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OFFSHORE STANDARD

DNV-OS-F101

SUBMARINE PIPELINE SYSTEMS


OCTOBER 2007

Since issued in print (October 2007), this booklet has been amended, latest in October 2008.
See the reference to “Amendments and Corrections” on the next page.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


FOREWORD
DET NORSKE VERITAS (DNV) is an autonomous and independent foundation with the objectives of safeguarding life, prop-
erty and the environment, at sea and onshore. DNV undertakes classification, certification, and other verification and consultancy
services relating to quality of ships, offshore units and installations, and onshore industries worldwide, and carries out research
in relation to these functions.
DNV Offshore Codes consist of a three level hierarchy of documents:
— Offshore Service Specifications. Provide principles and procedures of DNV classification, certification, verification and con-
sultancy services.
— Offshore Standards. Provide technical provisions and acceptance criteria for general use by the offshore industry as well as
the technical basis for DNV offshore services.
— Recommended Practices. Provide proven technology and sound engineering practice as well as guidance for the higher level
Offshore Service Specifications and Offshore Standards.
DNV Offshore Codes are offered within the following areas:
A) Qualification, Quality and Safety Methodology
B) Materials Technology
C) Structures
D) Systems
E) Special Facilities
F) Pipelines and Risers
G) Asset Operation
H) Marine Operations
J) Wind Turbines

Amendments and Corrections


This document is valid until superseded by a new revision. Minor amendments and corrections will be published in a separate
document normally updated twice per year (April and October).
For a complete listing of the changes, see the “Amendments and Corrections” document located at:
http://webshop.dnv.com/global/, under category “Offshore Codes”.
The electronic web-versions of the DNV Offshore Codes will be regularly updated to include these amendments and corrections.

Comments may be sent by e-mail to rules@dnv.com


For subscription orders or information about subscription terms, please use distribution@dnv.com
Comprehensive information about DNV services, research and publications can be found at http://www.dnv.com, or can be obtained from DNV,
Veritasveien 1, NO-1322 Høvik, Norway; Tel +47 67 57 99 00, Fax +47 67 57 99 11.

© Det Norske Veritas. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including
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Norske Veritas.
General
This document supersedes the January 2000 edition, as amended in October 2005.

Main changes
In addition to updating the material related parts, DNV has used this opportunity to update the operation phase requirements,
making it more transparent from design until abandonment. This included a re-assessment of the documentation requirements
that now constitutes Sec.12 moved from Sec.3. This work has also been funded by a JIP from the industry. Minor changes have
been made to the layout of the design sections. The intention is to make the design more consistent and transparent, in particular
with respect to load combinations. The resulting design is not intended to be changed. Some requirements have been added with
respect to Hydrogen Induced Stress Cracking (HISC).

Acknowledgement
The current revision of DNV-OS-F101 has been sponsored by three different Joint Industry Projects. The work has been performed
by DNV and discussed in several workshops with individuals from the different companies. They are hereby all acknowledged for
their valuable and constructive input. In case consensus has not been achievable DNV has sought to provide acceptable compromise
agreement.
The two material related JIP's have in total been sponsored by:

BP MRM Technip
Chevron NSC Tenaris
Corus PTT V&M
Europipe Saipem Vector
FMC Sintef Vetco
Hydro Statoil Woodside
JFE Subsea7
The operation JIP has been sponsored by:

ConocoPhillips Gassco Shell


DONG Hydro Statoil
ENI
In addition, individuals from the following companies have been reviewers in the hearing process:

Acergy Hydro Statoil


Allseas Inoxtech Sumitomo Corp., Europe
Butting Intec Tenaris Dalmine
Europipe JFE V & M Deutschland
Gorgon Nippon Steel
DNV is grateful for the valuable co-operations and discussions with the individual personnel in these companies.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


DET NORSKE VERITAS
Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Contents – Page 5

CONTENTS

Sec. 1 General................................................................. 13 Sec. 4 Design - Loads..................................................... 34


A. General.................................................................................. 13 A. General..................................................................................34
A 100 Introduction..................................................................... 13 A 100 Objective......................................................................... 34
A 200 Objectives ....................................................................... 13 A 200 Application ..................................................................... 34
A 300 Scope and application ..................................................... 13 A 300 Load scenarios ................................................................ 34
A 400 Alternative methods and procedures............................... 14 A 400 Load categories............................................................... 34
A 500 Structure of Standard ...................................................... 14 A 500 Design cases.................................................................... 34
A 600 Other codes ..................................................................... 14 A 600 Load effect combination ................................................. 34
B. References ............................................................................ 15 B. Functional Loads ..................................................................34
B 100 Offshore Service Specifications...................................... 15 B 100 General............................................................................ 34
B 200 Offshore Standards ......................................................... 15 B 200 Internal Pressure loads.................................................... 34
B 300 Recommended Practices ................................................. 15 B 300 External Pressure loads................................................... 35
B 400 Rules ............................................................................... 15
B 500 Certification notes and classification notes .................... 15 C. Environmental Loads............................................................35
B 600 Other references.............................................................. 15 C 100 General............................................................................ 35
C 200 Wind loads ...................................................................... 35
C. Definitions ............................................................................ 18 C 300 Hydrodynamic loads....................................................... 35
C 100 Verbal forms ................................................................... 18 C 400 Ice loads .......................................................................... 36
C 200 Definitions ...................................................................... 18 C 500 Earthquake ...................................................................... 36
C 300 Definitions (continuation)............................................... 21 C 600 Characteristic environmental load effects ...................... 36
D. Abbreviations and Symbols.................................................. 22 D. Construction Loads...............................................................38
D 100 Abbreviations.................................................................. 22 D 100 General............................................................................ 38
D 200 Symbols .......................................................................... 23
D 300 Greek characters ............................................................. 24 E. Interference Loads ................................................................38
D 400 Subscripts........................................................................ 25 E 100 General............................................................................ 38

Sec. 2 Safety Philosophy................................................ 26 F. Accidental Loads ..................................................................38


F 100 General............................................................................ 38
A. General.................................................................................. 26
A 100 Objective......................................................................... 26 G. Design Load Effects .............................................................39
A 200 Application...................................................................... 26 G 100 Design cases.................................................................... 39
G 200 Load combinations.......................................................... 39
B. Safety Philosophy Structure ................................................ 26 G 300 Load effect calculations.................................................. 40
B 100 General............................................................................ 26
B 200 Safety objective............................................................... 26 Sec. 5 Design – Limit State Criteria ........................... 41
B 300 Systematic review of risks .............................................. 27
B 400 Design criteria principles ................................................ 27 A. General..................................................................................41
B 500 Quality assurance............................................................ 27 A 100 Objective......................................................................... 41
B 600 Health, safety and environment ...................................... 27 A 200 Application ..................................................................... 41

C. Risk Basis for Design ........................................................... 27 B. System Design Principles .....................................................41


C 100 General............................................................................ 27 B 100 Submarine pipeline system layout .................................. 41
C 200 Categorisation of fluids................................................... 27 B 200 Mill pressure test and system pressure test..................... 42
C 300 Location classes .............................................................. 28 B 300 Operating requirements .................................................. 43
C 400 Safety classes .................................................................. 28
C 500 Reliability analysis.......................................................... 28 C. Design Format ......................................................................43
C 100 General............................................................................ 43
Sec. 3 Concept Development and Design Premises .... 29 C 200 Design resistance ............................................................ 43
C 300 Characteristic material properties ................................... 44
A. General.................................................................................. 29 C 400 Stress and strain calculations .......................................... 45
A 100 Objective......................................................................... 29
A 200 Application...................................................................... 29 D. Limit States...........................................................................46
A 300 Concept development ..................................................... 29 D 100General............................................................................ 46
D 200Pressure containment (bursting) ..................................... 46
B. System Design Principles ..................................................... 29 D 300Local buckling - General ................................................ 46
B 100 System integrity .............................................................. 29 D 400Local Buckling – External over pressure only
B 200 Monitoring/inspection during operation ......................... 29 (System collapse)............................................................ 46
B 300 Pressure Protection System............................................. 30 D 500 Propagation buckling ..................................................... 47
B 400 Hydraulic analyses and flow assurance .......................... 30 D 600 Local Buckling - Combined Loading Criteria ................ 47
D 700 Global buckling ............................................................. 49
C. Pipeline Route....................................................................... 31 D 800 Fatigue ............................................................................ 49
C 100 Location .......................................................................... 31 D 900 Ovalisation...................................................................... 50
C 200 Route survey ................................................................... 31 D 1000 Accumulated deformation .............................................. 50
C 300 Seabed properties............................................................ 32 D 1100 Fracture and supplementary requirement P .................... 50
D 1200 Ultimate limit state – Accidental loads........................... 51
D. Environmental Conditions.................................................... 32
D 100 General............................................................................ 32 E. Special Considerations .........................................................51
D 200 Collection of environmental data.................................... 32 E 100 General............................................................................ 51
D 300 Environmental data ......................................................... 32 E 200 Pipe soil interaction ........................................................ 51
E 300 Spanning risers/pipelines ................................................ 52
E. External and Internal Pipe Condition ................................... 33 E 400 On bottom stability ......................................................... 52
E 100 External operational conditions ...................................... 33 E 500 Trawling interference...................................................... 52
E 200 Internal installation conditions........................................ 33 E 600 Third party loads, dropped objects ................................. 53
E 300 Internal operational conditions ....................................... 33 E 700 Thermal Insulation.......................................................... 53

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 6 – Contents see note on front cover

E 800 Settings from Plugs .........................................................53 D. Clad or Lined Steel Linepipe................................................77


D 100 General ............................................................................77
F. Pipeline Components and Accessories ................................. 53 D 200 Pipe designation ..............................................................77
F 100 General ............................................................................53 D 300 Manufacturing Procedure Specification .........................77
F 200 Design of bends...............................................................54 D 400 Manufacture ....................................................................78
F 300 Design of insulating joints ..............................................54 D 500 Acceptance criteria..........................................................78
F 400 Design of pig traps ..........................................................54 D 600 Inspection ........................................................................79
F 500 Design of valves..............................................................54
F 600 Pipeline fittings ...............................................................55 E. Hydrostatic Testing...............................................................80
E 100 Mill pressure test.............................................................80
G. Supporting Structure............................................................. 55
G 100 General ............................................................................55 F. Non-destructive Testing........................................................80
G 200 Pipe-in-pipe and bundles.................................................55 F 100 Visual inspection.............................................................80
G 300 Riser supports..................................................................55 F 200 Non-destructive testing ...................................................80
G 400 J-tubes .............................................................................55
G 500 Stability of gravel supports and gravel covers ................55 G. Dimensions, Mass and Tolerances ....................................... 81
G 100 General ............................................................................81
H. Installation and Repair.......................................................... 56 G 200 Tolerances .......................................................................81
H 100 General ............................................................................56 G 300 Inspection ........................................................................82
H 200 Pipe straightness..............................................................56
H 300 Coating ............................................................................56 H. Marking, Delivery Condition and Documentation ...............84
H 100 Marking...........................................................................84
Sec. 6 Design - Materials Engineering......................... 57 H 200 Delivery condition...........................................................84
H 300 Handling and storage .....................................................84
A. General.................................................................................. 57 H 400 Documentation, records and certification .......................84
A 100 Objective .........................................................................57
A 200 Application......................................................................57 I. Supplementary Requirements...............................................84
A 300 Documentation ................................................................57 I 100 Supplementary requirement, sour service (S) .................84
I 200 Supplementary requirement,
B. Materials Selection for Linepipe fracture arrest properties (F) ...........................................85
and Pipeline Components ..................................................... 57 I 300 Supplementary requirement, linepipe for plastic
B 100 General ............................................................................57 deformation (P) ...............................................................86
B 200 Sour service.....................................................................57 I 400 Supplementary requirement, dimensions (D) .................87
B 300 Corrosion resistant alloys (informative) .........................58 I 500 Supplementary requirement, high utilisation (U) ...........88
B 400 Linepipe (informative) ....................................................58
B 500 Pipeline components (informative) .................................59 Sec. 8 Construction - Components and Assemblies ... 89
B 600 Bolts and nuts..................................................................59
B 700 Welding consumables (informative) ...............................59 A. General..................................................................................89
A 100 Objective .........................................................................89
C. Materials Specification ......................................................... 59 A 200 Application......................................................................89
C 100 General ............................................................................59 A 300 Quality assurance ............................................................89
C 200 Linepipe specification .....................................................60
C 300 Components specification ..............................................60 B. Component Requirements ....................................................89
C 400 Specification of bolts and nuts ........................................60 B 100 General ............................................................................89
C 500 Coating specification.......................................................60 B 200 Component specification.................................................89
C 600 Galvanic anodes specification.........................................61 B 300 Induction bends – additional and
D. Corrosion Control ................................................................. 61 modified requirements to ISO 15590-1 ..........................89
D 100 General ............................................................................61 B 400 Fittings, tees and wyes - additional requirements to
D 200 Corrosion allowance .......................................................61 ISO 15590-2....................................................................90
D 300 Temporary corrosion protection......................................61 B 500 Flanges and flanged connections -
D 400 External pipeline coatings (informative).........................62 additional requirements to ISO 15590-3.........................92
D 500 Cathodic Protection.........................................................62 B 600 Valves – Additional requirements to ISO 14723 ............92
D 600 External corrosion control of risers B 700 Mechanical connectors....................................................93
(informative) ...................................................................63 B 800 CP Insulating joints.........................................................93
D 700 Internal corrosion control (informative) .........................64 B 900 Anchor flanges ................................................................94
B 1000 Buckle- and fracture arrestors .........................................94
Sec. 7 Construction – Linepipe .................................... 66 B 1100 Pig traps...........................................................................94
B 1200 Repair clamps and repair couplings ................................94
A. General.................................................................................. 66
A 100 Objective .........................................................................66 C. Materials for Components ....................................................94
A 200 Application......................................................................66 C 100 General ............................................................................94
A 300 Process of manufacture ...................................................66 C 200 C-Mn and low alloy steel forgings and castings .............94
A 400 Supplementary requirements...........................................66 C 300 Duplex stainless steel, forgings and castings ..................95
A 500 Linepipe specification ....................................................66 C 400 Pipe and plate material....................................................95
A 600 Manufacturing Procedure Specification and C 500 Sour Service ....................................................................95
qualification ....................................................................66
D. Manufacture..........................................................................95
B. Carbon Manganese (C-Mn) Steel Linepipe.......................... 67 D 100 Manufacturing procedure specification (MPS) ..............95
B 100 General ............................................................................67 D 200 Forging ............................................................................95
B 200 Pipe designation .............................................................67 D 300 Casting ............................................................................96
B 300 Manufacturing .................................................................67 D 400 Hot forming.....................................................................96
B 400 Acceptance criteria..........................................................69 D 500 Heat treatment .................................................................96
B 500 Inspection ........................................................................72 D 600 Welding...........................................................................96
D 700 NDT ................................................................................96
C. Corrosion Resistant Alloy (CRA) Linepipe ......................... 75
C 100 General ............................................................................75 E. Mechanical and Corrosion Testing of Hot Formed,
C 200 Pipe designation ..............................................................75 Cast and Forged Components...............................................96
C 300 Manufacture ....................................................................75 E 100 General testing requirements ..........................................96
C 400 Acceptance criteria..........................................................75 E 200 Acceptance criteria for C-Mn and low alloy steels ........97
C 500 Inspection ........................................................................76 E 300 Acceptance criteria for duplex stainless steels................98

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Contents – Page 7

F. Fabrication of Risers, Expansion Loops, Pipe Strings for essential variables and validity ..................................... 108
Reeling and Towing.............................................................. 98 D 400 Operating limit conditions ............................................ 109
F 100 General............................................................................ 98 D 500 Installation procedures.................................................. 109
F 200 Materials for risers, expansion loops, pipe strings for D 600 Contingency procedures ............................................... 109
reeling and towing .......................................................... 98 D 700 Layvessel arrangement, laying equipment and
F 300 Fabrication procedures and planning.............................. 98 instrumentation ............................................................. 109
F 400 Material receipt, identification and tracking................... 98 D 800 Requirements for installation........................................ 110
F 500 Cutting, forming, assembly, welding and
heat treatment.................................................................. 98 E. Additional Requirements for Pipeline Installation Methods
F 600 Hydrostatic testing .......................................................... 98 Introducing Plastic Deformations .......................................111
F 700 NDT and visual examination .......................................... 99 E 100 General.......................................................................... 111
F 800 Dimensional verification................................................. 99 E 200 Installation manual........................................................ 111
F 900 Corrosion protection ....................................................... 99 E 300 Qualification of the installation manual ....................... 111
E 400 Installation procedures.................................................. 111
G. Hydrostatic Testing............................................................... 99 E 500 Requirements for installation........................................ 111
G 100 Hydrostatic testing .......................................................... 99
G 200 Alternative test pressures ................................................ 99 F. Pipeline Installation by Towing..........................................112
F 100 General.......................................................................... 112
H. Documentation, Records, Certification F 200 Installation manual........................................................ 112
and Marking ....................................................................... 100 F 300 Qualification of installation manual ............................. 112
H 100 General.......................................................................... 100 F 400 Operating limit conditions ............................................ 112
F 500 Installation procedures.................................................. 112
Sec. 9 Construction - Corrosion Protection and F 600 Contingency procedures ............................................... 112
Weight Coating .................................................. 101 F 700 Arrangement, equipment and instrumentation ............. 112
F 800 Pipestring tow and installation...................................... 112
A. General................................................................................ 101
A 100 Objective....................................................................... 101 G. Other Installation Methods .................................................112
A 200 Application.................................................................... 101 G 100 General.......................................................................... 112

B. External Corrosion Protective Coatings ............................. 101 H. Shore Pull............................................................................113


B 100 General.......................................................................... 101 H 100 General.......................................................................... 113
B 200 Coating materials, surface preparation, H 200 Installation manual........................................................ 113
coating application and inspection/testing of coating... 101 H 300 Qualification of installation manual ............................. 113
H 400 Operating limit conditions ............................................ 113
C. Concrete Weight Coating ................................................... 101 H 500 Installation procedures.................................................. 113
C 100 General.......................................................................... 101 H 600 Contingency procedures ............................................... 113
C 200 Concrete materials and coating manufacture................ 102 H 700 Arrangement, equipment and instrumentation ............. 113
C 300 Inspection and testing ................................................... 102 H 800 Requirements for installation........................................ 113
D. Manufacture of Galvanic Anodes....................................... 102 I. Tie-in Operations ................................................................113
D 100 Anode manufacture....................................................... 102 I 100 General.......................................................................... 113
I 200 Installation manual........................................................ 113
E. Installation of Galvanic Anodes ......................................... 103 I 300 Qualification of installation manual ............................. 113
E 100 Anode installation ......................................................... 103 I 400 Operating limit conditions ............................................ 113
I 500 Tie-in procedures .......................................................... 113
Sec. 10 Construction - Installation ............................... 104 I 600 Contingency procedures ............................................... 114
I 700 Tie-in operations above water ...................................... 114
A. General................................................................................ 104 I 800 Tie-in operations below water ...................................... 114
A 100 Objective....................................................................... 104
A 200 Application.................................................................... 104 J. As-Laid Survey...................................................................114
A 300 Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) and J 100 General.......................................................................... 114
Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) studies.................... 104 J 200 Specification of as-laid survey...................................... 114
A 400 Installation and testing specifications and drawings..... 104 J 300 As-laid survey............................................................... 114
A 500 Installation manuals ...................................................... 104 J 400 As-laid survey of corrosion protection systems............ 114
A 600 Quality assurance.......................................................... 104
A 700 Welding......................................................................... 104 K. Span Rectification and Pipeline Protection ........................114
A 800 Non-destructive testing and visual examination........... 105 K 100 General.......................................................................... 114
A 900 Production tests............................................................. 105 K 200 Span rectification and protection specification............. 114
K 300 Span rectification .......................................................... 115
B. Pipeline Route, Survey and Preparation ............................. 105 K 400 Trenching...................................................................... 115
B 100 Pre-installation route survey ......................................... 105 K 500 Post-installation gravel dumping .................................. 115
B 200 Seabed preparation........................................................ 106 K 600 Grout bags and concrete mattresses.............................. 115
B 300 Pipeline and cable crossings ......................................... 106
B 400 Preparations for shore approach ................................... 106 L. Installation of Protective and Anchoring Structures...........116
L 100 General.......................................................................... 116
C. Marine Operations .............................................................. 106
C 100 General.......................................................................... 106 M. Installation of Risers ...........................................................116
C 200 Vessels .......................................................................... 106 M 100 General.......................................................................... 116
C 300 Anchoring systems, anchor patterns and anchor M 200 Installation manual........................................................ 116
positioning .................................................................... 106 M 300 Qualification of the installation manual ....................... 116
C 400 Positioning systems ...................................................... 107 M 400 Operating limit conditions ............................................ 116
C 500 Dynamic positioning..................................................... 107 M 500 Contingency procedures ............................................... 116
C 600 Cranes and lifting equipment........................................ 107 M 600 Requirements for installation........................................ 116
C 700 Anchor handling and tug management ......................... 107
C 800 Contingency procedures ............................................... 107 N. As-Built Survey ..................................................................116
N 100 General.......................................................................... 116
D. Pipeline Installation ............................................................ 107 N 200 Specification of as-built survey .................................... 116
D 100 General.......................................................................... 107 N 300 As-built survey requirements........................................ 117
D 200 Installation manual........................................................ 108 N 400 Inspection of impressed current cathodic corrosion
D 300 Review and qualification of the installation manual, protection system .......................................................... 117

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 8 – Contents see note on front cover

O. Final Testing and Preparation for Operation ...................... 117 C 200 Corrosion control system and weight coating ..............128
O 100 General ..........................................................................117 C 300 DFI-resumé ...................................................................128
O 200 Specification of final testing and preparation for
operation........................................................................117 D. Construction - Installation
O 300 Procedures for final testing and preparation for and Pre-Commissioning......................................................128
operation........................................................................117 D 100 General ..........................................................................128
O 400 Cleaning and gauging....................................................117 D 200 DFI-Resumé ..................................................................129
O 500 System pressure testing .................................................118
O 600 De-watering and drying ................................................119 E. Operation - Commissioning................................................ 129
O 700 Systems testing..............................................................119 E 100 General ..........................................................................129
P. Documentation.................................................................... 119 F. Operation ............................................................................129
P 100 General ..........................................................................119 F 100 General ..........................................................................129
F 200 In-Service file................................................................129
Sec. 11 Operations and Abandonment ........................ 120
G. Abandonment......................................................................129
A. General................................................................................ 120 G 100 General ..........................................................................129
A 100 Objective .......................................................................120
A 200 Scope and application ...................................................120 H. DFI Resumé ........................................................................129
A 300 Responsibilities .............................................................120 H 100 General ..........................................................................129
A 400 Authority and company requirements...........................120 H 200 DFI resumé content.......................................................129
A 500 Safety philosophy..........................................................120
I. Filing of Documentation.....................................................130
B. Commissioning................................................................... 120 I 100 General ..........................................................................130
B 100 General ..........................................................................120
B 200 Fluid filling ...................................................................120 Sec. 13 Commentary (Informative)............................. 131
B 300 Operational verification ................................................120
A. General................................................................................131
C. Integrity Management System............................................ 120 A 100 Objective .......................................................................131
C 100 General ..........................................................................120
C 200 Company policy ............................................................121 B. Cross References ................................................................131
C 300 Organisation and personnel...........................................121
C 400 Condition evaluation and assessment methods .............121 C. Design Philosophy ..............................................................132
C 500 Planning and execution of activities .............................121 C 100 Safety Class discussion .................................................132
C 600 Management of change .................................................121 C 200 Structural reliability analyses........................................132
C 700 Operational controls and procedures.............................121 C 300 Characteristic values .....................................................133
C 800 Contingency plans.........................................................121
C 900 Reporting and communication ......................................121 D. Loads...................................................................................133
C 1000 Audit and review ...........................................................121 D 100 Conversion of pressures ................................................133
C 1100 Information management ..............................................121
E. Design Criteria....................................................................133
D. Integrity Management Process ........................................... 122 E 100General ..........................................................................133
D 100 General ..........................................................................122 E 200Condition load effect factors.........................................133
D 200 Evaluation of threats and condition ..............................122 E 300Calculation of nominal thickness..................................133
D 300 External inspection........................................................122 E 400Pressure containment - equivalent format.....................134
D 400 In-line inspection...........................................................123 E 500Pressure containment criterion,
D 500 Corrosion monitoring....................................................123 incidental pressure less than 10% above the design
D 600 Integrity assessment ......................................................124 pressure. ........................................................................134
D 700 Mitigation, intervention and repairs..............................124 E 600 HIPPS and similar systems ...........................................134
E 700 Local buckling - Collapse .............................................135
E. Re-qualification .................................................................. 125 E 800 Buckle arrestor ..............................................................135
E 100 General ..........................................................................125 E 900 Local buckling - Moment..............................................135
E 200 Application....................................................................125 E 1000 Local buckling - Girth weld factor................................135
E 300 Safety level....................................................................125 E 1100 Ovalisation ....................................................................135
E 400 System pressure test ......................................................125
E 500 Deterioration .................................................................125 F. API Material Grades ........................................................... 136
E 600 Design criteria ...............................................................125 F 100 API material grades.......................................................136
F. De-commissioning.............................................................. 126 G. Components and Assemblies..............................................136
F 100 General ..........................................................................126 G 100 Riser Supports ...............................................................136
G 200 J-tubes ...........................................................................136
G. Abandonment...................................................................... 126
G 100 General ..........................................................................126 H. Installation ..........................................................................136
H 100 Safety class definition ...................................................136
Sec. 12 Documentation.................................................. 127 H 200 Coating ..........................................................................136
H 300 Simplified laying criteria ..............................................137
A. General................................................................................ 127 H 400 Reeling ..........................................................................137
A 100 Objective .......................................................................127
I. References...........................................................................139
B. Design................................................................................. 127
B 100 Structural .......................................................................127 App. A Structural Integrity of Girth Welds in
B 200 Linepipe and pipeline components
(including welding) .......................................................127 Offshore Pipelines............................................................ 140
B 300 Corrosion control systems and weight coating .............127
B 400 Installation.....................................................................128 A. General................................................................................140
B 500 Operation.......................................................................128 A 100 Objective .......................................................................140
B 600 DFI-Resumé ..................................................................128 A 200 Introduction...................................................................140
A 300 Application....................................................................140
C. Construction - Manufacturing
and Fabrication ................................................................... 128 B. Assessment Categories .......................................................141
C 100 Linepipe and pipeline component .................................128 B 100 General ..........................................................................141

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Contents – Page 9

C. Generic ECA for Girth Welds D 500 Welding procedure specification .................................. 169
Subject to Strains Less than 0.4% D 600 Welding procedure specification for repair welding .... 169
Assessed According to ECA Static – Low ......................... 143 D 700 Contents of pWPS......................................................... 169
C 100 General.......................................................................... 143 D 800 Essential variables for welding procedures .................. 170

D. Generic ECA for Girth Welds Subjected to Strains Equal to E. Qualification of Welding Procedures .................................172
or Larger than 0.4% but Less Than 2.25% Assessed E 100 General.......................................................................... 172
According to ECA Static – High ........................................ 145 E 200 Repair welding procedures ........................................... 173
D 100 General.......................................................................... 145 E 300 Qualification of longitudinal and
girth butt welds welding procedures ............................ 173
E. Girth Welds under Strain-based Loading Assessed According E 400 Qualification of welding procedures for
to ECA Static - Full ............................................................ 148 corrosion resistant overlay welding .............................. 175
E 100 General.......................................................................... 148 E 500 Qualification of procedures for Pin Brazing and
E 200 Assessment methodology ............................................. 149 Aluminothermic welding of anode leads...................... 176
E 600 Qualification of welding procedures
F. Girth Welds Assessed for temporary and permanent attachments
According to ECA Fatigue ................................................. 151 and branch welding fittings to linepipe ........................ 176
F 100 General.......................................................................... 151 E 700 Qualification of welding procedures for structural
F 200 High-cycle fatigue......................................................... 152 components ................................................................... 177
F 300 Low-cycle fatigue ......................................................... 152 E 800 Qualification of welding procedures for
hyperbaric dry welding ................................................. 177
G. Testing Requirements ......................................................... 152
G 100 General.......................................................................... 152 F. Examination and Testing for
G 200 Straining and ageing ..................................................... 153 Welding Procedure Qualification .......................................177
F 100 General.......................................................................... 177
H. ECA Validation Testing ..................................................... 154 F 200 Visual examination and non-destructive testing
H 100 General.......................................................................... 154 requirements ................................................................. 178
F 300 Testing of butt welds .................................................... 178
App. B Mechanical Testing and Corrosion Testing ... 156 F 400 Testing of weld overlay ................................................ 179
F 500 Testing of pin brazing and aluminothermic welds ...... 180
F 600 Testing of welds for temporary and permanent
A. Mechanical Testing and Chemical Analysis ..................... 156 attachments and branch outlet fittings to linepipe ........ 180
A 100 General.......................................................................... 156
A 200 General requirements to selection and preparation of G. Welding and PWHT Requirements ....................................180
samples and test pieces ................................................. 156 G 100 General.......................................................................... 180
A 300 Chemical analysis ......................................................... 156 G 200 Production welding, general requirements ................... 180
A 400 Tensile testing ............................................................... 156 G 300 Repair welding, general requirements .......................... 181
A 500 Charpy V-notch impact testing ..................................... 157 G 400 Post weld heat treatment............................................... 182
A 600 Bend testing .................................................................. 157 G 500 Welding of pipeline girth welds ................................... 182
A 700 Flattening test................................................................ 158 G 600 Welding and PWHT of pipeline components............... 183
A 800 Drop weight tear test..................................................... 158
A 900 Fracture toughness testing ............................................ 158 H. Material and Process Specific Requirements .....................183
A 1000 Specific tests for clad and lined linepipe ...................... 159 H 100 Internally clad/lined carbon steel and
A 1100 Metallographic examination and hardness testing........ 159 duplex stainless steel..................................................... 183
A 1200 Straining and ageing ..................................................... 160 H 200 13Cr martensitic stainless steel..................................... 184
A 1300 Testing of pin brazings and aluminothermic welds ...... 161 H 300 Pin brazing and aluminothermic welding ..................... 185
B. Corrosion Testing ............................................................... 161 I. Hyperbaric Dry Welding ....................................................185
B 100 General.......................................................................... 161 I 100 General.......................................................................... 185
B 200 Pitting corrosion test ..................................................... 161 I 200 Qualification and testing of welding personnel for
B 300 Hydrogen Induced Cracking test .................................. 161 hyperbaric dry welding ................................................ 185
B 400 Sulphide Stress Cracking test ....................................... 161 I 300 Welding processes for hyperbaric dry welding ............ 186
I 400 Welding consumables for hyperbaric dry welding....... 186
App. C Welding.............................................................. 165 I 500 Shielding and backing gases for
hyperbaric dry welding ................................................. 186
A. Application ......................................................................... 165 I 600 Welding equipment and systems for hyperbaric dry
A 100 General.......................................................................... 165 welding ......................................................................... 186
A 200 Welding processes ........................................................ 165 I 700 Welding procedures for hyperbaric dry welding .......... 186
A 300 Definitions .................................................................... 165 I 800 Qualification welding for hyperbaric dry welding ....... 187
A 400 Quality assurance.......................................................... 165 I 900 Qualification of welding procedures for
hyperbaric dry welding ................................................. 187
B. Welding Equipment, Tools and Personnel ......................... 165 I 1000 Examination and testing ............................................... 187
B 100 Welding equipment and tools ....................................... 165 I 1100 Production welding requirements for dry hyperbaric
B 200 Personnel....................................................................... 166 welding ......................................................................... 187
B 300 Qualification and testing of welding personnel for
hyperbaric dry welding ................................................ 166 App. D Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) ...................... 189
C. Welding Consumables........................................................ 166 A. General................................................................................189
C 100 General.......................................................................... 166 A 100 Objective....................................................................... 189
C 200 Chemical composition .................................................. 167 A 200 Applicability of requirements ....................................... 189
C 300 Mechanical properties................................................... 167 A 300 Quality assurance.......................................................... 189
C 400 Batch testing of welding consumables for A 400 Non-destructive testing methods .................................. 189
pipeline girth welds....................................................... 167 A 500 Personnel qualifications................................................ 189
C 500 Shielding, backing and plasma gases............................ 168 A 600 Timing of NDT ............................................................. 190
C 600 Handling and storage of welding consumables ............ 168
B. Manual Non-Destructive Testing
D. Welding Procedures............................................................ 168 and Visual Examination of Welds ......................................190
D 100 General.......................................................................... 168 B 100 General.......................................................................... 190
D 200 Previously qualified welding procedures...................... 168 B 200 Radiographic testing of welds ...................................... 190
D 300 Preliminary welding procedure specification ............... 169 B 300 Manual ultrasonic testing of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel
D 400 Welding procedure qualification record ....................... 169 with C-Mn/low alloy steel weld deposits ..................... 191

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 10 – Contents see note on front cover

B 400 Manual ultrasonic testing of welds with CRA App. E Automated Ultrasonic Girth Weld Testing ... 223
(duplex, other stainless steels and nickel alloy steel)
weld deposits.................................................................194 A. General................................................................................223
B 500 Manual magnetic particle testing of welds ...................195 A 100 Scope.............................................................................223
B 600 Manual liquid penetrant testing of welds ......................196 A 200 References.....................................................................223
B 700 Manual eddy current testing of welds ...........................196
B 800 Visual examination of welds.........................................197 B. Basic Requirements ............................................................223
B 900 Acceptance criteria for manual non-destructive testing of B 100 General ..........................................................................223
welds with nominal strains < 0.4% and no ECA ..........197 B 200 Documentation ..............................................................224
B 1000 ECA based non-destructive testing acceptance criteria for
pipeline girth welds .......................................................197 B 300 Qualification..................................................................224
B 1100 Repair of welds .............................................................200 B 400 Ultrasonic system equipment and components.............224
B 500 Calibration (reference) blocks.......................................225
C. Manual Non-destructive testing and Visual Examination of B 600 Recorder set-up .............................................................226
Plate, Pipe and Weld Overlay............................................. 200 B 700 Circumferential scanning velocity ................................226
C 100 General ..........................................................................200 B 800 Power supply.................................................................226
C 200 Plate and pipe ................................................................201 B 900 Software ........................................................................226
C 300 Weld overlay .................................................................201 B 1000 Reference line, band position and coating cut-back .....226
C 400 Visual examination ......................................................202 B 1100 Reference line tools.......................................................226
C 500 Residual magnetism ......................................................202 B 1200 Operators.......................................................................226
C 600 Acceptance criteria for manual non-destructive testing of B 1300 Spares ............................................................................226
plate, pipe and weld overlay .........................................202 B 1400 Slave monitors...............................................................226
D. Non-destructive Testing and Visual Examination of C. Procedure ............................................................................227
Forgings .............................................................................. 203 C 100 General ..........................................................................227
D 100 General ..........................................................................203
D 200 Ultrasonic and magnetic particle testing of C-Mn and D. Calibration (Sensitivity Setting) .........................................227
low alloy steel forgings .................................................203 D 100 Initial static calibration..................................................227
D 300 Ultrasonic and liquid penetrant testing of D 200 Gate settings..................................................................227
duplex stainless steel forgings.......................................204 D 300 Recording Threshold.....................................................228
D 400 Visual examination of forgings.....................................205 D 400 Dynamic calibration......................................................228
D 500 Acceptance criteria for forgings....................................205 D 500 Recording of set-up data ...............................................228
E. Non-destructive Testing and Visual Examination of E. Field Inspection ..................................................................228
Castings .............................................................................. 205 E 100 Inspection requirements ................................................228
E 100 General ..........................................................................205 E 200 Operational checks........................................................229
E 200 Ultrasonic and magnetic particle testing of C-Mn and E 300 Adjustments of the AUT system...................................230
low alloy steel castings .................................................205
E 300 Ultrasonic and liquid penetrant testing of F. Re-examination of Welds ...................................................230
duplex stainless steel castings .......................................206 F 100 General ..........................................................................230
E 400 Radiographic testing of castings ...................................207
E 500 Visual examination of castings .....................................207 G. Evaluation and Reporting ...................................................230
E 600 Acceptance criteria for castings ....................................207 G 100 Evaluation of indications ..............................................230
G 200 Examination reports ......................................................230
F. Automated Non-Destructive Testing.................................. 207 G 300 Inspection records .........................................................230
F 100 General ..........................................................................207
F 200 Documentation of function and operation ....................208 H. Qualification .......................................................................230
F 300 Documentation of performance ....................................208
F 400 Qualification..................................................................208 H 100 General ..........................................................................230
F 500 Evaluation of performance documentation ...................208 H 200 Scope.............................................................................230
H 300 Requirements ................................................................230
G. Non-Destructive Testing at Plate H 400 Variables .......................................................................231
and Coil Mill....................................................................... 208 H 500 Qualification programme ..............................................231
G 100 General ..........................................................................208 H 600 Test welds .....................................................................231
G 200 Ultrasonic testing of C-Mn steel and CRA plates.........208 H 700 Qualification testing .....................................................231
G 300 Ultrasonic testing of CRA clad C-Mn steel plate ........209 H 800 Reference destructive testing ........................................232
G 400 Alternative test methods................................................209 H 900 Analysis.........................................................................233
G 500 Disposition of plate and coil with H 1000 Reporting.......................................................................233
unacceptable laminations or inclusions.........................209
G 600 Visual examination of plate and coil.............................209 I. Validity of Qualification.....................................................233
G 700 Acceptance criteria and disposition of surface I 100 Validity..........................................................................233
imperfections.................................................................209 I 200 Essential variables.........................................................233
H. Non-Destructive Testing J. Determination of Wave Velocities
of Linepipe at Pipe Mills .................................................... 209 in Pipe Steels.......................................................................233
H 100 General ..........................................................................209 J 100 General ..........................................................................233
H 200 Suspect pipe ..................................................................210 J 200 Equipment .....................................................................233
H 300 Repair of suspect pipe ...................................................211 J 300 Specimens .....................................................................234
H 400 General requirements for automated NDT systems ......211 J 400 Test method...................................................................234
H 500 Visual examination and residual magnetism ................213 J 500 Accuracy .......................................................................234
H 600 Non-destructive testing of pipe ends not tested by J 600 Recording ......................................................................234
automated NDT equipment ...........................................214
H 700 Non-destructive testing of pipe ends.............................214 App. F Requirements for Shore Approach
H 800 Non-destructive testing of seamless pipe......................215
H 900 Non-destructive testing of HFW pipe ...........................215 and Onshore Sections...................................................... 235
H 1000 Non-destructive testing of CRA liner pipe ...................216
H 1100 Non-destructive testing of lined pipe ............................216 A. Application .........................................................................235
H 1200 Non-destructive testing of clad pipe .............................217 A 100 Objective .......................................................................235
H 1300 Non-destructive testing of SAWL and SAWH pipe .....218 A 200 Scope and limitation......................................................235
H 1400 Manual NDT at pipe mills ............................................220 A 300 Other codes ..................................................................235
H 1500 Non-destructive testing of weld repair in pipe .............222 A 400 Definitions.....................................................................235

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Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Contents – Page 11

B. Safety Philosophy ............................................................... 236 D 300 Design loads.................................................................. 238


B 100 General.......................................................................... 236 D 400 Design criteria............................................................... 238
B 200 Safety philosophy ......................................................... 236
B 300 Quantification of consequence ..................................... 236 E. Construction........................................................................239
E 100 General.......................................................................... 239
C. Design Premise ................................................................... 237 E 200 Linepipe ........................................................................ 239
C 100 General.......................................................................... 237
C 200 Routing ......................................................................... 237 E 300 Components and assemblies ......................................... 239
C 300 Environmental data ....................................................... 237 E 400 Corrosion protection & coatings................................... 239
C 400 Survey ........................................................................... 237
C 500 Marking......................................................................... 238 F. Operation ............................................................................239
F 100 General.......................................................................... 239
D. Design................................................................................. 238
D 100 General.......................................................................... 238 G. Documentation....................................................................239
D 200 System design ............................................................... 238 G 100 General.......................................................................... 239

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 12 – Contents see note on front cover

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.1 – Page 13

SECTION 1
GENERAL

A. General the protection of the environment.


— provide an internationally acceptable standard of safety
A 100 Introduction for submarine pipeline systems by defining minimum
101 This standard gives criteria and guidance on concept requirements for concept development, design, construc-
development, design, construction, operation and abandon- tion, operation and abandonment
ment of Submarine Pipeline Systems. — serve as a technical reference document in contractual
matters between Purchaser and Contractor
A 200 Objectives — serve as a guideline for Designers, Purchaser, and Con-
201 The objectives of this standard are to: tractors.

— Ensure that the concept development, design, construc- A 300 Scope and application
tion, operation and abandonment of pipeline systems are 301 The scope and applicability of this standard is given in
safe and conducted with due regard to public safety and Table 1-1.

Table 1-1 Scope and application summary


General
Systems in the petroleum and natural gas industries are in general described in this table.
For submarine pipeline systems that have extraordinary consequences, the quantification of con-
sequences by the three safety classes provided in this standard may be insufficient, and higher
safety classes may be required.1
Phases Concept development, design, construction, operation and abandonment
Pipeline Types Dynamic risers and compliant risers are covered by DNV-OS-F201 Dynamic Risers.
Rigid metallic pipe
Single systems, pipeline bundles of the piggyback type and pipeline bundles within an outer pipe2
Extent
Pressure and flow Pipeline system in such a way that the fluid transportation and pressure in the submarine pipeline
system is well defined and controlled 3
Concept development, design, Submarine pipeline system 4
construction, operation
and abandonment
Geometry and configuration
Dimensions No limitation
(Explicit criteria for local buckling, combined loading are only given for straight pipes with
15 < D/t2 < 45)
Water depth No limitation, see Sec.5 A201
Loads
Pressure No limitation
Temperature No limitation
Material properties need to be documented for temperatures above 50oC and 20oC for C-Mn
steels and CRAs respectively, see Sec.5 C300
Global deformations No limitation
Linepipe Material
General Sec.7 A201
C-Mn steel linepipe is generally conforming to ISO 3183 Annex J but with modifications and
amendments.
CRA linepipe with specific requirements to duplex stainless steel and 13Cr martensitic steel
Clad and Lined linepipe.
Supplementary requirements for sour service, fracture arrest properties, plastic deformation,
dimensional tolerances and high utilization.
Components Bends, Fittings, Flanges, Valves, Mechanical connectors, CP Insulating joints, Anchor flange,
Buckle arrestor, Pig traps, Clamps and Couplings
Material and manufacture Sec.8
Design Sec.5 F
Fluids
Categories Table 2-1
Sour service Generally conforming to ISO 15156
Installation
Sec.10
Method S-lay, J-lay, towing and laying methods introducing plastic deformations
Installation requirements for risers as well as protective and anchoring structures are also
included.
1) Example of extra ordinary consequences may be pristine environment 2) Umbilicals intended for control of subsea installations are not included in
and exploration in arctic climate. this standard. Individual pipes, within an umbilical, made of materials

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 14 – Sec.1 see note on front cover

applicable to this standard, may be designed according to this standard. — Appendix C contains requirements to welding including
3) Different parts of the pipeline system may be designed to different codes. qualification of welding procedures and construction
It is important to identify differences between these at an early stage and welding.
assess these. Examples of conflicting requirements are; pressure defini-
tions and system test pressure requirements.
— Appendix D contains requirements to Non-Destructive
Testing (NDT) except Automated Ultrasonic Testing
4) The owner may apply this standard on sub-sets of the limits of this stand- (AUT) of girth welds.
ard. Typical example of excluded items is smaller diameter piping such
as kicker lines and designs these to e.g. ISO 15649. — Appendix E contains requirements to AUT of girth welds.
— Appendix F contains selected requirements to onshore
A 400 Alternative methods and procedures parts of the submarine pipeline system.
401 In case alternative methods and procedures to those
specified in this Standard are used, it shall be demonstrated 503 Cross references are made as:
that the obtained safety level is equivalent to the one specified
herein, see Sec.2 C500. — nnn within the same sub-section (e.g. 512)
— X or Xnnn to another sub-section within the same section
A 500 Structure of Standard (e.g. C, C500 or C512)
— Section m, Section mX or Section mXnnn to section, sub-
501 This Standard is based on limit state design. This implies section or paragraph outside the current section (e.g.
that the same design criteria apply to both construction/instal- Sec.5, Sec.5 C, Sec.5 C500 or Sec.5 C512).
lation and operation. All structural criteria are therefore given
in Sec.5. Where m and nnn denotes numbers and X letter.
502 The Standard is organised as follows: 504 Additional requirements or modified requirements com-
— Sec.1 contains the objectives and scope of the standard. It pared to ISO 3183 are denoted by AR or MR by the end of the
further introduces essential concepts, definitions and paragraph, see Sec.7 B102.
abbreviations. A 600 Other codes
— Sec.2 contains the fundamental safety philosophy and
design principles. It introduces the safety class methodol- 601 In case of conflict between requirements of this code and
ogy and normal classification of safety classes. a referenced DNV Offshore Code, the requirements of the
— Sec.3 contains requirements to concept development, code with the latest revision date shall prevail.
establishment of design premises, with system design Guidance note:
principles, pressure protection system, and collection of
DNV Offshore code means any DNV Offshore Service Specifi-
environmental data. cation, DNV Offshore Standard, DNV Offshore Recommended
— Sec.4 defines the design loads to be applied in Sec.5. It Practice, DNV Guideline or DNV Classification Note.
includes classification of loads into functional loads Any conflict is intended to be removed in next revision of that
(including pressure), environmental loads, interference document.
loads and accidental loads. Finally, it defines design cases
with associated characteristic values and combinations. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
— Sec.5 contains requirements to pipeline layout, system test
and mill test. It contains description of the design (LRFD) 602 Where reference is made to codes other than DNV doc-
format and characterisation of material strength for uments, the valid revision shall be taken as the revision which
straight pipes and supports. Design criteria for the differ- was current at the date of issue of this standard, unless other-
ent limit states for all phases; installation, as-laid, commis- wise noted.
sioning and operation, are given. 603 In case of conflict between requirements of this code and
— Sec.6 contains materials engineering and includes material code other than a DNV document, the requirements of this
selection, material specification (including required sup- code shall prevail.
plementary requirement to the linepipe specification), 604 This standard is intended to comply with the ISO stand-
welding and corrosion control. ard 13623: Petroleum and natural gas industries - Pipeline
— Sec.7 contains requirements to linepipe. The requirements transportation systems, specifying functional requirements for
to C-Mn steels are based on ISO 3183. The section also offshore pipelines and risers.
includes requirements to CRAs and lined/clad pipe.
— Sec.8 contains requirements to materials, manufacture and Guidance note:
fabrication of components and assemblies. Structural The following major deviations to the ISO standard are known:
requirements to these components are given in Sec.5 F. - This standard allows higher utilisation for fluid category A
— Sec.9 contains requirements to corrosion protection and and C pipelines. This standard is here in compliance with
weight coating. ISO16708.
— Sec.10 contains requirements to installation including pre- - For design life less than 33 years, a more severe environmen-
and post-intervention and pre-commissioning. tal load is specified, in agreement with ISO16708.
— Sec.11 contains requirements to operation including com- - applying the supplementary requirements U, for increased
missioning, integrity management, repair, re-qualifica- utilisation, this standard allows 4% higher pressure contain-
tion, de-commissioning and abandonment of the ment utilisation than the ISO standard.
submarine pipeline system. - the equivalent stress criterion in the ISO standard sometimes
— Sec.12 contains requirements to documentation for the allows higher utilisation than this standard.
submarine pipeline system from concept development to - requirements to system pressure test (pressure test).
abandonment. - minor differences may appear depending on how the pipeline
has been defined in safety classes, the ISO standard does not
— Sec.13 is an informative section which discusses several use the concept of safety classes.
aspects of the standard.
— The appendices are a compulsory part of the standard. This standard requires that the manufacture of line pipe and con-
— Appendix A contains the requirements to engineering crit- struction is performed to this standard.
ical assessment (ECA). It includes methodology, material ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
characterisation and testing requirements.
— Appendix B details the requirements to materials testing 605 The requirements to C-Mn steel linepipe of this standard
including mechanical and corrosion testing as well as include amendments and modifications that are additional to
chemical analysis. ISO 3183.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.1 – Page 15

B. References B 400 Rules


The latest revision of the following documents applies:
B 100 Offshore Service Specifications
The latest revision of the following documents applies: DNV Rules for Certification of Flexible Risers
and Pipes
DNV-OSS-301 Certification and Verification of Pipelines DNV Rules for Classification of High Speed,
DNV-OSS-302 Certification and verification of Dynamic Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft
Risers DNV Rules for Planning and Execution of Marine
DNV-OSS-401 Technology Qualification Management Operations
DNV Rules for Classification of Fixed Offshore
B 200 Offshore Standards Installations
The following documents contain provisions which, through
reference in this text, constitute provisions of this Offshore B 500 Certification notes and classification notes
Standard. The latest revision of the following document The latest revision of the following documents applies:
applies.
DNV CN 1.2 Conformity Certification Services, Type
DNV-OS-A101 Safety Principles And Arrangements Approval
DNV-OS-C101 Design of Offshore Steel Structures, Gen- DNV CN 1.5 Conformity Certification Services,
eral (LRFD method) Approval of Manufacturers, Metallic Mate-
DNV-OS-C501 Composite Components rials
DNV-OS-E201 Oil And Gas Processing Systems DNV CN 7 Non Destructive Testing
DNV-OS-F201 Dynamic Risers DNV CN 30.4 Foundations
DNV CN 30.6 Structural Reliability Analysis of Marine
B 300 Recommended Practices Structures
The latest revision of the following documents applies:
B 600 Other references
DNV-RP-A203 Qualification Procedures for New Technol-
ogy API RP5L1 Recommended Practice for Railroad
DNV-RP-B401 Cathodic Protection Design transportation of Line Pipe
DNV-RP-C203 Fatigue Strength Analysis of Offshore Steel API5LW Recommended Practice for Transpor-
Structures tation of Line Pipe on Barges and
Marine Vessels
DNV-RP-C205 Environmental Conditions and
Environmental Loads API RP 2201 Safe Hot Tapping Practices in the
Petroleum & Petrochemical Indus-
DNV-RP-F101 Corroded Pipelines tries-Fifth Edition
DNV-RP-F102 Pipeline Field Joint Coating & Field Repair
ASME/ANSI B16.9 Factory-Made Wrought Buttwelding
of Linepipe Coating
Fittings
DNV-RP-F103 Cathodic Protection of Submarine Pipelines
ASME B31.3 2004 Process Piping
by Galvanic Anodes
DNV-RP-F105 Free Spanning Pipelines ASME B31.4 2006 Pipeline Transportation Systems
for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other
DNV-RP-F106 Factory applied pipeline coatings for corro- Liquids
sion control
ASME B31.8 2003 Gas Transmission and Distribu-
DNV-RP-F107 Risk Assessment of Pipeline Protection tion Systems
DNV-RP-F108 Fracture Control for Pipeline Installation ASME BPVC-V BPBV Section V - Non-destructive
Methods Introducing Cyclic Plastic Strain Examination
DNV-RP-F109 On-bottom Stability Design of Submarine ASME BPVC-VIII-1 BPVC Section VIII - Div. 1 - Rules for
Pipelines Construction of Pressure Vessels
DNV-RP-F110 Global Buckling of Submarine Pipelines - ASME BPVC-VIII-2 BPVC Section VIII - Div. 2 - Rules for
Structural Design due to High Temperature/ Construction of Pressure Vessels -
High Pressure Alternative Rules
DNV-RP-F111 Interference between Trawl Gear and Pipe- ASNT Central Certification Program
lines (ACCP).
DNV-RP-F112 Design of Duplex Stainless Steel Subsea ASTM D 695 Standard Test Method for Compres-
Equipment Exposed to Cathodic Protection sive Properties of Rigid Plastics
DNV-RP-F113 Pipeline Subsea Repair ASTM A370 Standard Test Methods and Defini-
DNV-RP-F204 Riser Fatigue tions for Mechanical Testing of Steel
DNV-RP-H101 Risk Management in Marine and Subsea Products
Operations ASTM A388 Specification for Ultrasonic Examina-
DNV-RP-H102 Marine Operations during Removal of Off- tion of Heavy Steel Forgings
shore Installations ASTM A578/578M Standard Specification for Straight-
DNV-RP-O501 Erosive Wear in Piping Systems - Summary Beam Ultrasonic Examination of Plain
and Clad Steel Plates for Special
Applications

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 16 – Sec.1 see note on front cover

ASTM A577/577M Standard specification for Ultrasonic EN 583-6 Non destructive testing - Ultrasonic
Angle-Beam Examination of Steel examination Part 6 - Time-of- flight
Plates diffraction as a method for defect
ASTM A609 Standard Practice for Castings, Low detection and sizing
Alloy, and Martensitic Stainless Steel, EN 1418 Welding personnel - Approval testing
Ultrasonic Examination Thereof of welding operators for fusion weld-
ASTM A 961 Standard Specification for Common ing and resistance weld setters for
Requirements for Steel Flanges, fully mechanized and automatic weld-
Forged Fittings, Valves, and Parts for ing of metallic materials
Piping Applications EN 1591-1 Flanges and their joints - Design rules
ASTM E165 Standard Test method for Liquid Pen- for gasketed circular flange connec-
etrant Inspection tions - Part 1: Calculation method
ASTM E280 Standard Reference Radiographs for EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for
Heavy-Walled (4 1/2 to 12-in. (114 to earthquake resistance
305-mm)) Steel Castings EN 10204 Metallic products - Types of inspec-
ASTM E309 Standard Practice for Eddy-Current tion documents
Examination of Steel Tubular prod- EN 12668-1 Non destructive testing - Characterisa-
ucts Using Magnetic Saturation tion and verification of ultrasonic
ASTM E 317-94 Standard Practice for Evaluating Per- examination equipment- Part 1:
formance Characteristics of Pulse Instruments
Echo Testing Systems Without the EN 12668-2 Non destructive testing - Characterisa-
Use of Electronic Measurement tion and verification of ultrasonic
Instruments examination equipment- Part 2: Trans-
ASTM E426 Standard Practice for Electromagnetic ducers
(Eddy Current) of Welded and Seam- EN 12668-3 Non destructive testing - Characterisa-
less Tubular Products, Austenitic tion and verification of ultrasonic
Stainless Steel and Similar Alloys examination equipment- Part: 3: Com-
ASTM E 709 Standard Guide for Magnetic Particle bined equipment
Examination EN 13445 Unfired pressure vessels - Part 3:
ASTM E797 Standard Practice for Measuring Design
Thickness by Manual Ultrasonic EN 26847 Covered electrodes for manual metal
Pulse-Echo Contact Method arc welding. Deposition of a weld
ASTM E 1212 Standard Practice for Quality Manage- metal pad for chemical analysis
ment Systems for Non-destructive IMO 23rd Session
Testing Agencies 2003 (Res. 936-965)
ASTM E 1417 Standard Practice for Liquid Penetrant ISO 3183 Petroleum and natural gas industries -
Examination Steel pipe for pipeline transportation
ASTM E1444 Standard Practice for Magnetic Parti- systems
cle Examination ISO 2400 Welds in steel -- Reference block for
ASTM G 48 Standard Test Methods for Pitting and the calibration of equipment for ultra-
Crevice Corrosion Resistance of sonic examination
Stainless Steels and Related Alloys by ISO 3690 Welding and allied processes -- Deter-
Use of Ferric Chloride Solution mination of hydrogen content in fer-
API 6FA Specification for Fire Test for Valves- reted steel arc weld metal
Third Edition; Errata 12/18/2006 ISO 4063 Welding and allied processes --
API RP 2201 Safe Hot Tapping Practices in the Nomenclature of processes and refer-
Petroleum & Petrochemical Indus- ence numbers
tries-Fifth Edition ISO 5817 Welding - Fusion-welded joints in
AWS C5.3 Recommended Practices for Air Car- steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys
bon Arc Gouging and Cutting (beam welding excluded) - Quality
levels for imperfections
BSI BS 7910 Guide to methods for assessing the
acceptability of flaws in metallic ISO 6847 Welding consumables -- Deposition of
structures a weld metal pad for chemical analysis
BSI PD 5500 Specification for Unfired fusion ISO 7005-1 Metallic flanges – Part 1: Steel
welded pressure vessels Flanges
EN 287-1 Qualification test of welders - Fusion ISO 7963 Non-destructive testing -- Ultrasonic
welding - Part 1:Steels testing --- Specification for calibration
block No. 2
EN 439 Welding consumables - Shielding
gases for arc welding and cutting ISO 8501-1 Preparation of steel substrates before
application of paints and related prod-
EN 473 Non destructive testing - Qualification ucts -- Visual assessment of surface
and certification of NDT personnel - cleanliness -- Part 1: Rust grades and
General principles preparation grades of uncoated steel
substrates and of steel substrates after
overall removal of previous coatings

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.1 – Page 17

ISO 9000 Quality management systems -- Fun- ISO 12094 Welded steel tubes for pressure pur-
damentals and vocabulary poses - Ultrasonic testing for the
ISO 9001 Quality management systems - detection of laminar imperfections in
Requirements strips or plates used in manufacture of
welded tubes
ISO 9001 Quality systems -- Model for quality
assurance in production, installation ISO 12095 Seamless and welded steel tubes for
and servicing pressure purposes - Liquid penetrant
testing
ISO 9303 Seamless and welded (except sub-
merged arc-welded) steel tubes for ISO 12096 Submerged arc-welded steel tubes for
pressure purposes - Full peripheral pressure purposes - Radiographic test-
ultrasonic testing for the detection of ing of the weld seam for the detection
longitudinal imperfections of imperfections.
ISO 9304 Seamless and welded (except sub- ISO 12715 Ultrasonic non-destructive testing --
merged arc-welded) steel tubes for Reference blocks and test procedures
pressure purposes- Eddy current test- for the characterization of contact
ing for the detection of imperfections search unit beam profiles
ISO 9305 Seamless tubes for pressure purposes - ISO 13623 Petroleum and natural gas industries –
Full peripheral ultrasonic testing for Pipeline transportation systems
the detection of transverse imperfec- ISO 13663 Welded steel tubes for pressure pur-
tions poses - Ultrasonic testing of the area
ISO 9402 Seamless and welded (except sub- adjacent to the weld seam body for
merged arc welded) steel tubes for detection of laminar imperfections
pressure purposes - Full peripheral ISO 13664 Seamless and welded steel tubes for
magnetic transducer/ flux leakage test- pressure purposes - Magnetic particle
ing of ferromagnetic steel tubes for the inspection of tube ends for the detec-
detection of longitudinal imperfec- tion of laminar imperfections
tions ISO 13665 Seamless and welded steel tubes for
ISO 9598 Seamless steel tubes for pressure pur- pressure purposes - Magnetic particle
poses - Full peripheral magnetic trans- inspection of tube body for the detec-
ducer/flux leakage testing of tion of surface imperfections
ferromagnetic steel tubes for the ISO 14723 Petroleum and natural gas industries -
detection of transverse imperfections Pipeline transportation systems - Sub-
ISO 9606-1 Approval testing of welders -- Fusion sea pipeline valves
welding -- Part 1: Steels ISO 14731 Welding coordination -- Tasks and
ISO 9712 Non-destructive testing -- Qualifica- responsibilities
tion and certification of personnel ISO14732 Welding personnel -- Approval testing
ISO 9764 Electric resistance welded steel tubes of welding operators for fusion weld-
for pressure purposes - Ultrasonic test- ing and of resistance weld setters for
ing of the weld seam for longitudinal fully mechanized and automatic weld-
imperfections ing of metallic materials
ISO 9765 Submerged arc-welded steel tubes for ISO 15156-1 Petroleum and natural gas industries -
pressure purposes - Ultrasonic testing Materials for use in H2S-containing
of the weld seam for the detection of environments in oil and gas produc-
longitudinal and/or transverse imper- tion - Part 1: General principles for
fections selection of cracking-resistant materi-
ISO 10124 Seamless and welded (except sub- als
merged arc-welded) steel tubes for ISO 15156-2 Petroleum and natural gas industries -
pressure purposes - Ultrasonic testing Materials for use in H2S-containing
for the detection of laminar imperfec- environments in oil and gas produc-
tions tion - Part 2: Cracking-resistant carbon
ISO 10375 Non-destructive testing -- Ultrasonic and low alloy steels, and the use of
inspection -- Characterization of cast irons
search unit and sound field ISO 15156-3 Petroleum and natural gas industries -
ISO 10543 Seamless and hot-stretch reduced Materials for use in H2S-containing
welded steel tubes for pressure pur- environments in oil and gas produc-
poses - Full peripheral ultrasonic tion - Part 3: Cracking-resistant CRAs
thickness testing (corrosion-resistant alloys) and other
alloys
ISO 10474 Steel and steel products
ISO 15589-2 Petroleum and natural gas industries -
ISO 10497 Testing of Valves - Fire Type-Testing Cathodic protection of pipeline trans-
Requirements-Second Edition portation systems - Part 2: Offshore
ISO 11484 Steel tubes for pressure purposes -- pipelines
Qualification and certification of non- ISO 15590-1 Petroleum and natural gas industries -
destructive testing (NDT) personnel - Induction bends, fittings and flanges
ISO 11496 Seamless and welded steel tubes for for pipeline transportation systems --
pressure purposes - Ultrasonic testing Part 1: Induction bends
of tube ends for the detection of lami-
nar imperfections

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 18 – Sec.1 see note on front cover

ISO 15590-2 Petroleum and natural gas industries - subject to agreement. The expression may also be used to
- Induction bends, fittings and flanges express interface criteria which may be modified subject to
for pipeline transportation systems -- agreement.
Part 2: Fittings 103 May: Verbal form used to indicate a course of action per-
ISO 15590-3 Petroleum and natural gas industries - missible within the limits of the standard.
- Induction bends, fittings and flanges 104 Agreement, by agreement: Unless otherwise indicated,
for pipeline transportation systems -- this means agreed in writing between Manufacturer/ Contrac-
Part 3: Flanges tor and Purchaser.
ISO 15614-1 Specification and qualification of
welding procedures for metallic mate- C 200 Definitions
rials -- Welding procedure test -- Part 201 Abandonment: Abandonment comprises the activities
1: Arc and gas welding of steels and associated with taking a pipeline permanently out of operation.
arc welding of nickel and nickel alloys An abandoned pipeline cannot be returned to operation.
ISO 15618-2 Qualification testing of welders for Depending on the legislation this may require cover or
underwater welding -- Part 2: Diver- removal.
welders and welding operators for 202 Accidental loads a load with an annual frequency less
hyperbaric dry welding than 10-2, see Sec.5 D1200.
ISO 15649 Petroleum and natural gas industries – 203 Accumulated plastic strain: Sum of plastic strain incre-
Piping ments, irrespective of sign and direction. Strain increments
ISO 16708 Petroleum and natural gas industries – shall be calculated from after the linepipe manufacturing, see
Pipeline transportation systems – Reli- Sec.5 D1100.
ability-based limit state methods
204 Additional requirements: Requirements that applies to
ISO 17636 Non-destructive testing of welds -- this standard, additional to other referred standards.
Radiographic testing of fusion-welded
joints 205 As-built survey: Survey of the installed and completed
pipeline system that is performed to verify that the completed
ISO 17637 Non-destructive testing of welds -- installation work meets the specified requirements, and to doc-
Visual testing of fusion-welded joints ument deviations from the original design, if any.
ISO 17638 Non-destructive testing of welds --
Magnetic particle testing 206 As-laid survey: Survey performed either by continuous
touchdown point monitoring or by a dedicated vessel during
ISO 17640 Non-destructive testing of welds -- installation of the pipeline.
Ultrasonic testing of welded joints
207 Atmospheric zone: The part of the pipeline system above
ISO 17643 Non-destructive testing of welds -- the splash zone.
Eddy current testing of welds by com-
plex-plane analysis 208 Buckling, global: Buckling mode which involves a sub-
stantial length of the pipeline, usually several pipe joints and
MSSSP-55 Quality standard for steel castings for not gross deformations of the cross section; upheaval buckling
valves, flanges, and fittings and other is an example thereof, see Sec.5 D700.
piping components (visual method).
MSS SP-75 Specification for High Test, Wrought, 209 Buckling, local: Buckling mode confined to a short
Butt Welding Fittings length of the pipeline causing gross changes of the cross sec-
tion; collapse, localised wall wrinkling and kinking are exam-
NORDTEST NT Techn. Report 394 (Guidelines for ples thereof, see Sec.5 D300.
NDE Reliability Determination and
Description, Approved 1998-04). 210 Characteristic load (LSd): The reference value of a load
to be used in the determination of load effects. The character-
NORSOK L-005 Compact flanged connections istic load is normally based upon a defined fractile in the upper
NS 477 Welding - Rules for qualification of end of the distribution function for load, see Sec.4 G.
welding inspectors
211 Characteristic resistance (RRd): The reference value of
Guidance note: structural strength to be used in the determination of the design
The latest revision of the DNV codes may be found in the publi- strength. The characteristic resistance is normally based upon
cation list at the DNV website www.dnv.com. a defined fractile in the lower end of the distribution function
for resistance. See Sec.5 C200.
Amendments and corrections to the DNV codes are published bi-
annually on www.dnv.com. These shall be considered as manda- 212 Clad pipe (C): Pipe with internal (corrosion resistant)
tory part of the above codes. liner where the bond between (linepipe) backing steel and
cladding material is metallurgical.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
213 Clamp: Circumferential structural element, split into
two or more parts. Examples; connecting two hubs in a
mechanical connector or two pipe half-shells for repair pur-
pose
C. Definitions
214 Code: Common denotation on any specification, rule,
C 100 Verbal forms standard guideline, recommended practice or similar.
101 Shall: Indicates requirements strictly to be followed in 215 Coiled tubing: Continuously-milled tubular product
order to conform to this standard and from which no deviation manufactured in lengths that require spooling onto a take-up
is permitted. reel, during the primary milling or manufacturing process.
102 Should: Indicates that among several possibilities, one is 216 Commissioning; Activities associated with the initial
recommended as particularly suitable, without mentioning or filling of the pipeline system with the fluid to be transported,
excluding others, or that a certain course of action is preferred part of operational phase.
but not necessarily required. Other possibilities may be applied 217 Commissioning, De-; Activities associated with taking

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.1 – Page 19

the pipeline temporarily out of service. particles or liquid droplets.


