Safety Level : A security level in a zone.runtime Description Zone containing all PRT system components like ErrorComponent. The goal of this feature is to control the access to the following Portal Objects.sap. Page 83 /113 . The administrator of the Portal Environment has to associate the principal of the system to the zones by creating ACLs defining the permission needed to access to a specific zone. The zone defines a logical catalog containing a set of Portal Objects. a way to abstract the security level that a portal component or a Portal Service will require at runtime.Permission model for Portal Components and Portal WEB Services This chapter explains the model implemented in the Portal Runtime to control Permission on Components. Examples: Safety Level HIGH_SAFETY Description Administrator rights are required to access objects belonging to this zone Security Zone The security zone provides during the development phase. on which ACLs are attached and checked at runtime when accessing to the Portal Object belonging to a zone. It allows to group objects belonging to a zone into different categories. • • Portal Components started using the prtroot URL. any string could represent a security zone. It relies on two concepts: • Security Zone : A catalog containing a set of Portal Components and Portal Services. From a PRT perspective there is no restriction. Portal Services accessed as WEB Services by the soap connection. Examples: Security Zone com.portal. But form an administration perspective it is necessary to normalize the way portal component use this concept. Technically the zone is a string defined in the portal application descriptor.

<service-config> ….Safety level Within a zone. This zone is defined in the Portal Application descriptor by the property SecurityZone. Page 84 /113 .g.test. Entries corresponding to the Portal Objects are then created into the zone. Example of portalapp. developers can define different safety levels. Anonymous access is allowed MEDIUM_SAFETY LOW_SAFETY NO_SAFETY Implementation During the load of the Portal Application archive in the system. The PRT doesn’t make any assumptions on the value representing a safety level.. When accessing a Portal Object (Portal Component or Portal Service). <component-config> … <property name="SecurityZone" value="com. to enter the zone. <services> …. g. The check is performed by the application repository by testing if the current user has execute permission for that “security zone”. The Portal Runtime recommendation is to use the following values: Safety Level HIGH_SAFETY Description Administrator rights are required to access to a zone.xml containing the definition of a zone for a Portal WEB Service. Each of these safety levels can then be assigned to different permissions by the administrators of the system. the zones are created if they do not exist. e.wsdl"> </property> </service-config> .TestBO/medium_safety"> </property> <property name="WebEnable" value="true"> </property> <property name="WSDL" value="TestBO. the Portal Runtime checks if the current user has the permissions required to access to the zone the Portal Object belongs to. content_admin for portal applications User needs to be authenticated. If the user has not enough permissions. This mechanism helps Portal administrators to organize and classify objects belonging to a zone. e. a security exception will be returned by the Portal Runtime.portal/high_safety"/> … </component-config> Example of portalpp. <property name="SecurityZone" value="com.sap.xml containing the definition of a zone for a Portal Component. has to be member of the system_admin role User has to have certain roles in the system to enter the zone. It could be any String.sap.

km The third part of the name. this is not necessary and only increases complexity. is optional. This allows the administrator to configure the permissions for one portal application separately.portal com.ume com. the portal application name. Page 85 /113 .sap. It is the full name of the application the security zone is defined for.sap.Recommendations The naming convention for the security zones is the following: {Namespace of business application}/{safety level}/{portal application (optional)} The namespace of the business application is defined as follows: Business Application Portal applications User Management KM Namespace com. In most cases.spa.

<name> == <ServiceAlias>. the name of the service can be replaced by the service alias.<name> is not a valid service name. Components are referenced in the URL to be executed and rendered.xml).) Application Service getService(ServiceName) Service Component irj/servlet/prt/soap/ServiceName getComponentContext(ComponentName) in the URL. For example <ApplicationAlias>. . Component irj/servlet/prt/portal/prtroot/ComponentName Name The following rules apply for naming objects in the Portal Runtime. Services are referenced by components or services using the getService() API of the PRT. Each of the Portal Objects are accessed on different occasions summarized by the following table: Object Application Purpose Applications are referenced by other applications to indicate class loader dependencies in the deployment descriptor file (portalapp. For example Service can have an alias. • • • Application can have alias. Services are referenced in a URL to access WEB services using the soap connection.<name> == <ApplicationAlias>.<name> Alias The Portal Runtime offers also a concept of alias that allows for compatibility reason to define alternate name for Portal objects. then the alias can replace without any limitation the name of the application. For example.. using the alias of the application name is not accepted. The ApplicationName is defined by the name of the file containing the application. Page 86 /113 .Portal Object Name and Alias The goal of this chapter is to focus on how to identify and access to the objects manipulated by the Portal Runtime. The following rule apply to declare an alias on Portal objects. PrivateSharingReference = ApplicationName ServicesReference = ApplicationName getResource(applicationName. Application are referenced by either componts or services to access to a resource packaged in the PAR file of the application by calling one of the different getResource() methods of the API. Examples CharingReference = ApplicationName. the application. <ApplicationName>. <ApplicationName> == <ApplicationAlias> Component can have alias by using the alias of <ApplicationName>. In the case of a Service. For example.<name>. The ServiceName or the ComponentName is defined by prefixing the name of the component or a service defined in the portal application descriptor with the name of the application <ApplicationName >. Components are referenced by other components using the getComponentContext of the PortalComponentRequest object of the PRT API. In that case.

