ICES CM 2007/M:07 Design concept for low energy fishing vessel

Nils Harald Bjørshol SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture, Trondheim, Norway

Abstract During the last decade the cost of fuel has increased about 3 times. Hence more efficient use of the fuel is needed to maintain economy in the fishing fleet. Better fuel efficiency will also reduce the pollution of the environment and the global warming. Increased focus on global warming and pollution of the atmosphere has triggered the research on cleaner and more efficient diesel engine technology. However, the design of fishing vessels is suffering from focus on investment cost, which results in cheap and less efficient solutions. One positive effect of the increase in fuel cost is that investments in energy recovery and energy efficiency measures will have a shorter payback period. A potential saving area arises from the fact that a modern diesel engine only converts about 40 % of the thermal energy in the fuel into mechanical energy; the rest is normally dissipated to the sea and to the atmosphere. This paper describes how heat from fishing vessel diesel engines can produce useful space heating, tap water heating as well as electric energy. The technology used for producing electric energy from exhaust and cooling water heat is by ORC, organic Rankine cycle. The working medium in the cycle is an organic refrigerant that is evaporated at moderate temperature and expanded through a turbine driving an electric generator. The paper shows how much energy that can be recovered by using these methods and how to design the heat recovery and conversion system into an integrated part of the engine exhaust and cooling system. Finally the paper states what economic and environmental effects can be expected.

Energy efficient design concepts Propulsion Trawlers are towing in a large portion of their operating time and will show a better fuel economy during trawling if two large ducted propellers are installed instead of one, Figure 1. This requires a new design approach to make space for large propellers and to immerse them sufficiently. There are a number of challenges to achieve an optimal design. Research done in SINTEF (Berg, 2007) shows that a 18 - 20 % fuel reduction can be obtained by using two instead of one ducted propeller when towing a trawl, Figure 2.

. Winches driven by electric motors are more efficient than hydraulic driven winches and winches suitable for trawling application are available.Figure 1 Optimal propeller configuration is important Propulsion efficiency 2900 2700 2500 Power kW 1 ducted propeller 2300 2100 1900 1700 1500 300 18 % 20 % 2 ducted propellers 320 340 360 380 400 Thrust kN Figure 2 Propulsion efficiency comparison trawling condition Machinery and fuel Electric driven propellers The use of electric motors for driving the propellers gives freedom of arranging the propulsion engines and to combine propulsion and auxiliary power production (Figure 3 and 4). During shooting of the trawl electric energy will be regenerated. They are controlled by variable frequency converters.

In combination with electric driven propellers and winches. this design approach lends itself more favorable to the use of LNG as fuel instead of marine diesel fuel which in turn leads to a 90 % reduction in NOx emission and less emission of CO2. This will bring the emission of harmful gases and particles down from vehicles on land. . fish holds and machinery in a way that favor economic and good ship design. Because it will be easier to find space for LNG tanks.Figure 3 Example configuration two electric driven pods 3 generator sets Freedom of placement of engines Another advantage of diesel electric propulsion is that the diesel engines can be placed more freely to allow a more efficient use of the available volume of the vessel. Japanese and European authorities. CH and particulates. Figure 4 Two electric driven CP propellers Dual fuel concept To extend the range and the duration between refueling. New low emission diesel engines Research on Diesel Engines is taking place by engine manufactures all over the world to meet the stringent emission requirement issued by American. Therefore the sets can operate near their optimum efficiency. Similar stringent requirements have not yet been issued by IMO but national authorities have issued taxation on the emission of NOx for certain categories of ships among them are Norwegian fishing boats having propulsion engines with power above 750 kW. The number of generator sets in operation is determined by the demand. fishing vessels that have operating profiles with long and varying power requirements and high intermittent power may be designed for dual fuel operation. this gives more freedom of arranging fuel tanks.

e. Some could be used for heating the space on board and for heating tap water. In Iceland and other countries the technology has been used for producing electricity from terrestrial . Cleaner engines can be developed but only marginal increases in thermal efficiencies are possible which means that there will be vast amounts of heat energy available. Ideally this energy should be used for heating purposes such as processes that require large amounts of heat. The rest. we now realize that this is wrong. ORC boiler 4465 MJ/h 1241 kW Main Engine R-R Bergen B32:40 L9P 4500 kW HT heat recovery Tap water heater HT cooling system 87 °C 0-(41)-81 m3/h 74 °C LT heat recovery 2465 MJ/h 685 kW 49. The reason is that the investment at the time of design and building of the vessel is less. about 60 %. Only little can be done to reduce the heat emission from diesel engines since this is limited by the laws of thermodynamics. With the rising prices of fuel and the increased focus on harmful emission to the atmosphere. Only 40 % of the energy supplied by the fuel is converted into mechanical energy that is used for driving the propeller(s) and electric generators. When it is used for heating purposes there is little or no loss i. is transferred as heat to the atmosphere and to the sea. More often than not this is not done.5 °C 65-68 m3/h Max 37 °C ORC feed preheater LT cooling system Space heating 65-68 m3/h Sea Water cooler Figure 5 integrated main engine cooling water system Conversion of waste heat into electric energy by ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) This is done by using part of the waste heat to evaporate an organic medium at moderate temperature and expand the vapor in an expander such as a turbine that drives an electric generator as shown in Figure 7 where vapor produced by heat from the exhaust and cooling water expand in two turbines. This technology has been used for many years on shore and has proved successful in many cases.Diesel engine heat utilization The diesel engines produce large amounts of heat. the efficiency is near 100% (Figure 5). In any case all the heat requirements must be covered before using any heat for making electric energy since this will involve losses.