218 Commissioning, Pre-, Activities after tie-in/connection 236 Fabrication: Activities related to the assembly of
and prior to commissioning including system pressure testing, objects with a defined purpose in a pipeline system.
de-watering, cleaning and drying. 237 Fabrication factor (γfab): Factor on the material strength
219 Concept development phase: The concept development in order to compensate for material strength reduction from
phase will typically include both business evaluations, collect- cold forming during manufacturing of linepipe, see Table 5-7.
ing of data and technical early phase considerations. 238 Fabricator: The party performing the fabrication.
220 Condition load effect factor (γC): A load effect factor 239 Failure: An event affecting a component or system and
included in the design load effect to account for specific load causing one or both of the following effects:
conditions, see Sec.4 G200 Table 4-5.
221 Connector: Mechanical device used to connect adjacent — loss of component or system function; or
components in the pipeline system to create a structural joint — deterioration of functional capability to such an extent that
resisting applied loads and preventing leakage. Examples: the safety of the installation, personnel or environment is
Threaded types, including (i) one male fitting (pin), one female significantly reduced.
fitting (integral box) and seal ring(s), or (ii) two pins, a cou-
pling and seals sea rings(s); Flanged types, including two 240 Fatigue: Cyclic loading causing degradation of the
flanges, bolts and gasket/seal ring; Clamped hub types, includ- material.
ing hubs, clamps, bolts and seal ring(s); Dog-type connectors. 241 Fittings: Includes: Elbows, caps, tees, single or multiple
222 Construction phase: The construction phase will typi- extruded headers, reducers and transition sections
cally include manufacture, fabrication and installation activi- 242 Flange: Collar at the end of a pipe usually provided with
ties. Manufacture activities will typically include manufacture holes in the pipe axial direction for bolts to permit other objects
of linepipe and corrosion protection and weight coating. Fab- to be attached to it.
rication activities will typically include fabrication of pipeline
components and assemblies. Installation activities will typical 243 Fluid categorisation: Categorisation of the transported
include pre- and post intervention work, transportation, instal- fluid according to hazard potential as defined in Table 2-1.
lation, tie-in and pre-commissioning. 244 Fractile: The p-fractile (or percentile) and the corre-
223 Contractor: A party contractually appointed by the Pur- sponding fractile value xp is defined as:
chaser to fulfil all, or any of, the activities associated with F ( xp ) = p
design, construction and operation.
224 Corrosion allowance (tcorr): Extra wall thickness added F is the distribution function for xp
during design to compensate for any reduction in wall thick- 245 Hub: The parts in a mechanical connector joined by a clamp.
ness by corrosion (internally/externally) during operation, see
Sec.6 D200. 246 Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC): Internal cracking of
rolled materials due to a build-up of hydrogen pressure in
225 Corrosion control: All relevant measures for corrosion micro-voids (Related terms: stepwise cracking).
protection, as well as the inspection and monitoring of corro-
sion, see Sec.6 D100. 247 Hydrogen Induced Stress Cracking (HISC): Cracking
that results from the presence of hydrogen in a metal while
226 Corrosion protection: Use of corrosion resistant materi- subjected to tensile stresses (residual and/or applied). The
als, corrosion allowance and various techniques for "corrosion source of hydrogen may be welding, corrosion, cathodic pro-
mitigation", see Sec.6 D100 tection, electroplating or some other electrochemical process.
227 Coupling: Mechanical device to connect two bare pipes Crack growth proceeds by a hydrogen embrittlement mecha-
to create a structural joint resisting applied loads and prevent- nism at the crack tip, i.e. the bulk material is not necessarily
ing leakage. embrittled by hydrogen. HISC by corrosion in presence of
228 Design: All related engineering to design the pipeline hydrogen sulphide is referred to as Sulphide Stress Cracking
including both structural as well as material and corrosion. (SSC).
229 Design case: Characterisation of different load catego- 248 Hydro-test or Hydrostatic test: See Mill pressure test
ries, see Sec.4 A500. 249 Inspection: Activities such as measuring, examination,
230 Design life: The initially planned time period from ini- weighing testing, gauging one or more characteristics of a
tial installation or use until permanent decommissioning of the product or service and comparing the results with specified
equipment or system. The original design life may be extended requirements to determine conformity.
after a re-qualification. 250 Installation (activity): The operations related to install-
231 Design premises: A set of project specific design data ing the equipment, pipeline or structure, e.g. pipeline laying,
and functional requirements which are not specified or which tie-in, piling of structure etc.
are left open in the standard to be prepared prior to the design 251 Installation (object): See Offshore installation.
phase. 252 Installation Manual (IM): A document prepared by the
232 Design phase: The design phase will typically be split Contractor to describe and demonstrate that the installation
into FEED-phase, basic design and detail design. For each method and equipment used by the Contractor will meet the
design phase, the same design tasks are repeated but in more specified requirements and that the results can be verified.
and more specific and detailed level. 253 Integrity: See Pipeline integrity.
233 Dynamic riser: A riser which motion will influence the 254 Jointer: Two lengths of pipe welded together by the
hydrodynamic load effects or where inertia forces become sig- manufacturer to build up one complete (≈40’) pipe joint.
nificant.
255 J-tube: A J-shaped tube installed on a platform, through
234 Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA): Fracture which a pipe can be pulled to form a riser. The J-tube extends
mechanics assessment of the acceptability of flaws in metallic from the platform deck to and inclusive of the bottom bend at
materials. the seabed. The J-tube supports connect the J-tube to the sup-
235 Erosion: Material loss due to repeated impact of sand porting structure.

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 20 – Sec.1 see note on front cover

256 Limit state: A state beyond which the structure no longer 276 Offshore installation (object): General term for mobile
satisfies the requirements. The following limit states catego- and fixed structures, including facilities, which are intended
ries are of relevance for pipeline systems: for exploration, drilling, production, processing or storage of
hydrocarbons or other related activities/fluids. The term
— Serviceability Limit State (SLS): A condition which, if includes installations intended for accommodation of person-
exceeded, renders the pipeline unsuitable for normal oper- nel engaged in these activities. Offshore installation covers
ations. Exceedance of a serviceability limit state category subsea installations and pipelines. The term does not cover tra-
shall be evaluated as an accidental limit state. ditional shuttle tankers, supply boats and other support vessels
— Ultimate Limit State (ULS): A condition which, if which are not directly engaged in the activities described
exceeded, compromises the integrity of the pipeline. above.
— Fatigue Limit State (FLS): An ULS condition accounting 277 Operation, Incidental: Conditions which that are not
for accumulated cyclic load effects. part of normal operation of the equipment or system. In rela-
— Accidental Limit State (ALS): An ULS due to accidental tion to pipeline systems, incidental conditions may lead to inci-
(in-frequent) loads. dental pressures, e.g. pressure surges due to sudden closing of
257 Lined pipe (L): Pipe with internal (corrosion resistant) valves, or failure of the pressure control system and activation
liner where the bond between (linepipe) backing steel and liner of the pressure safety system.
material is mechanical. 278 Operation, Normal: Conditions that arise from the
258 Load: Any action causing stress, strain, deformation, intended use and application of equipment or system, includ-
displacement, motion, etc. to the equipment or system. ing associated condition and integrity monitoring, mainte-
nance, repairs etc. In relation to pipelines, this should include
259 Load categories: Functional load, environmental load, steady flow conditions over the full range of flow rates, as well
interference load or accidental load, see Sec.4 A. as possible packing and shut-in conditions where these occur
260 Load effect: Effect of a single load or combination of as part of routine operation.
loads on the equipment or system, such as stress, strain, defor- 279 Operation phase: The operation phase starts with the
mation, displacement, motion, etc. commissioning, filling the pipeline with the intended fluid.
261 Load effect combinations: See Sec.4 A. The operation phase will include inspection and maintenance
activities. In addition, the operation phase may also include
262 Load effect factor (γF, γE, γA): The partial safety factor modifications, re-qualifications and de-commissioning.
by which the characteristic load effect is multiplied to obtain
the design load effect, see Sec.4 G200. 280 Operator: The party ultimately responsible for concept
development, design, construction and operation of the pipe-
263 Load scenarios: Scenarios which shall be evaluated, see line system. The operator may change between phases.
Sec.4 A.
281 Out of roundness: The deviation of the linepipe perime-
264 Location class: A geographic area of pipeline system, ter from a circle. This can be stated as ovalisation (%), or as
see Table 2-2. local out of roundness, e.g. flattening, (mm).
265 Lot: Components of the same size and from the same 282 Ovalisation: The deviation of the perimeter from a cir-
heat, the same heat treatment batch. cle. This has the form of an elliptic cross section.
266 Manufacture: Making of articles or materials, often in 283 Partial safety factor: A factor by which the characteris-
large volumes. In relation to pipelines, refers to activities for tic value of a variable is modified to give the design value (i.e.
the production of linepipe, anodes and other components and a load effect, condition load effect, material resistance or
application of coating, performed under contracts from one or safety class resistance factor), see Sec.5 C.
more Contractors.
284 Pipe, High Frequency Welded (HFW): Pipe manufac-
267 Manufacturer: The party who is contracted to be respon- tured by forming from strip and with one longitudinal seam
sible for planning, execution and documentation of manufac- formed by welding without the addition of filler metal. The
turing. longitudinal seam is generated by high frequency current
268 Manufacturing Procedure Specification (MPS): A man- applied by induction or conduction.
ual prepared by the Manufacturer to demonstrate how the spec- 285 Pipe, Seamless (SMLS): Pipe manufactured in a hot
ified properties may be achieved and verified through the forming process resulting in a tubular product without a
proposed manufacturing route. welded seam. The hot forming may be followed by sizing or
269 Material resistance factor (γm): Partial safety factor cold finishing to obtain the required dimensions.
transforming a characteristic resistance to a lower fractile 286 Pipe, Submerged Arc-Welded Longitudinal or Helical
resistance, see Sec.5 C200 Table 5-4. (SAWL or SAWH): Pipe manufactured by forming from strip
270 Material strength factor (αu ): Factor for determination or plate, and with one longitudinal (SAWL) or helical
of the characteristic material strength reflecting the confidence (SAWH) seam formed by the submerged arc process with at
in the yield stress see Sec.5 C300 Table 5-6. least one pass made on the inside and one pass from the outside
of the pipe.
271 Mill pressure test: The hydrostatic strength test per-
formed at the mill, see Sec.5 B200. 287 Pipeline Components: Any items which are integral
parts of the pipeline system such as flanges, tees, bends, reduc-
272 Nominal outside diameter: The specified outside diame- ers and valves.
ter. 288 Pipeline Integrity: Pipeline integrity is the ability of the
273 Nominal pipe wall thickness: The specified non-cor- submarine pipeline system to operate safely and withstand the
roded pipe wall thickness of a pipe, which is equal to the min- loads imposed during the pipeline lifecycle.
imum steel wall thickness plus the manufacturing tolerance. 289 Pipeline Integrity Management: The pipeline integrity
274 Nominal strain: The total engineering strain not management process is the combined process of threat identi-
accounting for strain concentration factors. fication, risk assessments, planning, monitoring, inspection,
275 Nominal plastic strain: The nominal strain minus the lin- maintenance etc. to maintain pipeline integrity.
ear strain derived from the stress-strain curve, see Sec.5 290 Pipeline System: pipeline with compressor or pump sta-
Figure 3. tions, pressure control stations, flow control stations, metering,

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.1 – Page 21

tankage, supervisory control and data acquisition system sient) operation. The maximum allowable incidental pressure
(SCADA), safety systems, corrosion protection systems, and is defined as the maximum incidental pressure less the positive
any other equipment, facility or building used in the transpor- tolerance of the pressure safety system, see Figure 1 and
tation of fluids. Sec.3 B300.
See also Submarine pipeline system. 304 Pressure, Maximum Allowable Operating (MAOP): In
291 Pipeline walking: Accumulation of incremental axial relation to pipelines, this is the maximum pressure at which the
displacement of pipeline due to start-up and shut-down. pipeline system shall be operated during normal operation. The
maximum allowable operating pressure is defined as the
292 Pressure control system: In relation to pipelines, this is design pressure less the positive tolerance of the pressure pro-
the system which, irrespective of the upstream pressure, tection system, see Figure 1 and Sec.3 B300.
ensures that the maximum allowable operating pressure is not
exceeded, see Figure 1 and Sec.3 B300. 305 Pressure, Mill test (ph): The test pressure applied to pipe
joints and pipe components upon completion of manufacture
293 Pressure protection system: In relation to pipelines, this and fabrication, see Sec.5 B200.
is the system for control of the pressure in pipelines, compris-
ing the Pressure Control System, Pressure Safety System and 306 Pressure, Operation (po): The most probable pressure
associated instrument and alarm systems, see Figure 1 and during 1-year operation.
Sec.3 B300. 307 Pressure, Propagating (ppr): The lowest pressure
294 Pressure safety system: The system which, independent required for a propagating buckle to continue to propagate, see
of the pressure control system, ensures that the allowable inci- Sec.5 D500.
dental pressure is not exceeded, see Figure 1 and Sec.3 B300. 308 Pressure, shut-in: The maximum pressure that can be
295 Pressure test: See System pressure test attained at the wellhead during closure of valves closest to the
wellhead (wellhead isolation). This implies that pressure tran-
296 Pressure, Collapse (pc): Characteristic resistance sients due to valve closing shall be included.
against external over-pressure, see Sec.5 D400.
309 Pressure, System test (ptest): In relation to pipelines, this
297 Pressure, Design (pd): In relation to pipelines, this is the is the internal pressure applied to the pipeline or pipeline sec-
maximum internal pressure during normal operation, referred tion during testing on completion of installation work to test
to a specified reference elevation, see Figure 1 and Sec.3 B300. the pipeline system for tightness (normally performed as
298 Pressure, Hydro- or Hydrostatic test: See Pressure, Mill hydrostatic testing), see Sec.5 B200.
test. 310 Pressure, Test: See Pressure, System test.
299 Pressure, Incidental (pinc): In relation to pipelines, this 311 Purchaser: The owner or another party acting on his
is the maximum internal pressure the pipeline or pipeline sec- behalf, who is responsible for procuring materials, components
tion is designed to withstand during any incidental operating or services intended for the design, construction or modifica-
situation, referred to the same reference elevation as the design tion of a installation or a pipeline.
pressure, see Figure 1 and Sec.3 B300. 312 Quality Assurance (QA): Planned and systematic
actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a prod-
Internal Pressure

uct or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. (The


Quality Assurance actions of an organisation is described in a
Quality Manual stating the Quality Policy and containing the
Accidental

necessary procedures and instructions for planning and per-


Pressure

forming the required actions).


Incidental Pressure Maximum Allowable 313 Quality Control (QC): The internal systems and prac-
Tolerance of
Pressure Safety System
Incidental Pressure tices (including direct inspection and materials testing), used
(MAIP) Pressure by manufacturers to ensure that their products meet the
Pressure

System

Protection required standards and specifications.


Safety

System
314 Quality Plan (QP): The document setting out the spe-
Design Pressure Maximum Allowable cific quality practices, resources and sequence of activities rel-
Tolerance of Operating Pressure evant to a particular product, project or contract. A quality plan
Pressure Control System
(MAOP) usually makes reference to the part of the quality manual (e.g.
Pressure

procedures and work instructions) applicable to the specific


System
Control

case.
315 Ratcheting: Accumulated deformation during cyclic
loading, especially for diameter increase, see Sec.5 D1000.
Figure 1 Does not include so called Pipeline Walking.
Pressure definitions
316 Reliability: The probability that a component or system
will perform its required function without failure, under stated
C 300 Definitions (continuation) conditions of operation and maintenance and during a speci-
fied time interval.
301 Pressure, Initiation: The external over-pressure required
to initiate a propagating buckle from an existing local buckle 317 Re-qualification: The re-assessment of a design due to
or dent, see Sec.5 D500. modified design premises and/or sustained damage.
302 Pressure, Local; Local Design, Local Incidental or 318 Resistance: The capability of a structure, or part of a
Local Test: In relation to pipelines, this is the internal pressure structure, to resist load effects, see Sec.5 C200.
at any point in the pipeline system or pipeline section for the 319 Riser: A riser is defined as the connecting piping or flex-
corresponding design pressure, incidental pressure or test pres- ible pipe between a submarine pipeline on the seabed and
sure adjusted for the column weight, see Sec.4 B200. installations above water. The riser extends to the above sea
303 Pressure, Maximum Allowable Incidental (MAIP): In emergency isolation point between the import/export line and
relation to pipelines, this is the maximum pressure at which the the installation facilities, i.e. riser ESD valve.
pipeline system shall be operated during incidental (i.e. tran- 320 Riser support/clamp: A structure which is intended to

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 22 – Sec.1 see note on front cover

keep the riser in place. — the first valve, flange or connection above water on plat-
321 Riser system: A riser system is considered to comprise form or floater
riser, its supports, all integrated pipelining components, and — the connection point to the subsea installation (i.e. piping
corrosion protection system. manifolds are not included)
— the first valve, flange, connection or insulation joint at a
322 Risk: The qualitative or quantitative likelihood of an landfall unless otherwise specified by the on-shore legisla-
accidental or unplanned event occurring, considered in con- tion.
junction with the potential consequences of such a failure. In
quantitative terms, risk is the quantified probability of a The component above (valve, flange, connection, insulation
defined failure mode times its quantified consequence. joint) includes any pup pieces, i.e. the submarine pipeline sys-
323 Safety Class (SC): In relation to pipelines; a concept tem extends to the weld beyond the pup piece.
adopted to classify the significance of the pipeline system with 337 Submerged zone: The part of the pipeline system or
respect to the consequences of failure, see Sec.2 C400. installation below the splash zone, including buried parts.
324 Safety class resistance factor (γSC): Partial safety factor 338 Supplementary requirements: Requirements for material
which transforms the lower fractile resistance to a design properties of linepipe that are extra to the additional require-
resistance reflecting the safety class, see Table 5-5. ments to ISO and that are intended to apply to pipe used for
325 Single event: Straining in one direction. specific applications.
326 Slamming: Impact load on an approximately horizontal 339 System effects: System effects are relevant in cases
member from a rising water surface as a wave passes. The where many pipe sections are subjected to an invariant loading
direction is mainly vertical. condition, and potential structural failure may occur in connec-
tion with the lowest structural resistance among the pipe sec-
327 Slapping: Impact load on an approximately vertical sur- tions, see Sec.4 G200.
face due to a breaking wave. The direction is mainly horizontal.
340 System pressure test: Final test of the complete pipeline
328 Specified Minimum Tensile Strength (SMTS): The mini- system, see Sec.5 B200.
mum tensile strength prescribed by the specification or stand-
ard under which the material is purchased. 341 Target nominal failure probability: A nominal accepta-
ble probability of structural failure. Gross errors are not
329 Specified Minimum Yield Stress (SMYS): The minimum included, see Sec.2 C500.
yield stress prescribed by the specification or standard under
which the material is purchased. 342 Temperature, design, maximum: The highest possible
temperature profile to which the equipment or system may be
330 Splash zone: External surfaces of a structure or pipeline exposed to during installation and operation.
that are periodically in and out of the water by the influence of
waves and tides. 343 Temperature, design, minimum: The lowest possible
temperature profile to which the component or system may be
331 Splash Zone Height: The vertical distance between exposed to during installation and operation. This may be
splash zone upper limit and splash zone lower limit. applied locally, see Sec.4 B107
332 Splash Zone Lower Limit (LSZ) is determined by: 344 Test unit: A prescribed quantity of pipe that is made to
the specified outer diameter and specified wall thickness, by
LSZ = |L1| - |L2| - |L3| the same pipe-manufacturing process, from the same heat, and
L1 = lowest astronomic tide level (LAT) under the same pipe-manufacturing conditions.
L2 = 30% of the Splash zone wave-related height 345 Threats: An indication of impending danger or harm to
defined in 334 the pipeline system.
L3 = upward motion of the riser. 346 Tide: See Sec.3 D300.
333 Splash Zone Upper Limit (USZ) is determined by: 347 Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS): The measured ulti-
mate tensile strength.
USZ = |U1| + |U2| + |U3| 348 Verification: An examination to confirm that an activity,
U1 = highest astronomic tide level (HAT) a product or a service is in accordance with specified require-
ments.
U2 = 70% of the splash zone wave-related height
defined in 334 349 Weld, strip/plate end: Weld that joins strip or plate joins
together.
U3 = settlement or downward motion of the riser, if
applicable 350 Work: All activities to be performed within relevant con-
tract(s) issued by Owner, Operator, Contractor or Manufac-
334 Splash zone wave-related height: The wave height with turer.
a probability of being exceeded equal to 10-2, as determined 351 Yield Stress (YS): The measured yield tensile stress.
from the long term distribution of individual waves. If this
value is not available, an approximate value of the splash zone
height may be taken as:
0.46 Hs100 D. Abbreviations and Symbols
Where D 100 Abbreviations
Hs100 = significant wave height with a 100 year return period
335 Submarine Pipeline: A submarine pipeline is defined as ALS Accidental Limit State
the part of a submarine pipeline system which, except for pipe-
line risers is located below the water surface at maximum tide,. AR Additional Requirement (to ISO 3183), see
The pipeline may, be resting wholly or intermittently on, or Sec.7 B102
buried below, the seabed. API American Petroleum Institute
336 Submarine Pipeline System: a submarine pipeline sys- ASD Allowable Stress Design
tem extends to the first weld beyond: ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.1 – Page 23

ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials MPQT Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Test
AUT Automated Ultrasonic Testing MPS Manufacturing Procedure Specification
BE Best Estimate MR Modified Requirement (to ISO 3183), see
BM Base material Sec.7 B102
BS British Standard MSA Manufacturing Survey Arrangement
C Clad pipe MT Magnetic Particle Testing
C-Mn Carbon Manganese MWP Multiple Welding Process
CP Cathodic Protection N Normalised
CRA Corrosion Resistant Alloy NACE National Association of Corrosion Engineers
CTOD Crack Tip Opening Displacement NDT Non-Destructive Testing
CVN Charpy V-Notch OD Outside Diameter
DAC Distance Amplitude Correction P Production
DC Displacement controlled PIM Pipeline Integrity Management
DFI Design, Fabrication and Installation PRE Pitting Resistance Equivalent
DNV Det Norske Veritas PRL Primary Reference Level
DP Dynamic Positioning PT Penetrant Testing
DWTT Drop Weight Tear Testing PTFE Poly Tetra Flour Ethylene
EBW Electron Beam Welded PWHT Post weld heat treatment
EC Eddy Current Testing pWPS preliminary Welding Procedure Specification
ECA Engineering Critical Assessment Q Qualification
EDI Electronic Data Interchange QA Quality Assurance
EMS Electro Magnetic Stirring QC Quality Control
ERW Electric Resistance Welding QP Quality Plan
ESD Emergency Shut Down QRA Quantitative Risk Assessment
FEED Front End Engineering Design QT Quenched and Tempered
FLS Fatigue Limit State ROV Remotely Operated Vehicle
FMEA Failure Mode Effect Analysis RT Radiographic testing
G-FCAW Gas-Flux Core Arc Welding SAWH Submerged Arc-welding Helical
GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding SAWL Submerged Arc-welding Longitudinal
HAT Highest Astronomical Tide SC Safety Class
HAZ Heat Affected Zone SCF Stress Concentration Factor
HAZOP Hazard and Operability Study SCR Steel Catenary Riser
HFW High Frequency Welding SENB Singel Edge Notched Bend fracture mechanics
specimen
HIPPS High Integrity Pressure Protection System
SENT Single Edge Notched Tension fracture mechan-
HIC Hydrogen Induced Cracking ics specimen
HISC Hydrogen Induced Stress Cracking SLS Serviceability Limit State
ID Internal Diameter SMAW Shielded Metal Arc Welding
IM Installation Manual SMLS Seamless Pipe
ISO International Organization for Standardization SMTS Specified Minimum Tensile Strength
J-R curve Plot of resistance to stable crack growth for SMYS Specified Minimum Yield Stress
establishing crack extension
SN Stress versus number of cycles to failure
KV Charpy value
SNCF Strain Concentration Factor
KVL Charpy value in pipe longitudinal direction
SRA Structural Reliability Analysis
KVT Charpy value in pipe transversal direction
SSC Sulphide Stress Cracking
L Lined pipe or load effect
ST Surface testing
LAT Lowest Astronomic Tide
TCM Two Curve Method
LB Lower Bound
TMCP Thermo-Mechanical Controlled Process
LC Load controlled
TOFD Time of Flight Diffraction
LBW Laser Beam Welded
TRB Three Roll Bending
LBZ Local Brittle Zones
UB Upper Bound
LRFD Load and Resistance Factor Design
ULS Ultimate Limit State
LSZ Splash Zone Lower Limit
UO Pipe fabrication process for welded pipes
M/A Martensitic/Austenite
UOE Pipe fabrication process for welded pipes,
MAIP Maximum Allowable Incidental Pressure expanded
MAOP Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure USZ Splash Zone Upper Limit
MDS Material Data Sheet

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 24 – Sec.1 see note on front cover

UT Ultrasonic testing pel Elastic collapse pressure, see Eq. 5.11


UTS Ultimate Tensile Strength pf Failure probability
VT Visual Testing pf,T Target nominal failure probability
WM Weld Metal ph Mill test pressure, see Sec.7 E100
WPQT Welding Procedure Qualification Test pi Characteristic internal pressure
WPS Welding Procedure Specification pinc Incidental pressure
YS Yield Stress pinit Initiation pressure
pld Local design pressure
D 200 Symbols
pli Local incidental pressure, see Eq. 4.1
201 Latin characters
plt Local test pressure (system test), see Eq. 4.2
a Crack depth pp Plastic collapse pressure, see Eq. 5.12
A Cross section area ppr Propagating pressure, see Eq. 5.16
Ae π ppr,A Propagating buckle capacity of infinite buckle
⋅ D 2 Pipe external cross section area arrestor
4
pt System test pressure, see Eq. 4.2, 5.1 and 5.2
Ai π (D − 2 ⋅ t )2 Pipe internal cross section area px Crossover pressure, see Eq. 5.18
4 R Global bending radius of pipe, Reaction force or
As π ⋅ (D − t )⋅ t Pipe steel cross section area Resistance
Rm Tensile strength
B Specimen width
Rpx Strength equivalent to a permanent elongation of
D Nominal outside diameter. x% (actual stress)
Dfat Miner’s sum Rtx Strength equivalent to a total elongation of x%
Di D-2tnom Nominal internal diameter (actual stress)
Dmax Greatest measured inside or outside diameter S Effective axial force (Tension is positive)
Dmin Smallest measured inside or outside diameter Sm Resistance to failure
E Young's Modulus Sr Ultimate state
f0 Dmax _ Dmin Ovality tc Characteristic thickness to be replaced by t1 or t2
as relevant, see Table 5-2
D T Temperature
fcb Minimum of fy and fu/1.15, see Eq. 5.9 t, tnom Nominal wall thickness of pipe (un-corroded)
fu Tensile strength to be used in design, see Eq. 5.6 T0 Testing temperature
fu,temp Derating on tensile stress to be used in design, see t1, t2 Pipe wall thickness, see Table 5-2
Eq. 5.6
tcorr Corrosion allowance, see Table 5-2
fy Yield stress to be used in design, see Eq. 5.5
Tc/Tc’ Contingency time for operation/ceasing opera-
fy,temp Derating on yield stress to be used in design, see tion, see Sec.4 C600
Eq. 5.5
tfab Fabrication thickness tolerance, see Table 7-18
g Gravity acceleration
tm,min Measured minimum thickness
H Residual lay tension, see Eq. 4.10 and Eq. 4.11
Tmax Maximum design temperature, see Sec.4 B100
hl Local height at pressure point, see Eq. 4.1
Tmin Minimum design temperature, see Sec.4 B100
Hp Permanent plastic dent depth
tmin Minimum thickness
href Elevation at pressure reference level, see Eq. 4.1
Tpop Planned operational period, see Sec.4 C600
Hs Significant wave height
TR/TR’ Reference period for operation/ceasing opera-
ID Nominal inside diameter tion, see Sec.4 C600
k number of stress blocks TSafe Planned time to cease operation, see Sec.4 C600
L Characteristic load effect TWF Time between generated weather forecasts.
M Moment W Section modulus or Specimen thickness.
N Axial force in pipe wall ("true" force) (tension is Wsub Submerged weight
positive) or Number of load effect cycles
ni Number of stress blocks D 300 Greek characters
Ni Number of stress cycles to failure at constant
amplitude α Thermal expansion coefficient
O Out of roundness, Dmax - Dmin αc Flow stress parameter, see Eq. 5.22
OD Outside nominal diameter αfab Fabrication factor, see Table 5-7
pb Pressure containment resistance, see Eq. 5.8 αfat Allowable damage ratio for fatigue, see Table 5-9
pc Characteristic collapse pressure, see Eq. 5.10 αgw Girth weld factor (strain resistance), see Eq. 5.30
pd Design pressure
PDi (i’th) Damaging event, see Eq. 5.34
pe External pressure

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.1 – Page 25

αh Rt 0,5 ρcont Density pipeline content


Rm ρt Density pipeline content during system pressure
max test
Minimum strain hardening σ Standard deviation of a variable (e.g. thickness)
αp Pressure factor used in combined loading criteria, σe Equivalent stress, Von Mises, see Eq. 5.38
see Eq. 5.23
σh Hoop stress, see Eq. 5.39
αpm Plastic moment reduction factor for point loads,
σl Longitudinal/axial stress, see Eq. 5.40
see Eq. 5.26
αU Material strength factor, see Table 5-6 τ lh Tangential shear stress
β Factor used in combined loading criteria D 400 Subscripts
ε Strain
εc Characteristic bending strain resistance, see Eq. A Accidental load
5.30 BA Buckle arrestor
εf Accumulated plastic strain resistance c Characteristic resistance
εl.nom Total nominal longitudinal strain d Design value
εp Plastic strain Sd Design load (i.e. including load effect factors)
εr Residual strain Rd Design resistance (i.e. including partial resistance
εr,rot Residual strain limit factors)
γA Load effect factor for accidental load, see E Environmental load
Table 4-4 e External
γC Condition load effect factor, see Table 4-5 el Elastic
γE Load effect factor for environmental load, see F Functional load
Table 4-4 h Circumferential direction (hoop direction)
γε Resistance factor, strain resistance, see Table 5-8 H Circumferential direction (hoop direction)
γF Load effect factor for functional load, see Table i Internal
4-4 L Axial (longitudinal) direction
γinc Incidental to design pressure ratio, see Table 3-1 M Moment
γm Material resistance factor, see Table 5-4 p Plastic
γrot Safety factor for residual strain R Radial direction
γSC Safety class resistance factor, see Table 5-5 s Steel
η Usage factor S SLS
κ Curvature U ULS
ν Poisson’s ratio X Crossover (buckle arrestors)
μ Friction coefficient

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 26 – Sec.2 see note on front cover

SECTION 2
SAFETY PHILOSOPHY

A. General and implemented, covering all phases from conceptual devel-


opment until abandonment.
A 100 Objective Guidance note:
101 This section presents the overall safety philosophy that Most companies have a policy regarding human aspects, envi-
shall be applied in the concept development, design, construc- ronment and financial issues. These are typically on an overall
tion, operation and abandonment of pipelines. level, but may be followed by more detailed objectives and
requirements in specific areas. These policies should be used as
A 200 Application a basis for defining the Safety Objective for a specific pipeline
system. Typical statements may be:
201 This section applies to all submarine pipeline systems
which are to be built and operated in accordance with this - The impact on the environment shall be reduced to as far as
reasonably possible.
standard.
- No releases will be accepted during operation of the pipeline
202 The integrity of a submarine pipeline system shall be system.
ensured through all phases, from initial concept through to - There shall be no serious accidents or loss of life during the
final de-commissioning, see Figure 1. This standard defines construction period.
two integrity stages: establish integrity in the concept develop- - The pipeline installation shall not, under any circumstances
impose any threat to fishing gear.
ment, design and construction phases; and maintain integrity in
- Diverless installation and maintenance.
the operations phase.
Statements such as those above may have implications for all or
203 This section also provides guidance for extension of this individual phases only. They are typically more relevant for the
standard in terms of new criteria, etc. work execution (i.e. how the Contractor executes his job) and
specific design solutions (e.g. burial or no burial). Having
defined the Safety Objective, it can be a point of discussion as to
whether this is being accomplished in the actual project. It is
B. Safety Philosophy Structure therefore recommended that the overall Safety Objective be fol-
lowed up by more specific, measurable requirements.
B 100 General If no policy is available, or if it is difficult to define the safety
101 The integrity of the submarine pipeline system con- objective, one could also start with a risk assessment. The risk
assessment could identify all hazards and their consequences,
structed to this standard is ensured through a safety philosophy
and then enable back-extrapolation to define acceptance criteria
integrating different parts as illustrated in Figure 2. and areas that need to be followed up more closely.
102 The overall safety principles and the arrangement of In this standard, the structural failure probability is reflected in
safety systems shall be in accordance with DNV-OS-A101 and the choice of three safety classes (see B400). The choice of safety
DNV-OS-E201. class should also include consideration of the expressed safety
objective.
B 200 Safety objective ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
201 An overall safety objective shall be established, planned

Concept Design Construction Operation


Corrosion protection and weight coating
Components and assemblies
Business development

Concept development

Integrity management

Inspection and repair


Pre-commissioning
Post-intervention
Pre-intervention

Re-qualification
Commissioning

Abandonment
Detail design
Basic design

Installation
Linepipe

2* & 3 4, 5 & 6 7 8 9 10 11
Establish Integrity Maintain Integrity

Figure 1 *indicates Section in this Standard.


Integrity assurance activities during the pipeline system phases

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.2 – Page 27

gross errors (human errors) shall be controlled by requirements


for organisation of the work, competence of persons perform-
ing the work, verification of the design, and quality assurance
during all relevant phases.
502 For the purpose of this standard, it is assumed that the
operator of a pipeline system has established a quality objec-
tive. The operator shall, in both internal and external quality
related aspects, seek to achieve the quality level of products
and services intended in the quality objective. Further, the
operator shall provide assurance that intended quality is being,
or will be, achieved.
503 Documented quality systems shall be applied by opera-
tors and other parties (e.g. design contractors, manufactures,
fabricators and installation contractors) to ensure that prod-
ucts, processes and services will be in compliance with the
requirements of this standard. Effective implementation of
quality systems shall be documented.
504 Repeated occurrence of non-conformities reflecting sys-
tematic deviations from procedures and/or inadequate work-
Figure 2 manship shall initiate:
Safety Philosophy structure
— investigation into the causes of the non-conformities
— reassessment of the quality system
B 300 Systematic review of risks — corrective action to establish possible acceptability of
301 A systematic review shall be carried out at all phases to products
identify and evaluate threats, the consequences of single fail- — preventative action to prevent re-occurrence of similar
ures and series of failures in the pipeline system, such that nec- non-conformities.
essary remedial measures can be taken. The extent of the
review or analysis shall reflect the criticality of the pipeline Guidance note:
system, the criticality of a planned operation, and previous ISO 9000 give guidance on the selection and use of quality sys-
experience with similar systems or operations. tems.
Guidance note: ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
A methodology for such a systematic review is quantitative risk
analysis (QRA). This may provide an estimation of the overall 505 Quality surveillance in the construction phase shall be
risk to human health and safety, environment and assets and performed by the operator or an inspectorate nominated by the
comprises: operator. The extent of quality surveillance shall be sufficient
- hazard identification to establish that specified requirements are fulfilled and that
- assessment of probabilities of failure events the intended quality level is maintained.
- accident developments 506 To ensure safety during operations phase, an integrity
- consequence and risk assessment. management system in accordance with Sec.11 C shall be
The scope of the systematic review should comprise the entire established and maintained.
pipeline system, and not just the submarine pipeline system as
defined by this standard. B 600 Health, safety and environment
It should be noted that legislation in some countries requires risk 601 The concept development, design, construction, opera-
analysis to be performed, at least at an overall level to identify tion and abandonment of the pipeline system shall be con-
critical scenarios that might jeopardise the safety and reliability
of a pipeline system. Other methodologies for identification of ducted in compliance with national legislation and company
potential hazards are Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) policy with respect to health, safety and environmental
and Hazard and Operability studies (HAZOP). aspects.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 602 The selection of materials and processes shall be con-
ducted with due regard to the safety of the public and employ-
302 Special attention shall be given to sections close to ees and to the protection of the environment.
installations or shore approaches where there is frequent
human activity and thus a greater likelihood and consequence
of damage to the pipeline. This also includes areas where pipe-
lines are installed parallel to existing pipelines and pipeline C. Risk Basis for Design
crossings.
C 100 General
B 400 Design criteria principles
101 The design format within this standard is based upon a
401 In this standard, structural safety of the pipeline system limit state and partial safety factor methodology, also called
is ensured by use of a safety class methodology. The pipeline Load and Resistance Factor Design format (LRFD). The load
system is classified into one or more safety classes based on and resistance factors depend on the safety class, which char-
failure consequences, normally given by the content and loca- acterizes the consequences of failure.
tion. For each safety class, a set of partial safety factors is
assigned to each limit state. C 200 Categorisation of fluids

B 500 Quality assurance 201 Fluids to be transported by the pipeline system shall be
categorised according to their hazard potential as given by
501 The safety format within this standard requires that Table 2-1.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 28 – Sec.2 see note on front cover

403 For normal use, the safety classes in Table 2-4 apply:
Table 2-1 Classification of fluids
Category Description Table 2-4 Normal classification of safety classes*
A Typical non-flammable water-based fluids. Phase Fluid Category A, C Fluid Category B, D and E
B Flammable and/or toxic fluids which are liquids at Location Class Location Class
ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure condi- 1 2 1 2
tions. Typical examples are oil and petroleum products. Temporary1,2 Low Low - -
Methanol is an example of a flammable and toxic fluid.
Operational Low Medium3 Medium High
C Non-flammable fluids which are non-toxic gases at
ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure condi- 1) Installation until pre-commissioning (temporary phase) will normally be
tions. Typical examples are nitrogen, carbon dioxide, classified as safety class Low.
argon and air. 2) For safety classification of temporary phases after commissioning, spe-
D Non-toxic, single-phase natural gas. cial consideration shall be made to the consequences of failure, i.e. giving
E Flammable and/or toxic fluids which are gases at ambi- a higher safety class than Low.
ent temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions 3) Risers during normal operation will normally be classified as safety class
and which are conveyed as gases and/or liquids. Typical High.
examples would be hydrogen, natural gas (not otherwise
covered under category D), ethane, ethylene, liquefied * Other classifications may exist depending on the conditions and critical-
petroleum gas (such as propane and butane), natural gas ity of failure the pipeline. For pipelines where some consequences are
liquids, ammonia, and chlorine. more severe than normal, i.e. when the table above does not apply, the
selection of a higher safety class shall also consider the implication, on
202 Gases or liquids not specifically identified in Table 2-1 the total gained safety. If the total safety increase is marginal, the selec-
should be classified in the category containing fluids most sim- tion of a higher safety class may not be justified.
ilar in hazard potential to those quoted. If the fluid category is
not clear, the most hazardous category shall be assumed. C 500 Reliability analysis
C 300 Location classes 501 As an alternative to the LRFD format specified and used
in this standard, a recognised structural reliability analysis
301 The pipeline system shall be classified into location SRA) based design method may be applied provided that:
classes as defined in Table 2-2.
— the method complies with DNV Classification Note no.
Table 2-2 Classification of location
30.6 "Structural reliability analysis of marine structures"
Location Definition
— the approach is demonstrated to provide adequate safety
1 The area where no frequent human activity is antic- for familiar cases, as indicated by this standard.
ipated along the pipeline route.
2 The part of the pipeline/riser in the near platform Guidance note:
(manned) area or in areas with frequent human
activity. The extent of location class 2 should be In particular, this implies that reliability based limit state design
based on appropriate risk analyses. If no such anal- shall not be used to replace the pressure containment criterion in
yses are performed a minimum distance of 500 m Sec.5 with the exception of accidental loads.
shall be adopted.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
C 400 Safety classes
502 Suitably competent and qualified personnel shall perform
401 Pipeline design shall be based on potential failure conse- the structural reliability analysis, and extension into new areas of
quence. In this standard, this is implicit by the concept of
safety class. The safety class may vary for different phases and application shall be supported by technical verification.
locations. The safety classes are defined in Table 2-3. 503 As far as possible, nominal target failure probability lev-
els shall be calibrated against identical or similar pipeline
Table 2-3 Classification of safety classes designs that are known to have adequate safety on the basis of
Safety Definition this standard. If this is not feasible, the nominal target failure
class probability level shall be based on the failure type and safety
Low Where failure implies low risk of human injury and class as given in Table 2-5.
minor environmental and economic consequences.
This is the usual classification for installation phase. Table 2-5 Nominal failure probabilities vs. safety classes
Medium For temporary conditions where failure implies risk of Limit Probability Bases Safety Classes
human injury, significant environmental pollution or States
very high economic or political consequences. This is Low Medium High Very
the usual classification for operation outside the plat- High4)
form area. SLS Annual per Pipeline1) 10-2 10-3 10-3 10-4
High For operating conditions where failure implies high risk ULS 2) Annual per Pipeline1)
of human injury, significant environmental pollution or FLS Annual per Pipeline3) 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6
very high economic or political consequences. This is
the usual classification during operation in location ALS Annual per Pipeline
class 2. - Pressure containment 10-4- 10-5-10-6 10-6- 10-7-10-8
10-5 10-7
402 The partial safety factors related to the safety class are 1) Or the time period of the temporary phase.
given in Sec.5 C100. 2) The failure probability for the bursting (pressure containment) shall be
an order of magnitude lower than the general ULS criterion given in the
Table, in accordance with industry practice and reflected by the ISO
requirements.
3) The failure probability will effectively be governed by the last year in
operation or prior to inspection depending on the adopted inspection
philosophy.
4) See Appendix F Table F-2.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.3 – Page 29

SECTION 3
CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN PREMISES

A. General — second and third party activities


— restricted access for installation or other activities due to
A 100 Objective presence of ice.
101 This section identifies and provides a basis for definition 304 An execution plan should be developed, including the
of relevant field development characteristics. Further, key following topics:
issues required for design, construction, operation, and aban-
donment of the pipeline system are identified. — general information, including project organisation, scope
of work, interfaces and project development phases
A 200 Application — contacts with Purchaser, authorities, third party, engineer-
201 This section applies to all pipeline systems which are to ing, verification and construction Contractors
be built according to this standard. — legal aspects, e.g. insurance, contracts, area planning,
202 The design premises outlined in this section should be requirements to vessels.
developed during the conceptual phase.
305 The design and planning for the submarine pipeline sys-
A 300 Concept development tem should cover all development phases including construc-
tion, operation and abandonment.
301 When selecting the pipeline system concept all aspects
related to design, construction, operation and abandonment
should be considered. Due account should be given to identifi-
cation of potential aspects which can stop the concept from B. System Design Principles
being realised:
— long lead effects of early stage decisions (e.g. choice of
material grade may affect manufacturing aspects of line- B 100 System integrity
pipe, choice of diameter may give restrictions to installa-
tion methods etc.) 101 The pipeline system shall be designed, constructed and
— life cycle evaluations (e.g. maintenance activities etc.) operated in such a manner that:
— installation aspects for remote areas (e.g. non-availability — the specified transport capacity is fulfilled and the flow
of major installation equipment or services and weather assured
issues). — the defined safety objective is fulfilled and the resistance
302 Data and description of field development and general against loads during planned operational conditions is suf-
arrangement of the pipeline system should be established. ficient
— the safety margin against accidental loads or unplanned
303 The data and description should include the following, operational conditions is sufficient.
as applicable:
102 The possibility of changes in the type or composition of
— safety objective fluid to be transported during the lifetime of the pipeline sys-
— environmental objective tem shall be assessed at the design phase.
— location, inlet and outlet conditions
— pipeline system description with general arrangement and 103 Any re-qualification deemed necessary due to changes
battery limits in the design conditions shall take place in accordance with
— functional requirements including field development provisions set out in Sec.11.
restrictions, e.g., safety barriers and subsea valves B 200 Monitoring/inspection during operation
— installation, repair and replacement of pipeline elements,
valves, actuators and fittings 201 Parameters which could violate the integrity of a pipe-
— project plans and schedule, including planned period of line system shall be monitored, inspected and evaluated with a
the year for installation frequency which enables remedial actions to be carried out
— design life including specification for start of design life, before the system is damaged, see Sec.11.
e.g. final commissioning, installation etc. Guidance note:
— data of product to be transported including possible As a minimum the monitoring/inspection frequency should be
changes during the pipeline system's design life such that the pipeline system will not be endangered due to any
— transport capacity and flow assurance realistic degradation/deterioration that may occur between two
— pressure protection system requirements including process consecutive inspection intervals.
system layout and incidental to design pressure ratio eval-
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
uations
— pipeline sizing data 202 Special focus shall be on monitoring and inspection
— attention to possible code breaks in the pipeline system strategies for “live pipeline systems” i.e. pipeline systems that
— geometrical restrictions such as specifications of constant are designed to change the configuration during its design life.
internal diameter, requirement for fittings, valves, flanges
and the use of flexible pipe or risers Guidance note:
— relevant pigging scenarios (inspection and cleaning) Example of such systems may be pipelines that are designed to
— pigging fluids to be used and handling of pigging fluids in experience global buckling or possible free-span developments
both ends of pipeline including impact on process systems ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
— pigging requirements such as bend radius, pipe ovality and
distances between various fittings affecting design for pig- 203 Instrumentation of the pipeline system may be required
ging applications when visual inspection or simple measurements are not con-
— sand production sidered practical or reliable, and available design methods and

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 30 – Sec.3 see note on front cover

previous experience are not sufficient for a reliable prediction


of the performance of the system.
204 The need for in-line cleaning and/or inspection, involv-
ing the presence of appropriate pig launcher / receiver should

Probability Denisty Function


Typical maximum
be determined in the design phase. pressure - monotonic
decay.
B 300 Pressure Protection System
301 A pressure protection system shall be used unless the
pressure source to the pipeline system cannot deliver a pres-
sure in excess of the incidental pressure including possible
dynamic effects. The pressure protection system shall prevent
the internal pressure at any point in the pipeline system rising
to an excessive level. The pressure protection system com-
prises the pressure control system, pressure safety system and
associated instrumentation and alarm systems.
Guidance note: Pressure
An example of situations where a pressure protection system is
not required is if full shut-in pressure including dynamic effects, Figure 1
is used as incidental pressure. Typical maximum pressure distribution – monotonic decay
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

302 The purpose of the pressure control system is to main-


tain the operating pressure within acceptable limits during nor-
mal operation i.e. to ensure that the local design pressure is not
exceeded at any point in the pipeline system during normal Typical maximum
operation. The pressure control system should operate auto-
Probability Denisty Function

pressure distribution for


matically. The local design pressure is defined in Sec.4 B200. high integrity pressure
Due account shall be given to the tolerances of the pressure protection systems
control system and its associated instrumentation, see Figure 1 (HIPPS).
in Sec.1. Hence, the maximum allowable operating pressure
(MAOP) is equal to the design pressure minus the pressure
control system operating tolerance.
303 The purpose of the pressure safety system is to protect
the downstream system during incidental operation, i.e. to
ensure that the local incidental pressure is not exceeded at any
point in the pipeline system in the event of failure of the pres-
sure control system. The pressure safety system shall operate
automatically. Due account shall be given to the tolerances of Pressure
the pressure safety system. Hence, the maximum allowable
incidental pressure is equal to the incidental pressure minus the Figure 2
pressure safety system operating tolerance. Schematic illustration of maximum pressure distribution for high
integrity pressure protection systems (HIPPS)
304 The incidental pressure shall have an annual probability
of exceedance less than 10-2. If the pressure probability density
function does not have a monotonic decay beyond 10-2 then 305 For the conditions given in Table 3-1, the given inciden-
pressure exceeding the incidental pressure shall be checked as tal to design ratios shall be used. The incidental to design pres-
accidental loads in compliance with Sec.5 D1200. Examples of sure ratio shall be selected in order to meet the requirements in
pressure probability density distributions are given in Figure 1 302, 303 and 304.
and Figure 2. See also Sec.4 B200 for definition of the inciden-
tal pressure.
Table 3-1 Incidental to design pressure ratios
Guidance note: Condition or pipeline system γ inc
When the submarine pipeline system is connected to another sys-
tem with different pressure definition the pressure values may be Typical pipeline system 1.10
different in order to comply with the requirements of this sub- Minimum, except for below 1.05
section, i.e. the design pressure may be different in two con- When design pressure is equal to full shut-in pressure 1.00
nected systems. The conversion between the two system defini- including dynamic effects
tions will often then be based on that the incidental pressures are
equal. System pressure test 1.00

---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 306 The pipeline system may be divided into sections with
different design pressures provided that the pressure protection
system ensures that, for each section, the local design pressure
cannot be exceeded during normal operations and that the inci-
dental pressure cannot be exceeded during incidental opera-
tion.