myComponent. myApplication or myAlias for the application myApplication.service for the service myService. Page 87 /113 .par defines the following entries: <application alias="myAlias"> <services> <service name="myService" alias="alias..myComponent for the component defined myComponent. myApplication.myService. alias.service" > . <components> <component name="myComponent" > The following name will be valid and recognized by the Portal: • • • myApplication.Example If the myApplication. myAlias..

lib | | | +-.META-INF <== deployment descriptor | +-.private <== Implementation of the portal application | | +-. That should help the developer to understand what are the resources necessary at runtime and how portal applications are deployed locally. Page 88 /113 . The PRT API provides methods to abstract from the real location of resources..classes <== CORE: java classes only | | +-. scripts.system | | +-...deployment Local Deployment of Portal Applications A portal application is deployed locally either at startup or on first call (upon HTTP request). style sheets) that are to be accessible from the user-agent (ie: the browser).<myApplication> | +-.logs | +-. <== WEB resources <== a subfolder for each portal application WEB-INF | +-. The PAR file content is extracted and split into 2 parts.MF <== Manifest file | | +-.portal | | | +-. The public part contains Web resources (images.lib <== API: jar files only | | | +-.Directory structure This section describes the directory structure after deployment.lib <== CORE: jar files only | | | +-.lib | | | +-.lib +-.portalapp.xml <== deployment descriptor | | | +-.< myApplication > <== a subfolder for each portal application | | | +-. The java code should not assume that the structure will remain the same in the next release. <SAP J2EE>\<server>\services\servlet_jsp\work\jspTemp | +-.images +-.irj | +-| | | | | | | +-| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | portalapps | +-.classes <== API: java classes only | +-.MANIFEST. Local Deployment Overview The directory structure after deploying the “irj.portalapps <== Non-WEB resources | | | +-.ear” file should look like below: Important: Please note that this structure can be change at any time.scripts +-.

Portal Application Web Resources non-web resources web server accesses images. . etc. Note: The local deployment is a copy of the original PAR file content stored in the application repository. style sheets. static html. Elements of a Portal Application The following illustration gives an overview over the elements of Portal Applications from a resource perspective. static data files. private JSPs.- The private part (ie: the PORTAL-INF folder) is deployed in a secure folder which is not accessible from the browser (ie: under WEB-INF). Hosting environment (PRT and more) use From an execution perspective.. scripts. personalization.. the deployment descriptor and some application-specific files. Portal Component and Portal Service that have a use relation between each other. That means for instance that a change made in the deployment descriptor deployed locally might have no impact at runtime since PRT night use the original version instead. application data. code private code (implementation) use Referenced Portal Application's shared code Shared code (APIs) Referencing Portal Applications access to config.. The private part basically contains the code (API and CORE implementation). a Portal Application is a collection element of the two currently supported types. // // Page 89 /113 . It is important to understand that the local deployment is a kind of cache. etc.

Portal Component u Application Portal Component v . ServicesReference) or PrivateSharingReference enable visibility of type definitions Class Loading in the Portal Runtime The following illustration shows the class loading relations between Portal Applications. not if "5. Dependencies by SharingReference (incl..0" policy in use Application Y API Using Application X API by "SharingReference" (or ServicesReference for compatibility) Arrow directions indicate propagation of type definition knowledge by class loading mechanism. Page 90 /113 . In the PAR format these are all the definitions in jar files under PORTAL-INF/lib and all files under PORTAL-INF/classes. On the contrary. when the reference from B to C is not private..Application X alias=Y R Service a alias="p" Application R Application Service b Access by getService(name) provides service instances .. but also Resource Bundles for example. This may be JAVA class definition. A does not have any visibility on C. The area marked as "core" represents all the private resources of an application as far as class loading is concerned.. In the PAR format these are all the definitions in jar files under PORTAL-INF/private/lib and all files under PORTAL-INF/private/classes. The areas marked as "API" represents all the public resources of an application as far as related to class loading. public private default (in EP6 and EP5) by "PrivateSharingReference" default (in EP6) non-default only if "CoreAccessInAPI" policy in use API Core Class Loading Examples The following picture shows the difference between the PrivateSharingReference and the SharingReference attribute: • • When setting the reference from B to C to private. A gets visibility to C.