5 bar 1. Both mixtures of ammonia and water as well as various hydrocarbon gases have been used as a driving medium.9 2 Entropy (J/g*K) Figure 6 T-S diagrams for exhaust and cooling water ORC cycles (3) Table 1 Combined trawler purser load profile and recovery potential Load % 93 82 56 53 38 33 29 11 9 8 7 ME power kW 4200 3700 2500 2400 1700 1500 1300 500 400 350 300 Time days 8.55 2. By doing this it is possible to mass produce the units and thereby reduce the cost accordingly. ORC Pentafluoropropane (R245fa) 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 522 Turbine 15 bar 354 481 500 Temperature °C Exhaust evaporator 463 295 6 bar 456 473 467 Cooling water evaporator 267 437 433 233 225 Turbine Condenser 1.96 5.8 1.37 0. This can be done by letting the axial input radial output electric driven compressors run as radial inlet turbines driving electric motors as generators..2005).4 31.7 1.2 1.5 4.96 81.24 6.8 27.4 1.5 1.1 1.3 6.72 3.3 1.hot water.al. By carefully choosing the medium it is possible to use standard components from mass produced refrigerators in ORC units (Brasz et.2 Fuel kg 177408 488400 59520 941414 26928 50112 33509 1320 4608 52483 8928 Exhaust Main Cooling ORC engine water kW MWh/yr kW 303 277 208 202 157 143 129 64 55 50 44 887 2442 298 4707 135 251 168 7 23 262 45 113 97 62 59 39 34 29 9 7 6 5 Exhaust ORC MWh/yr 64 183 25 396 12 24 17 1 3 37 7 C/ w ORC MWh/yr 24 64 7 115 3 6 4 0 0 5 1 SUM 179 1844630 9223 768 229 .2 bar 424 419 1.6 1.

al. SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) will work on diesel oil and natural gas. al. Diesel combined electric propulsion / electric power gives more freedom and flexibility in the design of new fishing vessels and a simpler total common power system.. If the allowable minimum temperature is 135 ° C the figure increases to 10.Turbine Generator Turbine Generator ORC boiler 4465 MJ/h 1241 kW Evaporator Main Engine R-R Bergen B32:40 L9P 4500 kW HT heat recovery system Exhaust gas to evaporator 310 – 340 °C Condenser Recuperators are not shown Organic fluid ORC boiler Tap water heater HT cooling water system 87 °C 135 °C Cooling water Air & space heating ORC feed preheater LT heat recovery system Sea Water cooler 65-68 m3/h Sea Water cooler 74 °C 0-(41)-81 m3/h 2465 MJ/h 685 kW LT cooling water system 49. Energy can be saved by by running 1. 2007). Fuel cells represent the next generation technology that will produce electric energy with a high efficiency and with ultra low emission to the environment of harmful gases like NO and NO2. If this is 180 ° C the total recovery potential is in the order of 9 % of the fuel consumption per year. Fuel cells have their maximum efficiency when operated at ambient temperature whereas heat engine efficiency increase with increasing operating temperature..5 °C 65-68 m3/h Max 37 °C Figure 7 Integrated heat recovery and conversion system Heat recovery potential by the combined cooling water and exhaust ORC system is dependent on the lowest allowable exhaust temperature leaving the evaporator. Summary Two instead of one propeller may increase the efficiency by 20 % for trawlers. Heat engines convert chemical energy by combustion at high temperature into mechanical energy.8 % (Table 1). Fuel cells Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy.2 or 3 generator sets as needed at near optimum conditions. . 2005 and Sung et. The fuel cells may have considerable higher efficiencies than diesel engines in producing electrical energy (Hassanzadeh et.

Dual fuel. . gas oil and LNG. The challenge is to develop their design and to produce the fuel cells cheaply and durable enough and to prove it to the users. A combined trawler / purse-seiner vessel used 2. The fuel Cell is the future power generation devise capable of producing electric power for propulsion and auxiliary use on board fishing vessels.222 million litre fuel and would recover electric energy equivalent to 240000 litre in that year by ORC and tap water and space heating equivalent to 52000 litre. ORC. Organic Rankine Cycle and the use of waste heat have the capability of reducing fuel consumption and cost by 13 %. 147 of these are trawlers or combined trawlers. a total of 292 000 litre or 250 tons. The total consumption of the 221 largest fishing vessels in the Norwegian fishing fleet was 296000 tons in the year 2005. The emission of NOx is negligible while running on LNG. This is 13 % of the total consumption. capability enable operating the ship at optimum environment friendly conditions and at the same time increase the manoeuvrability and the range.

Brasz.00. Gwen Holdmann Power production from a Moderate – Temperature Geothermal Resource. Bruce P. Some issues on performance analysis of fuel cells in thermodynamic point of view. Power and Energy 2005 Sung Tack Roa and Jeong L.01. H.Reference List 1 Berg A. Sohn. Biedeman. Fastlegge ytelseskriterier for et spesifikt ORC system. SFH80 A06370 SINTEF Report 2006 H Hassanzadeh† and S H Mansouri. Trekkraftberegninger “Fremtidens Tråler” MT53 F07-096/ 530397. GRC Annual Meeting 2005 Bjørshol N. 2007 2 3 4 5 . Efficiency of ideal fuel cell and Carnot cycle from a fundamental perspective. Journal of Power Sources. SINTEF Report 2007 Jost J.

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