B 400 Hydraulic analyses and flow assurance


401 The hydraulics of the pipeline system should be ana-
lysed to demonstrate that the pipeline system can safely trans-
port the fluids, and to identify and determine the constraints
and requirements for its operation. This analysis should cover
steady-state and transient operating conditions.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.3 – Page 31

Guidance note: Landfall


Examples of constraints and operational requirements are allow-
ances for pressure surges, prevention of blockage such as caused — local constraints
by the formation of hydrates and wax deposition, measures to — 3rd party requirements
prevent unacceptable pressure losses from higher viscosities at — environmental sensitive areas
lower operation temperatures, measures for the control of liquid — vicinity to people
slug volumes in multi-phase fluid transport, flow regime for — limited construction period.
internal corrosion control erosional velocities and avoidance of
slack line operations. It also includes requirements to insulation, 102 Expected future marine operations and anticipated
maximum shut-down times, requirements for heating etc. developments in the vicinity of the pipeline shall be considered
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- when selecting the pipeline route.
103 Pipeline components (e.g. valves, tees) in particular
402 The hydraulics of the pipeline system shall be analysed should not be located on the curved route sections of the pipe-
to demonstrate that the pressure control system and pressure line.
safety system meet its requirement during start-up, normal
operation, shut-down (e.g. closing of valves) and all foreseen 104 It is recommended that pipeline ends are designed with
non-intended scenarios. This shall also include determination a reasonable straight length ahead of the target boxes. Curva-
of required incidental to design pressure ratio. tures near pipeline ends should be designed with due regard to
end terminations, lay method, lay direction and existing/
planned infrastructure.
403 The hydraulic analyses shall be used to determine the
maximum design temperature profile based on conservative C 200 Route survey
insulation values reflecting the variation in insulation proper- 201 Surveys shall be carried out along the total length of the
ties of coatings and surrounding seawater, soil and gravel. planned pipeline route to provide sufficient data for design and
404 The hydraulic analyses shall be used to determine the installation related activities.
minimum design temperature. Benefit of specifying low tem- 202 The survey corridor shall have sufficient width to define
peratures locally due to e.g. opening of valves is allowed and an installation and pipeline corridor which will ensure safe
shall be documented e.g. by hydraulic analyses. installation and operation of the pipeline.
203 The required survey accuracy may vary along the pro-
posed route. Obstructions, highly varied seabed topography, or
C. Pipeline Route unusually or hazardous sub-surface conditions may dictate
more detailed investigations.
C 100 Location 204 Investigations to identify possible conflicts with existing
101 The pipeline route shall be selected with due regard to and planned installations and possible wrecks and obstructions
safety of the public and personnel, protection of the environ- shall be performed. Examples of such installations include
ment, and the probability of damage to the pipe or other facil- other submarine pipelines, and power and communication
ities. Agreement with relevant parties should be sought as cables.
early as possible. Factors to take into consideration shall, at 205 The results of surveys shall be presented on accurate
minimum, include the following: route maps and alignments, scale commensurate with required
Environment use. Location of the pipeline, related facilities together with
seabed properties, anomalies and all relevant pipeline
— archaeological sites attributes shall be shown. Reference seawater elevation shall
— exposure to environmental damage be defined.
— areas of natural conservation interest including oyster beds 206 Additional route surveys may be required at landfalls to
and corral reefs determine:
— marine parks
— turbidity flows. — seabed geology and topography specific to landfall and
costal environment
Seabed characteristics — environmental conditions caused by adjacent coastal fea-
tures
— uneven seabed — location of the landfall to facilitate installation
— unstable seabed — facilitate pre or post installation seabed intervention works
— soil properties (hard spots, soft sediment and sediment specific to landfall, such as trenching
transport) — location to minimise environmental impact.
— subsidence
— seismic activity. 207 All topographical features which may influence the sta-
bility and installation or influence seabed intervention of the
Facilities pipeline shall be covered by the route survey, including but not
limited to:
— offshore installations
— subsea structures and well heads — obstructions in the form of rock outcrops, large boulders,
— existing pipelines and cables pock marks, etc., that could necessitate remedial, levelling
— obstructions or removal operations to be carried out prior to pipeline
— coastal protection works. installation
— topographical features that contain potentially unstable
Third party activities slopes, sand waves, pock marks or significant depressions,
valley or channelling and erosion in the form of scour pat-
— ship traffic terns or material deposits.
— fishing activity
— dumping areas for waste, ammunition, etc. 208 Areas where there is evidence of increased geological
— mining activities activity or significant historic events that if re-occurring again
— military exercise areas. can impact the pipeline, additional geohazard studies should be

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 32 – Sec.3 see note on front cover

performed. Such studies may include: — problems with respect to pipeline crossing
— problems with the settlement of pipeline system and/or the
— extended geophysical survey protection structure at the valve/tee locations
— mud volcanoes or pockmark activity — possibilities of mud slides or liquefaction as the result of
— seismic hazard repeated loading
— seismic fault displacements — implications for external corrosion.
— possibility of soil slope failure
— mudflow characteristics
— mudflow impact on pipelines.
D. Environmental Conditions
C 300 Seabed properties
301 Geotechnical properties necessary for evaluating the D 100 General
effects of relevant loading conditions shall be determined for 101 Environmental phenomena that might impair proper
the seabed deposits, including possible unstable deposits in the functioning of the system or cause a reduction of the reliability
vicinity of the pipeline. For guidance on soil investigation for and safety of the system shall be considered, including:
pipelines, reference is made to Classification Note No. 30.4
"Foundations". — wind
— tide
302 Geotechnical properties may be obtained from generally — waves
available geological information, results from seismic surveys, — internal waves and other effects due to differences in water
seabed topographical surveys, and in-situ and laboratory tests. density
Supplementary information may be obtained from visual sur- — current
veys or special tests, as e.g. pipe penetration tests. — ice
— earthquake
303 Soil parameters of main importance for the pipeline — soil conditions
response are: — temperature
— marine growth (fouling).
— shear strength parameters (intact and remoulded und-
rained shear strength for clay, and angle of friction for 102 The principles and methods described in DNV-RP-C205
sands); and Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads may be
— relevant deformation characteristics. used as a basis for establishing the environmental conditions.

These parameters should preferably be determined from ade- D 200 Collection of environmental data
quate laboratory tests or from interpretation of in-situ tests. In 201 The environmental data shall be representative for the
addition, classification and index tests should be considered, geographical areas in which the pipeline system is to be
such as: installed. If sufficient data are not available for the geographi-
cal location in question, conservative estimates based on data
— unit weight from other relevant locations may be used.
— water content
— liquid and plastic limit 202 Statistical data shall be utilised to describe environmen-
tal parameters of a random nature (e.g. wind, waves). The
— grain size distribution parameters shall be derived in a statistically valid manner
— carbonate content using recognised methods.
— other relevant tests.
203 The effect of statistical uncertainty due to the amount
304 It is primarily the characteristics of the upper layer of and accuracy of data shall be assessed and, if significant, shall
soil that determine the response of the pipeline resting on the be included in the evaluation of the characteristic load effect.
seabed. The determination of soil parameters for these very 204 For the assessment of environmental conditions along
shallow soils may be relatively more uncertain than for deeper the pipeline route, the pipeline may be divided into a number
soils. Also the variations of the top soil between soil testing of sections, each of which is characterised by a given water
locations may add to the uncertainty. Soil parameters used in depth, bottom topography and other factors affecting the envi-
the design may therefore need to be defined with upper bound, ronmental conditions.
best estimate and lower bound limits. The characteristic
value(s) of the soil parameter(s) used in the design shall be in 205 The environmental data to be used in the design of pipe-
line with the selected design philosophy accounting for these lines and/or risers fixed to an offshore structure are in principle
uncertainties. the same as the environmental data used in the design of the
offshore structure supporting the pipeline and/or riser.
Guidance note:
For deep water areas the upper layer may be slurry with a very D 300 Environmental data
small strength. In these cases emphasize should also be made to
the soil layer underneath. 301 The estimated maximum tide shall include both astro-
nomic tide and storm surge. Minimum tide estimates should be
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- based upon the astronomic tide and possible negative storm
surge.
305 In areas where the seabed material is subject to erosion,
special studies of the current and wave conditions near the bot- 302 All relevant sources to current shall be considered. This
tom including boundary layer effects may be required for the may include tidal current, wind induced current, storm surge
on-bottom stability calculations of pipelines and the assess- current, density induced current or other possible phenomena.
ment of pipeline spans. For near-shore regions, long-shore current due to wave break-
ing shall be considered. Variations in magnitude with respect
306 Additional investigation of the seabed material may be to direction and water depth shall be considered when relevant.
required to evaluate specific problems, as for example:
303 In areas where ice may develop or where ice bergs may
— problems with respect to excavation and burial operations pass or where the soil may freeze sufficient statistics shall be
— probability of forming frees-pans caused by scouring dur- established in order to enable calculations of design loads,
ing operational phase either environmental or accidental.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.3 – Page 33

304 Air and sea temperature statistics shall be provided giv- party activities as mentioned in C101 above should be consid-
ing representative design values. ered.
305 Marine growth on pipeline systems shall be considered,
taking into account both biological and other environmental E 200 Internal installation conditions
phenomena relevant for the location. 201 A description of the internal pipe conditions during stor-
age, construction, installation, pressure testing and commis-
sioning shall be prepared. The duration of exposure to sea
water or humid air, and the need for using inhibitors or other
E. External and Internal Pipe Condition measures to control corrosion shall be considered.
E 100 External operational conditions E 300 Internal operational conditions
101 For the selection and detailed design of external corro- 301 In order to assess the need for internal corrosion control,
sion control, the following conditions relating to the environ- including corrosion allowance and provision for inspection
ment shall be defined, in addition to those mentioned in D101: and monitoring, the following conditions shall be defined:
— exposure conditions, e.g. burial, rock dumping, etc. — maximum and average operating temperature/pressure
— sea water and sediment resistivity. profile along the pipeline, and expected variations during
102 Other conditions affecting external corrosion which the design life
shall be defined are: — flow velocity and flow regime
— fluid composition (initial and anticipated variations during
— maximum and average operating temperature profile the design life) with emphasis on potentially corrosive
along the pipeline and through the pipe wall thickness components (e.g. hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide,
— pipeline fabrication and installation procedures water content and expected content of dissolved salts in
— requirements for mechanical protection, submerged produced fluids, residual oxygen and active chlorine in sea
weight and thermal insulation during operation water)
— design life — chemical additions and provisions for periodic cleaning
— selected coating and cathodic protection system. — provision for inspection of corrosion damage and expected
capabilities of inspection tools (i.e. detection limits and
103 Special attention should be given to the landfall section sizing capabilities for relevant forms of corrosion damage)
(if any) and interaction with relevant cathodic protection sys- — the possibility of erosion by any solid particles in the fluid
tem for onshore vs. offshore pipeline sections. shall be considered. Reference is made to DNV-RP-O501
104 The impact on the external pipe condition of the third Erosive Wear in Piping Systems.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 34 – Sec.4 see note on front cover

SECTION 4
DESIGN - LOADS

A. General B. Functional Loads


A 100 Objective B 100 General
101 This section defines the design loads to be checked by 101 Loads arising from the physical existence of the pipeline
the design criteria in Sec.5. This includes: system and its intended use shall be classified as functional
loads.
— load scenarios to be considered 102 All functional loads which are essential for ensuring the
— categorisation of loads integrity of the pipeline system, during both the construction
— design cases and corresponding characteristic loads and the operational phase, shall be considered.
— load effect combinations
103 Effects from the following phenomena are the minimum
— load effect calculations.
to be considered when establishing functional loads:
A 200 Application — weight
201 This section applies to all parts of the submarine pipeline — external hydrostatic pressure
system. — internal pressure
— temperature of contents
A 300 Load scenarios — pre-stressing
301 All loads and forced displacements which may influence — reactions from components (flanges, clamps etc.)
the pipeline integrity shall be taken into account. For each — permanent deformation of supporting structure
cross section or part of the system to be considered and for — cover (e.g. soil, rock, mattresses, culverts)
each possible mode of failure to be analysed, all relevant com- — reaction from seabed (friction and rotational stiffness)
binations of loads which may act simultaneously shall be con- — permanent deformations due to subsidence of ground, both
sidered. vertical and horizontal
— permanent deformations due to frost heave
302 The most unfavourable scenario for all relevant phases — changed axial friction due to freezing
and conditions shall be considered. Typical conditions to be — possible loads due to ice interference, e.g. bulb growth
covered in the design are: around buried pipelines near fixed points (in-line valves/
tees, fixed plants etc.), drifting ice etc.
— installation — loads induced by frequent pigging operations.
— as laid
— water filled 104 The weight shall include weight of pipe, buoyancy, con-
— system pressure test tents, coating, anodes, marine growth and all attachments to
— operation the pipe.
— shut-down. 105 End cap forces due to pressure shall be considered, as
well as any transient pressure effects during normal operation
A 400 Load categories (e.g. due to closure of valves).
401 The objective of categorise the different loads into dif- 106 Environmental as well as operational temperatures shall
ferent load categories is to relate the load effect to the different be considered. The maximum and minimum design tempera-
uncertainties and occurrence. ture profiles shall have an annual probability of exceedance
402 Unless the load is categorised as accidental it shall be less than of 10-2. Different temperature profiles for different
categorised as: conditions should be considered (e.g. installation, as-laid,
water filled, pressure test, operation and design).
— functional load 107 Local minimum temperature profiles, which may be
— environmental load caused by e.g. sudden shut-downs, may be applied. This will
— interference load. typically be relevant to defined components and sections of the
pipeline (e.g. spots around valves).
The load categories are described in B, C and E below. Con-
struction loads shall be categorised into the above loads and are 108 Fluctuations in temperature shall be taken into account
described in D. Accidental loads are described in F. when checking fatigue strength.
109 For expansion analyses, the temperature difference rela-
A 500 Design cases tive to laying shall be considered. The temperature profile shall
501 The design cases describe the 100-year load effect. The be applied.
100-year load effect is composed of contributions of func- 110 Pre-stressing, such as permanent curvature or a perma-
tional, environmental and interference load effects. This will nent elongation introduced during installation, shall be taken
be governed either by the 100-year functional load effect, the into account if the capacity to carry other loads is affected by
100-year environmental load effect or the 100-year interfer- the pre-stressing. Pretension forces induced by bolts in flanges,
ence load effect, see G100. connectors and riser supports and other permanent attach-
ments, shall be classified as functional loads.
A 600 Load effect combination
111 The soil pressure acting on buried pipelines shall be
601 The load combinations combine the load effect of each taken into account if significant.
load category in a design case with different load effect factors,
see G200. B 200 Internal Pressure loads
Each load combination constitutes a design load effect to be 201 The following internal pressures shall be defined at a cer-
compared with relevant design resistance, see 5 C100. tain defined reference level; System Test Pressure, Operating

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.4 – Page 35

Pressure (if relevant), Design pressure (if applicable), and Inci- Sec.1. These pressures are summarised in Table 4-1.
dental Pressure, see Sec.3 B300 for definitions and Figure 1 in

Table 4-1 Pressure terms


Pressure Abbreviations Symbol Description
Mill test - Ph Hydrostatic test pressure at the mill, see Sec.7
System test - Pt The pressure to which the complete submarine pipeline system is tested
to prior to commissioning, see Sec.5 B200
Incidental - Pinc Maximum pressure the submarine pipeline system is designed for
Maximum allowable incidental MAIP - The trigger level of pressure safety system. Maximum allowable inciden-
tal pressure is equal to the incidental pressure minus the pressure safety
system operating tolerance
Design - PD The maximum pressure the pressure protection system requires in order
to ensure that incidental pressure is not exceeded with sufficient reliabil-
ity, typically 10% below the incidental pressure
Maximum allowable operating MAOP - Upper limit of pressure control system. Maximum allowable operating
pressure is equal to the design pressure minus the pressure control system
operating tolerance

Guidance note: C. Environmental Loads


The incidental pressure is defined in terms of annual exceedance
probability. The ratio between the incidental pressure and the C 100 General
design pressure, see Table 3-1, is determined by the accuracy of 101 Environmental loads are defined as those loads on the
the pressure protection system. When the pressure source is pipeline system which are caused by the surrounding environ-
given (e.g. well head shut-in pressure) this may constitute the
ment, and that are not otherwise classified as functional or
selection of the incidental pressure. The design pressure can then
be established based on the pressure protection system. When
accidental loads.
transport capacity requirement constitute the design premise this 102 For calculation of characteristic environmental loads,
may give the design pressure and the incidental pressure can then reference is made to the principles given in DNV-RP-C205
be established based on the pressure protection system. Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- C 200 Wind loads
202 The local pressure is the internal pressure at a specific 201 Wind loads shall be determined using recognised theo-
point based on the reference pressure adjusted for the fluid col- retical principles. Alternatively, direct application of data from
umn weight due to the difference in elevation. It can be adequate tests may be used.
expressed as: 202 The possibility of vibrations and instability due to wind
induced cyclic loads shall be considered (e.g. vortex shed-
(
pli = pinc + ρ cont ⋅ g ⋅ href − hl ) (4.1) ding).
C 300 Hydrodynamic loads
plt = pt + ρt ⋅ g ⋅ (href − hl )
(4.2)
301 Hydrodynamic loads are defined as flow-induced loads
caused by the relative motion between the pipe and the sur-
where rounding water.
pli is the local incidental pressure 302 All relevant sources for hydrodynamic loads shall be
pinc is the incidental reference pressure at the reference ele- considered. This may include waves, current, relative pipe
vation motions and indirect forces e.g. caused by vessel motions.
ρcont is the density of the relevant content of the pipeline 303 The following hydrodynamic loads shall be considered,
g is the gravity but not limited to:
href is the elevation of the reference point (positive
upwards) — drag and lift forces which are in phase with the absolute or
hl is the elevation of the local pressure point (positive relative water particle velocity
upwards) — inertia forces which are in phase with the absolute or rela-
tive water particle acceleration
plt is the local system test pressure — flow-induced cyclic loads due to vortex shedding, gallop-
pt is the system test reference pressure at the reference ele- ing and other instability phenomena
vation — impact loads due to wave slamming and slapping, and
ρt is the density of the relevant test medium of the pipeline — buoyancy variations due to wave action.
203 The test pressure requirement is given in Sec.5 B200. Guidance note:
Recent research into the hydrodynamic coefficients for open
B 300 External Pressure loads bundles and piggy-back lines indicates that the equivalent diam-
301 In cases where external pressure increases the capacity, eter approach may be unconservative, and a system specific CFD
analysis may be required to have a robust design.
the external pressure shall not be taken as higher than the water
pressure at the considered location corresponding to low astro- ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
nomic tide including possible negative storm surge.
304 The applied wave theory shall be capable of describing
302 In cases where the external pressure decreases the the wave kinematics at the particular water depth in question
capacity, the external pressure shall not be taken as less than including surf zones hydrodynamics where applicable. The
the water pressure at the considered location corresponding to suitability of the selected theory shall be demonstrated and
high astronomic tide including storm surge. documented.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 36 – Sec.4 see note on front cover

305 The current-induced drag and lift forces on the subma- the normal wave impact zone, may be exposed to wave loading
rine pipeline system shall be determined and combined with due to wave run-up. Loads due to this effect shall be consid-
the wave-induced forces using recognised theories for wave- ered if relevant.
current interaction. A vector combination of the current and
wave-induced water particle velocities may be used. If availa- 316 The increased loads from marine growth shall be consid-
ble, however, calculation of the total particle velocities and ered as follows:
accelerations based upon more exact theories on wave-current — Increased drag/lift area due to the marine growth
interaction is preferable.
— Increased pipe surface roughness and resulting increase in
306 Data from model testing or acknowledged industry prac- drag coefficient and reduced lift coefficient
tice may be used in the determination of the relevant hydrody- — Any beneficial effect of the weight of the marine growth
namic coefficients. shall be ignored in stability analyses
307 Where appropriate, consideration shall be given to wave 317 Tide loads shall be considered when the water depth is a
direction, short crested waves, wave refraction and shoaling, significant parameter, e.g. for the establishment of wave
shielding and reflecting effects. actions, pipe lay operation particularly near shore approaches/
308 For pipelines during installation and for in-place risers, landfalls, etc.
the variations in current velocity magnitude and direction as a
function of water depth shall be considered. C 400 Ice loads
309 Where parts of the pipeline system are positioned adja- 401 In areas where ice may develop or drift, the possibility
cent to other structural parts, possible effects due to distur- of ice loads on the pipeline system shall be considered. Such
bance of the flow field shall be considered when determining loads may partly be due to ice frozen on the pipeline system
the wave and/or current actions. Such effects may cause an itself, and partly due to floating ice. For shore approaches and
increased or reduced velocity, or dynamic excitation by vorti- areas of shallow water, the possibility of ice scouring and
ces being shed from the adjacent structural parts. impacts from drifting ice shall be considered. Increased hydro-
dynamic loading due to presence of ice shall be considered.
310 If parts of the submarine pipeline system is built up of a The ice load may be classified as environmental or accidental
number of closely spaced pipes, then interaction and solidifi- depending on its frequency.
cation effects shall be taken into account when determining the
mass and drag coefficients for each individual pipe or for the 402 In case of ice frozen to parts of the submarine pipeline
whole bundle of pipes. If sufficient data is not available, large- system, (e.g. due to sea spray) the following forces shall be
scale model tests may be required. considered:
311 For pipelines on or close to a fixed boundary (e.g. pipe- — weight of the ice
line spans) or in the free stream (e.g. risers), lift forces perpen- — impact forces due to thaw of the ice
dicular to the axis of the pipe and perpendicular to the velocity — forces due to expansion of the ice
vector shall be taken into account (possible vortex induced
vibrations). — increased wind, waves and current forces due to increased
exposed area.
312 In connection with vortex shedding-induced transverse
vibrations, the increase in drag coefficient shall be taken into 403 Forces from floating ice shall be calculated according to
account. recognised theory. Due attention shall be paid to the mechani-
cal properties of the ice, contact area, shape of structure, direc-
313 Possible increased waves and current loads due to pres- tion of ice movements, etc. The oscillating nature of the ice
ence of Tee’s, Y’s or other attachments shall be considered. forces (built-up of lateral force and fracture of moving ice)
314 The effect of possible wave and current loading on the shall be taken into account in the structural analysis. When
submarine pipeline system in the air gap zone shall be forces due to lateral ice motion will govern structural dimen-
included. sions, model testing of the ice-structure interaction may be
required.
Guidance note:
Maximum wave load effects may not always be experienced dur- C 500 Earthquake
ing the passing of the design wave. The maximum wave loads
may be due to waves of a particular length, period or steepness. 501 Load imposed by earth quake, either directly or indi-
rectly (e.g. due to failure of pipeline gravel supports), shall be
The initial response to impulsive wave slam or slap usually classified into accidental or environmental loads, depending
occurs before the exposed part of the submarine pipeline system
is significantly immersed. Therefore, other fluid loading on the on the probability of earthquake occurrence in line with acci-
system need not normally be applied with the impulsive load. dental loads in F.
However, due to structural continuity of the riser, global wave Guidance note:
loading on other parts of the system must be considered in addi-
tion to the direct wave loading. Earth quake with 475 years return period may be taken from
International seismic zonation charts as in Eurocode 8. This can
Wave slam occurs when an approximately horizontal member is then be converted by importance factors to 100 years return
engulfed by a rising water surface as a wave passes. The highest period.
slamming forces occur for members at mean water level and the
slam force directions are close to the vertical. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
Wave slap is associated with breaking waves and can affect
members at any inclination, but in the plane perpendicular to the C 600 Characteristic environmental load effects
wave direction. The highest forces occur on members above
mean water level. 601 The characteristic environmental load and the corre-
sponding load effect depend on condition:
Both slam and slap loads are applied impulsively (over a short
instant of time) and the dynamic response of the submarine pipe- — weather restricted condition
line system shall be considered.
— temporary condition
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- — permanent condition.
315 Parts of the submarine pipeline system, located above See Figure 1.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.4 – Page 37

Environmental
conditions

Weather Restricted Operations Non-Weather Restricted Operations

Environmental loads based


TPOP: Planned TSafe: Time to safely cease on Statistics
operation period the operation

T ’C: Contingency time to


Δstart: Start-up time
cease operation

TC: Contingency time TWF: Weather forecast


intervals
TR: Operation
T’R=TWF+TSafe+TC
reference period
TR=Δstart+TPOP+TC No
TR’<72 h
No
TR<72 h No
T’POP=TWF+TSAFE TR<6m

Establish OPLIM Establish OPLIM


10 yr seasonal 100 yr
Calculate start & interrupt Calculate start & interrupt
Criterion Co(α(TPOP)) Criterion Co(α(T’POP))

Weather window (TR) Weather window (T’R)

End End End End

Figure 1 unfavourable relevant combination, position and direction of


Determination of characteristic environmental load simultaneously acting environmental loads shall be used in doc-
umenting the integrity of the submarine pipeline system.
602 An operation can be defined as weather restricted oper- Functional loads (see B), interference loads (see E) and acci-
ation if it is anticipated to take less than 72 hours from previous dental loads (see F) shall be combined with the environmental
weather forecast including contingency time, referred to as loads as appropriate, see G103.
operation reference period, TR. It may then start-up based on 607 The characteristic environmental load effect for installa-
reliable weather forecast less than established operation limit. tion, LE, is defined as the most probable largest load effect for
Uncertainty in the weather forecast for the operational period a given seastate and appropriate current and wind conditions
shall be considered. given by:
603 An operation can be defined as weather restricted oper-
ation even if the operation time is longer than 72 hours given 1-
that it can be ceased and put into safe condition within 72 hours F ( L E ) = 1 – --- (4.3)
N
including contingency time and weather forecast intervals,
referred to as operational reference period of ceasing opera- where:
tion, T’R. The operation can then start-up and continue based
on reliable weather forecast less than established operation F(LE) is the cumulative distribution function of LE, and N is the
limit during this operational reference period for ceasing the number of load effect cycles in a sea-state of a duration not less
operation. Uncertainty in the weather forecast for this period than 3 hours.
shall be considered. 608 The most critical load effect combination for the rele-
Guidance note: vant return period shall be used. When the correlations among
For weather restricted operations reference is made to DNV-OS- the different environmental load components (i.e. wind, wave,
H101. This standard is not yet issued, until issue refer to DNV current or ice) are unknown the characteristic combined envi-
Rules for planning of marine operations, Pt. 1, Ch. 2, paragraph ronmental loads in Table 4-2 may be used.
3.1 and DNV-RP-H102, Ch. 2.1, paragraph 2.2.
Table 4-2 Combinations of characteristic environmental loads
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
in terms of return period 1)2)
604 An operation can be defined as a temporary condition if Wind Waves Current Ice Earth quake
the duration is less than 6 months unless defined as weather Permanent condition
restricted conditions. The environmental load effect for tempo-
100-year 100-year 10-year
rary conditions shall be taken as the 10-year return period for
the actual season. 10-year 10-year 100-year
Guidance note: 10-year 10-year 10-year 100-year
Conditions exceeding 6 months but no longer than 12 months 100-year
may occasionally be defined as temporary conditions. Temporary condition
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 10-year 10-year 1-year
1-year 1-year 10-year
605 Conditions not defined as weather restricted conditions 1-year 1-year 1-year 10-year
or temporary conditions shall be defined as permanent condi-
10-year
tions. The environmental load effect for permanent conditions
shall be taken as the 100-year return period. 1) The 100-year return period implies an annual probability of exceedance of 10-2.
606 When considering the environmental design load the most 2) This is in conflict with ISO 13623 in case the design life is less than 33 years.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 38 – Sec.4 see note on front cover

D. Construction Loads Guidance note:


This will typically apply to when dimensional tolerances are added.
D 100 General
101 Loads which arise as a result of the construction of the ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
pipeline system, comprising installation, pressure testing,
commissioning, maintenance and repair, shall be classified
into functional and environmental loads.
102 All significant loads acting on pipe joints or pipe sec-
E. Interference Loads
tions during transport, fabrication, installation, maintenance E 100 General
and repair activities shall be considered.
101 Loads which are imposed on the pipeline system from
103 Functional Loads shall consider forces generated due to 3rd party activities shall be classified as interference loads.
imposed tension during pipeline installation, maintenance and These loads include but are not limited to trawl interference,
repair. anchoring, vessel impacts and dropped objects.
104 Environmental loads shall consider forces induced on 102 The requirement for designing the submarine pipeline sys-
the pipeline due to wind, waves and current, including deflec- tem for interference loads shall be determined based upon inter-
tions and dynamic loads due to vessel movement. ference frequency studies and assessment of the potential
damage. If the annual probability of occurrence is less than 10-2
105 Accidental loads shall consider inertia forces due to sud- the load shall be classified as accidental load, see F.
den water filling, excessive deformation in overbend and sag-
bend, and forces due to operation errors or failures in 103 For calculations of trawl interference loads, reference is
equipment that could cause or aggravate critical conditions, given to DNV-RP-F111 Interference between Trawl Gear and
see Sec.10 A300. Pipelines.
106 Other loads to be considered are: 104 The trawling loads can be divided in accordance with the
three crossing phases:
— stacking of pipes
1) Trawl impact, i.e. the initial impact from the trawl board
— handling of pipe and pipe sections, e.g. lifting of pipe, pipe or beam which may cause local dents on the pipe or dam-
joints, pipe strings and pipe spools, and reeling of pipe age to the coating.
strings
— pull-in at landfalls, tie-ins, trenching etc. 2) Over-trawling, often referred to as pull-over, i.e. the sec-
ond phase caused by the wire and trawl board or beam slid-
— pressure testing ing over the pipe. This will usually give a more global
— commissioning activities, e.g. increase in pressure differ- response of the pipeline.
ential due to vacuum drying.
3) Hooking, i.e. the trawl board is stuck under the pipe and in
107 Operating limit conditions shall be established relevant extreme cases, forces as large as the breaking strength of
for the construction activity under consideration, see C600 and the trawl wire are applied to the pipeline.
Sec.10 D400.
Hooking is normally categorised as an accidental load.
108 Typical construction loads for pre-installed risers, riser 105 The trawl impact energy shall be determined consider-
supports/guides and J-tubes on jackets and similar installations ing, as a minimum:
are:
— the trawl gear mass and velocity
— wind-induced forces, in particular wind-induced vortex — the effective added mass and velocity.
shedding, on parts which are designed to be submerged
after installation of the load-bearing structure The impact energy shall be used for testing of the pipeline
— deflections/forces generated during load-out of the load- coatings and possible denting of the pipeline wall thickness. In
bearing structure case piggy-back lines these shall also have adequate safety
— transportation forces due to barge movements against trawl impacts. Reference is given to DNV-RP-F111.
— launch forces due to deflection and hydrodynamic loads 106 Other 3rd party interference loads shall be calculated
(drag, slam and slap) on the structure using recognised methods.
— deflections/forces generated during installation of load-
bearing structure
— inertia loads on the riser supports/guides due to pile driv-
ing F. Accidental Loads
— re-distribution of support forces when possible temporary F 100 General
riser supports are removed and the riser turned into the
final position 101 Loads which are imposed on a pipeline system under
— cold springing of the risers (elastic pre-deformations) abnormal and unplanned conditions and with an annual proba-
bility of occurrence less than 10-2 shall be classified as acci-
— tie-in forces generated when the riser is connected to the dental loads.
tie-in spool/pipeline
— dynamic loads from pre-commissioning activities, e.g. 102 Typical accidental loads can be caused by:
flooding and de-watering with pigs. — extreme wave and current loads
— vessel impact or other drifting items (collision, grounding,
109 The load combinations to be considered shall be selected sinking, iceberg)
to reflect the most severe load combinations likely to be
encountered during the construction phase under considera- — dropped objects
tion. — seabed movement and/or mud slides
— explosion
110 The most severe load effect may be taken as mean ±3 — fire and heat flux
standard deviations unless otherwise stated. — operational malfunction

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.4 – Page 39

— dragging anchors. case of functional, environmental, interference and accidental


loads. The 100-year load effect is the load with an annual prob-
103 Size and frequency of accidental loads, for a specific ability of 10-2 of exceedance in a period of one year.
pipeline system, may be defined through risk analyses. Refer-
ence is also made to DNV-RP-F107 Risk Assessment of Pipe- 102 The most critical combination is normally governed by
line Protection. extreme functional, environmental, interference or accidental
load effect. These have been denoted design cases. Unless spe-
cial evaluation of critical 100-year design case is carried out,
the design cases defined by combinations of characteristic load
G. Design Load Effects effects in Table 4-3 shall be used.
103 In addition to the conditions defined above, fatigue limit
G 100 Design cases state and accidental condition shall also be checked. The char-
101 Each static limit state, see Sec.5 D, shall be checked for acteristic load definitions for this combination are given in
the load effect induced by the most critical 100-year design Table 4-3.

Table 4-3 Combinations of characteristic loads effects for different design cases
Design case Load Functional Environmental Interference Accidental
combination5) load load load load
Functional design case a, b 100-year1) 1-year Associated NA
Environmental design case a, b Associated2) 100-year3) Associated NA
Interference design case b Associated2) Associated UB NA
Fatigue design4) case c Associated Associated Associated NA
Accidental design case d Associated Associated Associated BE
Characteristic load definition
n-year: Most probable maximum in n years, UB: Upper Bound, BE: Best estimate
1) This will normally be equivalent to an internal pressure equal to the local incidental pressure combined with expected associated values of other functional
loads.
2) This will normally be equivalent to an internal pressure and temperature not less than the operating pressure and the temperature profiles.
3) As defined in C607.
4) The fatigue design load shall be cyclic functional loading (start-up and shut-down), random environmental load (e.g. wave and current spectra) and
repeated interference loading. The load combinations shall be associated.
5) The referred combinations is given in Table 4-4.

G 200 Load combinations Guidance note:


201 The design load effect can generally be expressed in the The load combinations to the left are referred to explicitly in the
design criteria, e.g. Eq. (5.19).
following format:
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
LSd = LF ⋅ γ F ⋅ γ c + LE ⋅ γ E + LI ⋅ γ F ⋅ γ c + LA ⋅ γ A ⋅ γ c (4.4)
202 The design load effect shall be calculated for each
In specific forms, this corresponds to: design case, see G100 for all relevant load combinations, Table
4-4. The different ULS design load effects are referred to in the
(4.5) different local buckling limit states.
M Sd = M F ⋅ γ F ⋅ γ c + M E ⋅ γ E + M I ⋅ γ F ⋅ γ c + M A ⋅ γ A ⋅ γ c
ε Sd = ε F ⋅ γ F ⋅ γ c + ε E ⋅ γ E + ε I ⋅ γ F ⋅ γ c + ε A ⋅ γ A ⋅ γ c (4.6)
S Sd = S F ⋅ γ F ⋅ γ c + S E ⋅ γ E + S I ⋅ γ F ⋅ γ c + S A ⋅ γ A ⋅ γ c (4.7)

Table 4-4 Load effect factors and load combinations


Limit State / Load Design load combination Functional loads 1) Environmental load Interference loads Accidental loads
combination γ γE γF γA
F
ULS a System check2) 1.2 0.7
b Local check 1.1 1.3 1.1
FLS c 1.0 1.0 1.0
ALS d 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
1) If the functional load effect reduces the combined load effects, γF shall be taken as 1/1.1.
2) This load combination shall only be checked when system effects are present, i.e. when the major part of the pipeline is exposed to the same functional
load. This will typically only apply to pipeline installation.

Guidance note: b) for local scenarios and shall always be considered.


The partial safety factors in DNV-OS-F101 have been deter- When system effects are present, the pipeline will fail at its weak-
mined by structural reliability methods to a pre-defined failure est point. Hence, the likely load shall be combined with the
probability. Structural reliability calculations differentiate extreme low resistance. Applied to pipelines system effect can be
between single joint failures (local checks) and series system expressed as the weakest link principle (where the chain gets
failures (system effects). weaker the longer the chain is). This is characterised by that the
whole pipeline is exposed to the same load over time.
These two kinds of scenarios are expressed as two different load
combinations in DNV-OS-F101: Applied to pipelines, system effects are present for:
- pressure containment
a) shall only be considered for scenarios where system effects - collapse, in as installed configuration
are present - installation.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 40 – Sec.4 see note on front cover

The first two are handled with explicitly by the use of thickness quate, model or full-scale tests may be required.
t1. This is also why thickness t2 and not t1 is used for the burst
capacity in the local buckling for pressurised pipes, since it is a 303 When determining responses to dynamic loads, the
local check. dynamic effect shall be taken into account if deemed signifi-
Regarding installation, an extreme environmental load is not cant.
likely to occur when the weakest pipe section is at the most 304 When non-linear material is required in the analyses the
exposed location indicating that system effects not are present. stress-strain curve shall based on specified minimum values
However, combined with a more representative environmental accounting for temperature derating (fy and fu) considered
load (in the extreme case, “flat sea”), the whole pipeline will
undergo the same deformation “over time”, hence, having a sys- being engineering stress values, except for when the mean or
tem effect present. upper bound values are explicitly required by the procedure
(e.g. for fracture mechanics applications). The use of true ver-
In Table 4-3, load combination a has a 10% increase in the func-
tional load to cover the system effect combined with a 0.7 factor sus engineering stress strain curve shall be consistent with the
on the extreme environmental load giving a more “representa- FE-program applied.
tive” environmental load, applicable for the above. Guidance note:
Another example of where system effects are present is for reel- The strain at fu is normally considerably less than the fracture
ing where the whole pipe also will undergo the same deformation strain and is normally in the order of 6-10%. This should be
(neglecting the variation in drum diameter increase). For this determined from tests of similar material.
application, a condition factor of 0.82 also applies, giving the
total load effect factor of 1.0. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
Hence, load combination b shall always be checked while load 305 Load effect calculation shall be performed applying
combination a normally is checked for installation only.
nominal cross section values unless otherwise required by the
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- code.
203 The condition load effect factor applies to the conditions 306 The effective axial force that determines the global
in Table 4-5. Condition load effect factors are in addition to the response of a pipeline is denoted S. Counting tensile force as
load effect factors and are referred to explicitly in Eq. (4.5, 4.6 positive:
and 4.7).

Table 4-5 Condition load effect factors, γ C


π
4
(
S( pi ) = N − pi ⋅ Ai + pe ⋅ Ae = N − ⋅ pi ⋅ (D− 2⋅ t2 ) − pe ⋅ D2 (4.8)
2
)
Condition γc
Pipeline resting on uneven seabed 1.07 307 Split up into functional, environmental and accidental
effective force, the following applies:
Continuously stiff supported 0.82
System pressure test
Otherwise
0.93
1.00
S F ( pi ) = N F − pi ⋅ Ai + pe ⋅ Ae = N F −
π
4
(
⋅ pi ⋅ (D − 2 ⋅ t 2 ) − pe ⋅ D 2
2
)
Guidance note: (4.9)
An uneven seabed condition is relevant in connection with free-
spanning pipelines. If uncertainties in soil conditions and possi- SE = NE
ble trawl interference are accounted for, a lower γc is allowed. SA = NA
Reference is given to DNV-RP-F110 Global Buckling of Subma-
rine Pipelines – Structural Design due to High Temperature/High 308 In the as-laid condition, when the pipe temperature and
Pressure. internal pressure are the same as when the pipe was laid,
Continuously stiff supported denotes conditions where the main
part of the load is also displacement controlled. Examples may be (4.10)
reeling on the drum or J-tube pull-in. S=H
Several condition factors may be required simultaneously, e.g. Where H is the effective (residual) lay tension. The effective
for pressure testing of pipelines on uneven seabed, the resulting residual lay tension may be determined by comparing the as-
condition factor will be 1.07 · 0.93 = 1.00. laid survey data to results from FE analysis.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 309 Effective axial force of a totally restrained pipe in the
linear elastic stress range is:
G 300 Load effect calculations
301 The design analyses shall be based on accepted princi- S = H − Δpi ⋅ Ai ⋅ (1 − 2 ⋅ν ) − As ⋅ E ⋅ α ⋅ ΔT (4.11)
ples of statics, dynamics, strength of materials and soil
mechanics. where:
302 Simplified methods or analyses may be used to calculate
the load effects provided that they are conservative. Model H = Effective (residual) lay tension
tests may be used in combination with, or instead of, theoreti- Δ pi = Internal pressure difference relative to as laid
cal calculations. In cases where theoretical methods are inade- ΔΤ = Temperature difference relative to as laid.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.5 – Page 41

SECTION 5
DESIGN – LIMIT STATE CRITERIA

A. General 104 The routing of risers and J-tubes shall be based on the
following considerations:
A 100 Objective
— platform configuration and topsides layout
101 This section provides design and acceptance criteria for — space requirements
the possible modes of structural failure in pipeline systems. — movements of the Riser or J-tube
A 200 Application — cable/pipeline approach
— Riser or J-tube protection
201 This standard includes no limitations on water depth. — in-service inspection and maintenance
However, when this standard is applied in deep water where — installation considerations.
experience is limited, special consideration shall be given to:
105 Crossing pipelines should be kept separated by a mini-
— other failure mechanisms than those given in this section mum vertical distance of 0.3 m.
— validity of parameter range (environmental/design/opera-
tional parameters) 106 The submarine pipeline system shall be protected
— dynamic effects. against unacceptable damage caused by e.g. dropped objects,
fishing gear, ships, anchoring etc. Protection may be achieved
202 This standard does not specify any explicit limitations by one or a combination of the following means:
with respect to elastic displacements or vibrations, provided
that the effects of large displacements and dynamic behaviour, — concrete coating
including fatigue effect of vibrations, operational constraints — burial
and ratcheting, are taken into account in the strength analyses. — cover (e.g. sand, gravel, mattress)
— other mechanical protection.
203 The local buckling criteria, see D300-D600, are only
applicable to pipelines that are straight in stress-free condition 107 Relative settlement between the protective structure and
and are not applicable to e.g. bends. the submarine pipeline system shall be properly assessed in the
204 For parts of the submarine pipeline system which extend design of protective structures, and shall cover the full design
onshore complementary requirements are given in life of the submarine pipeline system. Adequate clearance
Appendix F. between the pipeline components and the members of the pro-
tective structure shall be provided to avoid fouling.
205 For spiral welded pipes, the following additional limita-
tions apply: 108 Structural items should not be welded directly to pres-
sure containing parts or linepipe due to the increased local
— when supplementary requirement F (fracture arrest prop- stress on the linepipe. External supports, attachments etc. shall
erties) is specified, see Sec.7, the possibility for a running be welded to a doubler plate or ring. The doubler plate or ring
fracture to continue from a weld in one pipe joint to the shall be designed with sufficient thickness to avoid stresses on
weld of the next pipe joint shall be assessed the linepipe. In case structural items are integrated in the pipe-
— external pressure resistance should be documented line, e.g. pipe in pipe bulkheads, and are welded directly to the
— the design shall be based on the load controlled condition, linepipe, detailed stress analyses are required in order to docu-
see D600, unless the feasibility for use of displacement ment sufficiently low stress to ensure resistance against
controlled condition can be documented. fatigue, fracture and yielding.
Guidance note: 109 Permanent doubler rings and plates shall be made of
The limitations to fracture arrest and load controlled condition materials satisfying the requirements for pressure containing
are due to limited experience with spiral welded pipes subjected parts. Doubler plates shall be circular. For gas service and liq-
to running fracture or large strains. uid service above 137 bar, doubler rings shall be used. For
duplex stainless steels and 13Cr martensitic stainless steels no
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- attachments are permitted unless a stress analysis is performed
in each case to determine that local stresses will not exceed
0.8 fy.
110 Doubler rings shall be made as fully encircling sleeves
B. System Design Principles with the longitudinal welds made with backing strips, and
B 100 Submarine pipeline system layout avoiding penetration into the main pipe material. Other welds
shall be continuous, and made in a manner minimising the risk
101 System lay out, including need for different valves etc., of root cracking and lamellar tearing. The toe of welds attach-
shall be designed such that the requirements imposed by the ing anode pads, doubler plates and branch welding fittings,
systematic review of the process control are met, see Sec.2 B. when permitted, shall have a toe-to-toe distance from other
102 The submarine pipeline system should not be routed welds of minimum 4 · t or 100 mm, whichever is larger.
close to other structures, other pipeline systems, wrecks, boul- 111 Girth welds shall not be inaccessible under doubler
ders, etc. The minimum distance should be determined based rings, clamps, or other parts of supports.
upon anticipated deflections, hydrodynamic effects, and upon
risk-based evaluations. The detailed routing shall take the min- 112 Riser and J-tube supports shall be designed to ensure a
imum established distance into account. smooth transition of forces between riser/J-tube and support.
103 Pipelines, risers and J-tubes should be routed inside the 113 For requirements to transitions, see F110 through F113.
structure to avoid vessel impact, and shall be protected against 114 Pipelines in C-Mn steel for potentially corrosive fluids
impact loads from vessels and other mechanical interaction. of categories B, D and E (see Sec.2 C) should be designed for
Risers and J-tubes should not be located inside the loading inspection pigging. In cases where the pipeline design does not
zones of platforms. allow inspection pigging, an analysis shall be carried out in

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 42 – Sec.5 see note on front cover

accordance with recognised procedures to document that the — Medium and High Safety Class during normal operation:
risk of failure (i.e. the probability of failure multiplied by the
consequences of failure) leading to a leak is acceptable. For plt ≥ 1.05 · pli (5.1)
corrosive fluids of other categories the benefit of inspection
pigging on operational reliability shall be evaluated. — Low Safety Class during normal operation:
115 For piggable components the internal diameter of the
component shall meet the requirements imposed by the pig- plt ≥ 1.03 · pli (5.2)
train. Guidance note:
Guidance note: With an incidental pressure of 10% above design pressure, the
It is recommended that bends radius are designed with a radius above gives a system test pressure of approximately 1.15 times
not less than 5 x nominal internal pipe diameter. the local design pressure at the highest point of the pipeline sys-
tem part tested, see Figure 1.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

B 200 Mill pressure test and system pressure test Resulting


test pressure System test
201 The purposes of the mill test are:

Internal pressure
Local requirement
Local
incidental 5% above pli
design
— to constitute a pressure containment proof test pressure
pressure, pli

— to ensure that all pipe sections have a minimum yield


stress.
Filled with Filled with
Therefore, the mill test pressure is defined in terms of stress water operating
utilisation, see Sec.7 E100, rather than in terms of design pres- 1 content
sure. ρtest⋅g 1
ρcont⋅g
Guidance note:
“in terms of stress utilisation” implies that the same structural Water depth
utilisation will be achieved independent on temperature de-rating
or corrosion allowance used in the design. Figure 1
Illustration of local pressures and requirements to system
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- pressure test

202 The purpose of the system pressure test is to prove the


pressure containment integrity of the submarine pipeline sys- ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
tem, i.e. it constitutes a leakage test after completed construc-
tion disclosing gross errors. 204 Alternative means to prove the same level of safety as
203 The pipeline system shall be system pressure tested after with the system pressure test is allowed by agreement given
installation in accordance with Sec.10 O500 unless this is that the mill pressure test requirement of Sec.7 E100 has been
waived by agreement in accordance with 204 below. The local met and not waived in accordance with Sec.7 E107.
test pressure (plt) during the system pressure test shall fulfil the The industries knowledge and track record to date implies the
following requirement: limitations in Table 5-1 for waiving the system pressure test.

Table 5-1 Requirements to waive system pressure test


Requirement
Other aspects with respect to system pressure test than pressure con-
tainment integrity such as cleaning, contractual, shall be agreed.
An inspection and test regime for the entire submarine pipeline system Guidance note:
shall be established and demonstrated to provide the same level of The requirement implies that a reporting limit lower than the
safety as the system pressure test with respect to detectable defect acceptance criteria shall be used. This enables tracking of tenden-
sizes etc.; Records shall show that the specified requirements have cies such that it can be documented that the criteria has been con-
consistently been obtained during manufacture, fabrication and instal- sistently met. It will also indicate systematic errors
lation.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
Less than 75% of the pressure containment design resistance shall be Guidance note:
utilised The requirement implies that external pressure governs the wall
thickness design. The advantage of the system pressure test is
normally limited for deep water pipelines, hence, the criteria. The
limitation implies that the wall thickness shall be at least 33%
larger than required by the pressure containment criterion.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
The linepipe shall be seamless or produced by the SAW method. Guidance note:
Repairs by other methods are allowed by agreement. Other welding methods have to date not proved similar degree of
quality as SAW. SAW is not required for the girth welds
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.5 – Page 43

Table 5-1 Requirements to waive system pressure test (Continued)


Requirement
All components and risers shall be hydrostatically pressure tested dur- Guidance note:
ing manufacture. Components include flanges, valves, fittings, mechanical con-
nectors, induction bends, couplings and repair clamps, pig traps
etc.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
Automated Ultrasonic Testing (AUT) shall be performed after instal- Guidance note:
lation welding. Alternative NDT methods proven to give the same AUT is normally required in order to ensure that no critical
detectability and sizing accuracy may be allowed by agreement. defects exist. The acceptance criterion is often based on an ECA
linking the fracture toughness, defects and loads. A reporting
limit less than this acceptance criteria is required in order to
ensure that there is no systematic error on the welding and to
prove that the criteria are systematically met.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
The pipeline shall not be exposed to accumulated nominal plastic
strains exceeding 2% after AUT.
Installation and intervention work shall be unlikely to have caused Guidance note:
damage to the submarine pipeline system. Special attention shall here be given to ploughing, other trenching
methods or third party damages e.g. anchor chains of wires.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

205 During system pressure test, all limit states for safety the following format:
class low shall be satisfied (see D).
Rc ( f c , tc )
B 300 Operating requirements RRd = (5.4)
γ m ⋅ γ SC
301 Operating requirements affecting safety and reliability
of the pipeline system shall be identified during the design where
phase, and shall be documented in the DFI Resumé and
Rc is the characteristic resistance
reflected in the PIM system.
fc is the characteristic material strength,
see Eq. 5.5 and Eq.5.6
tc is the characteristic thickness, see Table 5-2 and
Table 5-3
C. Design Format γm, γSC are the partial resistance factors, see Table 5-4
and 5-5
C 100 General
202 Two different characterisations of the wall thickness are
101 The design format in this standard is based on a Load used; t1 and t2 and are referred to explicitly in the design crite-
and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) format. ria. Thickness t1 is used where failure is likely to occur in con-
nection with a low capacity (i.e. system effects are present)
102 The fundamental principle of the LRFD format is to ver- while thickness t2 is used where failure is likely to occur in
ify that design load effects, LSd, do not exceed design resist- connection with an extreme load effect at a location with aver-
ances, RRd, for any of the considered failure modes in any age thickness. These are defined in Table 5-2.
scenario:
Table 5-2 Characteristic wall thickness
Prior to operation1) Operation2)
⎛⎛ L ⎞ ⎞⎟ (5.3)
f ⎜ ⎜⎜ Sd ⎟⎟ ≤ 1 t1 t-tfab t-tfab-tcorr
⎜ ⎝ RRd ⎠ i ⎟⎠
⎝ t2 t t-tcorr
Where the fractions i denotes the different loading types that 1) Is intended when there is negligible corrosion (mill pressure test, con-
enters the design criterion struction (installation) and system pressure test condition). If corrosion
exist, this shall be subtracted similar to as for operation.
103 A design load effect is obtained by combining the char- 2) Is intended when there is corrosion
acteristic load effects from the different load categories by cer-
tain load effect factors, see Sec.4 G. Guidance note:
If relevant, the erosion allowance shall be compensated for in the
104 A design resistance is obtained by dividing the charac- similar way as the corrosion allowance.
teristic resistance by resistance factors that depends on the
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
safety class, reflecting the consequences of failures, see 200.
203 Minimum wall thickness independent on limit state
C 200 Design resistance requirements are given in Table 5-3.
201 The design resistance, RRd, can normally be expressed in

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 44 – Sec.5 see note on front cover

Table 5-3 Minimum wall thickness requirements


Nominal diameter Safety Class Location class Minimum thickness
≥ 219 mm (8”) High 2 12 mm unless equivalent protection against accidental loads, other external loads
and excessive corrosion is provided by other means
Low and All -
Medium
< 219 mm (8”) High 2 Special evaluation of accidental loads or other external loads and excessive corro-
sion shall be included in the determination of minimum required wall thickness
Low and All -
Medium
The minimum wall thickness requirement is based on failure statistics, which liner on a steel pipe shall not be taken into account in the char-
clearly indicate that impact loads and corrosion are the most likely causes of acteristic resistance, unless the strengthening effect is docu-
failure and have the decisive effect on thickness design (not D/t2).
mented.
204 Wall thickness for stability calculations is given in
E404. C 300 Characteristic material properties
205 The material resistance factor, γm, is dependent on the 301 Characteristic material properties shall be used in the
limit state category and is defined in Table 5-4. resistance calculations. The yield stress and tensile strength in
the limit state formulations shall be based on the engineering
Table 5-4 Material resistance factor, γm stress-strain curve.
Limit state category1) SLS/ULS/ALS FLS 302 The characteristic material strength fy and fu, values to
γm 1.15 1.00 be used in the limit state criteria are:

1) The limit states (SLS, ULS, ALS and FLS) are defined in D. (
f y = SMYS − f y ,temp ⋅ α U ) (5.5)
206 Based on potential failure consequences the pipeline fu = (SMTS − f )⋅ α (5.6)
shall be classified into a safety class see Sec.2 C400. This will u ,temp U

be reflected in the safety level by the Safety Class resistance


factor γSC given in Table 5-5. Where:
fy,temp and fu,temp are the de-rating values due to the tempera-
The safety class may vary for different phases and different ture of the yield stress and the tensile
locations. strength respectively, see 304.
αU is the material strength factor, see Table 5-6.
Table 5-5 Safety class resistance factors, γ SC
303 The different mechanical properties refer to room tem-
γ SC perature unless otherwise stated.
Safety class Low Medium High 304 The material properties shall be selected with due regard
Pressure containment 2) 1.046 3),4) 1.138 1.308 1) to material type and potential temperature and/or ageing
Other 1.04 1.14 1.26 effects and shall include:
1) For parts of pipelines in location class 1, resistance safety class medium — yield stress
may be applied (1.138). — tensile strength
2) The number of significant digits is given in order to comply with the ISO — Young's modulus
usage factors. — temperature expansion coefficient.
3) Safety class low will be governed by the system pressure test which is
required to be 3% above the incidental pressure. Hence, for operation in For C-Mn steel this shall be considered for temperatures above
safety class low, the resistance factor will effectively be 3% higher. 50°C, and for 22Cr and 25Cr for temperatures above 20°C.
4) For system pressure test, αU shall be equal to 1.00, which gives an allow- Guidance note:
able hoop stress of 96% of SMYS both for materials fulfilling supple-
mentary requirement U and those not. Field joint coating application during installation may also
impose temperatures in excess of the above and shall be consid-
207 Possible beneficial strengthening effect of weight coat- ered.
ing on a steel pipe shall not be taken into account in the char- ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
acteristic resistance, unless the strengthening effect is
documented. Coating which adds significant bending stiffness Guidance note:
to the pipe may increase the stresses/strains in the pipe at any If no other information of de-rating effects on the yield stress
discontinuity in the coating (e.g. at field joints). When appro- exist the recommendations for C-Mn steel and Duplex steels Fig-
priate, this effect shall be taken into account. ure 2 below may be used. For 13Cr testing is normally required.
208 Possible beneficial strengthening effect of cladding or ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.5 – Page 45

308 For material susceptible to HISC, see Sec.6 D500.


C 400 Stress and strain calculations
401 Stress Concentration Factors (SCF) shall be included if
relevant.
Guidance note:
Distinction should be made between global and local stress con-
centrations.
Local stress concentrations (that may be caused by welded
attachments, the weld itself, or very local discontinuities) will
C-Mn affect the pipe only locally and are typically accounted for in
fatigue and fracture evaluations. Global stress concentrations
(such as stress amplifications in field joints due to concrete coat-
ing, which typically extend one diameter) will affect the pipe glo-
bally, and shall be accounted for in the bending buckling
evaluations as well as fatigue and fracture evaluations.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

402 Strain Concentration Factors (SNCF) shall be deter-


mined and accounted for if plastic strain is experienced. The
SNCF shall be adjusted for the non-linear stress-strain rela-
Figure 2 tionship for the relevant load level.
Proposed de-rating values for yield stress of C-Mn
and duplex stainless steels (DSS). Different approaches for calculation of the SNCF for fracture
assessment are specified in Appendix A.
403 Strain concentrations shall be accounted for when con-
Guidance note: sidering:
If no other information on de-rating effect of the ultimate stress
exists, the de-rating of the yield stress can be conservatively — uneven deformation caused by variations in actual mate-
applied. rial yield stress and strain hardenability between pipe
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- joints and in the weld metal due to scatter in material prop-
erties
305 Any difference in the de-rating effect of temperature for — variations in cross sectional area (actual diameter or wall
tension and compression shall be accounted for. thickness) between pipe joints
— stiffening effects of coating and variations in coating
Guidance note:
thickness
Difference in de-rating effect for tension and compression has — reduction of yield stress in field joints due to high temper-
been experienced on 13Cr steel material. ature imposed by field joint coating application during
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- installation
— undermatch/overmatch of actual weld metal yield stress,
306 The material factor, αU, depend on Supplementary relative to actual pipe material yield stress.
requirement U as shown in Table 5-6.
404 Nominal plastic strain increment shall be calculated
Table 5-6 Material Strength factor, αU from the point where the material stress-strain curve deviates
Factor Normally Supplementary requirement U from a linear relationship, see Figure 3.
αU 0.96 1.00
Stress
Note: For system pressure test, αU shall be equal to 1.00, which gives an
allowable hoop stress of 96% of SMYS both for materials fulfilling supple-
mentary requirement U and those not. This is equivalent to the mill test utili-
sation. SMYS
Guidance note:
The application of Supplementary requirement U requires docu-
mentation after the manufacture and shall be used with care. Plastic Strain
Based on production data, it may be used for future upgrade of
the pipeline Total Strain

---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

307 For manufacturing processes which introduce cold


deformations giving different strength in tension and compres- 0.5% Strain
sion, a fabrication factor, αfab, shall be determined. If no other
information exists, maximum fabrication factors for pipes Figure 3
manufactured by the UOE or UO processes are given in Reference for plastic strain calculation
Table 5-7.
The fabrication factor may be improved through heat treatment
or external cold sizing (compression), if documented. Guidance note:
The yield stress is defined as the stress at which the total strain is
Table 5-7 Maximum fabrication factor, α fab 0.5%. As an example for a 415 grade C-Mn steel, a unidirectional
strain of 0.5% corresponds to an elastic strain of approximately
Pipe Seamless UO & TRB & UOE 0.2% and a plastic strain of 0.3%.
ERW
α fab 1.00 0.93 0.85 ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 46 – Sec.5 see note on front cover

D. Limit States — system collapse (external pressure only)


— propagation buckling
D 100 General — combined loading criteria, i.e. interaction between exter-
101 All relevant limit states (failure modes) shall be consid- nal or internal pressure, axial force and bending moment.
ered in design for all relevant phases and conditions listed in
Sec.4. These will be given in the following sub-sections.
Guidance note: 302 Large accumulated plastic strain may aggravate local
As a minimum requirement, the submarine pipeline system shall buckling and shall be considered.
be designed against the following potential modes of failure:
D 400 Local Buckling – External over pressure only
Serviceability Limit State (System collapse)
- ovalisation/ ratcheting limit state 401 The characteristic resistance for external pressure (pc)
- accumulated plastic strain and strain ageing (collapse) shall be calculated as:
- large displacements
- damage due to, or loss of, weight coating.
Ultimate Limit State
( pc (t ) − pel (t )) ⋅ ( pc (t )2 − p p (t )2 ) = pc (t ) ⋅ pel (t ) ⋅ p p (t ) ⋅ f 0 ⋅ D
- bursting limit state t
- ovalisation/ratcheting limit state (if causing total failure) (5.10)
- local buckling limit state (pipe wall buckling limit state)
- global buckling limit state (normally for load-controlled where:
condition)
- fatigue
3
- unstable fracture and plastic collapse limit state ⎛ t ⎞
- impact. 2⋅ E ⋅⎜ ⎟ (5.11)
pel (t ) = ⎝D⎠
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
1 −ν 2
102 In case no specific design criterion is given for a specific 2⋅t
limit state this shall be developed in compliance with the safety p p (t ) = f y ⋅ α fab ⋅ (5.12)
philosophy in Sec.2. D
D m ax – D min
D 200 Pressure containment (bursting) f o = --------------------------------
D (5.13)
201 The following criteria are valid provided that the mill
pressure test requirement in Sec.7 E100 has been met. If not, a not to be taken < 0.005 (0.5%)
corresponding decreased utilisation shall be applied.
202 The pressure containment shall fulfil the following cri- αfab is the fabrication factor, see Table 5-7
teria: Guidance note:
In the above formulas, t shall be replaced by t1 or t2 as given in
pb (t1 ) (5.7)
the design criteria.
plx − p e ≤
γ m ⋅ γ SC ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