A API B API C API CORE CORE CORE SharingReference: B PrivateSharingReference: C SharingReference: C Page 91 /113 .

portal.sap.portal.ChatRoom"/> </component-config> <component-profile> <property name="AuthRequirement" value="user"> <property name="personalization" value="none"/> </property> <property name="diplayHistory" value="10"> <property name="plainDescription" value="Number of messages"/> <property name="personalization" value="dialog"/> </property> <property name="diplayStyle" value="list"> <property name="type" value="select[list.impl.exampleapp.exampleapp. The Portal Service has one property in its profile and the Portal Component has two properties.sap.ChatService"/> </service-config> <service-profile> <property name="chatHistory" value="100"/> </service-profile> </service> </services> </application> Page 92 /113 .impl.xml file) example of an application that contains one Portal Service and one Portal Component.history]"/> <property name="personalization" value="dialog"/> </property> </component-profile> </component> </components> <services> <service name="ChatService"> <service-config> <property name="startup" value="true"/> <property name="className" value="com.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?> <application> <application-config> <property name="releasable" value="true"/> </application-config> <components> <component name="ChatRoom"> <component-config> <property name="ClassName" value="com.Deployment Descriptor example This is a deployment descriptor (portalapp. <?xml version="1.

MF com/sap/portal/exampleapp/api/IChatService.jar The chatapi.MF PORTAL-INF/portalapp.class com/sap/portal/exampleapp/impl/ChatRoom. we have the following PAR File content: hello.Application Example Matching the deployment descriptor above.class Page 93 /113 .jar should contain: META-INF/MANIFEST.jpg META-INF/MANIFEST.jar PORTAL-INF/private/lib/chatimpl.class and chatcore.jar: META-INF/MANIFEST.xml PORTAL-INF/lib/chatapi.MF com/sap/portal/exampleapp/impl/ChatService.

. This interface is used to read and write the data.Context. That interface is simply used to get an input stream to the data source.Context.getCentralConfigurationContext(). This feature can be used by any portal application to store additional configuration files or resources that are to be shared by all PRT nodes on the cluster. Context context = PortalRegistry.lookup(“MyAppName”).getCentralConfigurationContext(). The Central Configuration context relies on the JNDI API plus the IStreamSource interface. Note that this context doesn’t have to be created by the application. Context myContext = context. it exists by default and has been created during the PAR Upload.createSubcontext("/"+appName+"/"+contextName).. try { context.lookup(“MyAppName”). import javax. } catch (NamingException e) { . used to read/write any kind of data to the repository. Page 94 /113 .Central Configuration Storage – How to The Central Configuration Context is a JNDI context. which can be. As a contrary. . . Context context = PortalRegistry.. How to get the sub context that belongs to the application? The application can get its own sub context calling the lookup method on the root context..naming.. import javax.naming. the application might want to organize it’s data using its own logic.. Components and services can access to the context of the application the belongs to by calling the lookup method on the root context.createSubcontext method. } How to store and retrieve config files to/from the central location? The application can store and retrieve any kind of data as soon as it can provide an implementation of the IStreamSource interface. A sub context dedicated to the application exists by default. It can creates its own hierarchy thanks to the Context. Context applicationContext = context.

close().getInputStream(). java.. } catch ( NamingException e ) { source=null . is. java.properties”. source). IStreamSource source=null . try { IStreamSource source = … java. the application typically uses the bind or the rebind.Context context = … String myConfig = “/MyAppName/data. …). the source refers to a java property file (the application has to know it!). We can simply load the data source using the IStreamSource.getInputStream method. context.load(is). javax.lookup(myConfig). } Retrieving a config file: The application has to use the lookup method to get back an IStreamSource to its config file. try { StreamSource source = new StreamSource(properties). properties.properties..InputStream is = source.getLogger(). } catch (NamingException e) { .isActive()==true) logger.severe(e.util.util.util. } Reading the data from the IStreamSource: In our example.Properties properties = new Properties(). //important } catch (IOException e) { ILogger logger = PortalRuntime.io. The StreamSource helper class can be use by the portal application. It implements the IStreamSource interface and as constructors for common data source (Files.properties”.rebind(myConfig. "Operation failed"). try { source = (IStreamSource)centralConfigContext.Storing a config file To store a config file.Context context = … String myConfig = “/MyAppName/data. } Page 95 /113 . if (logger!=null && logger.naming. java.naming.Properties properties = … javax.

SAP J2EE integration and interaction
The Portal Runtime supports two types of interaction with object defined and executed in the SAP J2EE environment.

Executing a Servlet as a Portal Component.
Any servlet can be packaged and executed as a Portal Component by packaging the servlet objects in a PAR file as shown in the example below: 1. The ServletTest class defines as shown below a standard servlet.
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest; import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse; import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet; public class ServletTest extends HttpServlet { protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) try { resp.getWriter ().write ("I am a servlet "); } catch (Exception e) { } }

{

2. The PAR file should declared the Servlet object as a component of type servlet.
<components> <component name="ServletTest" > <component-config> <property name="ClassName" value="com.sapportals.portal.prt.component.ServletTest"/> <property name="ComponentType" value="servlet"/> </component-config> </component>

3. The Servlet object should be packaged in the PAR.
<Portal Archive> | +-- META-INF +-- MANIFEST.MF +-- … +-- PORTAL-INF | | | +-- private | | +-- lib | | +-- servletTest.jar

Accessing to the Portal Service from a J2EE object.
Under construction

Page 96 /113

Portal Content Abstraction
The Portal Content Abstraction is an API that provides to PRT the ability to start and render any kind of “portal objects”. The simplest portal object that can be started is of course the portal component, but PRT doesn’t make any assumption on the object type and PRT knows nothing about the source of the object and about its implementation. The benefit of this content abstraction is quite clear. PRT does not depend at all on the structure of the content itself. The concept of Roles, Worksets, iViews, Pages, Templates or whatever has no impact on the portal runtime.

