Ontario Hot Mix Producers Association

The ABCs of


And the amount of asphalt pavement recycled is equally as impressive. Using RAP reduces costs without any impact on performance. The aggregate. a contractor either mills the top layer of the old asphalt pavement or removes the old asphalt pavement entirely and then takes the RAP to a central yard for processing and stockpiling. And the results are unequivocal. The volume of recycled asphalt pavement is… 13 TIMES greater than recycled newsprint ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ “Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement” or “Recycled Asphalt Pavement”? It seems to be a matter of personal choice. RAP as a Raw Material: The properties of RAP depend not just on the properties of the pavement from which it was recovered but also on how it was recovered and how it was stockpiled. A. But black rock only takes advantage of the aggregate in RAP. as the name implies. But don’t lose sight of the primary objective . More than plastic. The aggregate gradation will be finer due to the mechanical degradation from milling and crushing. durable. Here. a supplement blended with virgin aggregate. provides the pavement with its strength and load carrying capacity. recycled asphalt can save costs. More than paper. which binds the aggregate together. Four out of every five tonnes of asphalt pavement removed during widening and resurfacing projects is re-used – a higher proportion of reuse than any other material. millions of tonnes of RAP have been used in hot mix. And that means knowing the ABCs of RAP. The asphalt cement will be harder due to oxidative aging. using recycled asphalt is good for the environment. The asphalt cement. Yes. which makes up about 95% of the asphalt concrete. RAP is perfectly acceptable as “black rock”. Since the late 1970s when it was first used as an engineered material. The key to success is proper management and processing.2 A Bad RAP ▲ ▲ The ABCs of Asphalt Pavement Recycling More than steel. Good design C. both of which come from nonrenewable resources. comes from old roadways that have passed their useful life. The California Integrated Waste Management Board seems to have decided on a compromise. The homogeneous blends of RAP are then inventoried and stockpiled. But just because the road has exceeded its useful life doesn’t mean that the asphalt material has too. It is only when RAP is used as a hot mix raw material that engineers can take full advantage of the engineering properties of both the aggregate and asphalt cement and maximize the economic value of recycling. contractors reuse and recycle 73 million tonnes a year. Good material B. RAP should be stored in an open sided shed or building to keep the stockpile dry and minimize the moisture content. asphalt pavement is not a linear landfill. In the US. is how one road is transformed into another.producing long-lasting. the RAP is blended and crushed to produce consistent aggregate gradation and asphalt content. In order to ensure that the performance characteristics of RAP are equivalent to those of virgin material. step by step. Using Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement for hot mix reuses both the aggregate and the asphalt cement. An asphalt pavement has two key components: the aggregate and the asphalt cement. Asphalt is North America’s most recycled material. adds strength and flexibility to the pavement. shoulders and embankments where engineering properties are of less concern. high performance roads. (RAC is commonly referred to as Recycled Hot Mix or RHM in Ontario). 27 TIMES greater than recycled glass bottles 89 TIMES greater than recycled aluminum cans 267 TIMES greater than recycled plastic containers RAP – From One Road to the Next Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement. RAP Supply. It defines Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) as used pavement that has been processed and Recycled Asphalt Concrete (RAC) as the result of adding RAP to new hot mix. Storage and Processing: Before repaving a road. Good methods The Ontario Hot Mix Producers Association . Yes. Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement: ▲ saves dwindling aggregate resources ▲ ▲ recovers non-renewable petrochemical resources diverts large volumes of materials from overloaded landfills reduces road building costs contributes significantly to provincial and municipal recycling obligations ▲ ▲ Reclaimed asphalt pavement is used to build: ▲ New roads The ABCs of Asphalt Pavement Recycling ▲ ▲ ▲ Roadbeds Shoulders Embankments For roadbeds. It should not be covered since tarps can trap moisture. But (and it is a big BUT).

Therefore. The ABCs of Asphalt Pavement Recycling 4. Air cannons may be needed to loosen any bridge formations. guidelines for agencies. For blends between 21% and 40%.3 It is absolutely essential that the RAP is tested and the characteristics of the RAP clearly defined so that an appropriate mix design can be developed. 2. Determining the material properties of the RAP Selecting an appropriate blend of RAP and virgin aggregate to meet gradation Selecting an appropriate asphalt cement blend to satisfy specified viscosity and penetration requirements. 21% – 40% PGAC 52 – 40 PGAC 52 – 40 PGAC 52 – 34 ▲ *Zones represent specific geographic areas in Ontario for the use of PGAC ▲ Mix Design: Proper mix design involves: 1. and NCHRP Report 452. Given the PGAC grade of the asphalt cement in the RAP and the percentage of RAP to be used in the final hot mix. Aggregate Selection: When doing a Superpave mix design. and air voids requirements. 3. the virgin asphalt cement grade must be adjusted. Designing a mix to comply with stability. The National Cooperative Highway Research Program in the US recently issued NCHRP 9-12. RAP RATIO PERFORMANCE GRADED ASPHALT CEMENT* RAP Content: The Ontario Provincial Standard Specifications set the maximum proportion of RAP in new asphalt pavement. there is little or no blending of the recovered asphalt cement and the virgin asphalt cement. Asphalt Cement Blending Tests show that when the RAP content is low. In other words. RAP can be processed with only minor modifications to equipment and techniques. and a manual for technicians. However as the RAP content is increased. Both the Marshall Mix Design MS-2 and the NCHRP Report 452 for Superpave have guidelines for using blending charts. Other mix design methodologies for RAP can be found in The Asphalt Institute's Manual Series 2. Marshall mix design procedures are usually based on the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario laboratory standard: "LS307 Preparation of Recycled Hot Mix Design". implementation plan. which includes proposed specification changes for review and balloting by AASHTO. Typically. Superpave also makes provision for RAP. (See OPSS 1150 issued December 2002) ▲ ▲ ZONE 1 ZONE 2 ZONE 3 0 – 20% PGAC 52 – 34 PGAC 58 – 34 PGAC 58 – 28 Up to 15% RAP in conventional surface mixtures Up to 20% RAP in Medium Duty Binder Course mixtures Up to 30% RAP in conventional base/asphalt cement mixtures Up to 50% RAP can be used in certain situations provided that testing demonstrates that the quality of the PGAC has been maintained Blending charts can also be used. it should be loaded slowly into a separate cold feed bin with steep sidewalls. the low temperature definition of the Performance Graded Asphalt Cement should be amended as shown in the following table. Specific gravity Coarse Aggregate Angularity Fine Aggregate Angularity Flat and Elongated Particles Gradation Plant Production Typically batch plants can process hot mix with up to 30% RAP content while drum plants can process up to 50%. the asphalt cement from the RAP does not affect the properties of the virgin asphalt cement. RAP should be tested for: ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ Asphalt content Aggregate gradation Specific gravity Consensus aggregate properties (for Superpave mixes) Asphalt cement physical properties (for blends greater than 40%) no adjustment is needed when the RAP content is less than 20%. In batch plants. A new process developed in California uses microwave technology to convert 100% RAP into a new hot mix but has seen limited use due to the high cost of heating. flow. Celebrating Over 30 Years of Paving Excellence . the aggregate in RAP and the subsequent blend of RAP and hot mix must be tested for the consensus properties of: ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ In Ontario. engineers can use a blending chart to determine the grade of virgin asphalt cement needed to achieve a final PGAC value. which includes a final report.