Guidance note:
Where
Ovalisation caused during the construction phase shall be
plx = pli during operation, (see Sec.3 B300 and 4 B200) and included in the total ovality to be used in design. Ovalisation due
plx = plt during system test. to external water pressure or bending moment shall not be
included.
203 The pressure containment resistance pb(t) is given by:
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

2⋅t 2 402 The external pressure at any point along the pipeline
pb (t ) = ⋅ f cb ⋅ (5.8)
D −t 3 shall meet the following criterion (system collapse check):

where pc (t1 )
p e − p min ≤ (5.14)
⎡ f ⎤ γ m ⋅ γ SC
f cb = Min ⎢ f y ; u ⎥ (5.9)
⎣ 1.15 ⎦ where
Guidance note: pmin is the minimum internal pressure that can be sustained.
In the above formulae, t shall be replaced by t1 when used in Eq This is normally taken as zero for as-laid pipeline.
5.7 and t2 when used in Eq. 5.19.
Guidance note:
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
The system collapse will occur at the weakest point in the pipe-
line. This will normally be represented by fy and the minimum
204 Reduction in pressure containment resistance due to true wall thickness, t1.
compressive forces (load controlled), N, shall be considered.
Reference is made to DNV-RP-F101 Corroded Pipelines. A seamless produced linepipe’s weakest section may not be well
represented by the minimum wall thickness since it is not likely to
D 300 Local buckling - General be present around the whole circumference. A larger thickness,
between t1 and t2, may be used for such pipes if this can be docu-
301 Local buckling (pipe wall buckling) implies gross defor- mented representing the lowest collapse capacity of the pipeline.
mation of the cross section. The following criteria shall be ful-
filled: ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.5 – Page 47

D 500 Propagation buckling it is recommended to have a larger confidence and a safety class
higher than for the propagating pressure is recommended.
501 Propagation buckling cannot be initiated unless local
buckling has occurred. In case the external pressure exceeds ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
the criteria given below, buckle arrestors should be installed
and spacing determined based on cost and spare pipe philoso- D 600 Local Buckling - Combined Loading Criteria
phy. The propagating buckle criterion reads:
601 Differentiation is made between:
p pr — Load Controlled condition (LC condition)
pe < (5.15) — Displacement Controlled condition (DC condition).
γ m ⋅ γ SC
Different design checks apply to these two conditions.
where
602 A load-controlled condition is one in which the struc-
tural response is primarily governed by the imposed loads.
2.5
⎛t ⎞ D/t2 < 45 (5.16) 603 A displacement-controlled condition is one in which the
p pr = 35 ⋅ f y ⋅ α fab ⎜ 2 ⎟
⎝D⎠ structural response is primarily governed by imposed geomet-
ric displacements.
αfab is the fabrication factor, see Table 5-7 604 A load controlled design criterion can always be applied
Guidance note: in place of a displacement controlled design criterion.
Collapse pressure, pc, is the pressure required to buckle a pipeline. Guidance note:
Initiation pressure, pinit, is the pressure required to start a propa- An example of a purely displacement-controlled condition is a
gating buckle from a given buckle. This pressure will depend on pipeline bent into conformity with a continuous curved structure,
the size of the initial buckle. such as a J-tube or on a reel. In that case, the curvature of the pipe
Propagating pressure, ppr, is the pressure required to continue a axis is imposed but the circumferential bending that leads to
propagating buckle. A propagating buckle will stop when the ovalisation is determined by the interaction between the curva-
pressure is less than the propagating pressure. ture of the axis and the internal forces induced by the curvature.
The relationship between the different pressures are: A less clear-cut example is a pipeline in contact with the rollers
of a lay barge stinger. On a large scale, the configuration of the
pc > pinit > ppr pipeline has to conform to the rollers, and in that sense is dis-
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- placement controlled. On a local scale however, bending of the
pipe between the rollers is determined by the interaction between
Guidance note: weight and tension and is load-controlled. The stinger tip will,
The safety class and amount of metal loss due to corrosion shall however, always be load controlled.
be determined based on the probability and possibility of experi- Another intermediate case is an expansion spool in contact with
encing a high external over pressure during operation. For liquid the seabed. Pipeline expansion induced by temperature and pres-
pipelines, safety class low and non-corroded cross section is nor- sure imposes a displacement at the end of the spool. The struc-
mally used while other properties may be used for gas pipelines tural response of the spool itself has little effect on the imposed
since they may experience a nearly zero internal pressure in the expansion displacement, and the response is primarily displace-
operational phase. ment-controlled. However, the lateral resistance to movement of
Note that the possibility of a propagating buckle shall not be the spool across the seabed also plays a significant part and
combined with the likelihood of getting an initiating event in the induces a degree of load control.
shut-down time span, since a dent caused during the pressurised The answer to the question on if a condition is load controlled or
condition, may start propagating as the internal pressure is lost. displacement controlled is impossible since the questions in
wrong, the question should be; how can one take partial benefit
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- of that a condition is partially displacement controlled element?
On a general basis this needs sensitivity analyses. A load control-
502 A buckle arrestor capacity depends on led criterion can, however, always be applied
— propagating buckle resistance of adjacent pipe ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
— propagating buckle resistance of an infinite buckle arrestor
— length of arrestor. Load controlled condition
605 Pipe members subjected to bending moment, effective
An integral buckle arrestor may be designed by: axial force and internal overpressure shall be designed to sat-
isfy the following condition at all cross sections:
pX
pe ≤ (5.17) 2
1.1 ⋅ γ m ⋅ γ SC ⎧ M Sd ⎧⎪ γ ⋅ γ ⋅ S ( p )⎫⎪ ⎫⎪ ⎛
2
p − pe ⎞
2

⎨γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ + ⎨ m SC Sd i ⎬ ⎬ + ⎜⎜ α p ⋅ i ⎟⎟ ≤ 1
⎪⎩ α c ⋅ M p (t 2 ) ⎪⎩ α c ⋅ S p (t 2 ) ⎪⎭ ⎪ ⎝ α c ⋅ pb (t 2 ) ⎠
where the crossover pressure px is ⎭
(5.19a)
⎡ ⎛ t ⋅ L ⎞⎤
(
p X = p pr + p pr , BA − p pr ) ⋅ ⎢1 − EXP⎜ − 20 2 2BA ⎟⎥ (5.18)
⎣ ⎝ D ⎠⎦ 2
⎧⎪ M Sd ' (t2 ) ⎧ γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ S Sd ' ( pi , t2 ) ⎫ ⎫⎪ ⎛
2
pi − pe ⎞
2

⎨γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ +⎨ ⎜
⎬ ⎬ + ⎜α p ⋅ ⎟ ≤1
ppr,BA is the propagating buckle capacity of an infinite arres- ⎪⎩ αc ⎩ αc ⎭ ⎪⎭ ⎝ α c ⋅ pb (t2 ) ⎟⎠
tor. This is calculated by Eq. 5.16 with the buckle arre-
stor properties (5.19b)
LBA buckle arrestor length
Applies for D/t2 ≤ 45, Pi > Pe
Guidance note:
The propagating buckle criterion, Eq. 5.15, corresponds to a where
nominal failure probability that is one order of magnitude higher
than the target nominal failure probability. This is because it is MSd is the design moment, see Eq. 4.5
dependent on an initiating even. However, for a buckle arrestor, SSd is the design effective axial force, see Eq. 4.7

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 48 – Sec.5 see note on front cover

pi is the internal pressure, see Table 4-3 the following equation:


pe is the external pressure, see Sec.4 B300
pb is the burst pressure, Eq. 5.8 ⎧
2
⎧⎪ γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ S Sd ⎫⎪ ⎫⎪ ⎛
2 2
⎪ M Sd pe − pmin ⎞
Sp and Mp denote the plastic capacities for a pipe defined by: ⎨γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ +⎨ ⎬ ⎬ + ⎜⎜ γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ ⎟⎟ ≤ 1
⎪⎩ α c ⋅ M p (t2 ) ⎪⎩ α c ⋅ S p (t 2 ) ⎪⎭ ⎪ ⎝ pc (t2 ) ⎠

S p (t ) = f y ⋅ π ⋅ (D − t ) ⋅ t (5.20)
(5.28a)
M p (t ) = f y ⋅ (D − t ) ⋅ t
2
(5.21)
2
⎧⎪ M 'Sd (t2 ) ⎧ γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ S 'Sd (t2 ) ⎫ ⎫⎪ ⎛
2
pe − pmin ⎞
2

MSd’ = MSd/Mp (normalised moment) ⎨γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ +⎨ ⎬ ⎬ + ⎜⎜ γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ ⎟⎟ ≤ 1


⎪⎩ α c ⎩ α c ⎭ ⎪⎭ ⎝ pc (t2 ) ⎠
SSd’ = SSd/Sp (normalised effective force)
(5.28b)
f D/t2 ≤ 45, Pi < Pe
α c = (1 − β ) + β ⋅ u (5.22)
fy where
pmin is the minimum internal pressure that can be sustained.
⎧ pi − pe 2 This is normally taken as zero for installation except for
⎪ 1− β < cases where the pipeline is installed water filled.
⎪ pb 3
αp = ⎨ (5.23) pc is the characteristic collapse pressure, Eq. 5.10. This
⎛ ⎞
⎪1 − 3β ⎜1 − pi − pe ⎟ pi − pe 2

shall be based on thickness t2.
⎜ pb ⎟⎠
⎩⎪ ⎝ pb 3 Guidance note:
The left hand side of the combined loading criterion is referred to
⎧ 0.5 for D / t 2 < 15 as interaction ratio in order not to mix it with “unity check”. In a
⎪⎪⎛ 60 − D / t 2 ⎞ unity check, the loads are normally directly proportional to the uti-
β = ⎨⎜ ⎟ for 15 ≤ D / t 2 ≤ 60 (5.24) lisation while the load components are squared in this criterion.
⎪⎝ 90 ⎠ ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
⎪⎩ 0 for D / t 2 > 60
Displacement controlled condition
αc is a flow stress parameter and αp account for effect of D/t2 608 Pipe members subjected to longitudinal compressive
ratio. strain (bending moment and axial force) and internal over pres-
Guidance note: sure shall be designed to satisfy the following condition at all
cross sections:
The left hand side of the combined loading criterion is referred to
as interaction ratio in order not to mix it with “unity check”. In a
unity check, the loads are normally directly proportional to the ε c (t 2 , pmin − pe )
utilisation while the axial load and internal pressure are squared ε Sd ≤ ε Rd = D/t2 ≤ 45, pi ≥ pe (5.29)
in this criterion. γε
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- where:
Guidance note: εSd = Design compressive strain, Eq. (4.6)
In order to improve the engineering understanding, it is recom-
mended to use normalised moment, force and pressure as given ⎛ t ⎞ ⎛ p − pe ⎞
in the b equations. ε c (t , p min − p e ) = 0.78 ⋅ ⎜ − 0.01⎟ ⋅ ⎜⎜1 + 5.75 ⋅ min ⎟⎟ ⋅ α h −1.5 ⋅ α gw
⎝ D ⎠ ⎝ pb (t ) ⎠
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
(5.30)
606 If the pipeline in addition to the axial load, pressure and pmin = Minimum internal pressure that can be continuously
moment also has a lateral point load, this should be included sustained with the associated strain
by a modification of the plastic moment capacity as follows:
γε = Strain resistance factor, Table 5-8
M p ,point load = M p ⋅ α pm (5.25)
⎛R ⎞
αh = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ , Table 7.5 and Table 7.11
t 0,5

where ⎝ Rm ⎠ max
αpm = Plastic moment reduction factor accounting for point load αgw = See Sec.13 E1000.

D / t2 R 609 Pipe members subjected to longitudinal compressive


α pm = 1 − (5.26) strain (bending moment and axial force) and external over
130 R y pressure shall be designed to satisfy the following condition at
all cross sections:
R = Reaction force from point load
0.8
⎛ ⎞
R y = 3.9 ⋅ f y ⋅ t 2
2
(5.27) ⎜ ⎟
⎜ ε ⎟ pe − pmin (5.31)
Sd
+ ≤ 1 D/t2 < 45, pmin < pe
⎜ ε c (t 2 ,0) ⎟ pc (t 2 )
607 Pipe members subjected to bending moment, effective ⎜ γ ⎟
axial force and external overpressure shall be designed to satisfy ⎝ ε ⎠ γ m ⋅ γ SC

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.5 – Page 49

Guidance note: — exposed on un-even seabed


For D/t2 < 23, the utilisation may be increased provided that full — buried pipelines
scale testing, observation, or former experience indicate suffi- — reference is made to DNV-RP-F110 Global Buckling of
cient safety margin in compliance with this standard. Any Submarine Pipelines – Structural Design due to High
increased utilisation shall be supported by analytical design Temperature/High Pressure.
methods.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 708 It is not sufficient to design HP/HT pipelines for global
buckling based on "worst case condition" axial and lateral soil
Guidance note: resistance combined with displacement controlled local buck-
System effects are normally not present for local buckling con- ling criteria only. These upper and lower bound soil resistance
siderations and, hence, t2 should be used. However, for reeling, a values will typically have a probability of exceedance in the
large portion of the pipeline will be exposed to similar curvature order of a couple of per cent and will not alone prove a suffi-
and load combination “a” shall be used combined with the con- cient nominal failure probability. A more total evaluation of
dition factor of 0.82, yielding unity, and the nominal thickness the failure probability is, hence, required.
can be used also for this criteria. The thickness and yield stress
variation along the pipe, in particular between two pipe joints D 800 Fatigue
should be evaluated in addition to this system effect.
801 Reference is made to the following codes:
DNV-RP-C203 Fatigue Strength Analysis of Offshore Steel
Table 5-8 Resistance strain factors, γ e Structures
Safety class DNV-RP-C205 Environmental Conditions and Environmen-
Low Medium High tal Loads
2.0 2.5 3.3 DNV-RP-F105 Free Spanning Pipelines
DNV-RP-F204 Riser Fatigue.
610 A higher probability of failure corresponding to a serv- 802 The pipeline systems shall have adequate safety against
iceability limit state may be allowed during the installation fatigue failures within the design life of the system.
phase provided that:
803 All stress fluctuations imposed on the pipeline system
— aids to detect buckle are provided during the entire design life, including the construction phase,
— repair of potential damage is feasible and may be per- which have magnitude and corresponding number of cycles
formed during laying large enough to cause fatigue effects shall be taken into
— buckle arrestors are installed if the external pressure account when determining the long-term distribution of stress
exceeds the initiation propagating pressure. ranges. The fatigue check shall include both low-cycle fatigue
and high-cycle fatigue. The requirements regarding accumu-
Relevant resistance factors may then be calibrated according to lated plastic strain (D1000 below) shall also be satisfied.
the SLS requirements in Sec.2. Guidance note:
D 700 Global buckling Typical causes of stress fluctuations in a pipeline system are:
- direct wave action
701 Global buckling implies buckling of the pipe as a bar in - vibrations of the pipeline system, e.g. due to vortex shedding
compression. The pipeline may buckle globally, either down- (current, waves, wind, towing) or fluid flow
wards (in a free span), laterally ("snaking" on the seabed), or - supporting structure movements
vertically (as upheaval buckling of a buried pipeline or on a - fluctuations in operating pressure and temperature.
free-span shoulder of an exposed pipeline). Locations to be checked are the girth welds, seam welds and con-
702 The effect of internal and external pressures should be struction details. Seam welds will be more vulnerable to fatigue
taken into account using the concept of an effective axial force, for higher steel grades.
see Sec.4 G300. The procedure is as for "ordinary" compres- ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
sion members in air.
703 A negative effective axial force may cause a pipeline or 804 Special consideration shall be given to the fatigue
a riser to buckle as a bar in compression. Distinction shall be assessment of construction details likely to cause stress con-
made between load-controlled and displacement-controlled centrations, and to the possibility of having low-cycle high
buckling. strain fatigue. The specific design criterion to be used depends
upon the analysis method, which may be categorised into:
704 The following global buckling initiators shall be consid-
ered: — methods based upon fracture mechanics (see 805)
— methods based upon fatigue tests (see 806).
— trawl board impact, pullover and hooking
— out of straightness. 805 Where appropriate, a calculation procedure based upon
fracture mechanics may be used. The specific criterion to be
705 Load-controlled global buckling may be designed in used shall be determined on a case-by-case basis, and shall
accordance with DNV-OS-C101 Design of Offshore Steel reflect the target safety levels in Sec.2 C500.
Structures, General (LRFD).
For further guidance on fracture mechanics based fatigue anal-
706 Displacement-controlled global buckling may be yses see Appendix A.
allowed. This implies that global buckling may be allowed
provided that: 806 When using calculation methods based upon fatigue
tests, the following shall be considered:
— pipeline integrity is maintained in post-buckling configu-
rations (e.g. local buckling, fracture, fatigue etc.) — determination of long-term distribution of stress range, see
— displacement of the pipeline is acceptable. 807
— selection of appropriate S-N curve (characteristic resist-
707 For design of the following high pressure/high tempera- ance), see 808
ture pipelines: — determination of Stress Concentration Factor (SCF) not
included in the S-N curve
— exposed on even seabed — determination of accumulated damage, see 809.

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 50 – Sec.5 see note on front cover

807 As most of the loads which contribute to fatigue are of a fabrication of the pipe, is not to exceed 3%, defined as:
random nature, statistical consideration is normally required in
determining the long-term distribution of fatigue loading D max – Dm in
effects. Where appropriate, deterministic or spectral analysis - ≤ 0.03
f 0 = ------------------------------- (5.33)
may be used. D
808 The characteristic resistance is normally given as S-N The requirement may be relaxed if:
curves or -N curves, i.e. stress amplitudes (or strain amplitudes
for the case of low-cycle fatigue), versus number of cycles to — a corresponding reduction in moment resistance has been
failure, N. The S-N curve shall be applicable for the material, included
construction detail, NDT acceptance criteria and state of stress — geometrical restrictions are met, such as pigging require-
considered, as well as to the surrounding environment. The S- ments
N curve shall be based on the mean curve of log (N) with the — additional cyclic stresses caused by the ovalisation have
subtraction of two standard deviations in log (N). If a fracture been considered
mechanic assessment (ECA) is performed according to — tolerances in the relevant repair system are met.
requirements in D1100, the S-N curve shall be validated for the
allowable defect sizes determined by the ECA or a fracture 902 Ovalisation shall be checked for point loads at any point
mechanics based fatigue assessment shall be performed as along the pipeline system. Such point loads may arise at free-
described in Appendix A. span shoulders, artificial supports and support settlements.
809 In the general case where stress fluctuations occur with D 1000 Accumulated deformation
varying amplitude of random order, the linear damage hypoth-
esis (Miner's Rule) may be used. The application of Miner's 1001 Accumulated plastic deformation of pipe caused by
Rule implies that the long-term distribution of stress range is cyclic loads leading to increased diameter or ovality (ratchet-
replaced by a stress histogram, consisting of a number of con- ing) shall be considered. If the ratcheting causes increased
stant amplitude stress or strain range blocks, (σr)i or (εr)i, and ovality, special consideration shall also be made of the effect
the corresponding number of repetitions, ni. Thus, the fatigue on buckling resistance.
criterion is given by: 1002 Accumulated longitudinal displacement of the pipeline
(pipeline walking) shall be considered. This may occur during
k start-up/shut-down for:
n
Dfat = -----i ≤ a fat (5.32) — pipeline shorter than two anchor lengths, or
Ni
i=l — pipeline parts with virtual anchor, and
— pipeline laying on seabed slope, or
Where: — pipeline connected to pulling force (e.g. connected to
SCR).
Dfat = Miner's sum
k = number of stress blocks D 1100 Fracture and supplementary requirement P
ni = number of stress cycles in stress block i 1101 Pipeline systems shall have adequate resistance against
Ni = number of cycles to failure at constant stress range of initiation of unstable fracture.
magnitude (sr)i or strain range (er)i. 1102 The safety against unstable fracture is considered satis-
αfat = allowable damage ratio, see Table 5-9 factory if the requirements in Table 5-10 are met.
810 For detailed explanation regarding fatigue calculations/ Table 5-10 Requirements to unstable fracture1)
analysis reference is made to DNV-RP-F105 Free Spanning Total nominal Accumulated
Pipelines and DNV-RP-F204 Riser Fatigue. In cases where strain plastic strain
this guideline is not applicable, allowable damage ratios are
given in Table 5-9. ε l,nom ≤ 0.4% Materials, welding, workman-
ship and testing are in accord-
ance with the requirements of
Table 5-9 Allowable damage ratio for fatigue this standard
Safety Class Low Medium High As an alternative girth welds
α fat 1/3 1/5 1/10 allowable defect sizes may be
assessed according to
Appendix A.
811 The split between the different phases of the design
fatigue life as described in Table 5-9 shall be agreed in the ini- 0.4% < ε l,nom The integrity of the girth welds
tiation phase of the project and be based on the highest safety shall be assessed in accordance
with Appendix A
class during the lifetime.
1.0% < ε l,nom2) Supplementary requirement (P)
Guidance note: shall be applied
or 2.0% < ε p
For a pipeline where e.g. 10% of the design lifetime can be uti-
lized during the installation and which is classified as safety class 1) The strain levels refers to after NDT.
medium (high) during the operational phase this will correspond 2) Total nominal strain in any direction from a single event.
to a damage ratio of 2% (1%) of the operational lifetime.
A common split between installation, as laid and operation is 1103 Pipeline systems transporting gas or mixed gas and liq-
10%, 10% and 80% but depend on the need for fatigue capacity uids under high pressure shall have adequate resistance to
in the different phases. propagating fracture. This may be achieved by using:
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
— material with low transition temperature and adequate
Charpy V-notch toughness
D 900 Ovalisation — adequate DWTT shear fracture area
901 Risers and pipelines shall not be subject to excessive — lowering the stress level
ovalisation and this shall be documented. The flattening due to — use of mechanical crack arrestors
bending, together with the out-of-roundness tolerance from — by a combination of these methods.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.5 – Page 51

Design solutions shall be validated by calculations based upon Note to table: Standard industry practice assumes safety factors equal to 1.0 for
relevant experience and/or suitable tests. Requirements to frac- an accidental event with a probability of occurrence equal to 10, and survival
of the pipeline is merely related to a conservative definition of characteristic
ture arrest properties need not be applied when the pipeline resistance. In this standard, accidental loads and events are introduced in a
design tensile hoop stress is below 40% of fy. more general context with a link between probability of occurrence and actual
failure consequence. For combined loading the simplified design check pro-
1104 Material meeting the supplementary requirement for poses a total factor in the range 1.1-1.2, which is consistent with standard
fracture arrest properties (F) (Sec.7 I200) is considered to have industry practice interpreted as corresponding to safety class Medium for acci-
adequate resistance to running propagating ductile fracture for dental loads with a probability of occurrence equal to 10-4.
applications carrying essentially pure methane up to 80%
usage factor, 15 MPa internal pressure and 30 mm wall thick-
ness. For depths down to 10 metres and onshore, the required
Charpy V-notch impact energy shall be specially considered. E. Special Considerations
D 1200 Ultimate limit state – Accidental loads E 100 General
1201 The design against accidental loads may be performed 101 This subsection gives guidance on conditions that shall
by direct calculation of the effects imposed by the loads on the be evaluated separately. Both the load effects and acceptance
structure, or indirectly, by design of the structure as tolerable criteria are affected.
to accidents. E 200 Pipe soil interaction
1202 The acceptance criteria for ALS relate to the overall 201 For limit states influenced by the interaction between the
allowable probability of severe consequences. pipeline and the soil, this interaction shall be determined tak-
1203 Design with respect to accidental load must ensure that ing due account for all relevant parameters and the uncertain-
the overall nominal failure probability complies with the nom- ties related to these.
inal failure probability target values in Sec.2. The overall nom- In general pipeline soil interaction depends on the characteris-
inal failure probability from accidental loads can be expressed tics of the soil, the pipeline, and the failure mode in question,
as the sum of the probability of occurrence of the i'th damaging which shall all be properly accounted for in the simulation of
event, PDi, times the structural failure probability conditioned the pipeline soil interaction.
on this event, Pf|Di. The requirement is accordingly expressed
as: 202 The main soil characteristics governing the interaction
are the shear strength and deformation properties.
p f D i ⋅ P D i ≤ p f, T (5.34) 203 Pipeline characteristics of importance are submerged
weight, diameter stiffness, roughness of the pipeline surface,
and initial embedment from installation which shall all be
where Pf,T is the relevant target nominal failure probability accounted for as relevant for the limit state in question.
according to Sec.2. The number of discretisation levels must
be large enough to ensure that the resulting probability is eval- 204 All relevant load effects shall be considered. This
uated with sufficient accuracy. includes:
1204 The inherent uncertainty of the frequency and magni- — load duration and history effects (e.g. varying vertical
tude of the accidental loads, as well as the approximate nature reactions from installation laying pressures)
of the methods for determination of accidental load effects, — variations in the unit weight of the pipe (e.g. empty, water
shall be recognised. Sound engineering judgement and prag- filled and operation conditions)
matic evaluations are hence required. — cyclic loading effects (both directly from pipe as well as
hydrodynamic loads)
1205 If non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis is
applied, it shall be ensured that system performance and local 205 Some soils have different resistance values for long term
failure modes (e.g. strain rate, local buckling, joint overloading loading and for short term loading, related to the difference in
and joint fracture) are adequately accounted for by the models drained and non-drained behaviour and to creep effects in drained
and procedures applied. and non-drained condition. This shall be taken into account.
1206 A simplified design check with respect to accidental 206 For limit states involving or allowing for large displace-
load may be performed as shown in Table 5-11 using appropri- ments (e.g. lateral pull-in, pipeline expansion of expansion
ate partial safety factors. The adequacy of simplified design loops, global buckling or when displacements are allowed for
check must be assessed on the basis of the summation above in on-bottom condition) the soil will be loaded far beyond failure,
order to verify that the overall failure probability complies involving large non-linearities, remoulding of soil, ploughing
with the target values in Sec.2. of soil etc. Such non-linear effects and the uncertainties related
to these shall be considered.
207 For pipelines that are buried (trenched and/or covered by
Table 5-11 Simplified Design Check versus Accidental loads gravel) and susceptible to global buckling the uplift resistance
Prob. of Safety Class Safety Class Safety Class and possible increased axial resistance shall be considered.
occurrence 1) Low Medium High The possible effect of backfill material from trenching shall be
> 10-2 Accidental loads may be regarded similar to envi- considered.
ronmental loads and may be evaluated similar to Guidance note:
ULS design check Due to the uncertainties in governing soil parameters, load effects
10-2 – 10-3 To be evaluated on a case by case basis etc., it is difficult to define universally valid methods for simulation
10-3 – 10-4 γC = 1.0 γC = 1.0 γC = 1.0 of pipe soil interaction effects. The limitations of the methods used,
whether theoretically or empirically based, shall be thoroughly
10-4 – 10-5 γC = 0.9 γC = 0.9 considered in relation to the problem at hand. Extrapolation beyond
10-5 – 10-6 Accidental loads or events may γC = 0.8 documented validity of a method shall be performed with care, as
be disregarded shall simplifications from the problem at hand to the calculation
< 10-6 model used. When large uncertainties exist, the use of more than
one calculation approach shall be considered.
1) When failure mode is bursting the probability of occurrence should be 1-
2 order of magnitudes lower, ref Table 2-5. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 52 – Sec.5 see note on front cover

E 300 Spanning risers/pipelines special supporting structures or anchoring devices other than
weight coating, shall be designed against sinking as described
301 Spanning risers and pipelines shall have adequate safety under 405 above. Special considerations shall here be made to
against local buckling, fatigue, fracture and ovality and these
mechanical components such as valves and Tee's.
shall be documented.
409 It shall be documented that pipelines situated on the sea
302 For design of free spanning pipelines, reference is made
to DNV-RP-F105 Free Spanning Pipelines. For fatigue design bottom have adequate safety against being lifted off the bottom
of risers, reference is given to DNV-RP-F204 Riser Fatigue. or moved horizontally. For assessment of horizontal (trans-
verse) stability of pipelines exposed to wave and current loads,
E 400 On bottom stability reference is made to DNV-RP-F109 On-bottom Stability
Design of Submarine Pipeline.
401 The pipeline shall be supported, anchored in open
trench, or buried in such a way that under extreme functional 410 The most unfavourable combination of simultaneously
and environmental loading conditions, the pipeline will not acting vertical and horizontal forces on the pipeline shall be
move from its as-installed position. This does not include per- considered. When determining this unfavourable combination,
missible lateral or vertical movements, thermal expansion, and the variation in forces along the line, including directionality
a limited amount of settlement after installation. effects of waves and current, shall be addressed.
Guidance note: 411 The transverse pipeline stability may be assessed using
The acceptance criterion on permissible movements may vary three-dimensional dynamic or two-dimensional static analysis
along the pipeline route. Examples of possible limitations to methods. The dynamic analysis methods allow limited pipe
pipeline movements include: movements, but require accurate three-dimensional modelling.
- local buckling, fatigue and fracture of pipe 412 The coefficient of equivalent friction, µ, may vary
- deterioration/wear of coating within a wide range depending on the seabed soil, surface
- geometrical limitations of supports roughness, weight and diameter of the pipeline. When the
- distance from other pipelines, structures or obstacles. pipeline has some penetration into the soil, the lateral resist-
ance includes both friction type resistance and resistance due
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- to mobilising the soil outside the contact surface. In such cases
the equivalent friction coefficient may vary with the vertical
402 Liquid or gas pipelines in the air- or gas-filled condition load level.
shall have a specific gravity which is higher than that of the
surrounding sea water (negative buoyancy). 413 Axial (longitudinal) stability shall be checked. The
anode structural connection (when exposed to friction, e.g.,
403 When the pipeline is routed in areas that may be influ- pipelines without weight coating) shall be sufficient to sustain
enced by unstable slopes, that could lead to slope failure and the anticipated friction force.
flow of soil that will impact the pipeline, the probability of
such slope failures shall be evaluated. Any relevant slope fail- 414 Pipeline movements due to thermal axial expansion,
ure triggering effect, such as wave loading, earthquake loading shall be allowed for near platforms/structures (e.g. at riser tie-
or man made activities (e.g. the pipe-laying itself), shall be in point) and where the pipeline changes direction (e.g. at off-
considered. Possible flow rates and densities at the pipeline set spools). The expansion calculations shall be based upon
shall be evaluated for stability. If stability can not be guaran- conservative values for the axial frictional resistance.
teed by sufficient weight of the pipeline, by burial of the pipe-
line or by other means, re-routing of the pipeline shall be 415 In shallow water, the repeated loading effects due to
required. wave action may lead to a reduction of the shear strength of the
soil. This shall be considered in the analysis, particularly if the
404 For weight calculations of the pipe, the nominal wall back fill consists of loose sand which may be susceptible to liq-
thickness shall be reduced to compensate for the expected uefaction.
average weight reduction due to metal loss. For pipelines with
minor corrosion allowance this reduction may be omitted and 416 If the stability of the pipeline depends on the stability of
the nominal thickness used. the seabed, the latter should be checked.
405 Buried pipelines shall have adequate safety against sink- E 500 Trawling interference
ing or flotation. For both liquid and gas pipelines, sinking shall
be considered assuming that the pipeline is water filled, and 501 The pipeline system shall be checked for all three load-
flotation shall be considered assuming that the pipeline is gas ing phases due to trawl gear interaction, as outlined in Sec.4 F.
or air filled (if relevant). For more detailed description, reference is made to DNV-RP-
F111 Interference between Trawl Gear and Pipelines.
406 If the specific submerged weight of the water-filled pipe
is less than that of the soil, then no further analyses are required 502 The acceptance criteria are dependent on the trawling
to document safety against sinking. If pipelines are installed in frequency (impact) and the safety classification (pull-over and
soils having a low shear strength, then the soil bearing resist- hooking) given in Sec.2 C400.
ance shall be documented. If the soil is, or is likely to be, liq- 503 The acceptance criteria for trawl impact refer to an
uefied, it shall be documented that the depth of sinking will be acceptable dent size. The maximum accepted ratio of perma-
satisfactorily limited (either by the depth of liquefaction or by nent dent depth to the pipe diameter is:
the build-up of vertical resistance during sinking) meeting the
requirements of D above.
HP
407 If the specific submerged weight of the gas- or air-filled ≤ 0.05η (5.35)
D
pipe is less than that of the soil, it shall be documented that the
shear strength of the soil is adequate to prevent flotation. Thus, where:
in soils which are or may be liquefied, the specific weight of
the buried gas- or air-filled pipeline is not to be less than that Hp = permanent plastic dent depth
of the soil.
η = usage factor given in Table 5-12. Load effect factors
408 Pipelines resting directly on the sea bottom without any equal to unity.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.5 – Page 53

requirements for components in Sec.8.


Table 5-12 Usage factor (η) for trawl door impact
Impact frequency Usage factor Table 5-13 Referenced standards for structural design of
(per year per km) η components
> 100 0 Component Design Code1) Additional design
requirements
1-100 0.3
All Non-linear FE analyses F100
10-4-1 0.7 Components according to; ASME VIII
listed below 2) Division 2 / EN 13445 / PD
504 When allowing for permanent dents, additional failure 5500
modes such as fatigue and collapse shall be taken into account. Induction ISO 15590-1
Any beneficial effect of internal over-pressure, i.e. "pop-out" Bends F200
shall not normally be included. The beneficial effects of pro- Fittings Bends: F200
tective coating may be taken into account. The impact effec- Tees: ASME B31.4, B31.8 F600
tiveness of coating shall be documented. Flanges 15590-3/ ISO 7005-1 or
NORSOK L005 / EN 1591-1
505 Pullover loads shall be checked in combination with Valves ISO 14723 F500
other relevant load effects. All relevant failure modes for lat- Mechanical ASME VIII Division 2 / EN
eral buckling shall be checked. Accumulation of damage due connectors 13445 / PD 5500
to subsequent trawling is not normally allowed. Couplings and DNV-RP-F113
repair clamps, Hot taps: API RP 2201
506 Hooking loads shall be checked in combination with other hot taps
relevant load effects. All relevant failures modes shall be checked. Bolting ASME VIII Division 2 / EN
13445 / PD 5500
E 600 Third party loads, dropped objects CP Insulating ASME VIII Division 2 / EN F300
601 The pipeline shall be designed for impact forces caused joints 13445 / PD 5500
by, e.g. dropped objects, fishing gear or collisions. The design Anchor flanges N.A. see Note 2)
may be achieved either by design of pipe, protection or means Buckle and
fracture arres-
to avoid impacts. tors
602 The design criteria shall be based upon the frequency/ Pig traps ASME VIII Division 2 / EN F400
likelihood of the impact force and classified as accidental, 13445 / PD 5500
environmental or functional correspondingly, see D1200. 1) Other recognised equivalent codes may be used.
603 For guidance on impacts, reference is made to DNV-RP- 2) Required in case the code used in the design of a component does not take
into account forces other than the internal pressure, see 105.
F107 Risk Assessment of Pipeline Protection.
103 All pressure containing components used in the subma-
E 700 Thermal Insulation rine pipeline system shall generally represent at least the same
safety level as the connecting riser/pipeline section.
701 When a submerged pipeline is thermally insulated, it
shall be documented that the insulation is resistant to the com- 104 The component shall be designed to accommodate the
loading from connected the pipeline section and vice versa
bination of water, temperature and hydrostatic pressure. with appropriate safety.
702 Furthermore, the insulation should be resistant to oil and 105 The design of pipeline components shall be according to
oil-based products, if relevant. The insulation shall also have the recognised codes. If the code used in the design of a compo-
required mechanical strength to external loads, as applicable. nent does not take into account forces other than the internal
pressure, additional evaluations, e.g. non-linear FE analyses
703 Degradation of the insulation during construction and according to; ASME VIII Division 2 / EN 13445 / PD 5500,
operation should be considered. are required in order to address the maximum forces that can
be transferred to the component from the connecting pipeline
E 800 Settings from Plugs sections under installation and operation.
801 For loads from plugs, reference is given to DNV-RP- The strength shall, as a minimum be:
F113 Pipeline Subsea Repair.
— equivalent to the connecting pipeline, or
— sufficient to accommodate the most probable maximum
100-year load effect that will be transferred to the compo-
nent from the connecting pipeline under installation and
F. Pipeline Components and Accessories operation, see Sec.4.
F 100 General 106 The load scenarios as described in Sec.4 as well as par-
101 This Subsection is applicable to pressure containing ticular loads associated with the component shall be analysed.
This implies that also external hydrostatic pressure shall be
components (e.g. bends, flanges and connectors, Tee’s, valves considered in the design with respect to both strength and inter-
etc.) used in the submarine pipeline system. Supporting struc- nal leakage when relevant.
ture requirements are given in G. 107 For material susceptible to HISC, see Sec.6 D500.
102 Design of components may be based on the industry rec- 108 Sealing systems should be designed to allow testing
ognised codes as listed in Table 5-13 but shall also comply without pressurising the pipeline.
with the structural design and functional requirements of this 109 The pigging requirements in B114 and B115 shall be
sub-section and with the material, manufacturing and test considered for the component.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 54 – Sec.5 see note on front cover

110 Transitions in C-Mn and low alloy steels where the nom- η = usage factor as given by Table 5-13
inal material thickness or yield stress is unequal shall be in N = pipe wall force
accordance with ASME B 31.8 Appendix I, Figure 15 or
equally recognised codes. Transition in C-Mn linepipe by M = bending moment.
means of an external or internal taper shall not be steeper than
1 in 4. If transitions to these requirements are not feasible, a Table 5-14 Usage factors for equivalent stress check
transition piece shall be inserted. Safety class
111 Transitions in duplex stainless steels and 13Cr marten- Low Medium High
sitic stainless steels shall be such that the local stresses will not η 1.00 0.90 0.80
exceed 0.8 SMYS.
Guidance note:
112 Internal transitions between different wall thicknesses The ovalisation of the bend has typically to be determined by
and internal diameters for girth welds in pipes of equal SMYS finite element calculation. The acceptable distortion will typi-
may be made in the base material provided radiographic exam- cally governed by the bullet points in D900.
ination only is specified.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
113 For welds to be examined by ultrasonic testing, transi-
tion tapering in the base material should be avoided. If tapering F 300 Design of insulating joints
is unavoidable the pipe ends shall be machined to provide par-
allel external and internal surfaces before the start of the taper. 301 CP insulating joints shall be of the boltless, monolithic
The length of the parallel surfaces shall at least be sufficient to coupling type and shall be provided with a double seal system.
allow scanning from the external surface and sufficient for the 302 Insulating joints shall be fitted with pup pieces with
required reflection off the parallel internal surface. mechanical properties and dimensions identical to that of the
114 Specifications for installation and make-up of the com- adjoining pipeline.
ponent shall be established. 303 Insulating joints shall be capable of meeting the test
115 The pressure testing of components (i.e. Factory Accept- requirements given in Sec.8 B900 and to withstand the effects
ance Test) to be in accordance with specified design code. of the environment without loss of performance.
304 To protect insulating joints and CP equipment from
F 200 Design of bends lightning effects, lightning protection shall be installed. Surge
201 This Standard does not provide any limit state criteria arrestors should be mounted across insulating joints and output
for pipeline bends. terminals of D.C. voltage sources. Such measures should take
into account the need for potential equalisation between the
Guidance note: pipeline, anodes, power supplies, reference electrodes, etc.
Bends exposed to bending moments behave differently from during lightning strikes. Alternative devices to the spark gap
straight pipes. Ovalisation becomes the first order of deformation type can be used if documented to be reliable.
and changes the stress pattern considerably compared to straight
pipes. 305 Bolting shall meet the requirements of Sec.6 C400.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 306 All elastomeric materials used shall have a documented
performance. The sealing materials shall have documented
202 As an alternative to recognised codes the following sim- decompression, creep and temperature properties. O-ring seals
plified Allowable Stress Design (ASD) check may be used shall be resistant to explosive decompression and AED certified.
provided that: AED certification is not required for seals other than O-rings,
provided they are enclosed in a completely confined space.
— The pressure containment criterion in D200 is fulfilled.
— The applied moment and axial load can be considered dis- Sealing surfaces exposed to sea water shall be made of materi-
placement controlled. als resistant to sea water at ambient temperature.
— The bend is exposed to internal over pressure or that the 307 The insulating materials, including dielectric strength,
bend has no potential for collapse. This can be considered compressive strength and suitability for use at the design tem-
fulfilled if the system collapse design capacity is three peratures shall be documented by testing in accordance with
times the external overpressure in question. The external ASTM D 695.
pressure differential for the collapse limit state, pe - pmin,
shall hence be multiplied by a factor of 3 in Eq 5.14. F 400 Design of pig traps
— That the imposed shape distortion (e.g. ovalisation) is 401 The design of closures and items such as nozzle rein-
acceptable. forcements, saddle supports, vent- kick and drain branches
shall comply with the applied design standard.
The ASD criteria read:
402 Closures shall be designed such that the closure cannot
be opened while the pig trap is pressurised. An interlock
σe ≤ η · fy (5.36) arrangement with the main pipeline valve should be provided.
σl ≤ η · fy (5.37)
F 500 Design of valves.
where
501 The design shall ensure that internal gaskets are able to
seal, and shall include a documented safety margin which is
σ e ≤ σ h 2 + σ l 2 − σ h ⋅ σ l + 3 ⋅τ hl 2 (5.38) valid during all relevant pipeline operating conditions. Sealing
will be sensitive to internal deflections, enlargement of gaps
D − t2 and changes in their support conditions. Valve operation will
σ h = ( pi − p e ) (5.39) be sensitive to friction and clearances.
2 ⋅ t2
502 Consideration should be given to requirements for dura-
bility when exposed to abrasive material (e.g. weld scale, sand
N M etc.) or to fire loads.
σl = +
π ⋅ (D − t2 ) ⋅ t2 π ⋅ (D − (D − 2 ⋅ t2 ) 4 )
4 (5.40)
503 Valves with requirements for fire durability shall be
32 ⋅ D qualified by applicable fire tests. Reference may be made to

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.5 – Page 55

API 6FA and ISO 10497 for test procedures. void for internal pipes. Release of effective axial force by end
504 Valve control systems and actuators shall be designed expansions, lateral and/or vertical deformations or buckling
and manufactured in accordance with recognised standards. depends on how the pipes may slide relatively to each other.
The valve actuator specification should define torque require- Therefore, analysis of cases where the effective axial force is
ments for valve operation, with a suitable safety margin to important, such as analysis of expansion, buckling and dynam-
accommodate deterioration and friction increase during serv- ics, requires accurate modelling of axial restraints such as
ice. spacers, bulkheads etc.
505 If the code or standard used for design of a component G 300 Riser supports
does not take into account the possibility for internal leakage 301 The riser supports should be designed against the possi-
due to forces transferred to the component from the connecting ble forms of failure with at least the same degree of safety as
pipeline sections, the additional calculations or qualification that of the riser they support. However, if safety considerations
tests shall be performed. indicate that the overall safety is increased by a reduction of
F 600 Pipeline fittings the failure load of certain supports, such considerations may
govern the support design (weak link principle).
601 Tees shall be of the extruded outlet, integral reinforce-
ment type. The design shall be according to ASME B31.4, 302 For bolted connections, consideration shall be given to
B31.8 or equivalent. friction factors, plate or shell element stresses, relaxation, pipe
crushing, stress corrosion cracking, galvanic corrosion,
602 Bars of barred tees should not be welded directly to the fatigue, brittle failure, and other factors that may be relevant.
high stress areas around the extrusion neck. It is recommended
that the bars transverse to the flow direction are welded to a 303 For supports with doubler and/or gusset plates consider-
pup piece, and that the bars parallel to the flow direction are ation shall be given to lamellar tearing, pull out, element
welded to the transverse bars only. If this is impracticable, stresses, effective weld length, stress concentrations and
alternative designs should be considered in order to avoid peak excessive rotation. See also B108 through B111.
stresses at the ends. 304 In clamps utilising elastomeric linings, the long-term
603 Y-pieces and tees where the axis of the outlet is not per- performance of the material with regard to creep, sea water and
pendicular to the axis of the run (lateral tees) shall not be air or sun light resistance shall be determined.
designed to ASME B31.4 or B31.8, as these items require spe-
cial consideration, i.e. design by finite element analysis. G 400 J-tubes
604 The design of hot taps shall ensure that the use of and the 401 An overall conceptual evaluation shall be made in order
design of the component will result in compliance with API RP to define the required:
2201, "Procedure for Welding and Hot Tapping on Equipment — safety class
in Service". — impact design
605 Standard butt welding fittings complying with ANSI — pressure containment resistance.
B16.9, MSS SP-75 or equivalent standards may be used pro-
vided that: 402 The J-tube shall be designed against the failure modes
given in D100.
— the actual bursting strength of the fitting is demonstrated Guidance note:
to exceed that of the adjoining pipe
— the fitting is demonstrated to be able to accommodate the 301 above includes evaluation of whether the j-tube shall be
designed for the full design pressure and to which safety class
maximum forces that can occur in the pipeline in accord- (i.e. hoop stress usage factors). The J-tube concept may e.g. be
ance with A105. based on "burst disc" which will imply that a lower pressure con-
tainment resistance shall be governing. Other relevant evalua-
606 Branch welding fittings with a size exceeding 2 inches tions may be J-tube pull-in forces, external impact, corrosion etc.
or 20% of the pipe circumference shall not be used. Socket
welding fittings are not permitted. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

403 The J-tube spools should be joined by welding.


G 500 Stability of gravel supports and gravel covers
G. Supporting Structure
501 This applies to all types of gravel supports and covers,
G 100 General such as free span supports for installation and operating phases
101 Structural items such as support and protective struc- (excessive bending and fatigue), separation and pipeline stabi-
tures that are not welded onto pressurized parts are considered lisation at crossings, suppressing of upheaval buckling, axial
as structural elements. restraints/locking, stabilisation of pipeline etc.
102 Steel structural elements shall be designed according to 502 The design of the gravel supports and covers shall con-
DNV-OS-C101 Design of Offshore Steel Structures, General sider the consequence of failure.
(LRFD method). 503 The design of the gravel supports and covers shall be
performed using recognised methods.
G 200 Pipe-in-pipe and bundles
504 The design of the gravel supports and covers shall consider:
201 For pipe-in-pipe and bundle configurations, advantage
may be taken of other loading conditions, e.g. pressure con- — weight of gravel supports and/or covers and pipeline
tainment for the outer pipe. When determining the safety class, — loads imposed by pipeline (e.g. due expansion)
advantage may also be taken on the reduced failure conse- — seabed slope, both longitudinal and horizontal
quences compared to those of ordinary pipelines. — uncertainty in soil characteristics
202 The combined effective force for a pipe-in-pipe or a — resistance against hydrodynamic loads
bundle may be calculated using the expression in Sec.4 G300 — slope failure (e.g. due to earthquakes)
for each component and summing over all components. The — uncertainty in survey data
external pressure for each component shall be taken as the — subsea gravel installation tolerances, both horizontal and
pressure acting on its external surface, i.e. the pressure in the vertical.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 56 – Sec.5 see note on front cover

H. Installation and Repair H 200 Pipe straightness


201 The primary requirement regarding permanent deforma-
H 100 General tion during construction, installation and repair is the resulting
101 The linepipe transportation should comply with the straightness of the pipeline. This shall be determined and eval-
requirements of API5L and API5LW. uated with due considerations of effects on:
102 The pipeline strength and stability shall be determined — instability
according to D and E above. — positioning of pipeline components e.g. valves and Tee-
Guidance note: joints
According to this standard, equivalent limit states are used for all — operation.
phases. Hence the design criteria in this section also apply to the
installation phase. Installation is usually classified as a lower 202 The possibility of instability due to out of straightness
safety class (safety class low) than operation, corresponding to during installation (twisting) and the corresponding conse-
lower partial safety factors (higher failure probability). quence shall be determined.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 203 If Tee-joints and other equipment are to be installed as
an integrated part of the pipeline assembled at the lay barge, no
103 The design analysis for the submarine pipeline system rotation of the pipe due to plastification effects shall be permit-
shall include both installation and repair activities, in order to ted. In this case the residual strain from bending at the over-
ensure that they can be installed and repaired without suffering bend shall satisfy the following during installation:
damage or requiring hazardous installation or repair work.
104 The design shall verify adequate strength during all rel-
evant installation phases and techniques to be used, including: γ rot ε r ≤ ε r ,rot (5.41)

— initiation of pipe laying operation where


— normal continuous pipe laying
— pipe lay abandonment and pipeline retrieval εr = residual strain from over bend
— termination of laying operation γrot = 1.3 safety factor for residual strain
— tow out operations (bottom tow, off-bottom tow, control- εr,rot = limit residual strain from over bend.
led depth tow and surface tow)
— pipeline reeling and unreeling 204 The above equations only consider rotation due to resid-
— trenching and back filling ual strain from installation along a straight path. Other effects
— riser and spool installation can also give rotation (curved lay route, eccentric weight,
— tie-in operations hydrodynamic loads, reduced rotational resistance during pulls
— landfalls. due to lateral play/elasticity in tensioners/pads/tracks etc.) and
need to be considered.
105 The configuration of pipeline sections under installation 205 Instability during operation, due to out of straightness
shall be determined from the laying vessel to the final position caused by the installation method and the corresponding con-
on the seabed. The configuration shall be such that the stress/ sequences, shall be determined. Residual stresses affecting
strain levels are acceptable when all relevant effects are taken present and future operations and modifications shall also be
into account. Discontinuities due to weight coating, buckle considered.
arrestors, in-line assemblies etc. shall be considered.
206 The requirement for straightness applies to the assumed
106 The variation in laying parameters that affect the config- most unfavourable functional and environmental load condi-
uration shall be considered. An allowed range of parameter tions during installation and repair. This requirement also
variation shall be established for the installation operation. applies to sections of a pipeline where the strains are com-
107 Critical laying parameters shall be determined for the pletely controlled by the curvature of a rigid ramp (e.g. stinger
installation limit condition, see Sec.4 C600 and Sec.10 D400. on installation vessel), whether or not environmental loads are
acting on the pipe.
108 Configuration considerations for risers and pipelines
shall also be made for other installation and repair activities, Guidance note:
and the allowed parameter variations and operating limit con- Rotation of the pipe within the tensioner clamps of the pipe due
ditions shall be established. to elasticity of the rubber and slack shall be included in the eval-
uation of the rotation.
109 If the installation and repair analyses for a proposed
pipeline system show that the required parameters cannot be ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
obtained with the equipment to be used, the pipeline system
shall be modified accordingly. H 300 Coating
110 The flattening due to a permanent bending curvature, 301 Concrete crushing due to excessive compressive forces
together with the out-of-roundness tolerances from fabrication for static conditions in the concrete during bending at the over-
of the pipe shall meet the requirements defined in D900. bend is not acceptable.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.6 – Page 57

SECTION 6
DESIGN - MATERIALS ENGINEERING

A. General B. Materials Selection for Linepipe


and Pipeline Components
A 100 Objective
B 100 General
101 This section provides requirements and guidelines to the
selection of materials for submarine pipeline systems and to 101 Materials for pipeline systems shall be selected with due
the external and internal corrosion control of such systems. consideration of the fluid to be transported, loads, temperature
Also covered is the specification of linepipe, pipeline compo- and possible failure modes during installation and operation.
nents, coatings and cathodic protection. Finally, general con- The selection of materials shall ensure compatibility of all
siderations for fabrication applicable to the design phase are components of the pipeline system. The following material
addressed. characteristics shall be considered:
102 The purpose of performing materials selection is to — mechanical properties
assess the feasibility of different candidate materials (includ- — hardness
ing CRA’s) to meet functional requirements for linepipe and — fracture toughness
for other components of a pipeline system. It may also include — fatigue resistance
a cost comparison between candidate materials, including the — weldability
calculated costs for operation and any associated risk cost (see — corrosion resistance.
D701). This activity is generally carried out during conceptual
design of submarine pipeline systems. 102 Materials selection shall include identification of the fol-
lowing supplementary requirements for linepipe given in
A 200 Application Sec.7 I as required:
201 This section is applicable to the conceptual and design — supplementary requirement S, sour service (see B200)
phases for submarine pipeline systems. It contains both norma- — supplementary requirement F, fracture arrest properties
tive requirements and information. (Sub-sections containing (see B406)
only informative text are indicated ‘Informative’ in heading) — supplementary requirement P, linepipe exposed to plastic
deformation exceeding the thresholds specified in Sec.5
202 Functional requirements for materials and manufactur- D1102 (see B407-408)
ing procedures for linepipe and pipeline components are con- — supplementary requirement D, more stringent dimensional
tained in Sec.7 and 8, respectively. Manufacture and requirements (see B402)
installation of systems for external corrosion control is — supplementary requirement U, increased utilisation (see
addressed in Sec. 9. Sec. 9 also contains functional require- B409).
ments to any concrete coating.
103 The mechanical properties, chemical composition,
A 300 Documentation weldability and corrosion resistance of materials used in com-
301 The selection of materials during conceptual and/or ponents shall be compatible with the part of the pipeline sys-
tem where they are located. Low internal temperatures due to
detailed design shall be documented, preferably in a “Materials system depressurisation shall be considered during the mate-
Selection Report”, referring to the requirements and recom- rial selection.
mendations in this section, including use of CRAs, corrosion
allowance and provisions for internal corrosion control. In the B 200 Sour service
material selection document design premises for materials
selection should be identified, making reference to the design 201 Pipelines to route fluids containing hydrogen sulphide
basis and any other relevant project documents, together with (H2S) shall be evaluated for ‘sour service’ according to
the applicable codes and standards. ISO 15156. For all pipeline components exposed to such inter-
nal fluids, materials shall be selected for compliance with this
302 Any requirements and conditions on pipeline fabrication standard. For materials specified for sour service in
and operational procedures used as the basis for materials ISO 15156, specific hardness requirements always apply.
selection shall be duly high-lighted in the document to ensure These are applicable both to manufactured materials as-deliv-
that they are adequately transferred into these phases of the ered after manufacture and after fabrication (e.g. welding). For
pipeline. certain materials, restrictions for manufacture (e.g. heat treat-
ment) and fabrication (e.g. cold forming) apply).
Guidance note:
Guidance note:
The internal corrosion control of pipelines carrying potentially
corrosive fluids based on chemical treatment is much based on ISO 15156-2/3 giving requirements for materials selection were
conditions for periodic cleaning, corrosion monitoring and first published in 2004. As per 2006, 4 (four) corrigenda had been
published with requirements and guidelines overruling the pub-
inspection of the integrity of the pipeline which are not always lished standard and previous corrigenda. The user of this stand-
defined in the project design basis and need to be verified by the ard shall ensure that the applicable corrigenda are used.
operator of the pipeline.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
202 Any materials to be used which are not covered by
303 As a result of design activities, specifications of linepipe ISO 15156 (e.g. type 13Cr steels), shall be qualified according
material, pipeline components (including bolts and nuts), pipe- to the said standard. The same applies if a material specified
line coatings (including field joint coating and any concrete for sour service is to be used beyond the conditions specified
coating), anode manufacture and installation shall further be (e.g. max. hardness). In accordance with ISO 15156-2/3, the
prepared as separate documents. Moreover, the design docu- pipeline owner shall verify and retain the qualification records
mentation shall include a cathodic protection design report. in case the testing was initiated by a contractor or supplier.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 58 – Sec.6 see note on front cover