JNDI Basis
The API used to achieve this abstraction is based on the JNDI API. This approach assures to benefit from JNDI defined operations and to adhere to this existing standard. This allows to keep the API thin. All metadata regarding authentication (and more) are passed using standard JNDI properties.

JNDI Service Providers
Any portal application that want to play the game will have to register its own JNDI Service provider under a name space (the scheme). This JNDI provider does not just serve the PRT, but everything running in and (potentially) next to the PRT. The contract between the content provider and PRT is the following: The JNDI provider must be able to provide objects implementing the IPropertyContentProvider and IPropertyContent interfaces. The IPropertyContent implementation must provide at least the CodeLink property. This property is used to get the corresponding PAR File (and therefore the implementation) from the application repository

For further detail concerning JNDI Providers please have a look to: PRTJndiSupport page 42.

Starting Portal Objects
When PRT receives an HTTP request, the prtroot URL parameter specifies the unique name of the object that is to be started. This name here is a JNDI name and the syntax used is not PRT-Specific. To get the object PRT simply calls the lookup method on an Initial JNDI Context.
Object o = null ; try { o = initialContext.lookup(prtroot); } catch ( Exception e ) { } if ( o!=null && o instanceof IPropertyContentProvider ) { provider = (IPropertyContentProvider)o; } else { throw new PortalRuntimeException("Portal object not found: "+prtroot ); }

As shown in the code above, PRT checks if the object implements the IPropertyContentProvider interface. That interface is the entry point providing all information that PRT needs to find the portal archive, the portal application and finally the implementation class that will be responsible of the rendering.

Page 97 /113

Portal Runtime Help Mode
The objective of this chapter is to describe how the default Help Mode is implemented in the PRT. The Help mode allows a content developer to ship help texts in a PAR and to render a Portal Component in the help mode by displaying this help text. The Portal Runtime supports 4 kinds of help text sources: • • Help Text is stored in the PAR file of the component that is rendered in help mode. The structure is totally free and should only respect the public/private rules of the PAR file structure. Help Text is stored in the PAR file according to a pre-defined structure that supports localization of the texts. The help texts must be stored in the public folder named help. When retrieving the text files, the Portal Runtime will except this text file to be located in a subfolder corresponding to the language of the user. Help text is accessed with an external URL. In that case, the help can be displayed in a separate frame. This behavior is defined by another property of the Portal Component called HelpIsolationMode. Help text is retrieved from another Portal Application. It allows the packaging of the help texts in different PARs. This approach does not support text localization.

• •

This configuration is done by using the two following properties. • • HelpURL HelpName Description gives the location of the help text to display when the Portal Runtime renders a Portal Component in the Help Mode. Many formats are supported. HelpName Gives the name of the help text file that needs to be located in a subfolder of the help public folder of the PAR. Examples docs/help.html docs/myhelp/index.html http://www.sap.com/help/ip.html /com.sap.par.help.default/docs/index.html Index.html

Property Name HelpURL

Page 98 /113

In that case. it uses the top level file without any language code. /com.html in the docs directory of the Portal Application. the Portal Component can decide to display the content of this external web site in a separate frame. Example http://www.sap. the help text is shipped in a separate PAR.helpcomponent. docs/index. if a language specific version is not found.yahoo. This is the case when the help texts are stored in an external web site.html where {user_language} is the language of the user accessing the component .default/docs/index. HelpURL Portal Component property example. In that case.html located in the following directory: help/{user_language}/index.com Description Connect to the specified URL to get help for the Portal Component.html Description Access to the file index. the Portal Component should set the value of the property HelpIsolationMode to URL. an error message is displayed.html in the docs directory of the helpcomponent Portal Application. If none of those properties is set. Access to the files named index. This is the typical scenario where the help text is shipped in the PAR of the Portal Component. The two following tables show examples of different values of those two properties. This format is absolutely free and does not support text localization.html HelpName Portal Component property behavior Example Index.html Access to the file named index.portal.The Portal Runtime will look first to the HelpName property and then will inspect the value of the HelpURL property. Page 99 /113 . To use this feature.