The cost of disposing of this quantity of asphalt is equally impressive – about $700 million at current tipping fees Of course most asphalt is recycled but using RAP as a “black rock” substitute for aggregate does not take advantage of the value of the asphalt cement in the RAP.500 per lane kilometre. well-produced hot mix containing RAP should be no different from any other hot mix. needs some rejuvenation. say. ON L4Z 1Z5 Phone: 905. March 2007 . Because PGACs are now used in the mix design. Getting rid of that much asphalt would be an enormous burden on our landfills.507. we could recover about $42 million worth of asphalt cement a year – and $42 million builds a lot of roads. The contractor has to remove approximately 375 cubic metres of asphalt paving – about 900 tonnes. In most cases. But even if we assume that. Using a blend of 20% RAP in a municipal rehabilitation project of this size should reduce costs by about $2.6 million The Ontario Hot Mix Producers Association 365 Brunel Road. Quality control of hot mix containing RAP uses the same tests as any other hot mix to ensure that volumetrics are being met and field density is being achieved. tonnes of asphalt pavement.6 million tonnes of pavement to be recycled. Assuming that asphalt rubble occupies about 30 percent more volume than compacted asphalt (which itself has a density of 2. It still has to be transported. at current tipping fees of around $120 per tonne it would cost around $110. a good proportion of the asphalt pavement will stay in place as the base course. currently costing about $300 per tonne in mid-2003. Even though the RAP is a recycled material and. Using RAP in hot mix does. penetration tests are no longer used. Using RAP also reduces the cost of hot mix production since the RAP displaces virgin material. An air scavenger system is needed to collect moisture and dust during the mix cycle to control any release of steam.3707 • Fax: 905. The 5.6 million tonnes of pavement that will need to be recycled in twenty years time contains approximately 280.1. 60 percent of the pavement will not be removed. Lay-Down Techniques A properly designed. It is not a design manual. the roads built with those 14 million tonnes will need to be rehabilitated in twenty years – just in the same way that we are now rehabilitating roads built in the late 1970s and early 1980s.507.000 to send that material to landfill. RAP can help reduce costs and improve environmental performance. However.Use either a RAP gator or lump breaker to break up large chunks or a vibrating screen to remove oversize pieces or a combination of both. try picturing two Skydomes filled with asphalt.ohmpa. worth at current prices approximately $84 million. while structurally sound. If the current production of hot mix in Ontario contained 20 percent RAP. the reality is the vast majority of road building in Ontario takes place on relatively small municipal projects. ensures the recovery of the asphalt cement component. it would need a landfill with 3 million cubic metres capacity to contain 5. Quality Control and Quality Assurance: As with any hot mix production.org The Fine Print: This brochure is designed as a general guide to reclaimed asphalt pavement.000 tonnes of asphalt cement. quality control and quality assurance ensures that the final product meets all the necessary specifications. The Municipal Example Reuse and recycling only succeeds when everyone participates.400 kilograms per cubic metre). But even in a small municipal repaving project. Conventional lay down equipment and procedures can be used. that still leaves 5. without any other outlet. stockpiled and processed. Given the typical design life of pavement. If the asphalt could not be recycled. Rehabilitating a road doesn’t mean ripping the entire pavement and starting again. Mississauga. Issue 1. Take a typical municipal road rehabilitation project – a 2-lane arterial road one-kilometre long that.org • email: info@ohmpa. it is not free. Rapping Up The Economic and Environmental Benefits of Recycling The Provincial Potential Ontario hot mix plants produce about 14 million tonnes of hot mix a year. The project calls for the top 40 millimetres of asphalt to be removed and replaced with a new surface course.3709 web site: www. Professional engineers should be consulted to ensure that pavements are not only designed functionally but also economically to fit your budget requirements. Unit 4. by using RAP as a hot mix raw material rather than simply as a “black rock” aggregate. An increased frequency of the wet and dry mixing cycles is also recommended. And to get a picture of just how big 3 million cubic metres is. Even though the Ontario Ministry of Transportation has a good hot mix recycling policy. would be considered a waste product.

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