Guidance note: specified in Subsection I. Additional information, relevant for


Purchaser may consider to specify SSC testing of material grades the selection and specification of linepipe is provided below.
meeting all requirements for sour service in this standard, as a
part of a program for pre-qualification of linepipe manufacturing Dimensional tolerances
or pipeline installation procedures. For such testing, the methods 402 When significant plastic straining is required during
and acceptance criteria in ISO 15156-2/3 apply. installation or operation Supplementary requirement D is nor-
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- mally specified. The most prominent benefit of specifying
Supplementary requirement D is the eased fit-up for welding.
203 The qualification and selection of materials according to Improved fit-up implies reduced stress concentrations and
ISO 15156 are applicable to equipment designed and con- improved structural integrity. The tolerances specified in
structed using conventional elastic design criteria. When other Sec.7 I400 are considered to be in the uppermost range of what
design criteria are applied qualification testing shall be consid- may be achieved by reputable pipe mills. Stricter tolerances
ered, unless relevant documentation is provided. and additional requirements such as e.g. pipe eccentricity may
204 Supplementary requirements to sour service in this be specified for further improvements, but may be costly as
standard are given in Sec.7 I100 and Sec.8 C500. machining may be required.
Corrosion testing of the CRA material of clad or lined linepipe
B 300 Corrosion resistant alloys (informative)
403 For alloy 625 clad or lined pipe specified to be seawater
301 Type 13Cr martensitic stainless steels (i.e. proprietary resistant, testing according to ASTM G48, Method C, should
alloys developed for oil/gas pipelines) are generally consid- be considered, with acceptance criteria as for 25Cr duplex, see
ered fully resistant to CO2-corrosion, provided welds have Sec.7 C409.
adequate PWHT. 22Cr and 25Cr duplex stainless steel and
austenitic CRA’s are also fully resistant and do not require Gripping force of lined linepipe
PWHT. Duplex and martensitic stainless steels may be less tol- 404 In accordance with Sec.7 D510 the gripping force shall
erant than C-Mn steel to well stimulation acids. Corrosion determined with due consideration of the project requirements,
inhibitors for such acids and developed for the latter materials especially the level of installation and operational bending
may not be effective for CRA’s. stresses. If no particular requirements are identified the
302 Under conditions when water, oxygen and chloride can requirement should be based on the gripping force obtained
be present in the fluid, e.g. water injection, stainless steels can during MPQT.
be susceptible to localised corrosion. Hence the corrosion Influence of coating application on mechanical properties
resistance shall be considered for each specific application. For
special applications, corrosion testing should be considered to 405 Pipe tensile properties may be affected by high temper-
qualify the material for the intended use. ature during coating application. During pipe coating, includ-
ing field coating, the pipes might be exposed to temperatures
Alloy 625 (UNS N06625) is generally considered immune to up to approximately 250°C. For TMCP processed pipes and
ambient temperature seawater. Also type 25Cr duplex (e.g. cold formed pipes not subjected to further heat treatment
UNS S32750/S32760) are generally resistant to ambient tem- mechanical properties may change due to strain aging, causing
perature seawater but require more stringent control of micro- e.g. increased yield stress. This may further affect the critical
structure in base material and weld, consequently corrosion defect size considerably if the pipe is strained above the yield
testing are often included for the qualification of manufactur- stress.
ing and fabrication procedures of these materials. Type 22Cr
duplex, AISI 316 and Alloy 825 (UNS N08825) are not resist- Fracture arrest properties
ant to corrosion by raw seawater but are applicable for compo- 406 Supplementary requirements to fracture arrest proper-
nents exposed to treated seawater (deoxygenated to max. ties are given in Sec.7 I200 and are valid for gas pipelines car-
10 ppb and max. 100 ppb as max monthly and daily residual rying essentially pure methane up to 80% usage factor, up to a
concentrations of oxygen). For the latter materials, corrosion pressure of 15 MPa, 30 mm wall thickness and 1120 mm diam-
testing is not normally included in specifications for manufac- eter.
ture and fabrication.
For conditions outside the above limitations the required frac-
303 Duplex and martensitic stainless steel linepipe and pipe- ture arrest properties should be based on calculations which
line components require special considerations of the suscepti- reflect the actual conditions or on full-scale tests. The fracture
bility of environmentally assisted cracking, primarily (HISC), toughness required to arrest fracture propagation for rich gas,
see E502, Guidance note. In particular this applies to material i.e. gas mixtures that enter the two-phase state during decom-
subjected to plastic straining during installation and/or opera- pression can be much higher than for essentially pure methane.
tion with cathodic protection applied. PWHT is known to
reduce the HISC susceptibility of welds for 13Cr martensitic Calculations should be carried out by use of the Battelle Two
stainless steel. For duplex stainless steel, HISC design recom- Curve Method (TCM) and the appropriate correction factor for
mendations are given in DNV-RP-F112. calculated required Charpy values ≥ 95 J. It is strongly recom-
mended that the Battelle TCM is calibrated by use of data from
304 In addition to resistance to internal corrosion and envi- full-scale test which are as close as possible to the actual pipe-
ronmentally assisted cracking, the following major parameters line conditions with regard to gas pressure, pipeline dimen-
shall be considered: sions and gas composition. Although the Battelle TCM is
based on physical models of the speed of crack propagation
— mechanical properties and the speed of decompression, it includes constants that are
— ease of fabrication, particularly weldability. based on fitting data and calculations within a limited range of
Guidance note: test conditions.
Procurement conditions such as availability, lead times and costs Reeling of longitudinally welded pipes and clad pipes
should also be considered.
407 Due to the limited field experience, special considera-
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- tions should be made for longitudinally welded pipes to ensure
that both the longitudinal weld, heat affected zone and base
B 400 Linepipe (informative) material of such pipes are fit for intended use after significant
401 Acceptance criteria and inspection requirements for straining.
linepipe are given in Sec.7, with supplementary requirements 408 It is recommended that the weld metal strength of the

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.6 – Page 59

pipe longitudinal weld overmatches the strength of the base cable as subsea bolting material without cathodic protection
material. It is further recommended to have a limited cap rein- but should only be used in the solution annealed or annealed
forcement of the longitudinal weld in order to avoid strain con- condition (ASTM B446) or cold-worked to SMYS 550 MPa
centrations. maximum, unless exposure to cathodic protection can be
Supplementary requirement U - Qualification in retrospect excluded. Restrictions for sour service according to ISO 15156
shall apply when applicable.
409 The Purchaser may in retrospect upgrade a pipe delivery
to be in accordance with Supplementary requirement U. In 604 To restrict damage by HISC for low alloy and carbon
case of more than 50 test units it must be demonstrated that the steels, the hardness for any bolts and nuts to receive cathodic
actual average yield stress is at least two (2.0) standard devia- protection shall not exceed 350 HV, as specified for the stand-
tions above SMYS. If the number of test units are between 10 ard grades in Table 6.1. The same restriction shall apply for
and 20 the actual average yield stress shall as a minimum be solution annealed or cold-worked type AISI 316 austenitic
2.3 standard deviations above SMYS, and 2.1 if the number of stainless steel and any other cold-worked austenitic alloys.
test units are between 21 and 49. Precipitation hardening Fe-or Ni-base alloys, duplex and mar-
tensitic stainless steels should not be specified as bolting mate-
B 500 Pipeline components (informative) rial if subject to cathodic protection. The hardness of bolts and
nuts shall be verified for each lot (i.e. bolts of the same size and
501 Materials for components shall be selected to comply material, from each heat of steel and heat treatment batch).
with internationally recognised standards meeting the require-
ments given in Sec.7 and Sec.8. Modification of the chemical 605 Any coating of bolts shall be selected with due consider-
composition given in such standards may be necessary to ations of how such coatings affect tensioning and as-installed
obtain a sufficient combination of weldability, hardenability, properties.
strength, ductility, toughness and corrosion resistance. Guidance note:
502 A component should be forged rather than cast when- Zinc coating, phosphating and epoxy based coatings are applica-
ever a favourable grain flow pattern, a maximum degree of ble; however, there have been concerns that hot-dip zinc coating
may cause loss of bolt tensioning and that polymeric coatings
homogeneity, and the absence of internal flaws are of impor- may prevent efficient cathodic protection. PTFE coatings have
tance. low friction coefficient and the torque has to be applied accord-
503 For component material delivered in the quenched and ingly.
tempered condition, the tempering temperature shall be suffi- ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
ciently high to allow effective post weld heat treatment during
later manufacture / installation. The minimum tempering tem- B 700 Welding consumables (informative)
perature should, if lower than 610°C, be specified by the pur-
chaser. 701 Requirements to welding, except for pipe mill manufac-
turing welds, are covered in Appendix C. Requirements that
If welds between the component and other items such as line- are specific for pipeline installation welding are given in
pipe are to be post weld heat treated at a later stage, or if any Sec.10. Below is provided guidance regarding the influence of
other heat treatment is intended, a simulated heat treatment of weld metal strength on allowable defect size as determined by
the test piece should, if required, be specified by the purchaser. ECA (if applicable).
504 If the chemical composition and the delivery condition 702 The requirement for welds to have strength level equal
of components require qualification of a specific welding pro- to or higher than (overmatching properties) the base material is
cedure for welding of the joint between the component and the to minimise deformation in the area adjacent to any possible
connecting linepipe, then the component should be fitted with defects.
pup pieces of the linepipe material in order to avoid field weld-
ing of these components. 703 For pipes exposed to global yielding, i.e. when girth
welds are exposed to strain εl,nom ≥ 0.4%, it is required to per-
Alternatively, rings of the component material should be pro- form an ECA according to Appendix A. The ECA generally
vided for welding procedure qualification of the field weld. requires that the weld metal yield stress is matching or over-
505 Particular consideration shall be given to the suitability matching the longitudinal yield stress of the pipe. Due to the
of elastomers and polymers for use in the specific application scatter in the pipe material yield stress, it is normally required
and service conditions. that the yield stress of the weld metal is 120-150 MPa higher
than SMYS of the base material (depending on the SMYS). An
B 600 Bolts and nuts ECA involving undermatching weld metal will require special
601 Carbon and low alloy steel bolts and nuts for pressure considerations, see Appendix A.
containing and main structural applications shall be selected in Temperature effects
accordance with Table 6-1.
704 It must be noted that the reduction in yield stress at ele-
vated temperature may be higher for the weld metal than the
Table 6-1 Carbon and low alloy steel bolts and nuts for pressure
base material. Hence, undermatching may be experienced for
bearing or main structural applications high operation temperatures (e.g. snaking scenario). This is
Temperature Bolt Nut Size range particularly relevant when welding clad or lined linepipe.
range (oC) Whenever such situations occur, it will be required to perform
-100 to + 400 ASTM A320, ASTM A194, < 65 mm transverse all weld tensile testing of the weld metal and frac-
Grade L7 / L7M Grade 4/S¤ ture toughness testing at the relevant temperature.
-46 to + 400 ASTM A193, ASTM A194, All
Grade B7/B7M Grade 2H
-100 to + 400 ASTM A320, ASTM A194, < 100 mm
Grade L43 Grade 7 C. Materials Specification
602 When bolts and nuts shall be used at elevated tempera- C 100 General
ture strength de-rating shall be applied, see Sec.5 C300. 101 Requirements to the manufacture of linepipe and pipe-
603 Stainless steel according to ASTM A193 grade B8M line components are covered in Sec.7 and Sec.8, respectively.
(type AISI 316) is applicable but requires efficient cathodic This includes requirements to all relevant manufacturing steps
protection for subsea use. UNS N06625 (Alloy 625) is appli- from steel making to dispatch from the pipe mill or component

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 60 – Sec.6 see note on front cover

manufacturing facility, but excluding any permanent external/ conforming to supplementary requirement S
internal coating. — if supplementary requirement P apply, the relevant strain-
ing for the installation process, possible corrective actions
C 200 Linepipe specification (e.g. “reel on and reel off twice”) and post installation con-
201 A specification reflecting the results of the materials ditions/operations introducing plastic deformation shall be
selection according to this section and referring to Sec.7, shall specified.
be prepared by the Purchaser. The specification shall state any
options, additional requirements to and/or deviations from this C 300 Components specification
standard pertaining to materials, manufacture, fabrication and 301 A specification reflecting the results of the materials
testing of linepipe. selection according to this section and referring to Sec.8, shall
202 The material specification may be a Material Data Sheet be prepared by the Purchaser. The specification shall state any
referring to this standard. options, additional requirements to and/or deviations from this
standard pertaining to materials, manufacture, fabrication and
203 The materials specification shall as a minimum include testing of the components.
the following (as applicable):
302 The materials specification shall as a minimum include
— quantity (e.g., total mass or total length of pipe) the following (as applicable):
— manufacturing process (see Sec.7 A300)
— type of pipe (see Sec.7 A201) — quantity (i.e the total number of components of each type
— SMYS and size)
— outside or inside diameter — design standard
— wall thickness — required design life
— whether data of the wall thickness variation (tmax and tmin) — material type, delivery condition, chemical composition
or the standard deviation in wall thickness variation shall and mechanical properties at design temperature
be supplied to facilitate girth welds AUT (see Appendix E, — nominal diameters, OD or ID, out of roundness and wall
B107) thickness for adjoining pipes including required tolerances
— length and type of length (random or approximate) — bend radius, see Sec.8 B413
— application of supplementary requirements (S, F, P, D or — type of component, piggable or not piggable
U), see B102-B103 — gauging requirements, see Sec.10 O408
— delivery condition (see Sec.7, Table 7-1 and H201-H202) — minimum design temperature (local)
— minimum design temperature — maximum design temperature (local)
— range of sizing ratio for cold-expanded pipe — design pressure (local)
— chemical composition for wall thickness > 25 mm (appli- — water depth
cable to C-Mn steel pipe with delivery condition N or Q) — pipeline operating conditions including fluid characteris-
— chemical composition for wall thickness > 35 mm (appli- tics
cable to C-Mn steel pipe with delivery condition M) — details of field environmental conditions
— if additional tensile testing in the longitudinal direction — external loads and moments that will be transferred to the
with stress strain curves shall be performed component from the connecting pipeline under installation
— if additional tensile testing of base material at other than and operation and any environmental loads
room temperature is required, define; temperature (e.g. — functional requirements
maximum design temperature), acceptance criteria and — material specification including, material type, delivery
frequency of tests condition, chemical composition and mechanical proper-
— CVN test temperature for wall thickness > 40 mm ties at design temperature
— liner/cladding material (UNS number) — required testing
— mechanical and corrosion properties of liner/cladding — required weld overlay, corrosion resistant or hardfacing
material — if pup pieces of the linepipe material shall be fitted
— “type” of seal weld for lined linepipe — coating/painting requirements.
— thickness of carrier pipe and liner/cladding material
— any project specific requirements to gripping force of lined C 400 Specification of bolts and nuts
linepipe 401 Bolts and nuts shall be supplied with certificates to EN
— if the ultrasonically lamination checked zone at the pipe 10204 Type 3.1.
ends shall be wider than 50 mm
— if diameter at pipe ends shall be measured as ID or OD 402 Bolts and nuts for pressure containing and main struc-
— if pipes shall be supplied with other than square cut ends tural applications should be specified to have rolled threads.
(see Sec.7 B336) 403 Any coating of bolts shall be specified in the purchase
— if criteria for reduced hydrostatic test pressure, as given in document for bolting. In order to prevent hydrogen embrittle-
Sec.7 E105, is fulfilled, and if it may be applied ment of acid cleaned and/or electrolytically plated bolts and
— if the outside weld bead shall be ground flush at least 250 nuts, baking at 200°C for a minimum of 2 hours shall be spec-
mm from each pipe end to facilitate girth welds AUT (see ified.
Sec.7 B338)
— if inside machining of pipe ends is applicable, and the dis- C 500 Coating specification
tance from pipe end to tapered portion (see Sec.7 B339,
and Appendix E, B108) 501 As a part of detailed design, project specific require-
— if pipes shall be supplied with bevel protectors, and in case ments to as-applied coating properties and to quality control of
of what type (see Sec.7 H300) the manufacture of coating materials and of coating applica-
— if weldability testing is required tion (including risers, see D600) shall be defined in a purchase
— if qualification testing shall be conducted after the pipe specification for the applicable coating. DNV-RP-F102 and
material has been heated to the expected coating tempera- DNV-RP-F106 give detailed requirements and recommenda-
ture when fusion bonded epoxy is used (see B406-B407) tions to manufacture of field joint and linepipe coatings,
— application of the alternative weld cap hardness of C-Mn respectively with emphasis of quality control of the application
steel pipe according to supplementary requirement S (see procedure.
Sec.7 I107) 502 The specification of linepipe coating, field joint coating
— if SSC testing shall be performed during MPQT for pipes and any weight coating shall include requirements to the qual-

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.6 – Page 61

ification of coating materials, coating application and repair ever, the extra wall thickness will then only delay leakage in pro-
procedures, dimensions of the linepipe cut-back (including tol- portion to the increase in wall thickness.
erances) and to documentation of inspection and testing. More ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
detailed requirements to the specification of pipeline coating
are contained in Sec. 9. 202 The needs for, and benefits of, corrosion allowance shall
Guidance note: be evaluated, taking into account the following factors as a
minimum:
Cut-backs shall be defined to accommodate any AUT equipment
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
— design life and potential corrosivity of fluid and/or exter-
nal environment
503 For pipeline components in CRA materials to receive — expected form of corrosion damage (see Guidance note
CP, detailed coating specifications shall be prepared with a pri- above)
mary objective to prevent HISC. — expected reliability of planned techniques and procedures
for corrosion mitigation (e.g. chemical treatment of fluid,
C 600 Galvanic anodes specification external coating, etc.)
— expected sensitivity and damage sizing capability of rele-
601 As a part of design, specifications for manufacture and vant tools for integrity monitoring, time to first inspection
installation of galvanic anodes shall be prepared. These docu- and planned frequency of inspection
ments shall define requirements to materials, properties of — consequences of sudden leakage, requirements to safety
anodes (as manufactured and as-installed, respectively) and and reliability
associated quality control. Detailed requirements are given in — any extra wall thickness applied during design for installa-
Sec.9. tion forces and not needed for control of internal and exter-
nal pressure
— any potential for down-rating (or up-rating) of operating
pressure.
D. Corrosion Control
203 An internal corrosion allowance of minimum 3 mm is
D 100 General recommended for C-Mn steel pipelines of safety class Medium
and High carrying hydrocarbon fluids likely to contain liquid
101 All components of a pipeline system shall have adequate water during normal operation. For nominally dry gas and for
corrosion control to avoid failures caused or initiated by corro- other fluids considered as non-corrosive, no corrosion allow-
sion, both externally and internally. ance is required.
Guidance note: 204 An external corrosion allowance of minimum 3 mm is
Any corrosion damage may take the form of a more or less uni- recommended for C-Mn steel risers of safety class Medium
form reduction of pipe wall thickness, but scattered pitting and and High in the splash zone. An external corrosion allowance
grooving corrosion oriented longitudinally or transversally to the shall further be considered for any landfalls. For risers carrying
pipe axis is more typical. Stress corrosion cracking is another hot fluids (> 10oC above normal ambient seawater tempera-
form of damage. Uniform corrosion and corrosion grooving may ture), a higher corrosion allowance should be considered, at
interact with internal pressure or external operational loads, caus-
ing rupture by plastic collapse or brittle fracture. Discrete pitting least for the splash zone (see 602). Any allowance for internal
attacks are more likely to cause a pinhole leakage once the full corrosion shall be additional.
pipe wall has been penetrated
D 300 Temporary corrosion protection
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
301 The need for temporary corrosion protection of external
and internal surfaces during storage and transportation shall be
102 Pipeline systems may be exposed to a corrosive environ- considered during design/engineering for later inclusion in
ment both internally and externally. Options for corrosion mit- fabrication and installation specifications. Optional techniques
igation include use of corrosion protective coatings and include end caps or bevel protectors, temporary thin film coat-
linings, cathodic protection (externally only), and chemical ing and rust protective oil/wax.
treatment or processing (internally only).
Guidance note:
D 200 Corrosion allowance Outdoor storage of unprotected pipes for a period of up to about
a year will not normally cause any significant loss of wall thick-
201 For submarine pipeline systems a corrosion allowance ness. However, surface rusting may cause increased surface
may serve to compensate for internal and/or external corrosion roughness affecting pipeline coating operations. Conditions for
and is mostly applied for control of internal or external pres- storage should be such that water will not accumulate internally,
sure. For C-Mn steel components, a corrosion allowance may or externally at any supports. End caps may retain water inter-
be applied either alone or in addition to some system for cor- nally if damaged or lost at one end, allowing entry of rain water
rosion mitigation. or condensation. Use of temporary coatings may interfere with
later external/internal coating.
Guidance note:
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
A requirement for wall thickness determined by installation
forces and exceeding that needed for pressure containment at the 302 The needs for corrosion protection during flooding shall
initial design pressure, or wall thickness not needed for pressure be assessed for inclusion in installation specifications. Special
containment due to a later down rating of operational pressure precautions are required to avoid corrosion damage to CRA
can be utilised for corrosion control but is not referred to in this
document as a “corrosion allowance” pipelines during system pressure testing using seawater. Type
13Cr linepipe may suffer superficial corrosion attack during
A corrosion allowance is primarily used to compensate for forms outdoor storage.
of corrosion attack affecting the pipeline's pressure containment
resistance, i.e. uniform attack and, to a lesser extent, corrosion Guidance note:
damage as grooves or patches. Still, a corrosion allowance may The use of a biocide for treatment of water for flooding is most
also enhance the operational reliability and increase the useful essential (even with short duration) as incipient bacterial growth
life if corrosion damage occurs as isolated pits; although such established during flooding may proceed during operation and
damage is unlikely to affect the pipeline's resistance, it will cause cause corrosion damage (pipelines for dry gas are excluded). For
a pinhole leak when the full wall thickness is penetrated. How- uncoated C-Mn steel pipelines, an oxygen scavenger may be

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 62 – Sec.6 see note on front cover

omitted since oxygen dissolved in seawater will become rapidly addition, sufficient time for application and cooling or curing
consumed by uniform corrosion without causing significant loss is crucial during barge laying of pipelines.
of wall thickness. Film forming or "passivating" corrosion inhib-
itors are not actually required and may even be harmful. Type 407 For pipes with a weight coating or thermally insulated
13Cr steel is highly susceptible to damage by raw seawater or coating, the field joint coating (FJC) is typically made up of an
marginally treated seawater even at a short exposure period. Use inner corrosion protective coating and an in-fill. The objective
of fresh water should be considered or seawater treated to a pH of the in-fill is to provide a smooth transition to the pipeline
of 9 minimum. coating and mechanical protection to the inner coating. For
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- thermally insulated pipelines and risers, requirements for ade-
quate insulating properties may also apply. The requirements
D 400 External pipeline coatings (informative) and guidelines to FJC are also applicable to any field repairs of
factory coating
401 “Linepipe coating” (also referred to as “factory coating
or “parent coating”) refers to factory applied external coating 408 The design and quality control of field joint coatings is
systems (mostly multiple-layer, with a total thickness of some essential to the integrity of pipelines in HISC susceptible mate-
millimetres) with a corrosion protection function, either alone rials, including ferritic-austenitic (duplex) and martensitic
or in combination with a thermal insulation function. Some stainless steel. Compliance with DNV-RP-F102 is recom-
coating systems may further include an outer layer for mechan- mended.
ical protection, primarily during laying and any rock dumping
or trenching operations. Concrete coating for anti-buoyancy D 500 Cathodic Protection
(weight coating, see Sec.9 C) is, however, not covered by the 501 Pipelines and risers in the submerged zone shall be fur-
term linepipe coating. nished with a cathodic protection (CP) system to provide ade-
402 “Field joint coating” (FJC) refers to single or multiple quate corrosion protection for any defects occurring during
layers of coating applied to protect girth welds and the associ- coating application (including field joints), and also for subse-
ated cut-back of the linepipe coating, irrespective of whether quent damage to the coating during installation and operation.
such coating is actually applied in the field or in a factory (e.g. The design of submarine pipeline CP systems shall meet the
pipelines for reel laying and prefabricated risers). “Coating minimum requirements in ISO15589-2. DNV-RP-F103 is
field repairs” refers to repairs of factory coating performed in based on this standard, giving amendments and guidelines.
the field (typically by the FJC contractor). Guidance note:
403 The linepipe (external) coating system should be CP may be achieved using either galvanic ("sacrificial") anodes,
selected based on consideration of the following major items: or impressed current from a rectifier. Galvanic anodes are nor-
mally preferred.
a) general corrosion-protective properties dictated by perme-
ability for water, dissolved gases and salts, adhesion, free- ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
dom from pores, etc.
502 The CP systems should be capable of suppressing the
b) resistance to physical, chemical and biological degrada- pipe-to-seawater (or pipe-to-sediment) electrochemical poten-
tion leading to e.g. cracking or disbondment, primarily in tial into the range -0.80 to -1.15 V rel. Ag/AgCl/ seawater. A
service but also during storage prior to installation (tem- less negative potential may be specified for pipelines in CRA
perature range and design life are decisive parameters) materials.
c) requirements for mechanical properties, primarily those Guidance note:
related to adhesion and flexibility, during installation
(min. temperature) and operation (max. temperature) Potentials more negative than -1.15 V rel. Ag/AgCl/ seawater
can be achieved using impressed current. Such potentials may
d) coating system’s compatibility with specific fabrication cause detrimental secondary effects, including coating disbond-
and installation procedures, including field joint coating ment and HISC of linepipe materials and welds. Pipeline system
and coating field repairs components in high-strength steel, and particularly in martensitic
or ferritic-austenitic (‘duplex’) stainless steel, subject to high
e) coating systems compatibility with concrete weight coat- local stresses during subsea installation activities (e.g. pre-com-
ing (see Sec.9 C), if applicable missioning) or operation can suffer HISC by CP, also within the
potential range given above. Such damage is primarily to be
f) coating system’s compatibility with CP, and capability of avoided by restricting straining subsea by design measures. In
reducing current demand for CP, if applicable addition, special emphasis should be laid on ensuring adequate
g) linepipe material’s compatibility with CP considering sus- coating of components that may be subject to localised straining.
ceptibility to HISC; see B303 It is essential that the coating systems to be applied (i.e. factory
applied coating and field joint coating) for materials that are
h) linepipe material’s susceptibility to corrosion in the actual known to be susceptible to HISC have adequate resistance to dis-
environment, including stress corrosion cracking in the bonding by mechanical effects during installation as well as
atmospheric zone and any onshore buried zone chemical/physical effects during operation. Overlay welding of
critical areas with austenitic CRA filler materials may be consid-
i) environmental compatibility and health hazards during ered when organic coatings are not applicable. Thermally
coating application, fabrication/installation and operation. sprayed aluminium coating has also been applied for this pur-
pose. Other measures to reduce or eliminate the risk of HISC
404 For thermally insulating coatings, properties related to include control of galvanic anodes by diodes and use of special
flow assurance also apply; e.g. specific heat capacity, thermal anode alloys with less negative closed circuit potential. (These
conductivity and the degradation of such properties by high techniques require that the pipeline is electrically insulated from
operating external pressure and internal fluid temperature. conventional CP systems on electrically connected structures). In
case conventional bracelet anodes are still to be used, welding of
405 Pipeline components should have external coatings pref- anodes to any pressure containing components in these materials
erably matching the properties of those to be used for linepipe. should be avoided.
If this is not practical, CP design may compensate for inferior ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
properties. However, risks associated with HISC by CP shall
be duly considered (see B303 and 502 Guidance note). 503 Galvanic anode CP systems should be designed to pro-
406 For the selection of FJC, the same considerations as for vide corrosion protection throughout the design life of the pro-
pipeline and riser coatings as in 403 and 605-606 apply. In tected object.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.6 – Page 63

Guidance note: that do not need to be verified by special considerations and


As retrofitting of galvanic anodes is generally costly (if practical testing. DNV-RP-F103 emphasizes the importance of coating
at all), the likelihood of the initial pipeline design life being design and quality control of coating application when defin-
extended should be duly considered. ing the CP current reducing effects of such coatings. It further
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- contains additional guidance to the CP design. For alternative
design procedures, see 505 and 506 above.
504 Pipeline systems connected to other offshore installa- 508 The detailed engineering documentation of galvanic
tions shall have compatible CP systems unless an electrically anode CP systems shall contain the following:
insulating joint is to be installed. At any landfall of an offshore
pipeline with galvanic anodes and impressed current CP of the — design premises, including design life and reference to rel-
onshore section, the needs for an insulating joint shall be eval- evant project specifications, codes and standards
uated. — calculations of average and final current demands for indi-
Guidance note: vidual sections of the pipeline
Without insulating joints, some interaction with the CP system of — calculations of total anode net mass for the individual sec-
electrically connected offshore structures cannot be avoided. As tions, to meet the mean current demand
the design parameters for subsea pipelines are typically more — calculation of final current anode output to verify that the
conservative than that of other structures, some current drain final current demand can be met for the individual sections
from riser and from pipeline anodes adjacent to the pipeline can- of the pipeline (applies to a conventional bracelet anode
not be avoided, sometimes leading to premature consumption. concept with max. 300 m anode spacing)
When the structure has a correctly designed CP system such cur- — number of bracelet anodes for the individual pipeline sec-
rent drain is not critical as the net current drain will decrease with tions, and resulting net anode mass to be installed on each
time and ultimately cease; i.e. unless the second structure has
insufficient CP. section
— outline drawing(s) of bracelet anodes with fastening
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- devices and including tentative tolerances
— calculations of pipeline metallic resistance to verify the
505 Unless otherwise specified by or agreed with the owner, feasibility of CP by anodes on adjacent structure(s) or a
pipelines shall be designed with a self-sustaining CP system bracelet anode concept exceeding a spacing of 300 m in
based on bracelet anodes installed with a maximum distance of case any of these options apply (see DNV-RP-F103)
300 m (in accordance with ISO 15589-2) and with electrical — documentation of CP capacity on adjacent installation(s)
connections to the pipeline by pin brazing or aluminothermic to be utilized for CP of pipeline, if applicable.
welding of cable connections to the pipe wall. (see Appendix C
E500). Guidance note:
For shorter pipelines (up to 30 km approximately), CP may be The above requirements for documentation of CP design is an
achieved by anodes installed on structures at the end of the amendment to ISO 15589-2
pipeline (e.g. platform sub-structure, subsea template or riser ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
base) electrically connected to the pipeline. This concept
requires, however, that the design and quality control of fac- 509 For CP design of pipeline system components with
tory applied coatings, field joint coatings and coating field major surfaces in structural steel (e.g. riser bases), reference is
repairs are closely defined (e.g. as in DNV-RP-F106 and made to DNV-RP-B401.
DNV-RP-F102). A recommended procedure to calculate the
protective length of anodes on an adjacent structure is given in 510 Design of any impressed current CP systems installed at
DNV-RP-F103 (ISO 15589-2 gives an alternative procedure land falls shall comply with ISO 15589-1. Requirements to
but, contrary to DNV-RP-F103, does not define the primary electrically insulating joints are given in Sec.8 B800.
parameters to be used for calculation of the protective length). Guidance note:
Guidance note: Design of impressed current CP systems at landfalls is not cov-
ered by this standard. Some general guidance is given in ISO
CP by anodes located on adjacent structures significantly reduces 15889.
the cost of anode installation in case the pipeline installation con-
cept would otherwise require anode installation offshore. More- ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
over, for buried pipelines in general and for hot buried lines in
particular, the anode electrochemical efficiency and current out- D 600 External corrosion control of risers
put capacity increases since anodes are located boldly exposed to
seawater. The condition of such anodes can also be monitored. (informative)
The concept of basing pipeline CP on anodes installed on adja- 601 For a specific riser, the division into corrosion protection
cent structures further reduces the risk of HISC damage to pipe- zones is dependent on the particular riser or platform design
lines in susceptible materials (e.g. martensitic and ferritic- and the prevailing environmental conditions. The upper and
austenitic stainless steels).
lower limits of the ‘splash zone’ may be determined according
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- to the definitions in Sec.1.
506 Bracelet pipeline anodes are to be designed with due 602 Adverse corrosive conditions occur in the zone above
considerations of forces induced during pipeline installation. lowest astronomical tide (LAT) where the riser is intermit-
For anodes to be installed on top of the pipeline coating, this tently wetted by waves, tide and sea spray (‘splash zone’).
may require use of bolts for tensioning or welding of anode Particularly severe corrosive conditions apply to risers heated
tabs with pressure applied on the bracelet assembly. Connector by an internal fluid. In the splash zone, the riser coating may
cables shall be adequately protected; e.g. by locating the cables be exposed to mechanical damage by surface vessels and
to the gap between the anode bracelets and filling with a marine operations, whilst there is limited accessibility for
moulding compound. inspection and maintenance.
507 A calculation procedure for pipeline CP design using 603 The riser section in the ‘atmospheric zone’ (i.e. above
conventional bracelet anodes and a maximum anode spacing the splash zone) is more shielded from both severe weathering
of 300 m is given in ISO 15589-2 and in DNV-RP-F103. The and mechanical damage. Furthermore, there is better accessi-
latter document generally refers to ISO 15589-2 for design bility for inspection and maintenance.
parameters and design procedures to be used and recommends 604 In the ‘submerged zone’ and in the splash zone below
some default values which represent minimum requirements the lowest astronomical tide (LAT), an adequately designed

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 64 – Sec.6 see note on front cover

CP system is capable of preventing corrosion at any damaged 702 The selection of a system for internal corrosion protec-
areas of the riser coating. In the tidal zone, a CP system will be tion of pipelines and risers has a major effect on detailed
marginally effective. design and must therefore be evaluated during conceptual
605 Different coating systems may be applied in the three design. The following options for corrosion control may be
corrosion protection zones defined above, provided they are considered:
compatible. The considerations according to a), b), c), f), g) a) processing of fluid for removal of liquid water and/or cor-
and h) in D403 above apply for all of the three zones. Fastening rosive agents.
devices for risers are normally selected to be compatible with
a specific riser coating rather than vice versa. b) use of linepipe or internal (metallic) lining/cladding with
intrinsic corrosion resistance (see B300).
606 The following additional considerations affecting selec-
tion of coating system apply in the splash and atmospheric c) use of organic corrosion protective coatings or linings
zones: (normally in combination with a) or d)).
d) chemical treatment, i.e. addition of chemicals with corro-
— resistance to under-rusting at coating defects sion mitigating function.
— maintainability
— compatibility with inspection procedures for internal and/ In addition, the benefits of a corrosion allowance (see D200)
or external corrosion should be duly considered for a) and d).
— compatibility with equipment/procedures for removal of 703 Corrosion control by fluid processing may involve
biofouling (if applicable) removal of water from gas/oil (dehydration), or of oxygen
— fire protection (if required). from seawater for injection (deoxygenation), for example.
Consequences of operational upsets on material degradation
607 External cladding with certain Cu-base alloys may be should be taken into account. The necessity for corrosion
used for combined corrosion protection and anti-fouling, pri- allowance and redundant systems for fluid processing should
marily in the transition of the splash zone and the submerged be considered. On-line monitoring of fluid corrosion proper-
zone (see D602). However, metallic materials with anti-foul- ties downstream of processing unit is normally required. For
ing properties must be electrically insulated from the CP sys- oil export pipelines carrying residual amounts of water, a bio-
tem to be effective. Multiple-layer paint coatings and cide treatment should be considered as a back up for preven-
thermally sprayed aluminium coatings are applicable to the tion of bacterial corrosion. Periodic pigging for removal of
atmospheric and submerged zones, and in the splash zone if water and deposits counteracts internal corrosion in general
functional requirements and local conditions permit. and bacterial corrosion in particular.
608 Mechanical and physical coating properties listed in 704 If internal coatings or linings are to be evaluated as an
D403 are also relevant for riser coatings, dependent on the par- option for corrosion control, the following main parameters
ticular corrosion protection zone. The applicable requirements shall be considered:
to properties for each coating system and for quality control
shall be defined in a purchase specification. The general — chemical compatibility with all fluids to be conveyed or
requirements and guidelines for quality control in DNV-RP- contacted during installation, commissioning and opera-
F106 are applicable. Some of the coating systems with func- tion, including the effects of any additives for control of
tional requirements defined in coating data sheets are applica- flow or internal corrosion (see D706)
ble also as riser coatings. — resistance to erosion by fluid and mechanical damage by
609 In the submerged zone, the considerations for selection pigging operations
of coating in D403 apply. In addition, resistance to biofouling — resistance to rapid decompression
is relevant in surface waters of the submerged zone and the — reliability of quality control during coating application
lowermost section of the splash zone may have to be consid- — reliability of (internal) field joint coating systems, if appli-
ered. cable
— consequences of failure and redundant techniques for cor-
610 Riser FJC’s shall have properties matching the selected rosion mitigation.
pipe coating. In the splash zone, field joint coatings should be
avoided unless it can be demonstrated that their corrosion pro- 705 Internal coating of pipelines (e.g. by thin film of epoxy)
tection properties are closely equivalent to those of the adja- has primarily been applied for the purpose of friction reduction
cent coating. in dry gas pipelines ("flow coatings" or “anti-friction coat-
ings”). Any such coatings should have a minimum specified
D 700 Internal corrosion control (informative) thickness of 40 μm and should comply with the minimum
701 Options for internal corrosion control should be evalu- requirements in API RP 5L2. Although such coatings can not
ated aiming for the most cost-effective solution meeting the be expected to be efficient in preventing corrosion attack if
overall requirements of safety and environmental regula- corrosive fluids are conveyed, any coating with adequate prop-
tions.The selection of the most cost-effective strategy for cor- erties may still be beneficial in reducing forms of attack affect-
rosion control requires that all major costs associated with ing membrane stresses and hence, the pressure retaining
operation of the pipeline system, as well as investment costs capacity of the pipeline.
for corrosion control, are evaluated ("Life Cycle Cost Analy- 706 Chemical treatment of fluids for corrosion control may
sis"). When fluid corrosivity and efficiency of corrosion miti- include:
gation cannot be assessed with any high degree of accuracy, a
"risk cost" may be added for a specific option being evaluated. — corrosion inhibitors (e.g. "film forming")
The risk cost is the product of estimated probability and conse- — pH-buffering chemicals
quences (expressed in monetary units) of a particular failure — biocides (for mitigation of bacterial corrosion)
mode (e.g. rupture or pinhole leakage). The probability of such — glycol or methanol (added at high concentrations for
failures should reflect the designer's confidence in estimating hydrate inhibition, diluting the water phase)
the fluid corrosivity and the efficiency of options for corrosion — dispersants (for emulsification of water in oil)
control being evaluated. Depending on the failure mode, con- — scavengers (for removal of corrosive constituents at low
sequences of failure may include costs associated with concentrations).
increased maintenance, repairs, lost capacity and secondary
damage to life, environment and other investments. 707 The reliability of chemical treatment should be evalu-

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.6 – Page 65

ated in detail during the conceptual design. Important parame- — consequences of failure to achieve adequate protection,
ters to be considered are: and redundant techniques.
— anticipated corrosion mitigating efficiency for the actual For pipelines carrying untreated well fluid or other fluids with
fluid to be treated, including possible effects of scales, high corrosivity and with high requirements to safety and reli-
deposits, etc. associated with this fluid
— capability of the conveyed fluid to distribute inhibitor in ability, there is a need to verify the efficiency of chemical treat-
the pipeline system along its full length and circumference ment by integrity monitoring using a tool allowing wall
— compatibility with all pipeline system and downstream thickness measurements along the full length of the pipeline
materials, particularly elastomers and organic coatings (see Sec.12). Corrosion probes and monitored spools are pri-
— compatibility with any other additives to be injected, marily for detection of changes in fluid corrosivity and are not
— health hazards and environmental compatibility applicable for verification of the integrity of the pipeline.
— provisions for injection and techniques/procedures for
monitoring of inhibitor efficiency

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 66 – Sec.7 see note on front cover

SECTION 7
CONSTRUCTION – LINEPIPE

A. General Multiple welding processes (MWP)


Pipe formed from strip or plate and welded using a combina-
A 100 Objective tion of two or more welding processes. If the combination of
101 This section specifies the requirements for, manufac- welding processes has not been used previously, pre-qualifica-
ture, testing and documentation of linepipe. All mechanical tion testing should be conducted according to Appendix C.
properties and dimensional tolerances shall be met after heat 303 The backing steel of lined linepipe shall comply with
treatment, expansion and final shaping. A301.
102 Materials selection shall be performed in accordance 304 The liner pipe of lined linepipe shall be manufactured in
with Sec.6. accordance with API 5LC.
103 This section does not cover any activities taking part 305 Clad linepipe shall be manufactured from CRA clad C-
after the pipes have been dispatched from the pipe mill, e.g. Mn steel plate by application of a single longitudinal weld.
girth welding and coating. With respect to the backing steel, the pipe manufacturing shall
104 The requirements stated herein for Carbon-Manganese be in general compliance with one of the manufacturing routes
(C-Mn) steel linepipe conform in general to ISO 3183 Annex for SAW pipe as given in Table 7-1. The longitudinal weld
J: “PSL 2 pipe ordered for offshore service”, with some addi- shall be MWP (see A302).
tional and modified requirements.
A 400 Supplementary requirements
105 Manufacturers of linepipe shall have an implemented
quality assurance system according to ISO 9001. 401 When requested by the Purchaser and stated in the mate-
rials specification (as required in A500), linepipe to this stand-
A 200 Application ard shall meet supplementary requirements given in
201 The requirements are applicable for linepipe made of: Subsection I, for:

— C-Mn steel — sour service, suffix S (see I100)


— clad or lined steel — fracture arrest properties, suffix F (see I200)
— corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) including ferritic - auste- — linepipe for plastic deformation, suffix P (see I300)
nitic (duplex) stainless steel, austenitic stainless steels, — enhanced dimensional requirements for linepipe, suffix D
martensitic stainless steels (13Cr), other stainless steels (see I400)
and nickel based alloys. — high utilisation, suffix U (see I500).

202 Materials, manufacturing methods and procedures that A 500 Linepipe specification
comply with recognised practices or proprietary specifications 501 A linepipe specification reflecting the results of the
will normally be acceptable provided they comply with the materials selection (see Sec.6 C200), referring to this section
requirements of this section. (Sec.7) of the offshore standard, shall be prepared by the Pur-
chaser. The specification shall state any additional require-
A 300 Process of manufacture ments to and/or deviations from this standard pertaining to
301 C-Mn linepipe shall be manufactured according to one materials, manufacture, fabrication and testing of linepipe.
of the following processes:
A 600 Manufacturing Procedure Specification and
Seamless (SMLS) qualification
Pipe manufactured by a hot forming process without welding. Manufacturing Procedure Specification (MPS)
In order to obtain the required dimensions, the hot forming
may be followed by sizing or cold finishing. 601 Before production commences, the Manufacturer shall
prepare a Manufacturing Procedure Specification (MPS). The
High Frequency Welded (HFW) MPS shall demonstrate how the specified properties may be
Pipe formed from strip and welded with one longitudinal seam achieved and verified throughout the proposed manufacturing
formed by electric-resistance welding applied by induction or route.
conduction with a welding current frequency ≥70 kHz, without The MPS shall address all factors that influence the quality and
the use of filler metal. The forming may be followed by cold consistency of the product. All main manufacturing steps from
expansion or reduction. control of received raw material to shipment of finished pipe,
Submerged Arc-Welded (SAW) including all examination and check points, shall be outlined in
detail.
Pipe manufactured by forming from strip or plate and with one
longitudinal (SAWL) or helical (SAWH) seam formed by the References to the procedures established for the execution of
submerged arc process, with at least one pass made on the all the individual production steps shall be included.
inside and one pass from the outside of the pipe. The forming 602 The MPS shall as a minimum contain the following
may be followed by cold expansion or reduction. information (as applicable):
302 CRA linepipe may, in addition to SMLS and SAWL, be
manufactured according to one of the following processes: — steel producer
— plan(s) and process flow description/diagram
Electron Beam Welded (EBW) and Laser Beam Welded (LBW) — project specific quality control plan
Pipe formed from strip and welded with one longitudinal seam, — manufacturing process
with or without the use of filler metal. The forming may be fol- — target chemical composition
lowed by cold expansion or reduction to obtain the required — steel making and casting techniques
dimensional tolerances. These welding processes shall be sub- — ladle treatments (secondary refining), degassing, details of
ject to pre-qualification testing according to Appendix C. inclusion shape control, super heat

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Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.7 – Page 67

— method used to ensure that sufficient amount of inter- 609 In addition to the requirements stated above, the follow-
mixed zones between different orders are removed ing changes (as applicable) to the manufacturing processes
— details and follow-up of limiting macro, as well as micro will require re-qualification of the MPS (essential variables):
segregation, e.g. soft reduction and electro magnetic stir-
ring (EMS) used during continuous casting — any change in steelmaking practice
— manufacturer and manufacturing location of raw material — changes beyond the allowable variation for rolling prac-
and/or plate for welded pipes tice, accelerated cooling and/or QT process
— billets reheating temperature for seamless — change in nominal wall thickness exceeding + 5% to -10%
— allowable variation in slab reheating temperature, and start — change in ladle analysis for C-Mn steels outside ± 0.02%
and stop temperatures for finishing mill and accelerated C, ± 0.02 CE and/or ± 0.03 in Pcm
cooling — any change in pipe forming process,
— methods for controlling the hydrogen level (e.g. stacking — any change in alignment and joint design for welding
of slabs or plates) — change in welding heat input ± 15%.
— pipe-forming procedure, including preparation of edges
and control of alignment and shape (including width of The following additional essential variable applies to HFW,
strip for HFW) EBW and LBW pipe:
— procedure for handling of welding consumable and flux — any change in nominal thickness
— all activities related to production and repair welding, — change in welding heat coefficient
including welding procedures and qualification Q = (amps × volts) / (travel speed × thickness) ± 5%
— heat treatment procedures (including in-line heat treat- — addition or deletion of an impeder
ment of the weld seam) including allowable variation in — change in rollers position and strip width outside agreed
process parameters tolerances.
— method for cold expansion/reduction/sizing/finishing, tar-
get and maximum sizing ratio 610 If one or more tests in the MPQT fail, the MPS shall be
— hydrostatic test procedures reviewed and modified accordingly, and a complete re-qualifica-
— NDT procedures (also for strip/plate as applicable) tion performed. Re-testing may be allowed subject to agreement.
— list of specified mechanical and corrosion testing
— dimensional control procedures
— pipe number allocation
— pipe tracking procedure (traceability procedure) B. Carbon Manganese (C-Mn) Steel Linepipe
— marking, coating and protection procedures
— handling, loading and shipping procedures. B 100 General
101 C-Mn steel linepipe fabricated according to this standard
Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Test (MPQT) generally conform to the requirements in ISO 3183 Annex J:
603 The MPS shall be qualified for each nominal pipe diam- “PSL 2 pipe ordered for offshore service”. Any additional or
eter as part of first day production, unless as allowed in A609. modified requirements to ISO 3183 Annex J are highlighted in
For C-Mn steels with SMYS ≤ 485 MPa that are not intended this subsection (B200-B600) as described in B102 and B103.
for sour service, relevant documentation may be agreed in lieu Additional or modified requirements
of qualification testing providing all essential variables in
A609 are adhered to. 102 Paragraphs containing additional requirements to ISO
3183 are marked at the end of the relevant paragraph with AR.
604 Each MPQT shall include full qualification of one pipe
from two different test units (a total of two pipes). If the entire Paragraphs containing requirements that are modified com-
production is limited to one heat the MPQT may be performed pared to ISO 3183 are marked at the end of the relevant para-
on a single pipe from that heat. The minimum type and extent graph with MR.
of chemical, mechanical, and non-destructive testing are given 103 Additional or modified requirements when given in
in this section. This includes all stated production tests plus tables are marked in accordance with B102 with AR and MR
additional tests given in Table 7-8, Table 7-13 and Table 7-15. in the relevant table cells as applicable.
605 For C-Mn steels with SMYS > 485 MPa, the qualifica-
tion of the MPS shall be completed prior to start of production, B 200 Pipe designation
unless otherwise agreed. 201 C-Mn steel linepipe shall be designated with:
Guidance note:
— DNV
Depending on the criticality of the project, it is recommended for — process of manufacture
all projects to carefully evaluate if the MPQT should be con-
ducted prior to the start of production. — SMYS
— supplementary requirement suffix (see Subsection I), as
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- applicable. MR
606 If the cold forming of C-Mn steel exceeds 5% strain after Guidance note:
heat treatment then ageing tests shall be performed as part of e.g. "DNV SMLS 450 SF" designates a seamless pipe with
the qualification testing. The tests shall be performed on the SMYS 450 MPa, meeting the supplementary requirements for
actual pipe without any straightening and additional deforma- sour service and fracture arrest properties.
tion, see Appendix B A1201. The absorbed Charpy V-notch ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
impact energy in the aged condition shall meet the require-
ments in Table 7-5.
B 300 Manufacturing
607 Additional MPS qualification testing may be required by
Purchaser (e.g. weldability testing, analysis for trace elements Starting material and steel making
for steel made from scrap, etc.), as part of the qualification of 301 C-Mn steel linepipe shall be manufactured in accord-
the MPS (see A603). ance with the processes given in A300 using the starting mate-
608 The validity of the MPQT shall be limited to the steel- rials and corresponding forming methods and final heat
making, rolling, and manufacturing/ fabrication facilities used treatment as given in Table 7-1.
during the qualification. 302 All manufacturing including steel making and the raw

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 68 – Sec.7 see note on front cover

materials used shall be in accordance with the qualified MPS, seam welds of SAWL pipes or SAWH pipes.
follow the same activity sequence, and stay within the agreed 322 Tack welds shall be made by: manual or semi-automatic
allowable variations. submerged-arc welding, electric welding, gas metal-arc weld-
303 All steels shall be made by an electric or one of the basic ing, flux-cored arc welding; or shielded metal-arc welding using
oxygen processes. C-Mn steel shall be fully killed and made to a low hydrogen electrode. Tack welds shall be melted and coa-
a fine grain practice. lesced into the final weld seam or removed by machining.
General requirements to manufacture of seamless pipe 323 Intermittent tack welding of the SAWL groove shall not
304 SMLS pipe shall be manufactured from continuously be used unless Purchaser has approved data furnished by Man-
(strand) cast or ingot steel. ufacturer to demonstrate that all mechanical properties speci-
fied for the pipe are obtainable at both the tack weld and
305 If the process of cold finishing is used, this shall be intermediate positions.
stated in the inspection document.
324 Unless comparative tests results of diffusible hydrogen
306 Pipe ends shall be cut back sufficiently after rolling to versus flux moisture content are provided (meeting the
ensure freedom from defects. AR requirement in B318), the maximum residual moisture content
General requirements to manufacture of welded pipe of agglomerated flux shall be 0.03%.
307 Unless otherwise agreed, strip and plate used for the Repair welding of SAW seam welds
manufacture of welded pipe shall be rolled from continuously 325 Repair welding of SAW pipe seam welds shall be qual-
(strand) cast or pressure cast slabs. Strip or plate shall not con- ified in accordance with ISO3183 Annex D and be performed
tain any repair welds. in accordance with ISO3183 Annex C.4. Any repair welding
308 The strip width for spiral welded pipes should not be less shall be carried out prior to cold expansion.
than 0.8 and not more than 3.0 times the pipe diameter. Strip 326 Acceptance criteria and test requirements for Charpy V-
and plate shall be inspected visually after rolling, either of the notch impact properties for qualification of repair welding pro-
plate, of the uncoiled strip or of the coil edges. cedures shall be in accordance with B409 through 411. AR
309 If agreed, strip and plate shall be inspected ultrasonically HFW pipe
for laminar imperfections or mechanical damage, either before
or after cutting the strip or plate, or the completed pipe shall be 327 The abutting edges of the strip or plate should be milled
subjected to full-body inspection, including ultrasonic inspec- or machined immediately before welding.
tion, see Table 7-16. 328 The width of the strip or plate should be continuously
310 Plate or strip shall be cut to the required width and the monitored. AR
weld bevel prepared by milling or other agreed methods before 329 The weld seam and the HAZ shall be fully normalized
forming. AR subsequent to welding. MR
311 Cold forming (i.e. below 250°C) of C-Mn steel shall not Heat treatment
introduce a plastic deformation exceeding 5%, unless heat
treatment is performed or ageing tests show acceptable results 330 Heat treatments of SMLS and welded pipe shall be per-
(see A606). AR formed according to documented procedures used during
MPQT.
312 Normalising forming of materials and weldments shall
be performed as recommended by the Manufacturers of the 331 The documented procedures shall be in accordance with
plate/strip and welding consumables. AR any recommendations from the material Manufacturer with
regard to heating and cooling rates, soaking time, and soaking
313 Welding personnel for execution of all welding opera- temperature. AR
tions shall be qualified by in-house training. The in-house
training program shall available for review on request by Pur- Cold expansion and cold sizing
chaser. AR 332 The extent of cold sizing and cold forming expressed as
314 Welding procedures for the seam weld shall be qualified the sizing ratio sr, shall be calculated according to the follow-
as part of MPQT. AR ing formula:
315 The weld metal shall, as a minimum, have strength, duc- sr = |Da - Db| / Db
tility and toughness meeting the requirements of the base mate- where
rial. AR
316 Welds containing defects may be locally repaired by Da is the outside diameter after sizing
welding. Weld deposit having unacceptable mechanical prop- Db is the outside diameter before sizing.
erties shall be completely removed before re-welding. AR 333 The sizing ratio of cold expanded pipe should be within
317 Arc stops during welding shall be repaired according to the range 0.003 < sr ≤ 0.015. Expansion shall not introduce
a qualified welding repair procedure. AR high local deformations.
318 Low hydrogen welding consumables shall be used and 334 Pipes may be cold sized to their final dimensions by
shall give a diffusible hydrogen content of maximum 5 ml/ expansion or reduction. This shall not produce excessive per-
100 g weld metal. AR manent strain. The sizing ratio, sr , shall not exceed 0.015 if no
subsequent heat treatment or only heat treatment of the weld
319 Welding consumables shall be individually marked and area is performed.
supplied with an inspection certificate according to EN 10204.
Welding wire shall be supplied with certificate type 3.1. while 335 The sizing ratio, sr , for cold sizing of pipe ends shall not
certificate type 2.2 is sufficient for SAW Flux. AR exceed 0.015 unless the entire pipe ends are subsequently
320 Handling of welding consumables and the execution and
stress relieved.
quality assurance of welding shall meet the requirements of in- Finish of pipe ends
house quality procedures. AR 336 Unless otherwise agreed, pipe ends shall be cut square
SAW pipe and be free from burrs. MR
321 Any lubricant and contamination on the weld bevel or 337 The internal weld bead shall be ground to a height of 0
the surrounding areas shall be removed before making the to 0.5 mm for a distance of at least 100 mm at both pipe ends.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.7 – Page 69

Table 7-1 C-Mn steels, acceptable manufacturing routes


Type of Starting Material Pipe forming Final heat treatment Delivery
pipe condition 1)
SMLS Ingot, bloom or billet Normalising forming None N
Hot forming Normalising or QT 1) N or Q
Hot forming and cold finishing N or Q
HFW Normalising rolled strip Cold forming Normalising of weld area N
Thermo-mechanical rolled strip Heat treating of weld area M
Heat treating of weld area and M
stress relieving of entire pipe
Hot rolled or normalising rolled strip Cold forming Normalising of entire pipe N
QT 2) of entire pipe Q
Cold forming and hot reduction under None N
controlled temperature, resulting in a
normalised condition
Cold forming followed by thermome- M
chanical forming of pipe
SAW Normalised or normalising rolled plate or Cold forming None, unless required due to N
strip degree of cold forming
Thermo-mechanical rolled plate or strip M
QT 2) plate or strip Q
As-rolled, QT 2), normalised or normalis- Normalising forming None N
ing rolled plate or strip
Cold forming Normalising N
QT 1) Q
Notes
1) The delivery conditions are: “Normalised” denoted N, “Quenched and tempered”, denoted Q, and “Thermomechanical rolled or formed”, denoted M.
2) Quenched and Tempered.

338 If agreed, the outside weld bead shall be ground to a Re-processing


height of 0 to 0.5 mm for a distance of at least 250 mm at both 344 In case any mechanical tests fail during production of
pipe ends. The transition to the base material/pipe body shall QT or normalised pipe material, it is acceptable to conduct one
be smooth and without a noticeable step. MR re-heat treatment cycle of the entire test unit. All mechanical
339 If agreed internal machining or grinding may be carried testing shall be repeated after re-heat treatment. AR
out. In case of machining, the following requirements shall be Traceability
adhered to:
345 A system for traceability of the heat number, heat treat-
— if required in the purchase order the internal taper shall be ment batch and test unit number and the records from all
located at a defined minimum distance from future bevel required tests to each individual pipe shall be established and
to facilitate UT or AUT described in the MPS (see A602). Required repairs and records
— the angle of the internal taper, measured from the longitu- of dimensional testing and all other required inspections shall
dinal axis shall not exceed 7.0° for welded pipe. For SMLS be included. Care shall be exercised during storage and han-
pipe the maximum angle of the internal taper shall be as dling to preserve the identification of materials. MR
given in Table 7-2. MR
B 400 Acceptance criteria
Table 7-2 Maximum angle of internal taper for SMLS pipe Chemical composition
Wall thickness t [mm] Max. angle of taper [°]
401 The chemical compositions given in Table 7-3 are appli-
< 10.5 7.0 cable to pipes with delivery condition N or Q (normalised or
10.5 ≤ t < 14.0 9.5 quenched and tempered according to Table 7-1), with nominal
14.0 ≤ t < 17.0 11.0 wall thickness t ≤ 25 mm.
≥ 17.0 14.0 402 The chemical compositions given in Table 7-4 are appli-
cable to pipes with delivery condition M (thermo-mechanical
formed or rolled according to Table 7-1). The chemical com-
Jointers and strip end welds positions given in Table 7-4 are applicable for pipes with t ≤ 35
340 Jointers shall not be delivered unless otherwise agreed. mm. MR
341 If used, the jointer circumferential weld shall be quali- 403 For pipes with nominal wall thickness larger than the
fied according to the requirements for pipeline girth welds limits indicated in B401 and B402, the chemical composition
given in Appendix C. Production testing requirements for shall be subject to agreement.
jointers shall be in accordance with ISO 3183. Other manufac- 404 For pipe with a carbon content ≤ 0.12% (product analy-
turing requirements shall comply with Annex A of ISO 3183. sis), carbon equivalents shall be determined using the Pcm for-
342 Apart from linepipe supplied as coiled tubing, strip / mula as given in Table 7-3 and Table 7-4. If the heat analysis
plate end welds shall not be permitted unless otherwise agreed. for boron is less than 0.0005%, then it is not necessary for the
MR product analysis to include boron, and the boron content may
343 If used, see B341, strip / plate end welds shall comply be considered to be zero for the Pcm calculation.
with all applicable requirements in ISO 3183. 405 For pipe with a carbon content > 0.12% (product analy-

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 70 – Sec.7 see note on front cover

sis) carbon equivalents shall be determined using the CE for- 411 From the set of three Charpy V-notch specimens, only
mula as given in Table 7-3. one is allowed to be below the specified average value and
Tensile properties shall meet the minimum single value requirement. AR
Flattening test
406 The tensile properties shall be as given in Table 7-5.
412 For HFW pipe with SMYS ≥ 415 MPa with wall
407 For transverse weld tensile testing, the fracture shall not thickness ≥ 12.7 mm, there shall be no opening of the weld
be located in the weld metal. The ultimate tensile strength shall before the distance between the plates is less than 66% of the
be at least equal to the SMTS. original outside diameter. For all other combinations of pipe
Hardness grade and specified wall thickness, there shall be no opening of
the weld before the distance between the plates is less than
408 The hardness in the Base Material (BM), Weld Metal 50% of the original outside diameter.
(WM) and the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) shall comply with
Table 7-5. AR 413 For HFW pipe with a D/t2 > 10, there shall be no cracks
or breaks other than in the weld before the distance between
CVN impact test the plates is less than 33% of the original outside diameter.
409 Requirements for Charpy V-notch impact properties for Guidance note:
linepipe BM, WM and HAZ are given in Table 7-5. The values The weld extends to a distance, on each side of the weld line, of
in Table 7-5 shall be met when tested at the temperatures given 6.4 mm for D < 60.3 mm, and 13 mm for D ≥ 60.3 mm.
in Table 7-6. MR
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
410 Testing of Charpy V-notch impact properties shall, in
general, be performed on test specimens 10 × 10 mm. Where Guided-bend test
test pieces of width < 10 mm are used, the measured average 414 The guided-bend test pieces shall not:
impact energy (KVm) and the test piece cross-section meas-
ured under the notch (A) (mm2) shall be reported. For compar- — fracture completely
ison with the values in Table 7-5, the measured energy shall be — reveal any cracks or ruptures in the weld metal longer than
converted to the impact energy (KV) in Joules using the for- 3.2 mm, regardless of depth, or
mula: — reveal any cracks or ruptures in the parent metal, HAZ, or
fusion line longer than 3.2 mm or deeper than 12.5% of the
8 × 10 × KV m specified wall thickness.
KV = --------------------------------
- (7.1)
A However, cracks that occur at the edges of the test piece during
testing shall not be cause for rejection, provided that they are
AR not longer than 6.4 mm.