The IPortalComponentTestResponse is an IPortalComponentResponse enriched with the following test methods • • log(String mgLog. String msgId) logs a message in the output of the Portal Component assert (boolean condition. } } Each test methods invoked by the Test Mode execution.Portal Runtime Test Mode The objective of this chapter is to describe how the Test Mode is implemented in the PRT. are written against the following pattern: public void testXXX (IPortalComponentRequest aRequest. IPortalComponentTestResponse aResponse). Format the output of the test to HTML or XML format. public class MyAbstractPortalComponent extends AbstractPortalComponent implements ITestable { public String getTestName () { return "MyAbstractPortalComponent". A Portal Component provides support for the test mode by implementing the ITestable interface defined in the PRT API. Invokes every test methods defined in the Portal Component. String msgLog. The Portal Component is invoked in test mode by using the following URL: • /irj/servlet/prt/portal/prtroot/<MyComponent>/prtmode/testComponents/testRendering/html Page 100 /113 . String msgId) stops the execution of the test when the test condition fails by outputting a message in the test output. Rendering a Portal Component in test mode will perform the following operations: • • • Checks if the Portal Component provides support for this mode.

portal.portalapp.MF +-.SimpleFileLogger" = "WARNING"> = "logs/workplace. However.xml in the PORTAL-INF/logger folder of the PAR file. This separation allows the developer to be isolated from the logging infrastructure and let the administrator manage the locations of the log files without disturbing the application behavior.logger. <Logger name loggerInterface isActive pattern <LoggerClass className level <param filename append limit </param> </LoggerClass> <LoggerClass className level > </LoggerClass> </logger> = = = = "default_logger" "com. Each Portal Application can define its own logger by packaging a logger configuration file in its PAR as described in the following example: <Portal Archive> | +-.portal.xml used to define the default logger of the Portal Runtime.portal.ConsoleLogger" = "SEVERE" Page 101 /113 . • Application Developer view.… +-.MANIFEST. A logger is associated to one or many logging class defining the output channels.PORTAL-INF | | | +-.logger.logger.Logger configuration Every logger accessed by the Portal Logging API are defined in the following files: • • Logger.sapportals. The following example shows a part of the logger.ILogger" "true" "%d # %20t %15s %m #"> = "com.META-INF +-. One a logger has been defined it is accessed through the Portal Runtime API: o o getLogger(String) on the Portal Component Request. A logger is defined by its name.sapportals. a string formatting pattern. Logger. By default those methods return an ILogger object. Every loggers of this list are following an implementation a model proposing two views on the loggers.xml in the WEB-INF\portal\system\xml directory.xml | | +-.logger.log" = "false" = "800000"> = "com. • Administrator view.sapportals.prt.xml The logger configuration file gives a list of Portal Runtime loggers.prt. the Portal Runtime offers a way to define and return another interface.logger | | +-. It contains Internal Portal Runtime loggers like the default logger.prt. the default activation flag and a logging level. getLogger(String) on the Service Context. a Java interface.

Property JSP ComponentType Value path/FileName jspnative Description Relative path to the JSP in component resource Tells the PRT that this component is based on a JSP The first access to such a component will indicate to the Portal Runtime framework to compile the JSP into a real IPortalComponent instance and then execute it.IPortalComponentResponse response) { response.write("calling pagelet checkresult. public class CheckBoxComponent extends AbstractPortalComponent { public void doContent(IPortalComponentRequest request. "jsp/checkresult. jspResource).JSP Support The objective of this chapter is to describe how application developers can integrate and use JSP technology into a Portal Component.write("calling pagelet checkresult.jsp").getResource("jsp". "/jsp/include/foo. response. The Portal Runtime supports two ways to use JSPs in the Portal: • • Declarative way: the JSP lives in the portal as a component on it's own. response. } In that case. jspResource). The second example shows how to access to JSP files belonging to another Portal Application.include(request. } In that case.include(request. "jsp". IResource jspResource = request.getResource("JSPValidation".jsp"). Page 102 /113 . Programmatic way: any Portal Component can access any JSP brought with its PAR file or that belongs to another Portal Component.IPortalComponentResponse response) { response.jsp"). IResource jspResource = request. The location where to find the JSP is the property "JSP" JSP selected programmatically The JSP file is selected programmatically into the code of the Portal Component by including it as a resource in the response: The first example below shows how to access to a JSP file packaged into the caller Portal Component. Declaring JSP as Portal Component Two properties in the profile of the Portal Component indicate that a JSP needs to be compiled into a Portal Component.jsp"). the PRT will find a JSP called foo under the directory jsp in the component JSPValidation. public class CheckBoxComponent extends AbstractPortalComponent { public void doContent(IPortalComponentRequest request. the PRT will find a JSP called checkresult under the directory jsp.