Table 7-3 Chemical composition for C-Mn steel pipe with delivery condition N or Q, applicable for seamless and welded pipe.
Product analysis, maximum. wt.% Carbon
SMYS equivalents
C1) Si Mn 1) P S V Nb Ti Other 2) CE 3) Pcm 4)
Pipe with delivery condition N (normalised according to Table 7-1)
245 0.14 0.40 1.35 0.020 0.010 Note 5) Note 5) 0.04 Notes 6,7) 0.36 0.19 8)
290 0.14 0.40 1.35 0.020 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.04 Note 7) 0.36 0.19 8)
320 0.14 0.40 1.40 0.020 0.010 0.07 0.05 0.04 Notes 6,7) 0.38 0.20 8)
360 0.16 0.45 1.65 0.020 0.010 0.10 0.05 0.04 Notes 6) 0.43 0.22 8)
Pipe with delivery condition Q (quenched and tempered according to Table 7-1)
245 0.14 0.40 1.35 0.020 0.010 0.04 0.04 0.04 Note 7) 0.34 0.19 8)
290 0.14 0.40 1.35 0.020 0.010 0.04 0.04 0.04 Note 7) 0.34 0.19 8)
320 0.15 0.45 1.40 0.020 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.04 Note 7) 0.36 0.20 8)
360 0.16 0.45 1.65 0.020 0.010 0.07 0.05 0.04 Notes 6,9) 0.39 0.20 8)
390 0.16 0.45 1.65 0.020 0.010 0.07 0.05 0.04 Notes 6,9) 0.40 0.21 8)
415 0.16 0.45 1.65 0.020 0.010 0.08 0.05 0.04 Notes 6,9) 0.41 0.22 8)
450 0.16 0.45 1.65 0.020 0.010 0.09 0.05 0.06 Notes 6,9) 0.42 0.22 8)
485 0.17 0.45 1.75 0.020 0.010 0.10 0.05 0.06 Notes 6,9) 0.42 0.23 8)
555 0.17 0.45 1.85 0.020 0.010 0.10 0.06 0.06 Notes 6,9) As agreed
Notes
1) For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum for carbon, an increase of 0.05% above the specified maximum for manganese is permissible,
up to a maximum increase of 0.20%.
2) Al total ≤ 0.060%; N ≤ 0.012%; Al/N ≥ 2:1 (not applicable to titanium-killed steel or titanium-treated steel).
Mn (Cr + Mo + V ) ( Ni + Cu )
3) CE = C + + +
6 5 15
4) Si Mn Cu Ni Cr Mo V
Pcm = C + + + + + + + + 5B
30 20 20 60 20 15 10
5) Unless otherwise agreed, the sum of the niobium and vanadium contents shall be ≤ 0.06%.
6) The sum of the niobium, vanadium, and titanium contents shall be ≤ 0.15%.
7) Cu ≤ 0.35%; Ni ≤ 0.30%; Cr ≤ 0.30%; Mo ≤ 0.10%; B ≤ 0.0005%.
8) For SMLS pipe, the listed value is increased by 0.03, up to a maximum of 0.25.
9) Cu ≤ 0.50%; Ni ≤ 0.50%; Cr ≤ 0.50%; Mo ≤ 0.50%; B ≤ 0.0005%.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.7 – Page 71

Table 7-4 Chemical composition for C-Mn steel pipe with delivery condition M
(thermo-mechanical formed or rolled according to Table 7-1).
Product analysis, maximum. wt.% Carbon equivalent
SMYS C1) Si Mn 1) P S V Nb Ti Other 2) Pcm 3)
245 0.12 0.40 1.25 0.020 0.010 0.04 0.04 0.04 Note 4) 0.19
290 0.12 0.40 1.35 0.020 0.010 0.04 0.04 0.04 Note 4) 0.19
320 0.12 0.45 1.35 0.020 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.04 Note 4) 0.20
360 0.12 0.45 1.65 0.020 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.04 Notes 5,6) 0.20
390 0.12 0.45 1.65 0.020 0.010 0.06 0.08 0.04 Notes 5,6) 0.21
415 0.12 0.45 1.65 0.020 0.010 0.08 0.08 0.06 Notes 5,6) 0.21
450 0.12 0.45 1.65 0.020 0.010 0.10 0.08 0.06 Notes 5,6) 0.22
485 0.12 0.45 1.75 0.020 0.010 0.10 0.08 0.06 Notes 5,6) 0.22 7)
555 0.12 0.45 1.85 0.020 0.010 0.10 0.08 0.06 Notes 5,6) 0.24 7)
Notes
1) For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum for carbon, an increase of 0.05% above the specified maximum for manganese is permissible,
up to a maximum increase of 0.20%.
2) Al total ≤ 0.060%; N ≤ 0.012%; Al/N ≥ 2:1 (not applicable to titanium-killed steel or titanium-treated steel).
Si Mn Cu Ni Cr Mo V
3) Pcm = C + + + + + + + + 5B
30 20 20 60 20 15 10
4) Cu ≤ 0.35%; Ni ≤ 0.30%; Cr ≤ 0.30%; Mo ≤ 0.10%; B ≤ 0.0005%.
5) The sum of the niobium, vanadium, and titanium contents shall be ≤ 0.15%.
6) Cu ≤ 0.50%; Ni ≤ 0.50%; Cr ≤ 0.50%; Mo ≤ 0.50%; B ≤ 0.0005%.
7) For nominal wall thickness t > 25 mm the carbon equivalent may be increased with 0.01.

Table 7-5 C-Mn steel pipe, mechanical properties


Yield strength Tensile strength Ratio Elongation in Hardness Charpy V-notch
Rt0,5 Rm Rt0,5/Rm 50.8 mm [HV10] energy (KVT) 1)
[MPa] [MPa] Af [J]
[%] BM, WM HAZ
SMYS min. max. min.2) max. max. min. max. average min.
245 245 450 3) 415 760 0.93 Note 4) 270 300 27 22
290 290 495 415 760 270 30 24
320 320 520 435 760 270 32 27
360 360 525 460 760 270 36 30
390 390 540 490 760 270 39 33
415 415 565 520 760 270 42 35
450 450 570 535 760 270 45 38
485 485 605 570 760 300 50 40
555 555 675 625 825 300 56 45
Notes
1) The required KVL (longitudinal direction specimens) values shall be 50% higher than the required KVT values.
2) If tested in the longitudinal direction, a minimum tensile strength 5% less than the required value is acceptable.
3) For pipe with specified outside diameter < 219.1 mm, the yield strength shall be ≤ 495 MPa.
4) The specified minimum elongation Af , in 50.8 mm, expressed in percent, rounded to the nearest percent shall be as determined using
0, 2
AXC
the following equation: Af = C 0,9
where:
U
C is 1940 for calculations using SI units;
AXC is the applicable tensile test piece cross-sectional area, as follows:
- for round bar test pieces, 130 mm2 for 12.5 mm and 8.9 mm diameter test pieces; and 65 mm2 for 6.4 mm test pieces
- for full-section test pieces, the lesser of a) 485 mm2 and b) the cross-sectional area of the test piece, calculated using the specified outside diameter
and the specified wall thickness of the pipe, rounded to the nearest 10 mm2
- for rectangular test pieces, the lesser of a) 485 mm2 and b) the cross-sectional area of the test piece, calculated using the specified width of the test
piece and the specified wall thickness of the pipe, rounded to the nearest 10 mm2, and
U is the specified minimum tensile strength, in MPa.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 72 – Sec.7 see note on front cover

Table 7-6 C-Mn steel linepipe, Charpy V-notch impact testing Inspection frequency
temperatures T0 (°C) as a function of Tmin (°C) (Minimum 502 The inspection frequency during production shall be as
Design Temperature) given in Table 7-7 and the extent of testing for MPQT as given
in Table 7-8. Reference to the relevant acceptance criteria is
Nominal wall Thickness (mm) PIPELINES and risers given in these tables. MR
t ≤ 20 T0 = Tmin
503 A test unit is a prescribed quantity of pipe that is made
20 < t ≤ 40 T0 = Tmin – 10
to the same specified outside diameter and specified wall
t > 40 T0 = to be agreed in each case thickness, by the same pipe-manufacturing process, from the
Fracture toughness of weld seam same heat, and under the same pipe-manufacturing conditions.
415 The measured fracture toughness shall as a minimum 504 For coiled tubing, all required mechanical testing in
have a CTOD value of 0.15 mm, when tested at the minimum Table 7-7 shall be performed at each pipe end or for each heat,
design temperature. AR whichever gives the highest number of tests. Strip end welds
for coiled tubing shall be tested according to ISO 3183
Macro examination of weld seam Annex J. AR
416 The macro section shall show a sound weld merging 505 Sampling for mechanical and corrosion testing shall be
smoothly into the base material without weld defects accord- performed after heat treatment, expansion and final shaping.
ing to Appendix D, Table D-4. For SAW pipe complete re- The number and orientation of the samples are given in Table
melting of tack welds shall be demonstrated. For MPQT welds 7-9. The samples shall not be prepared in a manner that may
shall meet the requirements of ISO 5817 Quality level C. AR influence their mechanical properties.
417 The alignment of internal and external seams of SAW 506 In case of large quantities of longitudinally welded large
pipes shall be verified on the macro section, unless alternative diameter and heavy wall thickness pipe, where the test unit is
methods with demonstrated capabilities are used. governed by the heat size, it may be agreed that pipes from sev-
Metallographic examination of HFW pipe eral heats represents one test unit. The first 30 000 tons shall be
tested with a frequency according to normal practice of this
418 The metallographic examination shall be documented standard. After exceeding 30 000 tons, the below testing phi-
by micrographs at sufficient magnification and resolution to losophy may be applied:
demonstrate that no detrimental oxides from the welding proc-
ess are present along the weld line. AR — each test unit may consist of pipes from maximum 3 heats
419 It shall be verified that the entire HAZ has been appro- — in case of test failure, the test frequency shall revert to the
priately heat treated over the full wall thickness and that no normal rate of testing until again 30 000 tons with satisfac-
untempered martensite remains. tory results are documented.
Hydrostatic test Re-testing
420 The pipe shall withstand the hydrostatic test without 507 In order to accept or reject a particular test unit with an
leakage through the weld seam or the pipe body. original test unit release failure, re-testing shall be conducted
421 Linepipe that fails the hydrostatic test shall be rejected. in accordance with B508 through B512.
AR 508 If a test fails to meet the requirements, two re-tests shall
be performed (for the failed test only) on samples taken from
422 For pipe classified as coiled tubing, the hydrostatic test two different pipes within the same test unit. Both re-tests shall
of the finished coiled tubing shall be performed at a pressure meet the specified requirements. The test unit shall be rejected
corresponding to 100% of SMYS calculated in accordance if one or both of the re-tests do not meet the specified require-
with the Von Mises equation and considering 95% of the nom- ments.
inal wall thickness. Test pressure shall be held for not less than
two hours. AR 509 The reason for the failure of any test shall be established
and the appropriate corrective action to prevent re-occurrence
Surface condition, imperfections and defects of the test failures shall be taken accordingly.
423 Requirements to visual examination performed at the 510 If a test unit has been rejected, the Manufacturer may
plate mill are given in Appendix D, Subsection G. Require- conduct individual testing of all the remaining pipes in the test
ments for visual inspection of welds and pipe surfaces are unit. If the total rejection of all the pipes within one test unit
given in Appendix D H500. MR and AR exceeds 25%, the test unit shall be rejected. In this situation the
Dimensions, mass and tolerances Manufacturer shall investigate and report the reason for failure
424 Requirements to dimensions, mass and tolerances shall and shall change the manufacturing process if required. Re-
be as given in Subsection G. qualification of the MPS is required if the agreed allowable
variation of any parameter is exceeded (see A609 and A610).
Weldability 511 Re-testing of failed pipes shall not be permitted. If a pipe
425 If agreed, the Manufacturer shall supply weldability data fails due to low CVN values in the fusion line (HAZ) or weld
or perform weldability tests. The details for carrying out the line in HFW pipe, testing of samples from the same pipe may
tests and the acceptance criteria shall be as specified in the pur- be performed subject to agreement. Refer to B344 for re-
chase order. processing of pipe.
426 If requested, the linepipe supplier shall provide informa- 512 If the test results are influenced by improper sampling,
tion regarding the maximum Post Weld Heat Treatment machining, preparation, treatment or testing, the test sample
(PWHT) temperature for the respective materials. AR shall be replaced by a correctly prepared sample from the same
pipe and a new test performed.
B 500 Inspection
Heat and product analysis
501 Compliance with the requirements of the purchase order
shall be checked by specific inspection in accordance with EN 513 Heat and product analysis shall be performed in accord-
10204. Records from the qualification of the MPS and other doc- ance with Appendix B. MR
umentation shall be in accordance with the requirements in 514 If the value of any elements, or combination of elements
Sec.12. fails to meet the requirements, two re-tests shall be performed

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.7 – Page 73

on samples taken from two different pipes from the same heat. with Subsection E. MR
If one or both re-tests still fail to meet the requirements, the
heat shall be rejected. MR Non-destructive testing
Mechanical testing 518 NDT, including visual inspection, shall be carried out in
accordance with Subsection F. AR and MR
515 All mechanical testing shall be performed according to
Appendix B. MR Dimensional testing
Metallurgical testing 519 Dimensional testing shall be performed according to
516 Macro examination and metallographic examination Subsection G. MR
shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. Treatment of surface imperfections and defects
Hydrostatic test (mill pressure test) 520 Surface imperfections and defects shall be treated
517 Hydrostatic testing shall be performed in accordance according to Appendix D H300. MR

Table 7-7 Inspection frequency for C-Mn steel linepipe during production 1 ,2)
Applicable Type of test Frequency of testing Acceptance criteria
to:
All pipe Heat analysis One analysis per heat Table 7-3 or Table 7-4
Product analysis Two analyses per heat (taken from separate product
items)
Tensile testing of the pipe body Once per test unit of not more than 50/1003) pipes with Table 7-5
the same cold-expansion ratio4)
CVN impact testing of the pipe body of Once per test unit of not more than 50/1005) pipes with Table 7-5 and Table 7-6
pipe with specified wall thickness as the same cold-expansion ratio4)
given in Table 22 of ISO 3183
Hardness testing Once per test unit of not more than 50/1003) pipes with Table 7-5
the same cold-expansion ratio4) (AR)
Hydrostatic testing Each pipe B420 to B422
Pipe dimensional testing See Subsection G See Subsection G
NDT including visual inspection See Subsection F (MR and AR) See Subsection F
(MR and AR)
SAWL, Tensile testing of the seam weld (cross Once per test unit of not more than 50/1006) pipes with B406 and B407
SAWH, weld test) the same cold-expansion ratio4) (MR)
HFW CVN impact testing of the seam weld Once per test unit of not more than 50/1005) pipes with Table 7-5 and Table 7-6
of pipe with specified wall thickness as the same cold-expansion ratio4) (MR)
given in Table 22 of ISO 3183
Hardness testing of hard spots Any hard spot exceeding 50 mm in any direction Appendix D H500
Macrographic testing of seam weld At least once per operating shift7) B416
SAWL, Guided-bend testing of the seam weld Once per test unit of not more than 50/1003) pipes with B414
SAWH of welded pipe the same cold-expansion ratio4) (MR)
HFW Flattening test As shown in Figure 6 of ISO 3183 B412 and B413
Metallographic examination At least once per operating shift7) B418 (MR)
Notes
1) Sampling of specimens and test execution shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. For tensile, CVN, hardness, guided-bend and flattening
testing Appendix B refers to ISO 3183 without additional requirements.
2) The number orientation and location of test pieces per sample for mechanical tests shall be in accordance with Table 7-9.
3) Not more than 100 pipes with D ≤ 508 mm and not more than 50 pipes for D > 508 mm.
4) The cold-expansion ratio is designated by the Manufacturer, and is derived using the designated before-expansion outside diameter or circumference and
the after-expansion outside diameter or circumference. An increase or decrease in the cold-expansion ratio of more than 0.002 requires the creation of a
new test unit (for lined pipe this does not apply to the liner expansion process).
5) Not more than 100 pipes with 114.3 mm ≤ D ≤ 508 mm and not more than 50 pipes for D > 508 mm.
6) Not more than 100 pipes with 219.1 mm ≤ D < 508 mm and not more than 50 pipes for D > 508 mm.
7) At least once per operating shift plus whenever any change of pipe size occurs during the operating shift. If qualified alternative methods for detection of
misalignments is used, testing is only required at the beginning of the production of each combination of specified outside diameter and specified wall
thickness.
where
D = Specified outside diameter

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 74 – Sec.7 see note on front cover

Table 7-8 Additional testing for Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Test for C-Mn steel pipe 1)
Applicable to: Type of test Extent of testing Acceptance criteria
All pipe All production tests as stated in Table 7-7 One test for each pipe pro- See Table 7-7
SMLS pipe 2, 3) with t > CVN testing at ID of quenched and tempered seamless vided for manufacturing4) Table 7-5 and Table 7-6
25 mm pipe with t > 25 mm AR procedure qualification
Welded pipe (all types) All weld tensile test AR Table 7-5 8)
Fracture toughness (CTOD) test of weld metal 5, 6) AR B415
Ageing test 7), see A606 AR Table 7-5
Notes
1) Sampling of specimens and test execution shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B.
2) Only applicable to pipe delivered in the quenched and tempered condition.
3) Sampling shall be 2 mm from the internal surface, see Appendix B, A500.
4) Two pipes from two different test units shall be selected for the MPQT, see A600.
5) CTOD testing is not required for pipes with t < 13 mm.
6) For HFW pipe the testing applies to the fusion line (weld centre line).
7) Only when cold forming during pipe manufacture exceeds 5% strain.
8) Only SMYS, SMTS and elongation applies.

where
t = specified nominal wall thickness

Table 7-9 Number, orientation, and location of test specimens per tested pipe 1, 2)
Applicable to: Sample location Type of test Wall thickness
≤ 25 mm > 25 mm

Specified outside diameter Specified outside diameter


< 219.1 mm ≥ 219.1 mm < 219.1 mm ≥ 219.1 mm
SMLS, not cold Pipe body Tensile 1L3) 1L 1L3) 1L
expanded pipe CVN 3T 3T 3T 3T
Hardness 1T 1T 1T 1T
SMLS, cold expanded Pipe body Tensile 1L3) 1T4) 1L3) 1T4)
pipe CVN 3T 3T 3T 3T
Hardness 1T 1T 1T 1T
HFW pipe Pipe body Tensile 1L903) 1T1804) 1L903) 1T1804)
CVN 3T90 3T90 3T90 3T90
Seam weld Tensile — 1W — 1W
CVN 3W and 3HAZ 5) MR 6W and 6HAZ 5) MR
Hardness 1W 1W 1W 1W
Pipe body and weld Flattening As shown in Figure 6 of ISO 3183
SAWL pipe Pipe body Tensile 1L903) 1T1804) 1L903) 1T1804)
CVN 3T90 3T90 3T90 3T90
Seam weld Tensile — 1W — 1W
CVN 3W and 6HAZ 6) MR 6W and 12HAZ 6) MR
Guided-bend 2W 2W 2W 2W
Hardness 1W 1W 1W 1W
SAWH pipe Pipe body Tensile 1L3) 1T4) 1L3) 1T4)
CVN 3T 3T 3T 3T
Seam weld Tensile — 1W — 1W
CVN 3W and 6HAZ 6) MR 6W and 12HAZ 6) MR
Guided-bend 2W 2W 2W 2W
Hardness 1W 1W 1W 1W
Notes
1) See Figure 5 of ISO 3183 for explanation of symbols used to designate orientation and location.
2) All destructive tests may be sampled from pipe ends.
3) Full-section longitudinal test pieces may be used at the option of the manufacturer, see Appendix B.
4) If agreed, annular test pieces may be used for the determination of transverse yield strength by the hydraulic ring expansion test in
accordance with ASTM A370.
5) For the HF weld seam, W means that the notch shall be located in the FL, while HAZ means that the notch shall be located in FL +2 (see Figure 6 in Appen-
dix B).
6) HAZ means that the notch shall be located in FL and FL +2 (see Figure 5 in Appendix B).

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.7 – Page 75

C. Corrosion Resistant Alloy (CRA) Linepipe Supply conditions


305 Duplex and austenitic stainless steel pipe shall be deliv-
C 100 General ered in solution-annealed and water-quenched condition.
101 All requirements of this subsection are applicable to
welded and seamless linepipe in duplex stainless steel and C 400 Acceptance criteria
seamless martensitic 13Cr stainless steel. Chemical composition
102 Austenitic stainless steel and nickel based CRA linepipe 401 The chemical composition of duplex stainless steel and
shall be supplied in accordance with a recognised standard that martensitic 13Cr stainless steel parent materials shall be
defines the chemical composition, mechanical properties, according to Table 7-10. Modifications are subject to agree-
delivery condition and all the details listed in Sec.6 and as ment. The limits and tolerances for trace elements for marten-
specified in the following. If a recognised standard is not avail- sitic 13Cr stainless steels, i.e. elements not listed in Table 7-10,
able, a specification shall be prepared that defines these shall be subject to agreement.
requirements.
Mechanical properties
C 200 Pipe designation 402 Requirements for tensile, hardness and Charpy V-notch
201 CRA linepipe to be used to this standard shall be desig- properties are given in Table 7-11. Weldment shall meet the
nated with: requirement for KVT impact properties.
403 In addition to the requirements in C404 and C405 below,
— DNV the following acceptance criteria given for C-Mn steel pipe are
— process of manufacture (see A300) also applicable to CRA pipe (as applicable):
— grade (see Table 7-10 or C102, as applicable)
— supplementary requirement suffix (see A400). — B407 for transverse weld tensile testing
— B410 and 411 for Charpy V-notch impact testing
Guidance note: — B414 for guided-bend testing
e.g. “DNV SMLS 22Cr D” designates a seamless 22Cr duplex — B415 for fracture toughness testing of the seam weld.
steel linepipe meeting the supplementary requirements for
enhanced dimensional requirements. 404 For the flattening test of pipe with wall thickness ≥ 12.7
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
mm, there shall be no opening of the weld, including the HAZ,
until the distance between the plates is less than 66% of the
original outside diameter. For pipe with wall thickness
C 300 Manufacture < 12.7 mm there shall be no opening of the weld, including the
Starting material and steel making HAZ, until the distance between the plates is less than 50% of
the original outside diameter.
301 CRA linepipe shall be manufactured in accordance with
the processes given in A302 using the raw materials stated in 405 For pipe with a D/t2 > 10, there shall be no cracks or
the qualified MPS, follow the same activity sequence, and stay breaks other than in the weld, including the HAZ, until the dis-
within the agreed allowable variations. The manufacturing tance between the plates is less than 33% of the original out-
practice and instrumentation used to ensure proper control of side diameter.
the manufacturing process variables and their tolerances shall Macro examination of weld seam
be described in the MPS.
406 The macro examination of weld seam shall meet the
302 All steels shall be made by an electric or one of the basic requirements in B416 and B417.
oxygen processes.
Microstructure of duplex stainless steel
Requirements to manufacture of pipe
407 The material shall be essentially free from grain bound-
303 In addition to the requirements in C304 and C305 below, ary carbides, nitrides and intermetallic phases after solution
the following requirements given for C-Mn steel pipe are also heat treatment. Essentially free implies that occasional strings
applicable for CRA pipes: of detrimental phases along the centreline of the base material
is acceptable given that the phase content within one field of
— B304-306 for seamless pipe vision (at 400X magnification) is < 1.0% (max. 0.5% interme-
— B307-310 and B313-320 for all welded pipes tallic phases).
— B321-326 for SAW and MWP pipe
— B330-345 for all pipe. 408 The base material ferrite content of duplex stainless steel
shall be within the range 35-55%. For weld metal and HAZ,
304 Before further processing, the slabs/ingots shall be the ferrite content shall be within the range 35-65%.
inspected and fulfil the surface finish requirements specified in Corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel
the MPS.
409 The maximum allowable weight loss for 25Cr duplex
stainless steel is 4.0 g/m2 for solution annealed material tested
for 24 hours at 50°C.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 76 – Sec.7 see note on front cover

Table 7-10 Duplex- and martensitic stainless steel linepipe, chemical composition
Element 1) Product analysis, wt.%
Grade Grade Grade Grade
22Cr duplex 25Cr duplex 13Cr - 2 Mo 13Cr - 2.5 Mo
C 0.030 max 0.030 max 0.015 max 0.015 max
Mn 2.00 max 1.20 max - -
Si 1.00 max 1.00 max - -
P 0.030 max 0.035 max 0.025 max 0.025 max
S 0.020 max 0.020 max 0.003 max 0.003 max
Ni 4.50 - 6.50 6.00 – 8.00 4.50 min 6.00 min
Cr 21.0 - 23.0 24.0 – 26.0 12.0 min 12.0 min
Mo 2.50 – 3.50 3.00 – 4.00 2.00 min 2.50 min
N 0.14 – 0.20 0.20 – 0.34 - -
PRE - min. 40 2) - -
Notes
1) If other alloying elements than specified in this table are being used, the elements and the maximum content shall be agreed in each case.
2) PRE = %Cr+3.3%Mo+16%N.

Table 7-11 Duplex- and martensitic 13Cr stainless steel linepipe, mechanical properties
Grade SMYS SMTS Ratio Maximum Elongation Charpy V-notch energy (KVT) 1)
Hardness in 50.8 mm min. J, tested: at T0 = Tmin - 20°C for
MPa MPa Rt0.5 / Rm 2) (HV10) Af duplex, and according to Table 7-6 for
[%] martensitic 13Cr

BM WM Mean Single
HAZ
22Cr 450 620 0.92 290 350 Note 3) 45 35
25Cr 550 750 0.92 330 350 45 35
13Cr-2 Mo 550 700 0.92 300 na 60 45
13Cr-2.5 Mo 550 700 0.92 300 na 60 45
Notes
1) The required KVL (longitudinal direction specimens) values shall be 50% higher than the required KVT values.
2) The YS/UTS ratio in the longitudinal direction shall not exceed the maximum specified value in the transverse direction by more than 0.020.
3) Ref. Note 4) in Table 7-5.

C 500 Inspection Retesting


501 Compliance with the requirements of the purchase order 508 Requirements for retesting shall be according to B508 to
shall be checked by specific inspection in accordance with EN B512.
10204. Records from the qualification of the MPS and other Heat and product analysis
documentation shall be in accordance with the requirements in
Sec.12. 509 Heat and product analysis shall be performed in accord-
ance with Appendix B.
Inspection frequency
510 All elements listed in the relevant requirement/ standard
502 The inspection frequency during production and MPQT shall be determined and reported. Other elements added for
shall be as given in Table 7-12 and Table 7-13, respectively. controlling the material properties may be added, subject to
Reference to the relevant acceptance criteria is given in the agreement.
tables.
511 If the value of any elements, or combination of elements
503 A test unit is a prescribed quantity of pipe that is made fails to meet the requirements, two re-tests shall be performed
to the same specified outside diameter and specified wall on samples taken from two different pipes from the same heat.
thickness, by the same pipe-manufacturing process, from the If one or both re-tests fail to meet the requirements, the heat
same heat, and under the same pipe-manufacturing conditions. shall be rejected.
504 Sampling for mechanical and corrosion testing shall be Mechanical testing
performed after heat treatment, expansion and final shaping.
The samples shall not be prepared in a manner that may influ- 512 All mechanical testing shall be performed according to
ence their mechanical properties. Refer to B506 for reduced Appendix B.
frequency of testing in case of large quantities of pipe. Metallurgical testing
505 The number and orientation of the samples for SMLS 513 Macro examination and metallographic examination
and SAWL/SAWH pipe shall be according to Table 7-9. shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B.
506 For EBW and LBW pipe, the number and orientation of Corrosion testing of duplex stainless steels
the samples shall be as for HFW in Table 7-9.
514 Corrosion testing of 25Cr duplex stainless steels accord-
507 For MWP pipe, the number and orientation of the sam- ing to ASTM G48 shall be performed in accordance with
ples shall be as for SAWL pipe in Table 7-9. Appendix B B200.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.7 – Page 77

Hydrostatic test (mill pressure test) Dimensional testing


515 Hydrostatic testing shall be performed in accordance 517 Dimensional testing shall be performed according to
with Subsection E. Subsection G.
Non-destructive testing Treatment of surface imperfections and defects
516 NDT, including visual inspection, shall be in accordance 518 Surface imperfections and defects shall be treated
with Subsection F. according to Appendix D, H300.

Table 7-12 Inspection frequency for CRA linepipe 1)


Applicable to Type of test Frequency of testing Acceptance
criteria
All pipe All tests in Table 7-7 applicable to “All As given in Table 7-7 Table 7-10 and
pipe” Table 7-11
SAWL and MWP pipe All tests in Table 7-7 applicable to “SAWL”
EBW and LBW pipe 2) Flattening test As shown in Figure 6 of ISO 3183 C404 and
C405
Duplex stainless steel pipe Metallographic examination Once per test unit of not more than 50/100 3) C407 and
C408
25Cr duplex stainless steel pipe Pitting corrosion test (ASTM G48) Once per test unit of not more than 50/100 3) C409
Notes
1) Sampling of specimens and test execution shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. The number orientation and location of test pieces per
sample for mechanical tests shall be according to C505-507.
2) For EBW and LBW pipes the testing applies to the fusion line.
3) Not more than 100 pipes with 114.3 mm ≤ D ≤ 508 mm and not more than 50 pipes for D > 508 mm.

where
D = Specified outside diameter

Table 7-13 Additional testing for Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Test of CRA linepipe 1)
Applicable to Type of test Frequency of testing Acceptance
criteria
All pipe All production tests as stated above One test for each pipe provided for Subsection C
Welded pipe (all types) All weld tensile test manufacturing procedure qualification Table 7-11
3)
Fracture toughness (CTOD) test of weld metal 2) B415
Notes
1) Sampling of specimens and test execution shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. The number, orientation and location of test pieces per
sample for mechanical tests shall be according to C505-507.
2) CTOD testing is not required for pipes with t < 13 mm.
3) Two pipes shall be provided for MPQT. The two pipes provided shall be from two different test units.

D. Clad or Lined Steel Linepipe (see A303 to A305) clad/lined pipes shall be designated with:

D 100 General — C, for clad pipe, or


— L, for lined pipe
101 The requirements below are applicable to linepipe con- — UNS number for the cladding material or liner pipe.
sisting of a C-Mn steel backing material with a thinner internal
CRA layer. Guidance note:
102 Linepipe is denoted "clad" if the bond between the back- e.g. “DNV SAWL 415 D C - UNS XXXXX” designates a longi-
ing material and internal CRA layer is metallurgical, and tudinal submerged arc welded pipe, with SMYS 415 MPa, meet-
"lined" if the bond is mechanical. ing the supplementary requirements for dimensions, clad with a
UNS designated material.
103 The backing steel of lined pipe shall fulfil the require-
ments in Subsection B. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

104 The manufacturing process for clad or lined linepipe D 300 Manufacturing Procedure Specification
shall be according to A303 to A305.
MPS for clad linepipe
105 Cladding and liner materials shall be specified according
to recognised standards. If a recognised standard is not availa- 301 In addition to the applicable information given in A600,
ble, a specification shall be prepared that defines chemical the MPS for clad linepipe shall as a minimum contain the fol-
composition. If agreed corrosion testing and acceptance crite- lowing information (as applicable):
ria shall be specified.
— slab reheating temperature and initial rolling practice of
106 The cladding/liner material thickness shall not be less cladding alloy and backing material prior to sandwich
than 2.5 mm, unless otherwise agreed. assembly
— method used to assemble the sandwich or one-sided-open
D 200 Pipe designation package, as applicable, prior to reheating and rolling
201 In addition to the designation of the backing material — package (sandwich or one-side-open) reheating tempera-

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 78 – Sec.7 see note on front cover

ture, start and stop rolling temperatures, means of temper- Welding of clad linepipe
ature and thickness control, start and stop temperatures for 411 In addition to the applicable requirements given in B307
accelerated cooling (if applicable) and inspection to B331, the following requirements shall apply for welding of
— final plate heat treatment, e.g. quench and tempering (if clad linepipe:
applicable)
— method used to cut and separate the metallurgically roll — the corrosion properties of the CRA weld consumable (e.g.
bonded plates after rolling (separation of the sandwich root and hot pass) shall be equal or superior to the clad
between the CRA layers material
— details regarding any CRA clad welding to pipe ends. — the longitudinal weld shall be back purged with welding
grade inert gas and be free from high temperature oxides
MPS for lined linepipe — tack welds shall be made using GTAW, GMAW, G-
302 In addition to the applicable information given in A600, FCAW or SMAW using low hydrogen electrodes
the MPS for lined linepipe shall as a minimum contain the fol- — weld seam tracking of continuous welding shall be auto-
lowing information (as applicable): matically controlled.

— details for fabrication of backing pipe and liner General requirements to manufacture of lined linepipe
— quality control checks for the lining process 412 The liner pipe shall be manufactured according to
— details of data to be recorded (e.g. expansion pressure/ API 5LC.
force, strain, deformation) 413 The internal surface of the C-Mn steel backing pipe shall
— procedure for cut back prior to seal welding or cladding to be blast cleaned to a surface cleanliness of ISO 8501 Sa2 along
attach liner to carrier pipe the complete length of the pipe prior to fabrication of lined
— seal welding procedures pipe. The external surface of the liner pipe shall be blast
— details regarding any CRA clad welding to pipe ends. cleaned as specified above or pickled.
414 The liner pipe shall be inserted into the backing C-Mn
303 The following additional essential variable applies to the steel pipe after both pipes have been carefully cleaned, dried
qualification of the MPS for clad linepipe (see A609): and inspected to ensure that the level of humidity and particles
— sequence of welding. in the annular space between these two pipes are equal to or
less than for the MPQT pipes.
D 400 Manufacture 415 The humidity during assembly shall be less than 80%,
401 During all stages of manufacturing, contamination of and the carbon steel and CRA surfaces shall be maintained at
CRA with carbon steel shall be avoided. Direct contact of the least 5°C above the dewpoint temperature. Temperature and
CRA layer with carbon steel handling equipment (e.g. hooks, humidity shall continuously be measured and recorded.
belts, rolls, etc.) is prohibited. Direct contact may be allowed 416 After having lined up the two pipes, the liner shall be
providing subsequent pickling is performed. expanded by a suitable method to ensure adequate gripping.
The carbon steel pipe shall not under any circumstances
402 All work shall be undertaken in clean areas and control- receive a sizing ratio, sr , exceeding 0.015 during the expansion
led environment to avoid contamination and condensation. process (See B332).
403 In addition to the requirements stated in B300 and C300 Welding of lined linepipe
(as applicable), the following shall apply:
417 The liner pipe shall be welded according to API 5LC.
Welding consumables
418 Subsequent to expansion, the liner or backing pipe shall
404 The welding consumables for seam welds and liner seal be machined at each end and further fixed to the backing pipe
welds shall be selected taking into consideration the reduction by a seal weld (clad or fillet weld, respectively) to ensure that
of alloying elements by dilution of iron from the base material. no humidity can enter the annulus during storage, transporta-
The corrosion properties of the weld consumable shall be equal tion and preparation for installation.
to or superior to the clad or liner material.
419 In addition to the applicable requirements given in B307
General requirements to manufacture of clad linepipe to B331, the following requirements shall apply for welding of
405 The cladding alloy shall be produced from plate, and lined linepipe:
shall be supplied in a solution or soft annealed condition, as
applicable. — the corrosion properties of the CRA weld consumable (e.g.
fillet or clad weld) shall be equal or superior to the liner
406 The steel backing material and the cladding alloy shall material
be cleaned, dried and inspected to ensure that the level of — the weld shall be purged with welding grade inert gas and
humidity and particles between the respective plates are equal be free from high temperature oxides.
to or less than for the MPQT plates.
D 500 Acceptance criteria
407 Unless otherwise agreed, the mating plate surfaces shall
as a minimum be blast cleaned to a surface cleanliness of ISO Properties of the backing material
8501 Sa2. 501 The backing material of the manufactured clad or lined
408 A pre-clad rolling assembly procedure shall be part of linepipe shall comply with the requirements for C-Mn steel
the MPS. This procedure shall include details of all surface given in Subsection B. Sour service requirements according to
preparation to be performed just prior to the sandwich assem- I100 shall not apply to the backing material unless required
bly (if applicable). according to I115.
409 The sandwich or one-side-open packages, as applicable, 502 The cladding/liner material shall be removed from the
shall be hot rolled in order to ensure metallurgical bonding test pieces prior to mechanical testing of the backing material.
between the base and the cladding material. Hardness
410 The package consisting of sandwich or one-side-open, 503 The hardness of the base material, cladding material,
shall be manufactured through a TMCP route, or receive a final HAZ, weld metal and the metallurgical bonded area shall meet
heat treatment (e.g. quench and tempering). the relevant requirements of this standard.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.7 – Page 79

Bonding strength of clad linepipe ing of the liner pipe shall be according to API 5LC.
504 After bend testing in accordance with Appendix B A906 Retesting
(see Table 7-14), there shall be no sign of cracking or separa- 605 Requirements for retesting shall be according to B508 to
tion on the edges of the specimens. B512.
505 After longitudinal weld root bend testing in accordance Heat and product analysis
with Appendix B A607 (see Table 7-15), the bend test speci-
men shall not show any open defects in any direction exceed- 606 Heat and product analysis shall be performed in accord-
ing 3 mm. Minor ductile tears less than 6 mm, originating at the ance with B500 and C500 for the backing steel and the CRA
specimen edge may be disregarded if not associated with obvi- liner or cladding, respectively.
ous defects. Mechanical testing
506 The minimum shear strength shall be 140 MPa. 607 All mechanical testing of clad pipe and the backing steel
Properties of the CRA of clad and lined linepipe of lined pipe shall be performed according to Appendix B.
Mechanical testing of the liner pipe shall be according to API
507 The CRA material shall meet the requirements of the rel- 5LC.
evant reference standard, e.g. API 5LD.
608 Hardness testing of welded linepipe shall be performed
Chemical composition of welds on a test piece comprising the full cross section of the weld.
508 The chemical composition of the longitudinal seam weld Indentations shall be made in the base material, cladding mate-
of clad pipes, pipe end clad welds, and the liner seal welds (if rial and the metallurgical bonded area as detailed in
exposed to the pipe fluid), shall be analysed during MPQT. Appendix B.
Unless otherwise agreed the composition of the deposited weld Corrosion testing
metal as analysed on the exposed surface shall meet the
requirements of the base material specification. 609 Unless otherwise agreed, corrosion testing of roll
bonded clad pipes or any longitudinal weld seams is not
Unless otherwise agreed the calculated PRE (see Table 7-10, required.
note no. 2) for alloy 625 weld metal shall not be less than for
the clad pipe base material or liner material. Metallurgical testing
Microstructure 610 Macro examination and metallographic examination
shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B.
509 The weld metal and the HAZ in the root area of the clad
pipe seam welds, any pipe end clad welds and the seal welds of Liner collapse test
lined pipe shall be essentially free from grain boundary car- 611 To check for the presence of moisture in the annulus
bides, nitrides and intermetallic phases. between the liner and the backing material, one finished pipe
Gripping force of lined linepipe or a section thereof (minimum length of 6 m) shall be heated to
510 Acceptance criteria for gripping force production testing
200°C for 15 minutes and air cooled. This pipe shall be within
the first 10 pipes produced.
shall be agreed based on project specific requirements (see
Sec.6 B400) and/or test results obtained during MPQT. Gripping force test
Liner collapse 612 Gripping force of lined pipe shall be measured in
511 After the test for presence of moisture in the annulus accordance with API 5LD. Equivalent tests may be applied
between the liner and the backing material, the pipe shall be subject to agreement. Inspection frequency for production test-
inspected and no ripples or buckles in the liner or carbon steel ing shall be agreed based on test results obtained during the
pipe shall be in evidence when viewed with the naked eye. MPQT (see D300).
Hydrostatic test (mill pressure test)
D 600 Inspection
613 Hydrostatic testing shall be performed in accordance
601 Compliance with the requirements of the purchase order with Subsection E.
shall be checked by specific inspection in accordance with EN
10204. Records from the qualification of the MPS and other docu- Non-destructive testing
mentation shall be in accordance with the requirements in Sec.12. 614 NDT, including visual inspection, shall be in accordance
Inspection frequency with Subsection F.
602 The inspection frequency during production and MPQT Dimensional testing
shall be as given in Table 7-14 and Table 7-15, respectively. 615 Dimensional testing shall be performed according to
603 For clad pipe, the number and orientation of the samples Subsection G.
shall be as for SAWL pipe in Table 7-9 Treatment of surface imperfections and defects
604 For lined pipe, the number and orientation of the sam- 616 Surface imperfections and defects shall be treated
ples for the backing steel shall be according to Table 7-9. Test- according to Appendix D, H300.

Table 7-14 Additional production testing for clad or lined steel linepipe
Applicable to Type of test Extent of testing Acceptance criteria
All pipe All tests in Table 7-7 applicable to “All pipe” See Table 7-7 and D600 D501
Clad pipe All tests in Table 7-7 applicable to “SAWL”
Bend tests (2 specimens) Once per test unit of not more than 50 pipes D505
Shear strength D507
CRA material of According to reference standard (see D508
clad pipe
Liner pipe According to API 5LC (see D508)
Lined pipe Macrographic examination of seal weld Once per test unit of not more than 50 pipes Appendix C, F405
Gripping force test To be agreed, see D612 D511

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 80 – Sec.7 see note on front cover

Table 7-15 Additional testing for Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Test of clad or lined steel linepipe 1)
Applicable to Type of test Extent of testing Acceptance criteria
All pipe All production tests in Table 7-14 One test for each pipe See Table 7-14
Corrosion testing of welds, if agreed, see D609 provided for manufac- To be agreed
2) turing procedure quali-
Clad pipe Chemical composition of seam weld and clad weld fication D508
Metallographic examination of the seam weld and clad weld 2) D509
Longitudinal weld root bend test D505
Lined pipe Chemical composition of seal or clad welds 2) D508
Metallographic examination of seal welds D509
Liner collapse test D511
Notes
1) Sampling of specimens and test execution shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. The number, orientation and location of test pieces per
sample for mechanical tests shall be according to D603-604.
2) As applicable, according to D508 and D509.

E. Hydrostatic Testing than pressure containment, or significant temperature de-rating


of the mechanical properties take place, the mill test pressure
E 100 Mill pressure test may be significantly higher than the incidental pressure. For
101 Each length of linepipe shall be hydrostatically tested, such conditions and where the mill pressure test capacity is
unless the alternative approach described in E107 is used. limited, the mill test pressure may be limited to ph= 1.4·pli,
(where pli is the local incidental pressure).
102 The test pressure (ph) shall, in situations where the seal
is made on the inside or the outside of the linepipe surface, be 106 The test configuration shall permit bleeding of trapped
conducted at the lowest value obtained by utilising the follow- air prior to pressurisation of the pipe. The pressure test equip-
ing formulae: ment shall be equipped with a calibrated recording gauge. The
applied pressure and the duration of each hydrostatic test shall
2 ⋅ tmin be recorded together with the identification of the pipe tested.
ph = -------------------- ⋅ min [ SMYS ⋅ 0.96 ;SMTS ⋅ 0.84 ] (7.2) The equipment shall be capable of registering a pressure drop
D – t min of minimum 2% of the applied pressure. The holding time at
test pressure shall be minimum 10 seconds. Calibration records
103 103In situations where the seal is made against the end for the equipment shall be available.
face of the linepipe by means of a ram or by welded on end
caps, and the linepipe is exposed to axial stresses, the test pres- 107 Subject to agreement, the hydrostatic testing may be
sure shall be calculated such that the maximum combined omitted for expanded pipes manufactured by the UOE process.
stress equals: It shall in such situations be documented that the expansion
process and subsequent pipe inspection will:
(7.3)
s e = min [ SMYS ⋅ 0.96 ;SMTS ⋅ 0.84 ] — ensure that the pipe material stress-strain curve is linear up
based on the minimum pipe wall thickness tmin. to a stress corresponding to E102
— identify defects with the potential for through-thickness
Guidance note: propagation under pressure loading
The Von Mises Equivalent stress shall be calculated as: — identify pipes subject to excessive permanent deformation
under pressure loading to a degree equivalent to that pro-
2 2 vided by hydrostatic testing.
se = s h + s l –s h ⋅ s l
Workmanship and inspection shall be at the same level as for
where hydrostatically tested pipe.
The expansion process parameters and inspection results shall
p h ⋅ ( D – t min )
s h = ----------------------------------
- be recorded for each pipe.
2 ⋅ t min

N = True pipe wall force which depend on the test


set up end restraints. F. Non-destructive Testing
F 100 Visual inspection
N-
s l = ----
As 101 Visual inspection shall be in accordance with Appendix
D H500.
(tmin is equivalent to t1 in Sec.5) 102 If visual inspection for detection of surface imperfec-
tions is substituted with alternative inspection methods then
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- the substitution shall conform to the requirements in Appendix
104 For pipes with reduced pressure containment utilisation, D H505 and H506.
the test pressure (ph) may be reduced as permitted in F 200 Non-destructive testing
Sec.5 B200.
201 Requirements for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) of
105 In case significant corrosion allowance has been speci- linepipe are given in Appendix D, Subsection H.
fied (as stated by the Purchaser in the material specification),
or a large wall thickness is needed for design purposes other 202 Requirements for NDT (laminar imperfections) and vis-
ual examination of plate, coil and strip performed at plate mill

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.7 – Page 81

are given in Appendix D, Subsection G. the discretion of the Manufacturer.


203 Table 7-16 lists the required NDT of linepipe including 204 Alternative test methods may be accepted subject to
lamination check for welded linepipe. For welded pipe, lami- agreement according to Appendix D, H401 and H402.
nation checks may be performed on linepipe or plate/strip at

Table 7-16 Type and extent of non-destructive testing 1)


Applicable to Scope of testing Type of test 2) Extent of testing Reference
(Appendix D)
All Visual inspection - 100% H500
Residual magnetism - 5% 3) H500
Imperfections in un-tested ends UT+ST 100% or cut off H600
Pipe ends of all Laminar imperfections pipe ends 4) UT 100% H700
pipe Laminar imperfections pipe end face/bevel ST 100%
SMLS Laminar imperfections in pipe body UT 100% H800
Longitudinal imperfections in pipe body UT 100%
Transverse imperfections in pipe body UT 100/10% 6)
Wall thickness testing UT 100% 7)
Longitudinal surface imperfections in pipe body 5) ST 100/10% 6)
HFW, EBW Laminar imperfections in pipe body UT 100% H900
and LBW Laminar imperfections in area adjacent to weld UT 100%
Longitudinal imperfections in weld UT 100%
SAWL, Laminar imperfections in pipe body UT 100% H1300
SAWH and Laminar imperfections in area adjacent to weld UT 100%
MWP
Imperfections in weld UT 100%
Surface imperfections in weld area 5) ST 100%/R 8)
Imperfections at weld ends RT 100%
Clad pipe Lack of bonding in pipe body and pipe ends 9) UT 100% H1200
Laminar imperfections in pipe body UT 100%
Longitudinal and transverse imperfections in weld UT 100%
Laminar imperfections in area adjacent to weld UT 100%
Surface imperfections in weld area ST 100%
Imperfections in welds RT 100%
CRA liner pipe Longitudinal and transverse imperfections in weld EC or RT 100% H1000
Lined pipe As required for the type of backing material used, see above - 100% -
Seal and clad welds ST 100% H1100
Clad welds (bonding imperfections) UT 100%
Notes
1) The indicated test methods are considered to be industry standard. Alternative methods may be used as required in Appendix D, H400.
2) Nomenclature: UT = ultrasonic testing, ST = surface testing, e.g. magnetic particle testing or EMI (flux leakage) for magnetic materials and liquid pene-
trant testing for non-magnetic materials, RT = radiographic testing and EC = eddy current testing, see Appendix D.
3) 5% = testing of 5% of the pipes produced but minimum 4 pipes per 8-hour shift.
4) Laminar inspection is not applicable to pipe with t ≤ 5 mm. Standard width of band to be tested is 50 mm, but a wider band may be tested if specified by
the Purchaser.
5) Applicable to external surface only.
6) 100/10% = 100% testing of the first 20 pipes manufactured and if all pipes are within specification, thereafter random testing (minimum five pipes per 8-
hour shift) during the production of 10% of the remaining pipes.
7) The wall thickness shall be controlled by continuously operating measuring devices.
8) 100%/R = 100% testing of the first 20 pipes manufactured. If all pipes are within specification, thereafter random testing of a minimum of one pipe per
8-hour shift.
9) Applies to pipe ends irrespective if clad welds are applied to pipe ends or not.

G. Dimensions, Mass and Tolerances defects have been completely removed by grinding, in accord-
ance with Appendix D, H300, the minus tolerances for diame-
G 100 General ter and out-of-roundness tolerances shall not apply in the
101 Linepipe shall be delivered to the dimensions specified in ground area.
the material specification, subject to the applicable tolerances. 202 The wall thickness shall be within the tolerances given
in Table 7-18.
102 The pipe shall be delivered in random lengths or approx-
imate length, as specified in the material specification. 203 Geometric deviations, pipe straightness, end squareness
and weight shall be within the tolerances given in Table 7-19.
G 200 Tolerances 204 Unless otherwise agreed, the minimum average length
201 The diameter and out-of-roundness shall be within the of pipe shall be 12.1 m, and the tolerances for length according
tolerances given in Table 7-17. However, in areas where to Table 7-19.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 82 – Sec.7 see note on front cover

Tolerances for the weld seam 306 The pipe body out-of-roundness shall be determined as
205 Tolerances for the weld seam of welded pipe, i.e.: the difference between the largest and smallest outside diame-
ter, as measured in the same cross-sectional plane.
— cap reinforcement MR* 307 The wall thickness at any location shall be within the tol-
— root penetration MR* erances specified in Table 7-18, except that the weld area shall
— cap and root concavity not be limited by the plus tolerance. Wall thickness measure-
— radial offset ments shall be made with a mechanical calliper or with a prop-
— misalignment of weld beads for double sided welds erly calibrated non-destructive inspection device of
— waving bead (dog-leg) appropriate accuracy. In case of dispute, the measurement
— undercut determined by use of the mechanical calliper shall govern. The
— arc burns mechanical calliper shall be fitted with contact pins having cir-
— start/stop craters/poor restart cular cross sections of 6.35 mm in diameter. The end of the pin
— surface porosity contacting the inside surface of the pipe shall be rounded to a
— cracks maximum radius of 38.1 mm for pipe of size 168.3 mm or
— lack of penetration/lack of fusion larger, and up to a radius of d/4 for pipe smaller than size 168.3
— systematic imperfections mm with a minimum radius of 3.2 mm. The end of the pin con-
— burn through. tacting the outside surface of the pipe shall be either flat or
rounded to a radius of not less than 38.1 mm.
shall be within the tolerances given in Appendix D, Table D-4. 308 Geometric deviations from the nominal cylindrical con-
*) MR indicates that the requirement is modified compared to tour of the pipe, see Table 7-19, resulting from the pipe form-
ISO 3183. ing or manufacturing operations (i.e. not including dents), shall
be measured using a gauge with the correct curvature accord-
206 Requirements for dents are given in Appendix D, H500. ing to the specified internal/external diameter. The length of
G 300 Inspection the gauge shall be 200 mm or 0.25 D, whichever is less.
301 The frequency of dimensional testing shall be according Internal measurements shall be taken within 50 mm of each
to Table 7-17 to Table 7-19. pipe end.
External measurement shall be taken where indicated by visual
302 Suitable methods shall be used for the verification of
conformance with the dimensional and geometrical tolerances. inspection. MR (the requirement is modified compared to ISO
Unless particular methods are specified in the purchase order, 3183).
the methods to be used shall be at the discretion of the Manu- 309 Straightness shall be measured according to Figure 1
facturer. and Figure 2 in ISO 3183.
303 All test equipment shall be calibrated. Dimensional test- 310 Out-of squareness at pipe ends shall be measured
ing by automatic measuring devices is acceptable provided the according to Figure 3 in ISO 3183.
accuracy of the measuring devices is documented and found to 311 For pipe with D ≥ 141.3 mm, the lengths of pipe shall be
be within acceptable limits. weighed individually. For pipe with D < 141.3 mm, the lengths
304 Unless a specific method is specified in the purchase of pipe shall be weighed either individually or in convenient
order, diameter measurements shall be made with a circumfer- lots selected by the Manufacturer.
ential tape, ring gauge, snap gauge, rod gauge, calliper, or opti- 312 The mass per unit length, rl, shall be used for the deter-
cal measuring device, at the discretion of the manufacturer. mination of pipe weight and shall be calculated using the fol-
Guidance note: lowing equation:
For inspection of submerged arc welded pipe, ring gauges can be rl = t(D-t) · C (7.4)
slotted or notched to permit passage of the gauge over the weld
reinforcement. It is necessary that the pipe permit the passage of where:
the ring gauge within (internal) or over (external) each end of the
pipe for a minimum distance of 100 mm. rl is the mass per unit length, in kg/m
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- D is the specified outside diameter, expressed in mm
t is the specified wall thickness, in mm
305 At pipe ends (unless otherwise agreed) inside measure- C is 0.02466.
ments shall be used to determine diameter and out-of-round-
ness. These measurements shall not be based on 313 All specified tests shall be recorded as acceptable or
circumferential measurements (e.g. tape). Out-of-roundness non-acceptable.
shall be determined as the difference between the largest and 314 The minimum and maximum value for wall thickness
smallest inside diameter, as measured in the same cross-sec- and the diameter of pipe ends and maximum out-of-roundness
tional plane. If agreed, tolerances may be applied to actual at pipe ends, shall be recorded for 10% of the specified tests,
internal diameter. MR (the requirement is modified compared unless a higher frequency is agreed. For weight and length
to ISO 3183). 100% of the actual measurement results shall be recorded.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.7 – Page 83

Table 7-17 Tolerances for diameter and out-of-roundness


D [mm] Frequency Diameter Out-of-roundness
of Pipe body 1) Pipe end 2, 3)
inspection Pipe body 2) Pipe end 3)
SMLS Welded SMLS Welded
< 60.3 Once per ± 0.5 mm or ± 0.5 mm or ± 0.5 mm Included in the diameter tolerance
4) ± 0.0075 D, ± 0.0075 D,
≥ 60.3 ≤ 610 test unit or ± 0.005 D, 0.015 D 0.01 D
whichever is whichever is whichever is greater,
greater greater, but max. but max. ± 1.6 mm
± 3.2 mm
> 610 ≤ 1422 ± 0.01 D ± 0.005 D, but ± 2.0 mm ± 1.6 mm 0.01 D but max.10 mm 0.0075 D but max. 8 mm
max. ± 4.0 mm for D/t2 ≤ 75 for D/t2 ≤ 75
By agreement for D/t2 > 75 By agreement for D/t2 > 75
> 1422 as agreed
where
D = Specified outside diameter
t = specified nominal wall thickness.

Notes
1) Dimensions of pipe body to be measured approximately in the middle of the pipe length.
2) For SMLS pipe, the tolerances apply for t ≤ 25.0 mm, and the tolerances for heavier wall pipe shall be as agreed.
3) The pipe end includes a length of 100 mm at each of the pipe extremities.
4) Once per test unit of not more than 20 lengths of pipe. For D ≤ 168.3 mm; once per test unit of not more than 100 lengths of pipe, but minimum one (1)
and maximum 6 pipes per 8-hour shift. MR

Table 7-18 Tolerances for wall thickness


Type of pipe Wall thickness [mm] Frequency of Tolerances 1)
inspection
t < 4.0 + 0.6 mm - 0.5 mm
4.0 ≤ t < 10.0 + 0.15 t - 0.125 t
SMLS 10.0 ≤ t < 25.0 ± 0.125 t
+ 0.1 t or + 3.7 mm, whichever is greater
t ≥ 25.0 - 0.1 t or - 3.0 mm, whichever is greater
t ≤ 6.0 ± 0.4 mm
HFW, EBW, LBW and MWP 2) 6.0 < t ≤ 15.0 100% ± 0.7 mm
t > 15.0 ± 1.0 mm
t ≤ 6.0 ± 0.5 mm
6.0 < t ≤ 10.0 ± 0.7 mm
SAW 3)
10.0 < t ≤ 20.0 ± 1.0 mm
t > 20.0 + 1.5 mm - 1.0 mm
where
t = specified nominal wall thickness.

Notes
1) If the purchase order specifies a minus tolerance for wall thickness smaller than the applicable value given in this table, the plus tolerance for wall thick-
ness shall be increased by an amount sufficient to maintain the applicable tolerance range.
2) Subject to agreement a larger plus tolerance for metallurgically clad pipes may be applied.
3) The plus tolerance for wall thickness does not apply to the weld area.

Table 7-19 Tolerances for pipe geometric properties not covered in Table 7-17 and 7-18
Characteristic to be tested Frequency of inspection Tolerances
Geometric deviations (peaking and flats) 1) 10% 2) 0.005 D or 2.5 mm, whichever is less
Straightness, max. for full length of pipe 5% 2) ≤ 0.0015 L
Straightness, max. deviation for pipe end region 3) 3 mm
Out-of squareness at pipe ends ≤ 1.6 mm from true 90°
Length 100% min. 11.70 m and max. 12.70 m
Weight of each single pipe / pipe bundle -3.5% / +10% of nominal weight
Tolerances for the pipe weld seam and dents see G205 and G206
where L = actual length of pipe

Notes
1) Applicable to welded pipes only
2) Testing of the required percentage of the pipes produced but minimum 4 pipes per 8-hour shift.
3) The pipe end region includes a length of 1.0 m at each of the pipe extremities.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 84 – Sec.7 see note on front cover

H. Marking, Delivery Condition and strain based design. Any restrictions for maximum allowable
strain during operation are beyond the scope of this standard.
Documentation
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
H 100 Marking
C-Mn steel
101 All marking shall be easily identifiable and durable in
order to withstand pipe loading, shipping, and normal installa- 103 C-Mn steel linepipe for sour service shall conform to
tion activities. Subsection B, and to the modified and additional requirements
below, which conform to the requirements in ISO 3183 Annex
102 Marking shall include DNV linepipe designation (ref. H: “PSL 2 pipe ordered for sour service”.
B200, C200 and D200). Other type of marking shall be subject
to agreement. 104 The chemical compositions given in Table 7-3 and
Table 7-4 shall be modified according to Table 7-20 and Table
103 Each linepipe shall be marked with a unique number. 7-21, respectively.
The marking shall reflect the correlation between the product
and the respective inspection document. Table 7-20 Chemical composition for SMLS and welded C-Mn
steel pipe with delivery condition N or Q for Supplementary
H 200 Delivery condition
requirement, sour service
201 The delivery condition of C-Mn steel pipe shall be Product analysis, maximum. weight %
according to Table 7-1. SMYS
202 The internal surface of CRA pipes shall be pickled in C 1) Mn 1) S 2) V Other 3,4)
accordance with the purchase order. If agreed the external sur- Pipe with delivery condition N - according to Table 7-1
face of CRA pipes shall be cleaned. 245 - - 0.003 - -
290 - - 0.003 - -
H 300 Handling and storage
320 - - 0.003 - -
301 On customer's request, each linepipe shall be protected 360 - - 0.003 - -
until taken into use. Pipe with delivery condition Q - according to Table 7-1
302 For temporary storage see Sec.6 D300. 245 - - 0.003 - -
290 - - 0.003 - -
H 400 Documentation, records and certification
320 - - 0.003 - -
401 Linepipe shall be delivered with Inspection Certificate 3.1 360 - - 0.003 - -
according to European Standard EN 10204 (Metallic Products - 390 - - 0.003 - -
Types of Inspection Documents) or an accepted equivalent.
415 - - 0.003 - Note 5,6)
402 Inspection documents shall be in printed form or in elec- 450 - - 0.003 - Note 5,6)
tronic form as an EDI transmission that conforms to any EDI 485 0.16 1.65 0.003 0.09 Notes 5,6,7)
agreement between the Purchaser and the manufacturer.
Notes
403 The Inspection Certificate shall identify the products
represented by the certificate, with reference to product 1) For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum for carbon,
an increase of 0.05% above the specified maximum for manganese is
number, heat number and heat treatment batch. The specified permissible, up to a maximum increase of 0.20%.
outside diameter, specified wall thickness, pipe designation,
2) If agreed the sulphur content may be increased to ≤ 0.008% for SMLS
type of pipe, and the delivery condition shall be stated. and ≤ 0.006% for welded pipe, and in such cases lower Ca/S may be
404 The certificate shall include or refer to the results of all agreed.
specified inspection, testing and measurements including any 3) Mo ≤ 0.15%. If agreed Cu ≤ 0.10%.
supplementary testing specified in the purchase order. For 4) Unless otherwise agreed, for welded pipe where calcium is intention-
HFW pipe, the minimum temperature for heat treatment of the ally added, Ca/S ≥ 1.5 if S > 0.0015%. For SMLS and welded pipe
weld seam shall be stated. Ca ≤ 0.006%.
5) If agreed Mo ≤ 0.35%.
405 Records from the qualification of the MPS and other
6) If agreed Cr ≤ 0.45% and Ni ≤ 0.50%.
documentation shall be in accordance with the requirements in
Sec.12 C100. 7) The maximum allowable Pcm value shall be 0.22 for welded pipe and
0.25 for SMLS pipe.

Table 7-21 Chemical composition for welded C-Mn steel pipe


with delivery condition M for Supplementary requirement,
I. Supplementary Requirements
sour service
I 100 Supplementary requirement, sour service (S) Product analysis, maximum. weight %
SMYS C1) Mn 1) S 2) Nb Other 3,4)
101 Linepipe for sour service shall conform to the requirements
below. Sec.6 B200 provide guidance for material selection. 245 0.10 - 0.002 - -
290 0.10 - 0.002 - -
102 All mandatory requirements in ISO 15156-2/3 shall
320 0.10 - 0.002 - -
apply, in combination with the additional requirements of this
standard. 360 0.10 1.45 0.002 0.06 -
390 0.10 1.45 0.002 - -
Guidance note:
415 0.10 1.45 0.002 - Note 5)
ISO 15156-1/2/3, Sec. 1, states that the standard is only applica-
ble “to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment 450 0.10 1.60 0.002 - Notes 5,6)
designed and constructed using conventional elastic design crite- 485 0.10 1.60 0.002 - Notes 5,6)
ria”. Any detrimental effects of induced strain will only apply if Notes
these are imposed during exposure to an H2S-containing envi-
ronment; hence, for manufacture and installation of pipelines the 1-5) See Table 7-20.
restrictions imposed in the ISO standard are applicable also to 6) If agreed Cr ≤ 0.45%.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.7 – Page 85

105 Vacuum degassing or alternative processes to reduce the Clad or lined steel linepipe
gas content of the steel should be applied. 114 Clad or lined steel or linepipe for sour service shall con-
106 The molten steel shall be treated for inclusion shape control. form to Subsection D, and to the modified and additional
107 The requirements for mechanical properties in B400 requirements below.
shall apply, except for the hardness. 115 Materials selection for cladding/liner, the associated
108 During MPQT and production, the hardness in the pipe hardness criteria, and requirements to manufacturing and fab-
body, weld and HAZ shall not exceed 250 HV10. rication shall comply with ISO 15156-3. The same applies to
welding consumables for weldments exposed to the internal
If agreed, (see ISO 15156-2) and provided the parent pipe wall fluid. For selection of the C-Mn steel base material the consid-
thickness is greater than 9 mm and the weld cap is not exposed erations in A13.1 of ISO 15156-3 shall apply.
directly to the sour environment, 275 HV10 is acceptable for
the weld cap area. 116 During qualification of welding procedures and produc-
tion, hardness measurements shall be performed as outlined in
109 Any hard spot larger than 50 mm in any direction, see Appendix B. The hardness in the internal heat-affected zone
Table 7-7, shall be classified as a defect if its hardness, based and in the fused zone of the cladding/lining shall comply with
upon individual indentations, exceeds: relevant requirements of ISO 15156-3.
— 250 HV10 on the internal surface of the pipe, or Specific inspection
— 275 HV10 on the external surface of the pipe. 117 The frequency of inspection for shall be as given in
Tables 7-7, 7-8, 7-12, 7-13, 7-14 and 7-15 as relevant, and with
Pipes that contain such defects shall be treated in accordance additional testing given in Table 7-22.
with Appendix D H300.
118 HIC testing during production shall be performed on one
110 The acceptance criteria for the HIC test shall be the fol- randomly selected pipe from each of the three (3) first heats, or
lowing, with each ratio being the maximum permissible aver- until three consecutive heats have shown acceptable test
age for three sections per test specimen when tested in Solution results. After three consecutive heats have shown acceptable
(Environment) A (see Table B.3 of ISO 15156-2): test results, the testing frequency for the subsequent production
may be reduced to one test per casting sequence of not more
— crack sensitivity ratio (CSR) ≤ 2% than ten (10) heats.
— crack length ratio (CLR) ≤ 15%, and
— crack thickness ratio (CTR) ≤ 5%. 119 If any of the tests during the subsequent testing fail,
three pipes from three different heats of the last ten heats,
If HIC tests are conducted in alternative media (see selecting the heats with the lowest Ca/S ratio (based on heat
Appendix B B302) to simulate specific service conditions, analysis), shall be tested, unless the S level is below 0.0015.
alternative acceptance criteria may be agreed. For heat with S level greater than 0.0015 heats shall be selected
with the lowest Ca/S ratio. Providing these three tests show
111 By examination of the tension surface of the SSC speci- acceptable results, the ten heats are acceptable. However, if
men under a low power microscope at X10 magnification there any of these three tests fail, then all the ten heats shall be tested.
shall be no surface breaking fissures or cracks, unless it can be Further, one pipe from every consecutive heat shall be tested
demonstrated that these are not the result of sulphide stress until the test results from three consecutive heats have been
cracking. found acceptable. After three consecutive heats have shown
CRA linepipe acceptable test results, the testing frequency may again be
112 CRA linepipe for sour service shall conform to Subsection reduced to one test per ten heats.
C, and the recommendations given in Sec.6 B200 and D700. SSC test
113 Linepipe grades, associated hardness criteria, and 120 If specified in the purchase order SSC testing shall be
requirements to manufacturing/fabrication shall comply with performed in accordance with ISO 15156 2/3 as applicable.
ISO 15156-3. (see Sec. 6 B409).

Table 7-22 Applicable testing for Supplementary requirement S 1)

Production tests

Type of pipe Type of test Extent of testing Acceptance criteria


Welded C-Mn steel pipe HIC test In accordance with I118 and I119 I110

Tests for Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Test


Type of pipe Type of test Extent of testing Acceptance criteria
Welded C-Mn steel pipe HIC test If agreed, one test (3 test pieces) for each pipe provided I110
All pipe (only if agreed, see SSC test for manufacturing procedure qualification I111
Sec. 6 B202)
Notes
1) Sampling of specimens and test execution shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B.

I 200 Supplementary requirement, fracture arrest 202 A Charpy V-notch transition curve shall be established
properties (F) for the linepipe base material. The Charpy V-notch energy
201 The requirements to fracture arrest properties are valid value in the transverse direction at Tmin shall, as a minimum,
for gas pipelines carrying essentially pure methane up to 80% meet the values given in Table 7-23. Five sets of specimens
usage factor, up to a pressure of 15 MPa, 30 mm wall thickness shall be tested at different temperatures, including Tmin, and
and 1120 mm diameter. the results documented in the qualification report.
Testing shall be according to Table 7-24. Properties of pipe delivered without final heat treatment

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 86 – Sec.7 see note on front cover

203 This paragraph does not apply to linepipes delivered formed on welded linepipe with outer diameter > 500 mm, wall
with a final heat treatment (e.g. normalising or quench and thickness > 8 mm and SMYS > 360 MPa. A DWTT transition
tempering). A Charpy V-notch transition curve shall be estab- curve shall be established for the linepipe base material. Mini-
lished for the linepipe base material in the aged condition. The mum five sets of specimens shall be tested at different temper-
plastic deformation shall be equal to the actual deformation atures, including Tmin. Each set shall consist of two specimens
introduced during manufacturing (no additional straining is taken from the same test coupon. The test shall be performed
required). The samples shall be aged for 1 hour at 250°C. Five in accordance with Appendix B. The specimens tested at the
sets of specimens shall be tested at different temperatures, minimum design temperature shall as a minimum, meet an
including Tmin. The Charpy V-notch energy value in the trans- average of 85% shear area with one minimum value of 75%.
verse direction, at Tmin, shall as a minimum, meet the values 205 If supplementary requirements for sour service as in
given in Table 7-23 in the aged condition. Values obtained at I100 are specified for linepipe material with SMYS ≥ 450 MPa
other test temperatures are for information. the acceptance criteria stated in I204 (average and minimum
204 Drop Weight Tear Testing (DWTT) shall only be per- shear area) may be subject to agreement.

Table 7-23 Charpy V-notch Impact Test Requirements for Fracture Arrest Properties tested at Tmin
(Joules; Transverse Values; Average value of three full size base material specimens) 1, 2)
Wall ≤ 30 mm 3)
thickness
OD (mm) Notes
SMYS ≤ 610 ≤ 820 ≤ 1120 1) Minimum individual results to exceed 75% of
245 40 40 40 these values, (max 1 specimen per set)
290 40 43 52 2) The values obtained in the longitudinal direction,
360 50 61 75 when tested, shall be at least 50% higher than the
values required in the transverse direction.
415 64 77 95 3) Fracture arrest properties for larger wall thick-
450 73 89 109 nesses and diameters shall be subject to agreement
485 82 100 124 (see Sec. 5 D1100)
555 103 126 155

Table 7-24 Applicable testing for Supplementary requirement F


Type of pipe Type of test Extent of testing Acceptance criteria
All pipe CVN impact testing of the pipe body for establishment of transition curve One test for each Table 7-23 1)
Welded pipe DWT testing pipe provided for I204 (see also I205)
manufacturing pro-
Welded pipe CVN impact testing of the pipe body for establishment of transition curve, cedure qualification Table 7-23 1)
except CRA pipe aged condition 2)
Notes
1) The values obtained in the longitudinal direction, when tested, shall at least be 50% higher than the values required in the transverse direction.
2) See I203

I 300 Supplementary requirement, linepipe for plastic — the difference between the maximum and minimum meas-
deformation (P) ured base material longitudinal yield stress shall not
exceed 100 MPa
301 Supplementary requirement (P) is applicable to linepipe — the YS/TS ratio shall not exceed 0.90 unless otherwise
when the total nominal strain in any direction from a single specified. This requirement does not apply to pipe speci-
event is exceeding 1.0% or accumulated nominal plastic strain fied as coiled tubing.
is exceeding 2.0%. The required testing is outlined in Table 7- — the elongation shall be minimum 20%.
25 and detailed below. The requirements are only applicable to
single event strains below 5%. Guidance note:
A higher yield to tensile ratio may be specified in case the local
302 For pipes delivered in accordance with supplementary buckling utilisation is not fully utilised given by:
requirement (P), tensile testing shall be performed in the lon-
ah = 1 - 0.2 · eF · gc ·1.2/ec
gitudinal direction using proportional type specimens in
accordance with Appendix B, in order to meet the require- Buckling of the pipeline during on-reeling is primarily caused by
ments in I303. Tensile testing in the longitudinal direction strain concentrations in the pipeline. These strain concentrations
are primarily caused by variation in thickness and yield stress
according to Table 7-9 is not required. Transverse tensile test- along the pipeline. The strain hardening capability combined
ing according to Table 7-9 is required. with a tighter tolerance on the yield stress are therefore good
measures to mitigate these buckles. The stated criteria alone does
303 The finished pipe (for C-Mn steel the requirements are not prevent buckles, evaluations of the loading scenario is also
applicable up to X65, otherwise subject to agreement) shall meet necessary.
the following requirements to tensile properties in longitudinal
direction (see I302) prior to being tested according to I304: ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.7 – Page 87

Table 7-25 Additional testing for Supplementary requirement P 1)

Production tests
Type of pipe Type of test Extent of testing Acceptance criteria
All pipe Tensile testing of the pipe body, longitudinal spec- Once per test unit of not more than 50/100 3) I303
imen of proportional type 2) pipes with the same cold-expansion ratio 4)

Tests for Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Test (all testing on strained and aged samples)
Type of pipe Type of test Extent of testing Acceptance criteria
All pipe Tensile testing of the pipe body, longitudinal spec- One test for one of the pipes provided for I308
imen, strained and aged 2) manufacturing procedure qualification
CVN impact testing of the pipe body
Hardness testing
Welded pipe Tensile testing of weld metal (all weld test) I308
CVN impact testing of the seam weld
Hardness testing of the seam weld
Notes
1) Mechanical and corrosion testing shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B.
2) Proportional type specimens according to ISO 6892 shall be tested, see Appendix B A408.
3) Not more than 100 pipes with D < 508 mm and not more than 50 pipes for D ≥ 508 mm.
4) The cold-expansion ratio is designated by the Manufacturer, and is derived using the designated before-expansion outside diameter or circumference and
the after-expansion outside diameter or circumference. An increase or decrease in the cold-expansion ratio of more than 0.002 requires the creation of a
new test unit.

304 As part of qualification of the pipe material, the finished — weld metal (all weld) tensile test
pipe shall be deformed either by full scale or simulated defor- — hardness testing (mid wall thickness)
mation (see Appendix B A1202-A1210) as stated by the Pur- — Charpy V-notch test (transverse specimens).
chaser in the linepipe specification.
After the deformation, specimens for mechanical testing (see 308 The following requirements shall be met after straining
I306 and I307) shall be sampled in areas representative of the and ageing (see I306 and I307):
final deformation in tension, (see Appendix A). For full scale
straining the test specimens, which shall represent the strain — SMYS, SMTS and hardness shall be according to Table
history ending up in tension, shall be extracted from the sector 7-5 or 7-11, as relevant:
5-7 o’clock of the pipe. 12 o’clock position is defined as the — the elongation shall be minimum 15%
top of the pipe when reeling on. — Charpy V-notch impact toughness and hardness shall be
The samples shall be artificially aged at 250°C for one hour according to Table 7-5 or 7-11, as applicable.
before testing.
305 Qualification for Supplementary requirement P may be 309 If the supplementary requirement for sour service (S)
based on historical data to be documented by the Manufac- and/or fracture arrest properties (F) is required, the testing for
turer. these supplementary requirements shall be performed on sam-
ples that are removed, strained and artificially aged in accord-
306 The following testing shall be conducted of the base ance with I304. The relevant acceptance criteria shall be met.
material after straining and ageing:
— longitudinal tensile testing I 400 Supplementary requirement, dimensions (D)
— hardness testing in pipe mid wall thickness 401 Supplementary requirements for enhanced dimensional
— Charpy V-notch impact toughness testing. Test tempera- requirements for linepipe (D) are given in Table 7-26.
ture shall be according to Table 7-6 or Table 7-11 as rele-
vant. Requirements for tolerances should be selected by the Pur-
chaser considering the influence of dimensions and tolerances
307 The following testing shall be performed of the longitu- on the subsequent fabrication/installation activities and the
dinal weld seam after straining and ageing: welding facilities to be used.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 88 – Sec.7 see note on front cover

Table 7-26 Supplementary requirements D, enhanced tolerances and/or increased frequency of inspection 1)
Type of pipe Characteristic to be tested Pipe diameter Frequency of Tolerances
inspection
All Diameter pipe ends - Each pipe end As per Table 7-17
Out-of-roundness, pipe ends, D/t2 ≤ 75 610 < D ≤ 1422 0.0075 D, but max. 5.0 mm
SMLS Wall thickness 15.0 mm ≤ t < 25.0 mm - Each pipe +0.125 t – 0.1 t
Wall thickness t ≥ 25.0 mm - ± 0.1 t, but max. 3.0 mm
SAW pipe Wall thickness t ≤ 6.0 mm - ± 0.5 mm 2)
Wall thickness t > 6.0 to ≤ 10.0 mm - ± 0.6 mm 2)
Wall thickness t > 10.0 to ≤ 20.0 mm - ± 0.8 mm 2)
Wall thickness t ≥ 20.0 mm - ± 1.0 mm 2)
Geometric deviations (peaking and flats) - 10% of pipe 0.005 D or 1.5 mm, whichever is less
ends
where
D = specified nominal outside diameter
t = specified nominal wall thickness.
Notes
1) For tolerances not specified in this table, the dimensional tolerances in Table 7-17 to Table 7-19 shall apply.
2) Subject to agreement a larger plus tolerance for metallurgically clad pipes may be applied.

I 500 Supplementary requirement, high utilisation (U) shall be performed.


501 For welded pipes, supplementary requirement U does If the confirmatory tests meet SMYS, the test unit is accepta-
only consider the SMYS at ambient temperature in the trans- ble.
verse direction. For seamless pipes delivered in the quenched
and tempered condition testing may be conducted in the longi- If one or both of the confirmatory tests fall below SMYS, the
tudinal direction. re-test program given in I508 shall apply.
502 The test regime given in this sub-section intends to Re-testing
ensure that the average yield stress is at least two standard 507 If the result from the mandatory testing falls below
deviations above SMYS. The testing scheme applies to pro- SMYS, four (4) re-tests taken from four (4) different pipes (a
duction in excess of 50 test units. Alternative ways of docu- total of 4 tests), within the same test unit, shall be tested. If the
menting the same based upon earlier test results in the same four re-tests meet SMYS, the test unit is acceptable. If one of
production is allowed. the re-tests fall below SMYS the test unit shall be rejected.
Guidance note: 508 If one or both of the confirmatory tests fail to meet
The outlined test regime is required to be able to meet Supple- SMYS, two (2) re-tests taken from each of two (2) different
mentary requirement U, but as stated above, even if all tested pipes within the same test unit shall be tested (a total of 4 tests).
pipes fulfil the requirements for the grade in question the pipes If all re-tests meet SMYS, the test unit is acceptable. If any of
do not necessary fulfil the requirements for supplementary the re-tests fall below SMYS, the test unit shall be rejected.
requirement U.
509 Re-testing of failed pipes is not permitted.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
510 If the test results are influenced by improper sampling,
Mandatory mechanical testing machining, preparation, treatment or testing, the test sample
503 The testing frequency shall comply with Table 7-7 or shall be replaced by a correctly prepared sample from the same
Table 7-12, as applicable. pipe, and a new test performed.
504 If the results from the mandatory testing meet the 511 If a test unit has been rejected after re-testing (I507 and
requirement SMYS × 1.03, no further testing is required in I508 above), the Manufacturer may conduct re-heat treatment
order to accept the test unit. of the test unit or individual testing of all the remaining pipes
in the test unit. If the total rejection of all the pipes within one
505 If the result from the mandatory testing falls below test unit exceeds 15%, including the pipes failing the manda-
SMYS, the re-test program given in I507 shall apply. tory and/or confirmatory tests, the test unit shall be rejected.
Confirmatory mechanical testing 512 In this situation, the Manufacturer shall investigate and
506 If the mandatory test result falls between SMYS × 1.03 report the reason for failure and shall change the manufactur-
and SMYS, then two (2) confirmatory tests taken from two (2) ing process if required. Re-qualification of the MPS is required
different pipes (a total of two tests) within the same test unit if the agreed allowed variation of any parameter is exceeded.

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.8 – Page 89

SECTION 8
CONSTRUCTION - COMPONENTS AND ASSEMBLIES

A. General used in the submarine pipeline system.


A 100 Objective 202 Design of components shall be in accordance with
Sec.5 F.
101 This section specifies requirements to the construction
of pipeline components, and to the construction of assemblies 203 Materials selection for components shall be in accord-
such as risers, expansion loops and pipe strings for reeling and ance with Sec.6.
towing.
A 300 Quality assurance
A 200 Application 301 Requirements for quality assurance are given in Sec.2
201 This Section is applicable to pressure containing compo- B500. Corresponding requirements for the material processing
nents (e.g. bends, flanges and connectors, Tee’s, valves etc.) and the manufacture of components shall be specified.

Table 8-1 Manufacture and testing of pipeline components


Components Requirements for manufacture and testing Reference code and applicable class or designation 1)
given in this section
Bends B300 ISO 15590-1, Class C for non-sour and Class CS for
sour service
Fittings2) B400 ISO 15590-2, Class C for non-sour and Class CS for
sour service
Flanges B500 ISO 15590-3, Designation (L) for non-sour and desig-
nation (LS) for sour service
Valves B600 ISO 14723
Mechanical connectors B700 not covered by specific reference code
CP Insulating joints B800
Anchor flanges B900
Buckle and fracture arrestors B1000
Pig traps B1100
Repair clamps and repair couplings B1200
Notes
1) The listed reference codes only cover C-Mn steels, for other materials reference is given to this section.
2) Fittings include: Elbows, caps, tees, single or multiple extruded headers, reducers and transition sections.

B. Component Requirements B 200 Component specification


201 A component specification reflecting the results of the
B 100 General materials selection (see Sec.6 B200), and referring to this sec-
101 Reference to requirements for manufacture and testing tion of the offshore standard, shall be prepared by the Pur-
of components are listed in Table 8-1. chaser. The specification shall state any additional
Components covered by ISO standards requirements to and/or deviations from this standard pertaining
to materials, manufacture, fabrication and testing of linepipe.
102 The following types of components shall be manufac-
tured and tested in accordance with the ISO standards listed in B 300 Induction bends – additional and modified
Table 8-1 and the additional and modified requirements given requirements to ISO 15590-1
in B300 - B600: 301 The ISO 15590-1 paragraph number is given in brackets.
— induction bends 302 (8.1) The following additional requirements shall be
— fittings stated in the MPS:
— flanges
— valves. — the steel type and grade
— the number and location of the pyrometers used (minimum
Components not covered by ISO standards two, located 120-180° apart) and the allowable tempera-
103 Pipeline components not covered by any specific ISO ture difference between them
standard (see B201), shall comply with the general require- — the centering tolerances for the coil
ments given in the following subsections: — the number of water nozzles and flow rate.
— materials shall be in accordance with Subsection C 303 (8.2) The chemical composition of C-Mn steel mother
— manufacture shall be in accordance with Subsection D pipe, including the backing steel of clad mother pipe, shall be
— mechanical and corrosion testing of components covered in agreement with the composition for the linepipe grades
in this subsection shall be in accordance with listed in Tables 7-3, 7-4, 7-20 or 7-21 in Sec.7. The maximum
Subsection E. carbon equivalent (CE) of quenched and tempered or normal-
ised C-Mn steel mother pipe (delivery condition N or Q,
in addition to requirements for the different components in respectively) shall be according to Table 8-2. The carbon
Subsection B according to Table 8-1. equivalent (Pcm) of thermo-mechanical formed or rolled C-Mn

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 90 – Sec.8 see note on front cover

steel mother pipe (delivery condition M) shall be maximum the same number of specimens shall be sampled from the mid-
0.02 higher than as required in Table 7-4. wall thickness position in the following locations:

Table 8-2 Carbon equivalent values for mother pipe — transition zone base metal (if applicable)
SMYS CE 1), max. — bend extrados base metal
— bend intrados base metal
245 0.36
— bend weld metal.
290 0.38
320 0.40 310 (9.4.5) The three indicated surface hardness readings
360 0.43 (per circumferential location) shall be located at the bend
390 0.43
extrados, the neutral axis, and the bend intrados. Surface hard-
ness testing using portable equipment shall be performed in
415 0.44 accordance with Appendix B.
450 0.45
311 (9.4.6) For metallographic evaluation of CRA or clad
485 0.46 induction bends, the acceptance criteria shall be in accordance
555 0.47 with in Sec.7 C400 and C500.
Note 312 (9.5) The following additional NDT testing shall be per-
1) According to Table 7-3 formed in accordance with Appendix D (as applicable):
304 The chemical composition of mother pipe for CRA mate- — H800, for RT of welds
rials shall meet the applicable requirements for the relevant — H700 or H800, for UT of welds in C-Mn steel
material type and grade given in Sec.7. However, the supple- — H200, for UT of welds in duplex stainless steel
mentary requirements F, P, D or U are not applicable to bends. — H800, for DP of welds in duplex stainless steel, and
Mother pipe shall be subjected to NDT as required for linepipe Acceptance criteria for the additional testing shall be accord-
in Sec.7. ing Appendix D.
Induction bends shall not be produced from CRA lined steel 313 (9.6) Ovality of cross sections shall be kept within the
pipe. specified tolerances. The bend radius shall be as specified by
Guidance note: the Purchaser, and large enough (e.g. 5x outer diameter) to
Hot expanded mother pipe may experience dimensional instabil- allow passage of inspection vehicles when relevant.
ity after post bending heat treatment.
Dimensional control shall include the following additional or
Bends may be made from spare sections of normal linepipe. It modified tests and acceptance criteria:
should be noted that linepipe, particularly pipe manufactured
from TMCP plate, may not have adequate hardenability to — ID at bend ends (always measure ID) shall be within ± 3 mm
achieve the required mechanical properties after induction bend- — out-of-roundness of bend ends shall be maximum 1.5%
ing and subsequent post bending heat treatment.
and maximum 3% for the body
Mother pipe of CRA clad C-Mn steel should preferably be longi- — the included angle between the centrelines of the straight
tudinally welded pipe manufactured from roll bonded plate portions of the bend shall be within ±0.75°
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- — identification of weld seam location, and
— end squareness shall be within ± 0.5°, maximum 3 mm.
305 All mother pipe shall be mill pressure tested in accord-
ance with Sec.7, Subsection E, where Sec.7 E107 does not 314 (9.7)Gauging shall be performed as specified in the
apply. Component specification, see Sec.6 C300.
306 (8.3 and Table 2) The following parameters shall be 315 (9.8) If hydrostatic testing of bends is specified, the test-
additional to or modification of the essential variables given in ing shall be performed accordance with G100.
Table 2:
316 (11) Marking requirements shall be specified to distin-
— Heat of steel: This essential variable shall be replaced by: guish between bends manufactured and tested to the require-
Change in ladle analysis for C-Mn steels outside ± 0.02% ments above and unmodified ISO 15590-1 bends.
C, ± 0.02 CE and/or ± 0.03 in Pcm, or any change in nom-
inal chemical composition for CRA's. B 400 Fittings, tees and wyes - additional requirements
— Bending radius: Qualified MPS qualifies all larger radii, to ISO 15590-2
but not smaller. 401 The following components shall be defined as fittings:
— Forming velocity: ± 2.5 mm/min or ± 10%, whichever is Elbows, caps, tees, single or multiple extruded headers, reduc-
the greater. ers and transition sections.
— Any change in number and position of pyrometers used 402 The ISO 15590-2 paragraph number is given in brackets.
and in the allowable temperature difference between the
pyrometers. 403 (6.2) Tees and headers shall be of the integral (non-
— Any change in the stated tolerances for coil centring. welded) reinforcement type. Outlets shall normally be
— Any change in the number and size of cooling nozzles and extruded but other manufacturing methods may be used, if
flow rate or water pressure. agreed. Bars of barred tees and wyes shall not be welded
directly to the high stress areas around the extrusion neck. It is
307 (8.5) Heat treatment equipment and procedures shall be recommended that the bars transverse to the flow direction are
in accordance with D500. welded to a pup piece, and that the bars parallel to the flow
308 (9.4.4.2) For C-Mn steel bends intended for sour-serv- direction are welded to the transverse bars only. If this is
ice, hardness values up to 275 HV10 are acceptable in the out- impractical, alternative designs shall be considered in order to
side cap layer. avoid peak stresses at the bar ends.
309 (Table 3 and 9.4.3) For bends with wall thickness greater 404 (7) The information required in Sec.6 C302 shall be pro-
than 25 mm (intrados - after bending), additional CVN testing vided.
shall be performed during MPS qualification testing. In addi- 405 (8) The following additional information shall be pro-
tion to the test pieces sampled 2 mm below the outer surface, vided:

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.8 – Page 91

The MPS should specify the following items, as applicable: — 25Cr duplex stainless steel fittings shall be corrosion
tested as required in Table 8-4, and
a) For the starting material — NDT of fitting bodies shall be performed according to
B512.
— delivery condition
— chemical composition, and 411 (Table 3) The extent of testing and examination shall
— NDT procedures for examination of starting materials. comprise the following additional requirements:
b) For fitting manufacture — the test unit definition shall be amended to: Fitting or test
piece of the same designation, starting material wall thick-
— NDT procedures ness, heat, manufacturing procedure specification and heat
— hydrostatic test procedures treatment batch
— dimensional control procedures — surface hardness tests shall be performed on two fittings
— coating and protection procedures per test unit
— handling, loading and shipping procedures, and — metallography of duplex stainless steel fittings with the
— at-site installation recommendations. largest thickness exceeding 25 mm shall be performed as
one per test unit
For “one-off” fittings designed and manufactured for a specific — HIC testing shall be performed for qualification of the
purpose, the following additional information shall be pro- MPS for fittings in Class CS manufactured from rolled
vided: material, and
— plan and process flow description/diagram — 25Cr duplex stainless steel fittings shall be corrosion
— order specific quality plan including supply of material tested for qualification of the MPS, in accordance with
and subcontracts, and Table 8-4.
— manufacturing processes including process- and process 412 (Table 2 and 9.5) NDT of each completed fitting shall be
control procedures. performed in accordance with the Table 2, Class C with the fol-
lowing additional requirements:
406 (8.2) Starting material shall be subject to 100% NDT at
an appropriate stage of manufacture according to: — the body of fittings manufactured from plates and pipes
shall be subject to 100% magnetic particle testing for C-
— C-Mn steel and duplex stainless steel pipe shall be tested Mn steels and 100% dye penetrant/eddy current testing for
as required in Sec.7 or Appendix D C200. duplex stainless steel
— Appendix D B200, for RT of welds in starting materials — the extrusion area for tees and headers with adjoining pipe
other than pipe wall thickness ≥ 12 mm shall be subject to 100% volumet-
— Appendix D B300 or B400 as applicable, for UT of welds ric ultrasonic and 100% magnetic particle testing for C-
in starting materials other than pipe Mn steels and 100% volumetric ultrasonic and 100% dye
— Appendix D D200, for C-Mn steel forgings penetrant/eddy current testing for duplex stainless steel
— Appendix D D300, for duplex stainless steel forgings — the extrusion area for tees and headers with adjoining pipe
— Appendix D C200, for UT of plate material wall thickness < 12 mm shall be subject to 100% magnetic
with acceptance criteria according to the corresponding particle testing for C-Mn steels and 100% dye penetrant/
requirements of Appendix D. eddy current testing for duplex stainless steel
— overlay welds shall be tested 100%.
Subject to agreement, equivalent NDT standards with regard to
method and acceptance criteria may be applied. 413 NDT shall be performed in accordance with Appendix D
(as applicable):
407 (8.3.2) Welding and repair welding shall be performed
in accordance with qualified procedures meeting the require- — C400, for visual inspection
ments in Appendix C. — D200, for C-Mn/low alloy steel forgings
408 (8.3.3) Heat treatment equipment and procedures shall — D300, for duplex stainless steel forgings
be in accordance with D500. — C206 through 213, for UT of a 50 mm wide band inside
ends/bevels
409 (9.2) Test pieces shall be taken according to E101 and — C221, for MT of ends/bevels
E103. Location of test specimens shall be in accordance with — C222, for PT of ends/bevels
E100. — B200, for RT of welds
410 (Table 2) Inspection, testing and acceptance criteria — B300, for UT of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel
shall be in accordance with Class C with the following addi- — B400, for UT of welds in duplex stainless steel
tional requirements: — B500, for MT of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel
— B600, for DP of welds in duplex stainless steel
— the chemical composition for components shall be modi- — C300, for overlay welds
fied according to C200 — D400, for visual inspection of forgings
— the chemical composition of duplex stainless steel materi- — B800, for visual inspection of welds, and
als shall be according to C300 — C500, for residual magnetism.
— Mechanical and hardness testing of weld seams as
required by Appendix B Acceptance criteria shall be according to the corresponding
— the CVN test temperature shall be 10°C below the mini- requirements of Appendix D.
mum design temperature 414 (11) Marking requirements shall be specified to distin-
— Surface hardness testing of fittings of Class CS shall be guish between fittings manufactured and tested to the require-
performed with acceptance criteria according to 9.4.4.2 ments above and unmodified ISO 15590-2 fittings.
— metallographic examination for welds and body of duplex
stainless steel fittings shall be performed and in accord- B 500 Flanges and flanged connections - additional
ance with Appendix B and with acceptance criteria requirements to ISO 15590-3
according to E300
— HIC testing shall be performed on fittings in Class CS man- 501 The ISO 15590-3 paragraph number is given in brackets.
ufactured from rolled material as required in Table 8-4 502 (7) The following additional information shall be pro-

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 92 – Sec.8 see note on front cover

vided: flanges of the same size, heat, manufacturing procedure speci-


fication and heat treatment batch shall be 100% tested.
— required design life
— nominal diameters, OD or ID, out of roundness and wall All flanges shall be subject to 100% visual inspection.
thickness for adjoining pipes including required tolerances 513 Magnetic particle testing shall be performed in accord-
— dimensional requirements and tolerance if different from ance with Appendix D, D200 or ISO 13664.
ISO 7005-1 Liquid penetrant testing shall be performed in accordance with
— minimum design temperature (local) Appendix D, D300 or ISO 12095.
— maximum design temperature (local)
— external loads and moments that will be transferred to the Ultrasonic testing of C-Mn/low alloy steel forgings shall be
component from the connecting pipeline under installation performed in accordance with Appendix D, D200.
and operation and any environmental loads (e.g. nominal Ultrasonic testing of duplex stainless steel forgings shall be
longitudinal strain) performed in accordance with Appendix D, D300.
— material type and grade, delivery condition, chemical
composition and mechanical properties at design tempera- Testing of overlay welds shall be performed in accordance
ture with Appendix D C300.
— required testing Visual examination shall be in accordance with Appendix D
— corrosion resistant weld overlay. D400.
503 (8) Overlay welding shall be performed according to Subject to agreement, equivalent NDT standards with regard to
qualified welding procedures meeting the requirements of method and acceptance criteria may be applied.
Appendix C. Acceptance criteria for forgings shall be in accordance with the
504 (8.1) The MPS shall be in accordance with D100. corresponding requirements of Appendix D, D500 and for
overlay welds only, in accordance with Appendix D, C600.
505 (8.2 & Table 4)
514 (9.6) For flanges with specified dimensions and toler-
— The chemical composition for flanges shall be modified ances different from ISO 7005-1, these specified requirements
according to C200. shall be met.
— The chemical composition of duplex stainless steel mate- 515 (9.9) Repair welding of flange bodies is not permitted.
rials shall be according to C300.
516 (11) Marking requirements shall be specified to distin-
506 (8.4) Heat treatment equipment and procedures shall be guish between flanges manufactured and tested to the require-
in accordance with D500. ments above and unmodified ISO 15590-3 flanges.
507 (Table 3) Mechanical testing shall be performed in Flanged connections
accordance with the Table 3 with the following additional 517 Sealing rings shall be compatible with the finish and sur-
requirements: face roughness of the flange contact faces.
— Tensile, impact and through thickness hardness shall be 518 Sealing rings shall be capable of withstanding the maxi-
performed once per test unit with the test unit defined as; mum pressure to which they could be subjected, as well as
Flanges of the same size, heat, manufacturing procedure installation forces if flanges are laid in-line with the pipeline.
specification and heat treatment batch. Sealing rings for flanges shall be made from metallic materials
— Surface hardness testing shall be performed once per test that are resistant to the fluid to be transported in the pipeline
unit for flanges in class LS. system. Mechanical properties shall be maintained at the antic-
— Mechanical, hardness and corrosion testing of flanges ipated in service pressures and temperatures.
shall be performed as required by E100, acceptance crite- 519 Bolts shall meet the requirements given in Sec.6 C400.
ria to E200 or E300.
— Metallographic examination for duplex stainless steel B 600 Valves – Additional requirements to ISO 14723
flanges shall be performed according to E100, with
acceptance criteria according to E300. 601 The ISO 14723 paragraph number is given in brackets.
602 (Annex B) The following additional information shall be
508 (Table 5) The impact test temperature for C-Mn steel provided:
and low alloy flanges shall be 10°C below the minimum design
temperature for all thicknesses and categories. — design standard
509 Hardness indentation locations shall be according to — required design life
Table 8-4. — minimum design temperature (local)
— maximum design temperature (local)
510 (9.4.5) Metallographic examination of duplex stainless — design pressure (local)
steel shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B, with — water depth, and
acceptance criteria according to Sec.7 C400. — weld overlay, corrosion resistant and/or wear resistant.
511 (9.4.6 & 9.4.7)
Manufacturing procedure specification
Corrosion testing of duplex stainless steel shall be according to
Table 8-4. 603 A manufacturing procedure specification in accordance
with D100 shall be documented.
512 (9.5.4) The extent of NDT shall be100% magnetic parti-
cle testing of ferromagnetic materials and 100% liquid pene- 604 (7.1, 7.4 and 7.7) Materials shall be specified to meet the
trant testing of non magnetic materials. A percentage test is not requirements given in subsection C.
permitted. 605 (7.5) The impact test temperature shall be 10°C below
(9.5.5) 100% ultrasonic testing of the final 50 mm of each end the minimum design temperature
of the flange shall be performed. 100% ultrasonic testing of the 606 (7.6) Bolting shall meet the requirements of Sec.6 C400.
first 10 flanges of each type and size ordered. If no defects are
found during the testing of the first 10 flanges of each type and 607 (8) Welding shall be performed according to qualified
size ordered the extent of testing may be reduced to 10% of welding procedures meeting the requirements of Appendix C.
each size and type. If defects are found in any tested flange, all 608 (9.4) The extent, method and type of NDT of C-Mn/low

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Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.8 – Page 93

alloy steels shall be in accordance with ISO 14723, Annex E, B 800 CP Insulating joints
QL 2 requirements. 801 These requirements apply to manufacture and testing of
The extent and type of NDT of duplex stainless steels shall be boltless, monolithic coupling type of insulating joints for
in accordance with ISO 14723, Annex E, QL 2 requirements. onshore applications.
Methods shall be according to Appendix D of this standard. 802 CP Insulating joints shall be manufactured from forg-
The extent and type of NDT of weld overlay shall be in accord- ings
ance with ISO 14723, Annex E, QL 2 requirements. the 803 Insulating joints shall be protected from electrical high
method shall be according to Appendix D. current high voltage from welding and lightening etc. in the
Acceptance criteria for NDT shall be in accordance with construction period. If high voltage surge protection is not pro-
ISO 14723, Annex E with the following amendments: vided in the construction period insulating joints shall be fitted
For UT 2, VT 2 and VT 3 the acceptance criteria shall be in with a temporary short-circuit cable clearly tagged with the
accordance with Appendix D of this standard. instruction “not to be removed until installation of permanent
high voltage surge protection.”
609 (9.5) Repair welding of forgings is not permitted.
804 For manufactures without previous experience in the
610 (10.2) Hydrostatic shell tests shall be performed in design, manufacture and testing of insulating joints, one joint
accordance with ISO 14723, Clause 10, or according to speci- should be manufactured and destructively tested for the pur-
fied requirements. pose of qualifying the design and materials of the joint.
611 (11) Marking requirements shall be specified to distin- The qualification programme should as a minimum contain the
guish between valves manufactured and tested to the require- following elements:
ments above and unmodified ISO 14723 valves.
612 Valves with requirements for fire durability shall be — bending to maximum design bending moment
qualified by applicable fire tests. Refer to API 6FA and BS — Tension to maximum design tension
6755 Part 2 for test procedures. — Pressure testing to 1.5 times the design pressure
— Pressure cycling from minimum to maximum design pres-
B 700 Mechanical connectors sure 10 times at both minimum and maximum design tem-
perature.
701 These requirements apply to manufacture and testing of
end connections such as hub and clamp connections connect- Before and after testing the resistance and electrical leakage
ing a pipeline to other installations. tests should show the same and stable values.
702 Bolting shall meet the requirements of Sec.6 C400. In addition, after full tests the joint should be cut longitudinally
703 End connections shall be forged. into sections to confirm the integrity of the insulation and fill
materials and the condition of the O-ring seals.
NDT
805 Insulation joint shall be forged close to the final shape (if
704 The extent of NDT shall be: applicable). Machining of up to 10% of the local wall thickness
— 100% magnetic particle testing of ferromagnetic materials at the outside of the component is allowed.
and 100% liquid penetrant testing of non magnetic materi- 806 The extent of NDT shall be:
als.
— 100% ultrasonic testing of forgings and castings — 100% magnetic particle testing of ferromagnetic materials
— 100% RT of critical areas of castings and 100% liquid penetrant testing of non magnetic materials
— 100% ultrasonic or radiographic testing of welds — 100% ultrasonic testing of forgings
— 100% magnetic particle testing / liquid penetrant testing of — 100% ultrasonic or radiographic testing of welds
welds — 100% magnetic particle testing / liquid penetrant testing of
— 100% visual inspection welds
— 100% visual inspection.
NDT shall be performed in accordance with Appendix D (as
applicable): NDT shall be performed in accordance with Appendix D (as
applicable):
— C400, for visual inspection
— D200, for C-Mn/low alloy steel forgings — C400, for visual inspection
— D300, for duplex stainless steel forgings — D200, for C-Mn/low alloy steel forgings
— E200, for C-Mn/low alloy steel castings — D300, for duplex stainless steel forgings
— E300, for duplex stainless steel castings — C220, for MT of ends/bevels
— E400, for RT of castings — C221, for DP of ends/bevels
— C221, for MT of ends/bevels — B200, for RT of welds
— C222, for DP of ends/bevels — B300, for UT of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel
— B200, for RT of welds — B400, for UT of welds in duplex stainless steel
— B300, for UT of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel — B500, for MT of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel
— B400, for UT of welds in duplex stainless steel — B600, for DP of welds in duplex stainless steel
— B500, for MT of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel — C300, for overlay welds
— B600, for DP of welds in duplex stainless steel — D400, for visual inspection of forgings
— C300, for overlay welds — B800, for visual inspection of welds, and
— D400, for visual inspection of forgings — C500, for residual magnetism.
— E500, for visual examination of castings Acceptance criteria shall be according to the corresponding
— B800, for visual inspection of welds requirements of Appendix D.
— C500, for residual magnetism.
807 Prior to hydrostatic testing, hydraulic fatigue test and the
Acceptance criteria shall be according to the corresponding combined pressure-bending test / electrical leakage tests shall
requirements of Appendix D. be performed and the results recorded.
705 If hydrostatic testing is specified, the test shall be per- 808 Hydrostatic strength test of each insulating joint shall be
formed according to G100. performed with a test pressure 1.5 times the design pressure,

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 94 – Sec.8 see note on front cover

unless otherwise specified, and to the specified holding time in — B200, for RT of welds
general accordance with G100. — B300, for UT of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel
809 Hydraulic fatigue of each insulating joint shall be per- — B400, for UT of welds in duplex stainless steel
formed. The test shall consist of 40 consecutive cycles with the — B500, for MT of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel
pressure changed from 10 barg to 85 percent of the hydrostatic — B600, for DP of welds in duplex stainless steel
test pressure. At the completion of the test cycles the pressure — D400, for visual inspection of forgings
shall be increased to the hydrostatic test pressure and main- — B800, for visual inspection of welds, and
tained for 30 minutes. There shall be no leakage or pressure — C500, for residual magnetism.
loss during the test.
Acceptance criteria shall be according to the corresponding
810 One insulating joint per size/design pressure shall also requirements of Appendix D.
be tested to meet the specified bending moment requirements.
The joint shall be pressurised to the specified hydrostatic test B 1000 Buckle- and fracture arrestors
pressure and simultaneously be subjected to an external 4 point 1001 The material for buckle and fracture arrestors and man-
bending load sufficient to induce a total (bending plus axial ufacture, inspection and testing shall be in accordance with
pressure effect) longitudinal stress of 90% of SMYS in the Subsec.E or Sec.7.
adjoining pup pieces. The test duration shall be 2 hours. The
acceptance criteria are no water leakage or permanent distor- B 1100 Pig traps
tion.
1101 Materials shall comply with the requirements of the
811 After hydrostatic testing, all isolating joints shall be leak design code or with the requirements of this section, if more
tested with air or nitrogen. The joints shall be leak tested at 10 stringent.
barg for 10 minutes. The tightness shall be checked by immersion
or with a frothing agent. The acceptance criterion is: no leakage. 1102 Testing and acceptance criteria for qualification of
welding procedures shall comply with the requirements of the
812 The FAT shall be performed according to the accepted design code or with the requirements of Appendix C, if more
FAT programme. The FAT shall consist of: stringent.
— dielectric testing Essential variables for welding procedures shall comply with
— electrical resistance testing the requirements of the design code
— electrical leakage tests. Production welding shall comply with the requirements in
813 Prior to testing insulating joints shall be stored for 48 Appendix C.
hours at an ambient temperature between 20 and 25°C and a 1103 The extent, methods and acceptance criteria for NDT
relative humidity of 93%. shall comply with the requirements of the design code. In addi-
814 Dielectric testing shall be performed by applying an AC tion the requirements of Appendix D, subsection A and B100
sinusoidal current with a frequency of 50 - 60 Hz to the joint. shall apply.
The current shall be applied gradually, starting from an initial 1104 Hydrostatic testing shall comply with the requirements
value not exceeding 1.2kV increasing to 5.0kV in a time not of the design code
longer than 10 seconds and shall be maintained at peak value
for 60 seconds. The test is acceptable if no breakdown of the B 1200 Repair clamps and repair couplings
insulation or surface arcing occurs during the test and a maxi- Repair clamps and repair couplings to be installed according to
mum leakage of current across the insulation of 1 mA. RP-F113 shall be manufactured and tested in general accord-
815 Electrical resistance testing shall be carried out at 1000 ance with this section and based on materials selection accord-
V DC. The test is acceptable if the electrical resistance is min- ing to Sec.6.
imum 25 MOhm.
816 Electrical leakage tests shall be performed to assess any
changes which may take place within a joint after hydrostatic C. Materials for Components
testing, hydraulic fatigue test and the combined pressure-bend-
ing test. No significant changes in electrical leakage shall be C 100 General
accepted.
101 The materials used shall comply with internationally
B 900 Anchor flanges recognised standards, provided that such standards have
acceptable equivalence to the requirements given in Sec.7 and
901 Anchor flanges shall be forged. this section. Modification of the chemical composition given
902 The extent of NDT shall be: in such standards may be necessary to obtain a sufficient com-
bination of weldability, hardenability, strength, ductility,
— 100% magnetic particle testing of ferromagnetic materials toughness, and corrosion resistance.
and 100% liquid penetrant testing of non magnetic materi-
als 102 Sampling for mechanical and corrosion testing shall be
— 100% ultrasonic testing of forgings performed after final heat treatment, i.e. in the final condition.
— 100% ultrasonic or radiographic testing of welds The testing shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B
— 100% magnetic particle testing / liquid penetrant testing of and E100.
welds C 200 C-Mn and low alloy steel forgings and castings
— 100% visual inspection
201 These requirements are applicable to C-Mn and low
NDT shall be performed in accordance with Appendix D (as alloy steel forgings and castings with SMYS ≤ 555 MPa. Use
applicable): of higher strength materials shall be subject to agreement.
— C400, for visual inspection 202 All steels shall be made by an electric or one of the basic
— D200, for C-Mn/low alloy steel forgings oxygen processes. C-Mn steel shall be fully killed and made to
— D300, for duplex stainless steel forgings a fine grain practice.
— C220, for MT of ends/bevels 203 The chemical composition for hot-formed, cast and
— C221, for DP of ends/bevels forged components shall be in accordance with recognised

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Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.8 – Page 95

international standards. The chemical composition shall be 102 Components shall be manufactured in accordance with a
selected to ensure an acceptable balance between sufficient documented and approved MPS.
hardenability and weldability. 103 The MPS shall demonstrate how the fabrication will be
204 For materials to be quenched and tempered, a hardena- performed and verified through the proposed fabrication steps.
bility assessment shall be performed to ensure that the required The MPS shall address all factors which influence the quality
mechanical properties are met. and reliability of production. All main fabrication steps from
205 For C-Mn steels the maximum Carbon Equivalent (CE) control of received material to shipment of the finished prod-
shall not exceed 0.50, when calculated in accordance with: uct(s), including all examination and check points, shall be
covered in detail. References to the procedures and acceptance
criteria established for the execution of all steps shall be
included.
CE = C + Mn
-------- + Cr + Mo + V- + Cu
-------------------------------- + Ni-
-------------------
6 5 15 104 The MPS should be project specific and specify the fol-
lowing items as applicable:
206 Acceptance criteria for tensile, hardness and Charpy V-
notch impact properties are given in E200. — starting materials
207 Forgings shall be delivered in normalised or quenched — manufacturer
and tempered condition. Minimum tempering temperature — steel making process
shall be 610°C when PWHT will be applied, unless otherwise — steel grade
specified. — product form, delivery condition
208 Castings shall be delivered in homogenised, normalised — chemical composition
and stress relieved or homogenised, quenched and tempered — welding procedure specification (WPS)
condition. — NDT procedures.
209 For C-Mn and low alloy materials delivered in the — Manufacturing
quenched and tempered condition, the tempering temperature
shall be sufficiently high to allow effective post weld heat — supply of material and subcontracts
treatment during later manufacture / installation (if applica- — manufacturing processes including process- and proc-
ble). ess control procedures
— welding procedures
C 300 Duplex stainless steel, forgings and castings
— heat treatment procedures
301 All requirements with regard to chemical composition — NDT procedures
for 22Cr and 25Cr duplex stainless steel shall be in accordance — list of specified mechanical and corrosion testing
with Sec.7 C400. — hydrostatic test procedures
302 Acceptance criteria for tensile, hardness, Charpy V- — functional test procedures
notch impact properties and corrosion tests are given in E300. — dimensional control procedures
— FAT procedures
303 Duplex stainless steel castings and forgings shall be — marking, coating and protection procedures
delivered in the solution annealed and water quenched condi- — handling, loading and shipping procedures
tion. — at-site installation recommendations.
C 400 Pipe and plate material For “one-off” components and other components designed and
401 Pipe and plate material shall meet the requirements in manufactured for a specific purpose, the following additional
Sec.7. information shall be provided:
402 For welded pipe it shall be assured that the mechanical — Plan and process flow description/diagram
properties of the material and longitudinal welds will not be — Order specific quality plan including supply of material
affected by any heat treatment performed during manufacture and subcontracts
of components. — Manufacturing processes including process- and process
403 In case post weld heat treatment is required, the mechan- control procedures.
ical testing should be conducted after simulated heat treatment.
D 200 Forging
C 500 Sour Service 201 Forging shall be performed in compliance with the
501 For components in pipeline systems to be used for fluids accepted MPS. Each forged product shall be hot worked as far
containing hydrogen sulphide and defined as “sour service” as practicable, to the final size with a minimum reduction ratio
according to ISO 15156, all requirements to chemical compo- of 4:1.
sition, maximum hardness, and manufacturing and fabrication 202 The work piece shall be heated in a furnace to the
procedures given in the above standard shall apply. required working temperature.
502 The sulphur content of C-Mn and low alloy steel forg- 203 The working temperature shall be monitored during the
ings and castings shall not exceed 0.010%. forging process.
503 Pipe and plate material used for fabrication of compo- 204 If the temperature falls below the working temperature
nents shall meet the requirements given in Sec.7 I100. the work piece shall be returned to the furnace and re-heated
before resuming forging.
205 The identity and traceability of each work piece shall be
D. Manufacture maintained during the forging process.
206 Weld repair of forgings is not permitted.
D 100 Manufacturing procedure specification (MPS)
101 The requirements of this subsection are not applicable to D 300 Casting
induction bends and fittings that shall be manufactured in 301 Casting shall be performed in general compliance with
accordance with B300 and B400 ASTM A352.

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
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302 A casting shall be made from a single heat and as a sin- nace volume shall be within ± 10°C.
gle unit. 504 Whenever practical thermocouple(s) should be attached
303 Castings may be repaired by grinding to a depth of max- to one of the components during the heat treatment cycle.
imum 10% of the actual wall thickness, provided that the wall 505 Components should be rough machined to near final
thickness in no place is below the minimum designed wall dimensions prior to heat treatment. This is particularly impor-
thickness. The ground areas shall merge smoothly with the sur- tant for large thickness components.
rounding material.
Guidance note:
304 Defects deeper than those allowed by D303 may be The extent and amount of machining of forgings and castings
repaired by welding. The maximum extent of repair welding prior to heat treatment should take into account the requirements
should not exceed 20% of the total surface area. Excavations for machining to flat or cylindrical shapes for ultrasonic exami-
for welding shall be ground smooth and uniform and shall be nation. See also Appendix D.
suitably shaped to allow good access for welding.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
305 All repair welding shall be performed by qualified weld-
ers and according to qualified welding procedures. 506 For components that shall be water quenched, the time
from the components are leaving the furnace until being
D 400 Hot forming immersed in the quenchant shall not exceed 90 seconds for low
401 Hot forming shall be performed to according to an alloy steel, and 60 seconds for duplex stainless steels.
agreed procedure containing: 507 The volume of quenchant shall be sufficient and shall be
heavily agitated, preferably by cross flow to ensure adequate
— sequence of operations cooling rate. The maximum temperature of the quenchant shall
— heating equipment never exceed 40°C. Temperature measurements of the quen-
— material designation chant shall be performed
— pipe diameter, wall thickness and bend radius
— heating/cooling rates 508 The hardness of the accessible surfaces of the compo-
— max/min. temperature during forming operation nent shall be tested. The hardness for C-Mn or low alloy steels
— temperature maintenance/control and duplex stainless steels shall be in accordance with E200
— recording equipment and E300, respectively.
— position of the longitudinal seam
— methods for avoiding local thinning D 600 Welding
— post bending heat treatment (duplex stainless steel: full Welding and repair welding shall be performed in accordance
solution annealing and water quenching) with qualified procedures meeting the requirements of Appen-
— hydrostatic testing procedure dix C.
— NDT procedures
— dimensional control procedures. D 700 NDT
NDT shall be performed in accordance with Appendix D.
402 Hot forming of C-Mn and low alloy steel, including
extrusion of branches, shall be performed below 1050°C. The
temperature shall be monitored. The component shall be
allowed to cool in still air. E. Mechanical and Corrosion Testing of Hot
403 For duplex stainless steel material, the hot forming shall Formed, Cast and Forged Components
be conducted between 1000 and 1150°C.
E 100 General testing requirements
D 500 Heat treatment
101 Testing of mechanical properties after hot forming, cast-
501 Heat treatment procedures for furnace heat treatment ing or forging shall be performed on material taken from one
shall as a minimum contain the following information: prolongation or component from each test unit (i.e. compo-
nents of the same size and material, from each heat and heat
— heating facilities treatment batch) shall be tested as given in Table 8-4, as appli-
— furnace cable:
— insulation (if applicable)
— measuring and recording equipment, both for furnace con- 102 All mechanical testing shall be conducted after final heat
trol and recording of component temperature treatment.
— calibration intervals for furnace temperature stability and 103 If agreed, separate test coupons may be allowed provid-
uniformity and all thermocouples ing they are heat treated simultaneously with the material they
— fixtures and loading conditions represent, and the material thickness, forging reduction, and
— heating and cooling rates mass are representative of the actual component.
— temperature gradients
— soaking temperature range and time 104 A simulated heat treatment of the test piece shall be per-
— maximum time required for moving the component from formed if welds between the component and other items such
the furnace to the quench tank (if applicable) as linepipe are to be PWHT at a later stage or if any other heat
— cooling rates (conditions) treatment is intended.
— type of quenchant (if applicable) 105 The CVN test temperature shall be 10°C below the min-
— start and end maximum temperature of the quenchant (if imum design temperature.
applicable). 106 Sampling for mechanical and corrosion testing shall be
502 If PWHT in an enclosed furnace is not practical, local performed after final heat treatment, i.e. in the final condition.
PWHT shall be performed according to Appendix C, G400. The testing shall be performed in accordance with
Appendix B.
503 The heat treatment equipment shall be calibrated at least
once a year in order to ensure acceptable temperature stability 107 A sketch indicating the final shape of the component and
and uniformity. The uniformity test shall be conducted in the location of all specimens for mechanical testing shall be
accordance with a recognised standard (e.g. ASTM A991). issued and accepted prior to start of production.
The temperature stability and uniformity throughout the fur- 108 For 25Cr duplex stainless steels corrosion testing

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Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.8 – Page 97

according to ASTM G48 shall be performed in order to con- shall meet the requirements for linepipe with equal SMYS as
firm that the applied manufacturing procedure ensures accept- given in Sec.7 B400.
able microstructure. Testing shall be performed in accordance 202 The hardness for components intended for non-sour
with Appendix B, at 50°C. The test period shall be 24 hours. service shall not exceed 300 HV10. For components intended
E 200 Acceptance criteria for C-Mn and low alloy steels for sour service the hardness shall according to Sec.7 I100.
201 Tensile, hardness and Charpy V-notch impact properties

Table 8-4 Number, orientation, and location of test specimens per tested component
Type of test No. of tests 1) Test location, e.g. as shown in Figure 1 2,3)
Tensile test 3 One specimen in tangential direction from the thickest section 1/4T below the internal
surface
One mid thickness specimen in both tangential and axial direction from the area with
highest utilisation (after final machining), e.g. the weld neck area 4)
CVN impact testing, axial and tan- 6 One set in each direction (axial and tangential) taken from the same locations as the
gential specimens 5) two tensile specimens described above for the relevant wall thicknesses4) (thick sec-
tion and high utilisation section, a total of 2 sets)
CVN impact testing of the thickest 3 One set in the tangential direction 2 mm below the internal surface
section of the component for section
thickness ≥ 25 mm 5,6)
Metallographic sample 3 As for the CVN impact testing sets
Hardness testing 7) 3 As for the CVN impact testing sets
HIC and SSC test 8) 1 In accordance with ISO 15156
ASTM G48 9) 1 See E108
Notes
1) For CVN impact testing one test equals one set which consist of three specimens.
2) For test pieces (components) having maximum section thickness, T ≤ 50 mm, the test specimens shall be taken at mid-thickness and the mid-length shall
be at least 50 mm from any second surface. For test pieces (components) having maximum section thickness, T > 50 mm, the test specimens shall be taken
at least 1/4 T from the nearest surface and at least T or 100 mm, whichever is less, from any second surface. For welded components, the testing shall also
include testing of the welds in accordance with Appendix C.
3) Internal and external surface refers to the surfaces of the finished component.
4) For Tees and Wyes both main run and branch weld necks shall be tested.
5) The notch shall be perpendicular to the component's surface.
6) Only applicable to C-Mn and low alloy steel. The section thickness is in the radial direction in the as-heat treated condition.
7) A minimum of 3 hardness measurements shall be taken on each sample.
8) Only applicable for rolled C-Mn steels not meeting the requirements in C500.
9) Only applicable for 25Cr duplex steels.