jsp will be compiled under the package name jsp. In order to compile the generated JSP pages at run-time.servlet.ServletRequest com. The structure reflects the java packages.jar must be set in the class path of the WEB server environment.prt.HttpSession (specific implementation) Page 103 /113 .JSP packaging/Compilation The JSP must be located in the par file under the private section in any directory: Directory any path Description Contains the page that will be compiled into a Portal Component The JSP file is compiled when the Portal Component is accessed for the first time.IPortalComp onentRequest javax. The tools.servlet.customer.jar of the JDK. By default this jar is retrieved with the system property java.3.portal.1.portal.addclasspath" in the file "prtDefault. After compilation.1_01/lib/tools. # # This specifies jars to add to the classpath for JSP compilation # jsp.jar.sapportals. During compilation. Supported Features in the PRT Implicit Objects The JSP standard implicit objects accessible via scripting in the JSP are also accessible in a compiled Portal Component. the Class Loading separation philosophy of Portal Runtime is preserved.home defines by JDK.IPortalComp onentResponse javax. PRT needs to locate the tools. the generated classes are added to the class loader of the Portal Component.jar file which are not retrieved by the class loader. If It's not retrieved a property "jsp. Class Loader consideration When accessing a JSP file.properties" can be used to define where to find the tools.default in file _sapportalsjsp_entry.addclasspath=C:/Java/jdk.sapportals.java.http.select.PageContext (not all functionnality are supported) com.jsp. The JSP file found is generated into a java Portal Component file and then compiled into a class file.prt.servlet. For example a file named jsp/select/customer/default/entry. the class path used by the Java compiler is build with the JARs file and class files accessible from the class loader that have been used to create the Portal Component using the JSP file. Objects request response pageContext component request session Description original request object portal component response the page context for this JSP page the portal component request the session object requesting client created for the Type javax.

The PRT returns the Portal Component Context of the Component that is associated to the JSP pages. Support java class name.sapportals. must be accessible by the Portal Component supported supported.servlet. must be accessible by the Portal Component class name.prt.IportalCompo nentContext exception the uncaught java. supported not supported. always multithread Page 104 /113 .JspWriter javax.Throwable that resulted in the error page being invoked java.servlet.ServletContext javax.Throwable Page directive The page directive accepts the following parameter: <%@page page_directive_attr_list %> page_directive_attr_list ::={language="scriptingLanguage "} {extends="className "} {import="importList "} {session="true|false "} {buffer="none|size kb "} {autoFlush="true|false "} {isThreadSafe="true|false "} {info="info_text "} {errorPage="error_url "} {isErrorPage="true|false "} {contentType="ctinfo "} {pageEncoding="peinfo "} The following table shows the actual support of the page directive in the Portal Runtime: Directive language extends import session buffer autoFlush isThreadSafe Description scripting language used in scriptlets fully qualified class name of superclass of the class to which the JSP Page is transformed java types describing the types that are available to the scripting environment indicates if the page requires participation in a Session Specifing the buffering model for the initial out JspWriter to handle content output from the page Specifing if the buffered output should be flushed automatically Indicates the level of thread safety implemented in the page.application out config page the servlet context obtained from the servlet configuration object an object that writes into the output stream the servlet config for this JSP page the instance of this page's implementation class processing the current request.jsp. javax. the JSP standard implementation is returning the servlet.ServletConfig com.servlet.portal.lang.lang.

directive/action <jsp:include page="[path]" /> <%@ include file="[path]" %> description content is not parsed..../custom../test/anot her/j1.default./...SubComponent prt:componentres:MyComponent.default prt:component:MyComponent. it is included at the runtime content is parsed by the JSP container Supported Supported Supported. The following table shows the different supported value of the [page] value for the errorPage attribute <%@ page errorPage="[page]" autoflush="false" %> [page] .. This is used to know in which not supported supported (See Portal Runtime extension) Supported (See Portal Runtime extension) Supported Supported errorPage contentType pageEncoding Portal Runtime extension The following chapter describes the extension implemented by the Portal Runtime.jsp Directory same as current JSP Description Includes the JSP relatively to the Page 105 /113 .jsp prt:component:MyComponent./errorpage./.. if true the implicit variable exception is defined Defines an URL resource to which any Java Programming uncaught Exception will be forwarded Defines the character encoding for the JSP page and for the response of the JSP page Defines the character encoding for the JSP page. The following values are accepted by the Portal Runtime: [path] . ErrorPage Attribute The attribute errorPage is changed to add more flexibility for referencing a Portal Component that can handle and display an error in a Portal page.info isErrorPage Defines an arbitrary string that is incorporated into the translated page indicate the current JSP page is intended to be the URL target of another JSP's page.jsp Directory private folders private folders private folders private folders Description Redirects to the JSP relatively to the current JSP if error Redirects the given component if error Redirects the given component if error Redirects to the JSP that belongs to given component include directive/action The include directive is used to include text and/or code at JSP page translation time.

Directory private folders private folders private folders private folders Description includes the jsp relatively to the current JSP includes the given component includes the given component Includes the JSP that belongs to given component Tag lib packaging All Java Server Pages that are compiled into a Portal Component can use custom tags lib by following the rules described below: The class file that implements the tag lib definition must be packaged in the lib or classes directory of the Portal Component PAR file./.default ./. The id here is custom... <%@include file="copyright.current JSP (belongs to the current component) prt:componentres:MyComponent. The file may have elements which will be processed too.tld Page 106 /113 ..default prt:component:MyComponent./ test/another/j1. [path] ./custom.jsp prt:component:MyComponent. the tag library must be defined in the profile of the component..SubCompo nent prt:componentres:MyComponent. Profile none custom=/taglib/custom.jsp Examples The following example requests the inclusion../custom.tld prt:taglib:custom Directory same as current JSP private folders Description takes the tag library definition file relatively to the current JSP the tag library is referenced by an identifier which must be defined in the profile of the component. at translation time.default.jsp private folders Includes the JSP that belongs to given component The include action is used for the inclusion of static and dynamic resources in the same context as the current page. If the JSP page is include in a component as a resource. The JSP file that is referencing the tag library can use the custom tag library definition property to reference the tag Library as follow: <%@ taglib uri="[uri]" prefix="custom" %> [uri] ..../test/another/j1.html " %> Syntax <%@include file="relativeURLspec "%> The relativeURLSpec is relative to the private resource Portal Component distribution file. of a copy-right file.

However the name spacing associated to the application scope is modified and is associated to the context of the Portal Component like in the example below: <jsp:useBean id="foo" scope="page" class="beans.tld The JSP file that is referencing the tag library can use the custom tag library definition property to reference the tag Library as follow: <%@ taglib uri="prt:taglib:tlhtmlb" prefix="hbj" %> Java Beans Java Beans referenced in JSP must be accessible at compilation time and at execution time. If the object is not found it will attempt to create the object using the other attributes.Using the taglib provided by Portal Services All Java Server Pages that are compiled into a Portal Component can use tags libraries provided by Portal service by following the rules described below: The Tag Lib Definition file must be referenced into the Portal Component Profile as follow: Property tlhtmlb Value /SERVICE/htmlb/taglib/htmlb. This accessibility is achieved by packaging the beans into the lib or classes directory of the PAR file. References to objects with request scope are stored in the request object.Objects with request scope are accessible from pages processing the same request where they were created. • request .Objects with session scope are accessible from pages processing requests that are in the same session as the one in which they were created. The jsp:useBean action associates an instance of a Java programming language object defined within a given scope and available with a given id with a newly declared scripting variable of the same id. Page 107 /113 . • page . <jsp:useBean id="name "scope="page|request|session|application" typeSpec > body </jsp:useBean> The jsp:useBean action is quite flexible. • session . • application .CheckTest" /> When using the application scope. The JSP semantics is respected when translating a JSP page to a Portal Component.Objects with application scope are accessible from pages processing requests that are in the same application as the one in which they were created. Passing a Java beans to the JSP page can be achieved by storing the beans into the request. References to objects with application scope are stored in the component context associated of the Portal Component that activates the page. All references to the object shall be released when the runtime environment reclaims the PortalComponentContext. its exact semantics depends on the attributes given.Objects with page scope are accessible only within the page where they are created.checkbox. References to objects with session scope are stored in the PortalComponentSession object associated with the page activation. References to objects with page scope are stored in the pageContext object. The basic semantic tries to find an existing object using id and scope . the beans instance is stored in the context of the component that is using the JSP page that contains the useBean directive.

createComponentURL(componentRequest. <% logger.Handling Request Events Request Event must be generated by the standard Portal Component API method used to create event.setComponentRequest(componentRequest).data).Gets all logger names from admin logger service --> <FORM type=POST ACTION= <%= componentRequest.createRequestEventData(). IPortalRequestEventData data = componentRequest. IPortalRequestEvent loEvent = componentRequest. loEvent)%> > <br/> Page 108 /113 . %> <!-. Here is an example of possible use of Portal Component Evens in JSP page.createRequestEvent("oneEvent". Those events are then generated in the content of the Portal Component and the methods to handle the events have to be written in the Portal Component.getNode().

Thus a method to wait for the end of all the nodes rendering has been implemented in the asynchronous portal component response (method waitForAllIncludesDone ()) The component can be notified (IAsyncResponseListener) when the content for the included node is available with the status of the inclusion of the node (See AsyncIncludeStatus) Configuring the thread pool size The file prtDefault. This API provides two features: Multithreaded rendering to speed up the rendering (managed by a thread pool) Timeout for components.response.properties contains a special entry to configure the rendering thread pool size.portal. Either the component has no cache content. Is there is no more threads available in the timer thread pool. (async. Configuring the timeout The default timeout value for component is also defined in the prtDefault.async). Another entry also specifies the timeout thread pool size (it should roughly corresponds to the rendering thread pool size).size and is also set to 100 by default. The entry is async. This API is only available from the core (package com.core.size).xml … <components> <component name="MyComponent"> <component-config> <property name="ClassName" value="com. in that case the component won’t be rendered and a timeout message can be displayed. Either the component has an obsolete cache content available: in that case this obsolete cache content will be displayed but the component will be rendered as well and the cache will be updated with the new content outside the request cycle.prt. in that case this cache will be used and the component won’t be rendered.Asynchronous Response API PRT provides an internal API to make the programming of gluer components more powerful.timer. This value can be customized for each component in the profile using the property timeout. if the component takes too long to render (given a timeout value) 3 scenarios are possible: Either a valid cache content is available for the component. The default value is set to 100.sapportals. Example of a component declaring a timeout of 2 seconds in its portalapp. the timeout feature is disabled for the component .properties (10000ms).pool. If the thread pool has no more threads available then the rendering will be done in the current thread.sapportals.portal.This method returns immediately.pool. A component can use a special asynchronous response that provides some methods to include nodes asynchronously (asyncInclude method in interface IAsyncPortalComponentResponse).response.MyClass"/> </component-config> <component-profile> <property name="timeout" value="2000"/> </component-profile> </component> </components> … It is also possible to supply a timeout value in the AsyncPortalComponentResponse constructor : Page 109 /113 .

… resp.asyncInclude (request. long timeout) If this constructor is used the timeout cannot exceed this value even if the component has defined a longer timeout in its profile.waitForAllIncludesDone (). Below a simple example : A component includes 3 nodes asynchronously and writes the content to the original response. r). IPortalComponentResponse r) { IAsyncPortalComponentResponse resp= new AsyncPortalComponentResponse (req.writeToParentResponse () } Page 110 /113 . this) resp. node 2 has no cache content and has enough time to finish its rendering node 3 has some valid cache content (does not need to rendered) public void doContent (IPortalComponentRequest req. // Simply writes all the content to the parent response resp. node2. node1.asyncInclude (request. node3.asyncInclude (request. this) resp. this) resp.public AsyncPortalComponentResponse (IPortalComponentRequest request. IPortalComponentResponse parent. node 1 takes too long to render (timeout case) and has an obsolete cache.

return cache content resp. } doContent (req. } Thread 1 Thread 2 Regular Request cycle timeout node1 Returns to browser timeout node2 Node1 : Returns old CacheContent waitUntilAllIncludesDone () returns : Content is available for node1. launch a rendering thread resp.Here is a schema that shows how the rendering is done throw the time: Time Main thread resp.asyncInclude (node1) Check for Node1 Cache Content: Not up to date. launch a rendering thread resp.asyncInclude (node2) Check for Node2 Cache Content: Not available. resp) { getContent (). node2 and node3 Node2 : do nothing because the rendering is already finished Outside Request cycle Updated cache Content for node 1 Page 111 /113 .waitUntilAllIncludesDone () doContent (req.asyncInclude (node3) Check for Node3 Cache Content: available and valid. resp) { getDatabaseValues ().

O.0 Directory structure E Exception Handling Exception Catalog Exception Files 73 76 75 79 24 88 16. 66 65 97 59 9 12 86 109 41 26 40 11 16 24 23 23.0 ClassName Compatibility issues Backward compatibility EP 5. 102 19.Index A AbstractPortalComponent Alias API Asynchronous Response API Component Event API Dispatcher API Event API Portal Runtime API Application Configuration Application Dependencies Application Life Cycle Application Repository C Cache Central Configuration Storage Class loading Class Loading EP 5.M.properties JSP compilation Component Type L Locale Logger M Mode Component Mode Test Mode N Notification Service P P. 92 78 56 88 31 94 42 90 56 18 56 56 57 18 102 19 18. 100 81 101 61 42 43 43 43 44 42 43 102 103 102 43 34 80 11 12 12 94 79 37 Page 112 /113 .0 PAR Flow PAR IDE PAR Upload Permissions Portal Application Portal Application archive Portal Component See Portal Object Model 77 14 56 77 53 77 83 9 See PAR File 11 58 35 98. PAR Deployment PAR File EP 5. 32 H Hook Deployment Hook Portal Hooks I InitialContext INode Internationalization IPortalComponent IService IServiceContext IStreamSource J JCO Client Service JNDI Class loading Initial Context JNDI Clients JNDI Packaging JNDI Provider Resource File JNDI Service Providers jndiprovider.0 UNIX/Windows Component Component Configuration Component Type Component Component Profile Component Type ConfigRootFolder Configuration Framework Content Abstraction Content Conversion Service Core Application D Deployment Deployment Hook Hot Deployment Local Deployment Deployment Descriptor Deployment Policy EP 5. 96.

xml See Deployment Descriptor PORTAL-INF 14 PrivateSharingReference 17 Property ClassLoaderPolicy 56 ClassName 18 ComponentType 102 DeploymentPolicy 56 PrivateSharingReference 17 SharingReference 16 PRT bridge 9 prtroot 97 R Request Cycle Resource Bundle Resources Non-Web Resources Web Resources revision number RFC Engine 34 80 14 14 78 63 S Safety Level SAP J2EE Security Zone Service Service Configuration Service Profile Servlet Component Type SharingReference SOAP T Tool LogViewer tools.jar U Upload URL parameter prtroot W WEB Services WSDL 46 47 77 97 75 103 83 9 83 22 22 96 16 48 Page 113 /113 .Portal Object Model 34 Portal Registry 30 Portal Service 12. 21 portalapp.

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