Figure 1
Location of tensile and CVN specimens, component with section thickness ≥ 25 mm

203 Specimens for hardness testing shall be examined, prior to testing, at a magnification of not less than x100. Grain-size

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 98 – Sec.8 see note on front cover

measurement shall be performed in accordance with ASTM required for adequate inspection and testing as fabrication pro-
E112. The type of microstructure and actual grain size shall be ceeds.
recorded on the materials testing report. 306 Due consideration during fabrication shall be given to
E 300 Acceptance criteria for duplex stainless steels the control of weight and buoyancy distribution of pipe strings
for towing.
301 Tensile, hardness and Charpy V-notch impact properties
shall meet the requirements for linepipe as given in Sec.7, C400. 307 The procedures prepared by the fabricator shall be sub-
mitted for acceptance prior to start of fabrication.
302 The metallographic samples shall comply with the
requirements of Sec.7 C400. F 400 Material receipt, identification and tracking
303 For ASTM G48 testing the acceptance criteria is: maxi- 401 All material shall be inspected for damage upon arrival.
mum allowable weight loss 4.0 g/m2. Quantities and identification of the material shall be verified.
Damaged items shall be clearly marked, segregated and dis-
posed of properly.
402 Pipes shall be inspected for loose material, debris, and
F. Fabrication of Risers, Expansion Loops, Pipe other contamination, and shall be cleaned internally before
Strings for Reeling and Towing being added to the assembly. The cleaning method shall not
cause damage to any internal coating.
F 100 General
403 A system for ensuring correct installation of materials
101 The following requirements are applicable for the fabri- and their traceability to the material certificates shall be estab-
cation of risers, expansion loops, pipe strings etc. lished. The identification of material shall be preserved during
102 The fabrication shall be performed according to a speci- handling, storage and all fabrication activities.
fication giving the requirements for fabrication methods, pro- 404 A pipe tracking system shall be used to maintain records
cedures, extent of testing, acceptance criteria and required of weld numbers, NDT, pipe numbers, pipe lengths, bends,
documentation. The specification shall be subject to agreement cumulative length, anode installation, in-line assemblies and
prior to start of production. repair numbers. The system shall be capable of detecting
F 200 Materials for risers, expansion loops, pipe strings duplicate records.
for reeling and towing 405 The individual pipes of pipe strings shall be marked in
201 Linepipe shall comply with the requirements, including accordance with the established pipe tracking system using a
supplementary requirements (as applicable) given in Sec.7. suitable marine paint. The location, size and colour of the
marking shall be suitable for reading by ROV during installa-
202 Forged and cast material shall as a minimum meet the tion. It may be required to mark a band on top of the pipe string
requirements given in this section. to verify if any rotation has occurred during installation.
F 300 Fabrication procedures and planning 406 If damaged pipes or other items are replaced, the
sequential marking shall be maintained.
301 Before production commences, the fabricator shall pre-
pare an MPS. F 500 Cutting, forming, assembly, welding and heat
302 The MPS shall demonstrate how the fabrication will be treatment
performed and verified through the proposed fabrication steps. 501 The Contractor shall be capable of producing welded
The MPS shall address all factors which influence the quality joints of the required quality. This may include welding of
and reliability of production. All main fabrication steps from girth welds, other welds, overlay welding and post weld heat
control of received material to shipment of the finished prod- treatment. Relevant documentation of the Contractor's capabil-
uct(s), including all examination and check points, shall be ities shall be available if requested by the Purchaser.
covered in detail. References to the procedures and acceptance
criteria established for the execution of all steps shall be 502 Attention shall be paid to local effects on material prop-
included. erties and carbon contamination by thermal cutting. Preheating
of the area to be cut may be required. Carbon contamination
303 The MPS shall, as a minimum, contain the following shall be removed by grinding off the affected material.
information:
503 Forming of material shall be according to agreed proce-
— plan(s) and process flow description/diagram dures specifying the successive steps.
— project specific quality plan including supply of material 504 The fabrication and welding sequence shall be such that
and subcontracts the amount of shrinkage, distortion and residual stress is mini-
— fabrication processes used mised.
— supply of material, i.e. manufacturer and manufacturing
location of material 505 Members to be welded shall be brought into correct
— fabrication processes alignment and held in position by clamps, other suitable
devices, or tack welds, until welding has progressed to a stage
— fabrication process procedures where the holding devices or tack welds can be removed with-
— fabrication process control procedures out danger of distortion, shrinkage or cracking. Suitable allow-
— welding procedures ances shall be made for distortion and shrinkage where
— heat treatment procedures appropriate.
— NDT procedures
— pressure test procedures 506 Welding shall meet the requirements given in
— list of specified mechanical and corrosion testing Appendix C.
— dimensional control procedures
— marking, coating and protection procedures and F 600 Hydrostatic testing
— handling, loading and shipping procedures. 601 Hydrostatic testing shall be performed to established
procedures meeting the requirements of G100.
304 The MPS shall be submitted for acceptance prior to start
of fabrication F 700 NDT and visual examination
305 Due consideration shall be given to the access and time 701 All welds shall be subject to 100% visual inspection.

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Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.8 – Page 99

702 Welds where the acceptance criteria are based on the specified test pressure, with an accuracy better than ± 0.1
acceptance criteria in Appendix D shall be subject to 100% bar and a sensitivity better than 0.05 bar.
radiographic or ultrasonic testing based on the requirements to — Temperature-measuring instruments and recorders shall
applicable and preferred NDT methods is given in have an accuracy better than ± 1.0°C, and
Appendix D. — Pressure and temperature recorders are to be used to pro-
703 For welds where allowable defect sizes are based on an vide a graphical record of the pressure test for the total
ECA, ultrasonic testing shall supplement radiographic testing, duration of the test.
unless automated ultrasonic testing is performed
109 Where the test acceptance is to be based on observation
704 Requirements to automated ultrasonic testing systems of pressure variations calculations showing the effect of tem-
are given in Appendix E. perature changes on the test pressure shall be developed prior
705 All NDT shall be performed after completion of all cold to starting the test. Temperature measuring devices, if used,
forming and heat treatment. shall be positioned close to the test object and the distance
between the devices shall be based on temperature gradients
706 Requirements for personnel, methods, equipment, proce- along the test object.
dures, and acceptance criteria for NDT are given in Appendix D.
110 The test medium should be fresh water or adequately
F 800 Dimensional verification treated sea water, as applicable. Filling procedure shall ensure
minimum air pockets.
801 Dimensional verification should be performed in order
to establish conformance with the required dimensions and tol- 111 Pressurisation shall be performed as a controlled opera-
erances. tion with consideration for maximum allowable velocities in
the inlet piping up to 95% of the test pressure. The final 5% up
802 Dimensional verification of pipe strings for towing shall to the test pressure shall be raised at a reduced rate to ensure
include weight, and the distribution of weight and buoyancy. that the test pressure is not exceeded. Time shall be allowed for
F 900 Corrosion protection confirmation of temperature and pressure stabilisation before
the test hold period begins.
901 Application of coatings and installation of anodes shall
meet the requirements of Sec.9. 112 The test pressure shall be according to the specified
requirement.
113 Where the test acceptance is to be based on 100% visual
inspection the holding time at test pressure shall be until 100%
G. Hydrostatic Testing visual inspection is complete or 2 hours, whichever is longer.
Where the test acceptance is to be based on pressure observation
G 100 Hydrostatic testing the holding time at test pressure shall be not less than 2 hours.
101 Prior to the performance of the pressure test the test 114 During testing, all welds, flanges, mechanical connec-
object shall be cleaned and gauged. tors etc. under pressure shall be visually inspected for leaks.
102 The extent of the section to be tested shall be shown on 115 The pressure test shall be acceptable if:
drawings or sketches. The limits of the test, temporary blind
flanges, end closures and the location and elevation of test instru- — During a 100% visual inspection there are no observed
ments and equipment shall be shown. The elevation of the test leaks and the pressure has at no time during the hold period
instruments shall serve as a reference for the test pressure. fallen below 99% of the test pressure. 100% visual inspec-
103 End closures and other temporary testing equipment tion shall only be acceptable where there is no risk that a
shall be designed, fabricated, and tested to withstand the max- leak may go undetected due to prevailing environmental
imum test pressure, and in accordance with a recognised code. conditions, or
— The test pressure profile over the test hold period is con-
104 Testing should not be performed against in-line valves, sistent with the predicted pressure profile taking into
unless possible leakage and damage to the valve is considered, account variations in temperatures and other environmen-
and the valve is designed and tested for the pressure test con- tal changes.
dition. Blocking off or removal of small-bore branches and
instrument tappings should be considered in order to avoid 116 Documentation produced in connection with the pres-
possible contamination. sure testing shall, where relevant, include:
Considerations shall be given to pre-filling valve body cavities
with an inert liquid unless the valves have provisions for pres- — Test drawings or sketches
sure equalisation across the valve seats. — pressure and temperature recorder charts
— log of pressure and temperatures
105 Welds shall not be coated, painted or covered. Thin — calibration certificates for instruments and test equipment
primer coatings may be used where agreed. — calculation of pressure and temperature relationship and
106 Instruments and test equipment used for measurement of justification for acceptance.
pressure, volume, and temperature shall be calibrated for accu-
racy, repeatability, and sensitivity. All instruments and test G 200 Alternative test pressures
equipment shall possess valid calibration certificates with 201 For components fitted with pup pieces of material iden-
traceability to reference standards within the 6 months preced- tical to the adjoining pipeline, the test pressure can be reduced
ing the test. If the instruments and test equipment have been in to a pressure that produce an equivalent stress of 96% of
frequent use, they should be calibrated specifically for the test. SMYS in the pup piece.
107 Gauges and recorders shall be checked for correct func- 202 If the alternative test pressure in G201 can not be used
tion immediately before each test. All test equipment shall be and the strength of the pup piece is not sufficient:
located in a safe position outside the test boundary area.
108 The following requirements apply for instruments and — Testing shall be performed prior to welding of pup pieces.
test equipment: The weld between component and pup piece is regarded a
pipeline weld and will be tested during pipeline system
— Testers shall have a range of minimum 1.25 times the testing.

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 100 – Sec.8 see note on front cover

H. Documentation, Records, Certification 102 Records from the qualification of the MPS and other
and Marking documentation shall be in accordance with Sec.12.

H 100 General 103 Each equipment or component item shall be adequately


and uniquely marked for identification. The marking shall, as
101 All base material, fittings and, flanges, etc. shall be
delivered with Inspection Certificate 3.1 according to Euro- a minimum, provide correlation of the product with the related
pean Standard EN 10204 or accepted equivalent. inspection documentation.
The inspection certificate shall include: 104 The marking shall be such that it easily will be identi-
fied, and retained during the subsequent activities.
— identification the products covered by the certificate with
reference to heat number, heat treatment batch etc. 105 Other markings required for identification may be
— dimensions and weights of products required.
— the results (or reference to the results) of all specified
inspections and tests 106 Equipment and components shall be adequately pro-
— the supply condition and the temperature of the final heat tected from harmful deterioration from the time of manufac-
treatment. ture until taken into use.

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Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.9 – Page 101

SECTION 9
CONSTRUCTION - CORROSION PROTECTION AND WEIGHT COATING

A. General — marking, traceability and handling of non-conformities


— handling and storage of coated pipes (for linepipe coating)
A 100 Objective — documentation.
101 This section gives requirements and guidelines on:
Material data sheets for coating, blasting and any other surface
— manufacture (application) of external pipeline coatings preparation materials may either be included in the MPS or in
including field joint coatings a separate document. The purchaser may specify that the above
— manufacture (application) of concrete weight coatings documentation shall be submitted for approval prior to the start
— manufacture of galvanic anodes of production and any PQT (see B202).
— installation of galvanic anodes. 202 A coating pre-production qualification test (PQT; also
referred to as an “application procedure qualification test”,
102 The objectives are to ensure that the external corrosion “procedure qualification trial” or “pre-production trial”)
control system and any weight coating are manufactured and should be executed and accepted by the purchaser before start-
installed to provide their function for the design life of the sys- ing the coating work, especially for coating systems which rely
tems. As to the last item above, it is a further objective to on a curing process to achieve the specified properties. The
ensure that the fastening does not impose any damage or haz- purpose of the qualification is to confirm, prior to the start of
ards affecting the integrity of the pipeline system. regular production, that the coating manufacturing procedure
specification (MPS), coating materials, tools/equipment and
A 200 Application personnel to be used for production are adequate to achieve the
201 This section is applicable to the preparation of specifica- specified properties of the coating.
tions for manufacture and installation of external corrosion
control systems and for the manufacture of concrete weight 203 An inspection and testing plan (ITP; sometimes referred
coating during the construction phase. Such specifications to as an “inspection plan” or “quality plan”) shall be prepared
shall define the requirements to properties of the coatings and and submitted to the purchaser for acceptance. The ITP shall
anodes, and to the associated quality control. refer to the individual manufacturing and inspection/testing
activities in consecutive order, define methods/standards, fre-
202 Manufacture and installation of any impressed current quency of inspection/testing, checking/calibrations, and
CP systems for landfalls is not covered by this standard. The acceptance criteria. Reference shall be made to applicable pro-
requirements in ISO 15589-1 shall then apply. cedures for inspection, testing and calibrations.
204 Inspection and testing data, essential process parame-
ters, repairs and checking/calibrations of equipment for quality
B. External Corrosion Protective Coatings control shall be recorded in a “daily log” that shall be updated
on a daily basis and be available to the purchaser on request at
B 100 General any time during coating production.
101 Properties of the coating (as-applied) and requirements
to quality control during manufacture shall be defined in a pur-
chase specification. DNV-RP-F106 and DNV-RP-F102 give C. Concrete Weight Coating
detailed requirements and recommendations to the manufac-
ture of linepipe coatings and field joint coating, respectively, C 100 General
with emphasis on quality control procedures. DNV-RP-F102
also covers field repairs of linepipe coating. These documents 101 The objectives of a concrete weight coating are to pro-
are applicable to the preparation of coating specifications and vide negative buoyancy to the pipeline, and to provide
can also be used as a purchase document if amended to include mechanical protection of the corrosion coating during installa-
project and any owner specific requirements. tion and throughout the pipeline's operational life.
102 The design and quality control during manufacture of 102 Requirements to raw materials (cement, aggregates,
field joint coatings is essential to the integrity of pipelines in water, additives, reinforcement), and coating properties (func-
HISC susceptible materials, including ferritic-austenitic tional requirements) shall be defined in a purchase specifica-
(duplex) and martensitic stainless steel. Compliance with tion. The following coating properties may be specified as
DNV-RP-F102 is recommended. applicable:
B 200 Coating materials, surface preparation, coating — submerged weight/negative buoyancy
application and inspection/testing of coating — thickness
201 All coating work shall be carried out according to a — concrete density
project specific “manufacturing procedure specification” — compressive strength
(MPS, also referred to as “application procedure specifica- — water absorption
tion”). The following items shall be described in the procedure — impact resistance (e.g. over-trawling capability)
specification: — flexibility (bending resistance), and
— cutbacks.
— receipt, handling and storage of coating materials
— surface preparation and inspection Recommended minimum requirements to some of the above
— coating application and monitoring of essential process properties are given in C202 below. Some general require-
parameters ments to steel reinforcement are recommended in C203 and
— inspection and testing of coating C204. Project specific requirements to quality control (includ-
— coating repairs and stripping of defect coating ing pipe tracking and documentation) and marking shall also
— preparation of cut-backs (for linepipe coating) be described in the purchase documentation.

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 102 – Sec.9 see note on front cover

C 200 Concrete materials and coating manufacture agreed.


201 All coating work shall be carried out according to a man- C 300 Inspection and testing
ufacturing procedure specification (MPS). The following
items shall be described: 301 An inspection and testing plan (ITP) shall be prepared
and submitted to the purchaser for acceptance in due time prior
— coating materials, including receipt, handling and storage to start of production. The plan shall define the methods and
— reinforcement design and installation frequency of inspection, testing and calibrations, acceptance
— coating application and curing criteria and requirements to documentation. Reference shall be
— inspection and testing, including calibrations of equipment made to applicable specifications and procedures for inspec-
— coating repairs (see F209) tion, testing and calibration. Handling of non-conforming coat-
— pipe tracking, marking and coating documentation ing materials and as-applied coating shall be described.
— handling and storage of coated pipes. 302 Inspection shall include weighing and measurements of
outside concrete diameter for each individual pipe. The pur-
The purchaser may specify that the MPS shall be subject to chaser may further specify seawater adsorption tests after com-
approval prior to start of production and any PQT. pleted curing and compression tests of core samples from
Before starting coating production, the coating manufacturer applied coatings. Acceptance criteria for all inspection and
shall document that the materials, procedures and equipment to testing shall be subject to agreement.
be used are capable of producing a coating of specified prop- 303 Inspection and testing data, repairs, essential process
erties. The purchaser may specify a pre-production qualifica- parameters and calibrations of equipment for quality control
tion test for documentation of certain properties such as impact shall be recorded in a “daily log” that shall be updated on a
resistance and flexibility (bending strength).
daily basis and be available to the purchaser on request at any
202 The concrete constituents and manufacturing method time during coating production.
shall provide the following recommended minimum require-
ments to as-applied coating properties:
— minimum thickness: 40 mm D. Manufacture of Galvanic Anodes
— minimum compressive strength (i.e. average of 3 core
specimens per pipe): 40 MPa (ASTM C39) D 100 Anode manufacture
— maximum water absorption: 8% (by volume), (testing of
coated pipe according to agreed method), and 101 Requirements to anode manufacture shall be detailed in
a purchase specification (‘anode manufacturing specifica-
— minimum density: 1900 kg/m3 (ASTM C642).
tion’). A manufacturing specification for pipeline bracelet
203 The concrete coating shall be reinforced by steel bars anodes shall cover all requirements in ISO 15589-2. DNV-RP-
welded to cages or by wire mesh steel. The following recom- F103 refers to this document for anode manufacture and gives
mendations apply: For welded cages, the spacing between cir- some additional requirements and guidance, primarily for pro-
cumferential bars should be maximum 120 mm. Steel bars cedures and documentation associated with quality control.
should have a diameter of 6 mm minimum. The average per- The manufacturer of bracelet anodes shall prepare a ‘manufac-
centage of steel to concrete surface area in circumferential turing procedure specification’ (MPS) describing anode alloy
direction and longitudinal direction sections should be mini- (e.g. limits for alloying and impurity elements) and anode core
mum 0.5% and 0.08%, respectively. materials, anode core preparations, anode casting, inspection
204 When a single layer of reinforcement is used, it shall be and testing, coating of bracelet anode surfaces facing the pipe
located within the middle third of the concrete coating. The surface, marking and handling of anodes, and documentation.
recommended minimum distance from the corrosion protec-
tive coating is 15 mm, whilst the recommended minimum cov- 102 An “Inspection and Testing Plan” (ITP) for manufacture
erage is 15 mm and 20 mm for coatings with specified of bracelet anodes, shall be prepared and submitted to the pur-
minimum thickness ≤ 50 mm and > 50 mm respectively. Over- chaser for acceptance. It is further recommended that the
lap for wire mesh reinforcement should be minimum 25 mm. inspection and testing results are compiled in a ‘daily log’.
Electrical contact with anodes for CP shall be avoided. Requirements and guidance for preparation of these docu-
ments and to a ‘pre-production qualification test’ are given in
205 The concrete may be applied according to one of the fol- DNV-RP-F103. For manufacturing of other types of anodes
lowing methods: than pipeline bracelet anodes, reference is made to DNV-RP-
B401.
— impingement application
— compression coating Guidance note:
— slip forming. The requirement for an ITP is an amendment to ISO 15589-2.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
206 Rebound or recycled concrete may be used provided it is
documented that specified properties are met and the purchaser
has accepted. 103 For each anode type/size, the manufacturer shall prepare
a detailed drawing showing location and dimensions of anode
207 The curing method shall take into account any adverse inserts, anode gross weight and other details as specified in a
climatic conditions. The curing process should ensure no sig- purchase document
nificant moisture loss for 7 days and/or a minimum compres-
sive strength of 15 MPa. 104 A procedure for electrochemical testing of anode material
performance during anode manufacturing is given in Appendix
208 Procedures for repair of uncured / cured coatings and A of DNV-RP-B401 and in Annex D of ISO 15589-2.
detailed criteria for repairs (e.g. max repair areas for different
types of coating damage) shall be subject to agreement. As a 105 Marking of anodes shall ensure traceability to heat
minimum, all areas with exposed reinforcement shall be number. Anodes should be delivered according to ISO 10474,
repaired. Pipes with deficient coating exceeding 10% of the Inspection Certificate 3.1.B or EN 10204, Inspection Certifi-
total coating surface shall be recoated, unless otherwise cate 3.1.

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Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.9 – Page 103

E. Installation of Galvanic Anodes tion with electrical cables attached to anodes and pipeline by
brazing. However, for many applications, CP can be provided by
E 100 Anode installation anodes attached to other structures electrically connected to the
pipeline (see Sec.6 D500). For installation of anodes on such
101 Installation of anodes shall meet the requirements in ISO structures, reference is made to DNV-RP-B401.
15589-2. DNV RP-F103 gives some additional requirements
and guidelines, primarily for quality control. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

102 For martensitic and ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless 103 All welding or brazing of anode fastening devices and
steels and for other steels with SMYS > 450 MPa, no welding connector cables shall be carried out according to a qualified
for anode fastening (including installation of doubling plates) procedure (see Appendix C of this standard) to demonstrate
shall be carried out on linepipe or other pressure containing that the requirements in ISO 13847 to maximum hardness
components, unless specified by or agreed with the pipeline (welding/brazing) and copper penetration (brazing including
owner. ‘aluminothermic welding’) are met.
Guidance note:
104 For linepipe to be concrete weight coated, electrical con-
Guidance note: The requirement above is an amendment to ISO
15589-2. Most CP related HISC damage to pipeline components tact between concrete reinforcement and the anodes shall be
in CRA’s have occurred at welded connections of galvanic avoided. The gaps between the anode half shells may be filled
anodes to the pipe walls. To secure adequate fastening of pipeline with asphalt mastic, polyurethane or similar. Any spillage of
bracelet anodes for compatibility with the applicable installation filling compound on the external anode surfaces shall be
techniques, forced clamping of anodes is applicable in combina- removed.

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 104 – Sec.10 see note on front cover

SECTION 10
CONSTRUCTION - INSTALLATION

A. General and reliability of the installation work, including normal and


contingency situations, and shall address all installation steps,
A 100 Objective including examinations and check points. The manual shall
101 This section provides requirements as to which analyses, reflect the results of the FMEA analysis or HAZOP studies,
studies and documentation shall be prepared and agreed for the and shall state requirements for the parameters to be controlled
installation, and further to provide requirements for the instal- and the allowable range of parameter variation during the
lation and testing of the complete pipeline system which are installation.
not covered elsewhere in the standard. The following shall, as a minimum, be covered:
A 200 Application — quality system manual
— mobilisation manual
201 This section is applicable to installation and testing of — construction manual
pipelines and rigid risers designed and manufactured accord- — health, safety and environment manual
ing to this standard. — emergency preparedness manual.
A 300 Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Haz- The manuals should include:
ard and Operability (HAZOP) studies
301 Systematic analyses of equipment and installation oper- — interface description
ations shall be performed in order to identify possible critical — organisation, responsibilities and communication
items or activities which could cause or aggravate a hazardous — description of and commissioning procedures for the
condition, and to ensure that effective remedial measures are equipment and systems involved in the operation
taken. Reference is given to DNV-RP-H101 Risk Management — limitations and conditions imposed by structural strength
in Marine and Subsea Operations. in accordance with the design
— limitations on operations imposed by environmental con-
302 The extent of analysis shall reflect the criticality of the ditions
operations and the extent of experience available from previ- — references to the established operational and contingency
ous similar operations. The systematic analyses should be car- procedures.
ried out as a failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) and hazard
and operability studies (HAZOP). For FMEA, reference is 503 The Contractor shall prepare procedures covering nor-
made to DNV Rules for Classification of High Speed, and mal and contingency situations. The procedures shall describe:
Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, Pt.0 Ch.4 Sec.2.
303 Special attention shall be given to sections of the pipe- — purpose and scope of the activity
line route close to other installations or shore approaches — responsibilities
where there is greater risk of interference from shipping, — materials, equipment and documents to be used
anchoring etc. For critical operations, procedural HAZOP — how the activity is performed in order to meet specified
studies shall be performed. requirements
— how the activity is controlled and documented.
A 400 Installation and testing specifications and draw-
ings 504 The installation manual shall be updated/revised as
needed as installation proceeds.
401 Specifications and drawings shall be prepared covering
installation and testing of pipeline systems, risers, protective 505 The installation manuals are subject to agreement
structures etc. through:
402 The specifications and drawings shall describe, in suffi- — review of methods, procedures and calculations
cient detail, requirements to installation methods and the proc- — review and qualification of procedures
esses to be employed and to the final result of the operations. — qualification of vessels and equipment
403 The requirements shall reflect the basis for, and the — review of personnel qualifications.
results of, the design activities. The type and extent of verifi- 506 Requirements to the installation manual and acceptance
cation, testing, acceptance criteria and associated documenta- are given in the various subsections. The results of the FMEA
tion required to verify that the properties and integrity of the analysis or HAZOP studies (see A300) shall also be used in
pipeline system meet the requirements of this standard, as well determining the extent and depth of verification of equipment
as the extent and type of documentation, records and certifica- and procedures.
tion required, shall be stated.
507 In cases where variations in manner of performance of
404 Requirements to the installation manual and the extent an activity may give undesirable results, the essential variables
of tests, investigations and acceptance criteria required for and their acceptable limits shall be established.
qualification of the installation manual shall be included.
A 600 Quality assurance
A 500 Installation manuals
601 The installation Contractor shall as a minimum have an
501 Installation manuals shall be prepared by the various implemented quality assurance system meeting the require-
Contractors. ments of ISO 9001 Quality management systems – Require-
502 The installation manual is a collection of the manuals ments or equivalent. Further requirements for quality
and procedures relevant to the specific work to be performed. assurance are given in Sec.2 B500.
It is prepared in order to demonstrate that the methods and
equipment used by the Contractor will meet the specified A 700 Welding
requirements, and that the results can be verified. The installa- 701 Requirements for welding processes, welding procedure
tion manual shall include all factors that influence the quality qualification, execution of welding and welding personnel are

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.10 – Page 105

given in Appendix C. of the defects have been established and rectified.


702 Requirements for mechanical and corrosion testing for 807 For "Golden Welds" (critical welds e.g. tie-in welds that
qualification of welding procedures are given in Appendix B. will not be subject to pressure testing, etc.) 100% ultrasonic
703 The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of testing, 100% radiographic testing, and 100% magnetic parti-
weldments shall at least meet the requirements given in the cle testing or 100% liquid penetrant testing of non- ferromag-
installation and testing specifications. netic materials shall be performed. If the ultrasonic testing is
performed as automated ultrasonic testing, see Appendix E,
704 For weld repair at weld repair stations where the pipeline the radiographic and magnetic particle/liquid penetrant testing
section under repair is subjected to tensile and bending may be omitted subject to agreement.
stresses, a weld repair analysis shall be performed. The analy-
sis shall determine the maximum excavation length and depth 808 Magnetic particle testing or liquid penetrant testing of
combinations that may be performed, taking into account all non-ferromagnetic materials shall be performed to verify com-
stresses acting at the area of the repair. The analysis shall be plete removal of defects before commencing weld repairs, and
performed in accordance with Appendix A. for 100% lamination checks at re-bevelled ends of cut pipe.
The analysis shall consider the reduction of yield and tensile 809 Visual Examination shall include:
strength in the material due to the heat input from defect exca- — 100% examination of completed welds for surface flaws,
vation, preheating, and welding and also dynamic amplifica- shape and dimensions
tion due to weather conditions and reduced stiffness effect at — 100% examination of the visible pipe surface, prior to field
field joints. joint coating
705 The weld repair analysis shall be subject to agreement. — 100% examination of completed field joint coating.
706 The root and the first filler pass shall, as a minimum, be A 900 Production tests
completed at the first welding station before moving the pipe.
Moving the pipe at an earlier stage may be permitted if an anal- 901 One production test is required for each Welding Proce-
ysis is performed showing that this can be performed without dure Specification (WPS) used for welding of the pipeline
any risk of introducing damage to the deposited weld material. girth welds.
This analysis shall consider the maximum misalignment 902 Production tests should not be required for welding pro-
allowed, the height of the deposited weld metal, the possible cedures qualified specifically for tie-in welds, flange welds,
presence of flaws, support conditions for the pipe and any Tee-piece welds etc.
dynamic effects.
903 Production tests may, subject to agreement, be omitted
A 800 Non-destructive testing and visual examination in cases where fracture toughness testing during welding pro-
cedure qualification is not required by this standard, or for C-
801 Requirements for methods, equipment, procedures, Mn steel linepipe with SMYS < 450 MPa.
acceptance criteria and the qualification and certification of
personnel for visual examination and non-destructive testing 904 The extent of production tests shall be expanded if:
(NDT) are given in Appendix D. Selection of non-destructive
methods shall consider the requirements in Appendix D, A400. — the Contractor has limited previous experience with the
welding equipment and welding methods used
802 Requirements to automated ultrasonic testing (AUT) are — the welding inspection performed is found to be inade-
given in Appendix E. quate
803 The extent of NDT for installation girth welds shall be — severe defects occur repeatedly
100% ultrasonic or radiographic testing. Radiographic testing — any other incident indicates inadequate welding perform-
should be supplemented with ultrasonic testing in order to ance
enhance the probability of detection and/or characterisation/ — the installed pipeline is not subjected to system pressure
sizing of defects. testing, see Sec.5 B203.
804 For wall thickness > 25 mm, automated ultrasonic test- 905 The extent of production testing shall be consistent with
ing should be used. the inspection and test regime and philosophy of the pipeline
805 Ultrasonic testing (UT) shall be used in the following project.
cases: 906 Production tests shall be subject to the non-destructive,
all weld tensile, Charpy V-notch fracture toughness (when
— UT or automated ultrasonic testing (AUT) shall be per- applicable) and corrosion testing as required in Appendix C for
formed whenever sizing of flaw height and/or determina- Welding Procedure Qualification Testing (WPQT).
tion of the flaw depth is required
— 100% testing of the first 10 welds for welding processes 907 If production tests show unacceptable results, appropri-
with high potential for non-fusion type defects, when start- ate corrective and preventative actions shall be initiated and
ing installation or when resuming production after suspen- the extent of production testing shall be increased.
sion of welding and when radiographic testing is the
primary NDT method. For wall thickness above 25 mm
additional random local spot checks during installation are
recommended B. Pipeline Route, Survey and Preparation
— testing to supplement radiographic testing for wall thick-
ness above 25 mm, to aid in characterising and sizing of B 100 Pre-installation route survey
ambiguous indications 101 A pre-installation survey of the pipeline route may be
— testing to supplement radiographic testing for unfavoura- required in addition to the route survey required for design pur-
ble groove configurations, to aid in detection of defects poses covered by Sec.3 if:
— 100% lamination checks of a 50 mm wide band at ends of
cut pipe. — the time elapsed since the previous survey is significant
— a change in seabed conditions is likely to have occurred
806 If ultrasonic testing reveals defects not discovered by — the route is in areas with heavy marine activity
radiography, the extent of ultrasonic testing shall be 100% for — new installations are present in the area
the next 10 welds. If the results of this extended testing are — seabed preparation work is performed within the route cor-
unsatisfactory, the welding shall be suspended until the causes ridor after previous survey.

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 106 – Sec.10 see note on front cover

102 The pre-installation survey, if required, shall determine: C. Marine Operations


— potential new/previously not identified hazards to the C 100 General
pipeline and the installation operations
— location of wrecks, submarine installations and other 101 These requirements are applicable for vessels perform-
obstructions such as mines, debris, rocks and boulders that ing pipeline and riser installation and supporting operations.
might interfere with, or impose restrictions on, the instal- The requirements are applicable for the marine operations dur-
lation operations ing installation work only. Specific requirements for installa-
— that the present seabed conditions confirm those of the sur- tion equipment onboard vessels performing installation
vey required in Sec.3 operations are given in the relevant subsections.
— any other potential hazards due to the nature of the suc- 102 The organisation of key personnel with defined respon-
ceeding operations. sibilities and lines of communication shall be established prior
to start of the operations. Interfaces with other parties shall be
103 The extent of, and the requirements for, the pre-installa- defined.
tion route survey shall be specified.
103 All personnel shall be qualified for their assigned work.
B 200 Seabed preparation Key personnel shall have sufficient verbal communication
201 Seabed preparation may be required to: skills in the common language used during operations.
104 Manning level should comply with IMO's Principles of
— remove obstacles and potential hazards interfering with Safe Manning (IMO 23rd Session 2003 (Res. 936-965))"Prin-
the installation operations ciples of Safe Manning". Non-propelled vessels shall have
— prevent loads or strains that occur as a result of seabed similar manning and organisation as required for propelled
conditions such as unstable slopes, sand waves, deep val- units of same type and size.
leys and possible erosion and scour from exceeding the
design criteria C 200 Vessels
— prepare for pipeline and cable crossings 201 All vessels shall have valid class with a recognised clas-
— infill depressions and remove high-spots to prevent unac- sification society. The valid class shall cover all systems of
ceptable free spans importance for the safety of the operation. Further require-
— carry out any other preparation due to the nature of the suc- ments to vessels shall be given in a specification stating
ceeding operations. requirements for:
202 Where trench excavation is required before pipelaying, — anchors, anchor lines and anchor winches
the trench cross-section shall be specified and the trench shall — anchoring systems
be excavated to a sufficiently smooth profile to minimise the
possibility of damages to the pipeline, coating and anodes. — positioning and survey equipment
— dynamic positioning equipment and reference system
203 The extent of, and the requirements for, seabed prepara- — alarm systems, including remote alarms when required
tion shall be specified. The laying tolerances shall be consid- — general seaworthiness of the vessel for the region
ered when the extent of seabed preparation is determined. — cranes and lifting appliances
B 300 Pipeline and cable crossings — pipeline installation equipment (see. D)
— any other requirement due to the nature of the operations.
301 Preparations for crossing of pipelines and cables shall be
carried out according to a specification detailing the measures 202 Vessels shall have a documented maintenance pro-
adopted to avoid damage to both installations. The operations gramme covering all systems vital for the safety and opera-
should be monitored by ROV to confirm proper placement and tional performance of the vessel, related to the operation to be
configuration of the supports. Support and profile over the exist- performed. The maintenance programme shall be presented in
ing installation shall be in accordance with the accepted design. a maintenance manual or similar document.
302 The specification shall state requirements concerning: 203 Status reports for any recommendations or requirements
given by National Authorities and/or classification societies,
— minimum separation between existing installation and the and status of all maintenance completed in relation to the main-
pipeline tenance planned for a relevant period, shall be available for
— co-ordinates of crossing review.
— marking of existing installation
— confirmation of position and orientation of existing instal- 204 An inspection or survey shall be performed prior to
lations on both sides of the crossing mobilisation of the vessels to confirm that the vessels and their
— lay-out and profile of crossing principal equipment meet the specified requirements and are
— vessel anchoring suitable for the intended work.
— installation of supporting structures or gravel beds C 300 Anchoring systems, anchor patterns and anchor
— methods to prevent scour and erosion around supports positioning
— monitoring and inspection methods
— tolerance requirements 301 Anchoring systems for vessels kept in position by
— any other requirements. anchors (with or without thruster assistance) while performing
marine operations shall meet the following requirements:
B 400 Preparations for shore approach
401 The location of any other pipelines, cables or outfalls in — instruments for reading anchor line tension and length of
the area of the shore approach shall be identified and clearly anchor lines shall be fitted in the operations control room
marked. or on the bridge, and also at the winch station
— remotely operated winches shall be monitored from the
402 Obstructions such as debris, rocks and boulders that control room or bridge, by means of cameras or equiva-
might interfere with or restrict the installation operations shall lent.
be removed. The seabed and shore area shall be prepared to the
state assumed in the design such that over-stressing in the pipe- 302 Anchor patterns shall be predetermined for each vessel
line during the installation and damage to coating or anodes is using anchors to maintain position. Different configurations
avoided. for anchor patterns may be required for various sections of the

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Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.10 – Page 107

pipeline, especially in the vicinity of fixed installations and — Class 1 for operations > 500 m away from existing
other subsea installations or other pipelines or cables. installations,
303 Anchor patterns shall be according to the results of a — Class 2 for operations < 500 m away from existing
mooring analysis, using an agreed computer program, and installations and for tie-in/riser installation operations
shall be verified to have the required capacity for the proposed — Class 3 for manned subsea operations or other opera-
location, time of year and duration of operation. Distance to tions where a sudden horizontal displacement of the
other installations and the possibility to leave the site in an vessel may have fatal consequences for personnel.
emergency situation shall be considered. 502 Subject to agreement and on a case by case basis, vessels
304 Station-keeping systems based on anchoring shall have with displacement > 5 000 t performing operations < 500 m
adequate redundancy or back-up systems in order to ensure away from existing installations or performing tie-in/riser
that other vessels and installations are not endangered by par- installation operations may have Class 2 provided that the con-
tial failure. sequences of fire or flooding will not seriously affect the safety
of the installation or the integrity of the pipeline.
305 Each anchor pattern shall be clearly shown on a chart of
adequate scale. Care shall be taken in correlating different C 600 Cranes and lifting equipment
chart datum, if used.
601 Cranes and lifting equipment including lifting gear, lift-
306 Minimum clearances are to be specified between an ing appliances, slings, grommets, shackles and pad-eyes, shall
anchor, its cable and any existing fixed or subsea installations meet applicable statutory requirements. Certificates for the
or other pipelines or cables, both for normal operations and equipment, valid for the operations and conditions under
emergency conditions. which they will be used, shall be available on board for review.
C 400 Positioning systems C 700 Anchor handling and tug management
401 Requirements for the positioning system and its accu- 701 Anchor handling vessels shall be equipped with:
racy for each type of vessel and application shall be specified.
402 The accuracy of horizontal surface positioning systems — a surface positioning system of sufficient accuracy for
shall be consistent with the accuracy required for the operation anchor drops in areas within 500 m of existing installa-
and sufficient to perform survey work, placing of the pipeline, tions and pipelines
supporting structures or anchors within the specified toler- — computing and interfacing facilities for interfacing with
ances, and to establish reference points for local positioning lay vessel, trenching vessel or other anchored vessels.
systems. 702 Procedures for the anchor handling shall be established,
403 Installation in congested areas and work requiring precise ensuring that:
relative location may require local systems of greater accuracy,
such as acoustic transponder array systems. Use of ROV's to — anchor locations are in compliance with the anchor pattern
monitor and assist the operations should be considered. for the location
— requirements of owners of other installations and pipelines
404 The positioning system shall provide information relat- for anchor handling in the vicinity of the installation are
ing to: known, and communication lines established
— position prior to anchor drop is confirmed
— position relative to the grid reference system used — anchor positions are monitored at all times, particularly in
— geographical position the vicinity of other installations and pipelines
— offsets from given positions — any other requirement due to the nature of the operations
— offsets from antenna position is fulfilled.
— vertical reference datum(s).
703 All anchors transported over subsea installations shall be
405 Positioning systems shall have minimum 100% redun- secured on deck of the anchor handling vessel.
dancy to allow for system errors or breakdown.
704 During anchor running, attention shall be paid to the
406 Documentation showing that positioning systems are anchor cable and the catenary of the cable, to maintain mini-
calibrated and capable of operating within the specified limits mum clearance between the anchor cable and any subsea
of accuracy shall be available for review prior to start of the installations or obstacles.
installation operations.
C 800 Contingency procedures
C 500 Dynamic positioning
801 Contingency procedures shall be established for the
501 Vessels using dynamic positioning systems for station marine operations relating to:
keeping and location purposes shall be designed, equipped and
operated in accordance with IMO MSC/Circ.645 (Guidelines — work site abandonment including emergency departure of
for Vessels with Dynamic Positioning Systems), or with earlier the work location and when anchors cannot be recovered
NMD requirements for consequence class, and shall have cor- — mooring systems failure
responding class notations from a recognised classification — any other requirement due to the nature of the operations.
society as follows:
a) Vessels > 5 000 t displacement:
D. Pipeline Installation
— Class 1 for operations > 500 m away from existing
installations D 100 General
— Class 3 for operations < 500 m away from existing 101 The requirements of this subsection are generally appli-
installations and for tie-in/riser installation operations cable to pipeline installation, regardless of installation method.
— Class 3 for manned subsea operations or other opera- Additional requirements pertaining to specific installation
tions where a sudden horizontal displacement of the methods are given in the following subsections.
vessel may have fatal consequences for personnel.
102 Interfaces shall be established with other parties that
b) Vessels < 5 000 t displacement: may be affected by the operations. The responsibilities of all

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 108 – Sec.10 see note on front cover

parties and lines of communication shall be established. — engineering critical assessments for girth welds,
— engineering critical assessments for weld repair lengths,
D 200 Installation manual — other calculations made as part of the installation scope.
201 The laying Contractor shall prepare an installation man-
ual. As a minimum, the installation manual shall include all 302 Review and qualification of procedures shall as a mini-
documentation required to perform the installation, and shall mum include:
demonstrate that the pipeline can be safely installed and com- — welding procedures for production and repair welding (see
pleted to the specified requirements by use of the dedicated Appendix C)
spread. — non-destructive testing procedures and automated NDT
202 The installation manual shall cover all applicable equipment (see Appendix D, Appendix E)
aspects such as: — field joint coating and field joint coating repair procedures
— internal and external coating repair procedures.
— spread, including modifications and upgrading, if any
— supervisory personnel, inspectors, welders and NDT per- 303 Qualification of vessels and equipment prior to start of
sonnel work shall include:
— communications and reporting
— navigation and positioning — dynamic positioning system test
— anchor handling, anchor patterns and catenary curves (if — combined review and dynamic positioning system/ten-
applicable) sioner system tests (simulate vessel pull and tensioner fail-
— dynamic positioning system (if applicable) ures and redundancy tests during pull)
— stress/strain and configuration monitoring, control, and — tensioner system review test (test combinations of tension-
recording during all phases of installation activities ers, testing of single tensioner failure when running two or
— operating limit conditions three tensioners, test redundancy of single tensioners, sim-
— normal pipe-lay ulate main power loss and loss of signal power)
— anode installation (where applicable) — abandonment and recovery winch test (fail safe actions,
— piggyback pipeline saddle installation (where applicable) simulate main power loss and loss of signal power)
— piggyback pipeline installation (where applicable) — friction clamp test (fail safe actions and test clamps during
— pipe-lay in areas of particular concern, e.g. shipping lanes, vessel pull)
platforms, subsea installations, shore approach — remote operated buckle detector
— vessel pull management system — pipeline support geometry
— abandonment and recovery — stinger configuration and control devices
— start-up and lay-down — review of calibration records of critical/essential equip-
— method of buckle detection ment, including welding machines and automated NDT
— installation of in-line assemblies and equipment equipment
— pipe handling, hauling, stacking and storage — review of maintenance records for critical/essential equip-
— maintaining pipeline cleanliness during construction ment, including welding machines and automated NDT
— pipe tracking equipment
— repair of damaged pipe coating — maintenance/calibration records of critical/essential
— internal coating repair equipment on support vessels.
— internal cleaning of pipe before and after welding 304 Review of personnel qualifications shall include:
— welder qualification
— welding equipment, line-up clamps, bevelling procedures, — welders qualification/certification records,
welding procedures, production welding, weld repair, — welding inspectors and QC personnel qualification/ certi-
welding production tests fication records,
— NDT equipment, visual examination and NDT proce- — NDT operators qualification/certification records,
dures, visual examination and NDT of welds — Lay barge survey party chief, and
— weld repair analysis extent of weld repair at repair station, — Field coating personnel.
determined by ECA (see A700)
— field joint coating and field joint coating repair 305 Records from vessel qualification, testing and calibra-
— touchdown point monitoring tion shall be kept onboard and be available for review.
— pipeline repair in case of wet or dry buckle 306 Essential variables shall as minimum be established for:
— crossings
— provisions for winter laying, prevention of ice build-up, — Allowable variations in stress/strain and configuration
removal of ice, low temperature reservoirs in steel and control parameters where variations beyond established
concrete coating, etc. limits may cause critical conditions during installation
— vessel emergency bridging document describing co-ordi- — variations in equipment settings/performance that can
nation of safety management systems between the vessel cause or aggravate critical conditions
contractor and the pipeline operator/licensee. — changes in welding joint design and process parameters
beyond that allowed in Appendix C
203 The installation manual shall be supported by calcula- — changes in NDT method, NDT equipment and NDT
tions and procedures, including contingency procedures, to an equipment calibration beyond that allowed in Appendix D
extent that adequately covers the work to be performed. and Appendix E
— weld repair lengths/depths in areas where the pipe is sub-
D 300 Review and qualification of the installation man- ject to bending moments/axial stress. The maximum
ual, essential variables and validity length/depth of excavation shall be determined by ECA
301 The review of methods, procedures and calculations calculations (see A.704)
shall include: — changes in field joint coating procedure
— operating limit conditions
— Failure mode effect analysis, — any other requirement due to the nature of the operations.
— HAZOP studies,
— installation procedures, 307 The validity of the installation manual is limited to the
— contingency procedures, lay-vessel/spread where the qualification was performed and

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Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.10 – Page 109

to the pipeline or section of pipeline in question. — failure of anchors and anchor lines
— ROV breakdown
D 400 Operating limit conditions — breakdown of positioning system
401 The installation operation shall be classified as weather — other critical or emergency situations identified in FMEA
restricted operation or temporary condition, see Sec.4 C600. analysis or HAZOP studies.
402 For weather restricted operations, operating limit condi- D 700 Layvessel arrangement, laying equipment and
tions shall be established and agreed. instrumentation
403 The operating limit conditions shall be based on stress
and strain calculations, vessel station keeping capability, 701 The tensioners shall operate in a fail-safe mode and shall
FMEA analysis or HAZOP study data, and shall refer to objec- have adequate pulling force, holding force, braking capacity
tive, critical values indicated by measuring devices. The oper- and squeeze pressure to maintain the pipe under controlled ten-
ating limit conditions shall be referred to in the procedure for sion. The forces applied shall be controlled such that no dam-
stress/strain and configuration control. Continuous monitoring age to the pipeline or coating will occur.
and recording of the measuring devices required for control of 702 The installation vessel tensioning system arrangement
the operating limit conditions shall be performed during all shall therefore be such that:
phases of installation activities.
— the tensioners, brakes and holding clamps shall be able to
404 If a systematic deviation between the monitored hold the pipeline throughout an accidental flooding, unless
response and predicted response from a seastate is found this it can be demonstrated that the flooded pipe can be
should be accounted for. released safely and without damage to the laying vessel
405 Start of weather restricted operations is conditional to an and the risk of such a release is found acceptable
acceptable weather forecast. — the tensioning system shall have sufficient redundancy to
406 For weather restricted operations, planning of operation prevent simultaneous breakdown of tensioners
shall be based on an operational reference period. Further, the — the tensioner capacity shall have sufficient redundancy to
operational criteria shall account for uncertainties in both allow failure of individual tensioners, without compromis-
weather forecasts and monitoring of environmental conditions. ing the pipeline integrity
Regular weather forecasts from a recognised meteorological — in case of tensioner failure or failure in the tensioner sys-
centre shall be available onboard the lay vessel, and shall be tem, the pipeline installation shall not re-start before the
supplemented by historical environmental data. Reference is system has been repaired.
made to DNV-OS-H101 Marine Operations (1).
(1) This standard is not yet issued. Until issue, refer to:
703 When applicable for the laying method, the pipeline
shall be fully supported along the length of the vessel and on
to the stinger by rollers, tracks or guides that allow the pipe to
— DNV Rules for planning and execution of marine Opera- move axially. Supports shall prevent damage to coating, field
tions, Pt. 1, Ch. 2, paragraph 3.1. joint coatings, anodes and in-line assemblies, and rollers shall
407 If the critical values are about to be exceeded, prepara- move freely. The vertical and horizontal adjustment of the sup-
tions for lay-down shall commence. If the critical condition is ports shall ensure a smooth transition from the vessel onto the
weather dependent only, and if weather forecasts indicate that stinger, to maintain the loading on the pipeline within the spec-
the weather condition will subside, the lay-down may be post- ified limits. The support heights and spacing shall be related to
poned subject to agreement. a clear and easily identifiable datum. The pipeline support
geometry shall be verified prior to laying, and the accepted
408 Decision to recover the pipeline shall be based on com- height and spacing of supports shall be permanently marked or
parison of the actual seastate with the limiting seastate, otherwise indicated.
together with weather forecasts.
704 Stingers shall be adjusted to the correct configuration to
D 500 Installation procedures ensure a smooth transition from the vessel to the outboard
501 Installation procedures meeting the requirements of this stinger end, and to maintain the loading on the pipeline within
standard, including all requirements of the installation and test- the specified limits. The geometry shall be verified prior to lay-
ing specifications, shall be prepared by the Contractor for ing. If the stinger can be adjusted during laying operations, it
agreement. shall be possible to determine the stinger position and config-
uration by reference to position markings or indicators. Buoy-
D 600 Contingency procedures ant stingers shall be equipped with indication devices showing
the position of the rollers relative to the water surface.
601 Contingency procedures meeting the requirements of
this standard, including all requirements of the installation and 705 Buckle detection should normally be used continuously
testing specifications, shall be prepared by the Contractor for during laying. The intention of the buckle detection is to iden-
agreement. The contingency procedures shall at least cover: tify a buckle at an early stage. By adopting a higher safety class
during installation, the probability of a buckle event will be
— failure of dynamic positioning system reduced, and subject to agreement, the guidance provided in
— failure of tensioner system Table 10-1below may be used.

Table 10-1 Safety class during installation


Buckle detection requirement Additional requirements
Low Buckle detection required (e.g. by buckle detector or equip-
ment providing similar degree of detection)
Medium Buckle detection not required Good control of installation parameters required (e.g.
lay tension, touch down point etc.) and consequence of
possible buckle is found acceptable
High Buckle detection not required Consequence of possible buckle is found acceptable
Guidance note: is not used during laying a higher safety class may be applied.
The above implies, subject to agreement, that if buckle detection ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 110 – Sec.10 see note on front cover

Guidance note: 708 Pipeline lay down point shall be monitored as well as
The buckle detector (or equipment providing same degree of other operations that are critical to the integrity of the pipeline
detect ability) shall be positioned in such a way that critical areas or represent a risk for fixed installations or other subsea instal-
monitored (normally a distance after the touch down point). If a lations and pipelines. ROVs shall be capable of operating
buckle detector is used the diameter of the disc shall be chosen under the seastates expected for the operation in question.
with regard to the pipeline diameter and tolerances on ovality,
wall thickness, misalignment and internal weld bead. 709 Other measuring and recording systems or equipment
shall be required if they are essential for the installation oper-
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
ation.
706 The abandonment and recovery (A & R) winch should
be able to recover the pipeline when waterfilled, or alternative D 800 Requirements for installation
methods for recovering the pipeline should be available. 801 Handling and storage of materials on supply and laying
707 A sufficient amount of instrumentation and measuring vessels shall ensure that damage to pipe, coatings, assemblies
devices shall be installed to ensure that monitoring of essential and accessories are avoided. Slings and other equipment used
equipment and all relevant parameters required for stress/strain shall be designed to prevent damage. Storage of pipes shall be
and configuration control and control of the operating limit in racks and suitable shoring shall be used. Maximum stacking
conditions can be performed. heights shall be determined to avoid excessive loads on the
pipe, coating or anodes. All material shipped for installation
The following instrumentation is required: shall be recorded.
Tensioners: 802 All material shall be inspected for damage, quantity and
identification upon arrival. Damaged items shall be quaran-
— total pipeline tension recorders tined, repaired or clearly marked and returned onshore.
— tension at each tensioner
— tensioner setting and variance to set point (dead band), and 803 Pipes and in-line assemblies shall be inspected for loose
— indication of applied pulling, holding and squeeze pres- material, debris and other contamination and cleaned inter-
sure. nally before being added to the line. The cleaning method shall
not cause damage to any internal coating.
Stinger:
804 A pipe tracking system shall be used to maintain records
— underwater camera(s) and video recorders for monitoring of weld numbers, pipe numbers, NDT, pipe lengths, cumula-
pipeline position with respect to the last roller on the tive length, anode installation, in-line assemblies and repair
stinger (if restricted underwater visibility is expected, a numbers. The system shall be capable of detecting duplicate
sonar is required for monitoring pipeline position with records.
respect to the rollers on the stinger) 805 The individual pipes of the pipeline shall be marked in
— reaction load indicators (vertical and horizontal) on the accordance with the established pipe tracking system, using a
first roller on the stinger suitable quick-curing marine paint. The location, size and col-
— for installations that rely on a maximum force on the last our of the marking shall be suitable for reading by ROV during
roller on the stinger this shall be monitored by reaction installation and subsequent surveys. It may be necessary to
load indicators or documented by other means mark a band on top of the pipeline to quantify any rotation that
— stinger configuration and tip depth for articulated stingers. may have occurred during installation. If damaged pipes are
replaced, any sequential marking shall be maintained.
Buckle detector:
806 Pipes shall be bevelled to the correct configuration,
— pulling wire tension and length recorder, when applicable. checked to be within tolerance, and inspected for damage.
Internal line-up clamps shall be used, unless use of such
Winches: clamps is demonstrated to be impracticable. Acceptable align-
ment, root gap and staggering of longitudinal welds shall be
— abandonment and recovery winches shall be equipped confirmed prior to welding.
with wire tension and length recorder
— anchor winches shall meet the requirements given in 807 In-line assemblies shall be installed and inspected as
C300. required by the specification, and shall be protected against
damage during passage through the tensioners and over pipe
Vessel: supports.
— vessel position 808 Field joint coating and inspection shall meet the require-
— vessel movements such as roll, pitch, sway, heave ments given in Sec.9.
— water depth 809 The parameters to be controlled by measuring devices,
— vessel draft and trim and the allowable range of parameter variation during installa-
— current strength and direction tion, shall be established in a procedure for configuration con-
— wind strength and direction trol, pipeline tension and stress monitoring. The function of
— direct or indirect indication of sagbend curvature and essential measuring devices shall be verified at regular inter-
strain. vals and defective or non-conforming devices shall repaired or
replaced.
All measuring equipment shall be calibrated and adequate doc-
umentation of calibration shall be available onboard the vessel 810 The buckle detector load chart, if a buckle detector is
prior to start of work. All measuring equipment used shall be used (see 705) shall be checked at regular intervals. The buckle
provided with an adequate amount of spares to ensure uninter- detector shall be retrieved and inspected if there is reason to
rupted operation. believe that buckling can have occurred. If the inspection
shows indications of buckling or water ingress, the situation
Essential equipment shall be provided with back-up. shall be investigated and remedial action performed.
Direct reading and processing of records from all required 811 The position of pipeline start up and lay-down shall be
essential instrumentation and measuring devices, shall be pos- verified as within their respective target areas prior to depar-
sible at the vessels bridge. ture of the lay vessel from site, and adequate protection of
Correlation of recorded data and pipe numbers shall be possible. pipeline and lay-down head shall be provided.

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Amended October 2008 Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007
see note on front cover Sec.10 – Page 111

812 Pipelaying in congested areas, in the vicinity of existing E 200 Installation manual
installations and at pipeline and cable crossings, shall be car- 201 An installation manual shall be prepared by the Contrac-
ried out using local positioning systems with specified accu- tor for acceptance by the Purchaser and in addition to the
racy and appropriate anchor patterns (if used). Measures shall requirements of A500 and applicable requirements of D200, it
be taken to protect existing installations, cables and pipelines shall include:
from damage. Such operations and the pipeline touch down
point shall be monitored continuously by ROV. — the amount of displacement controlled strain, both accu-
813 Other critical operations such as laying in short radii mulated and maximum for each single strain cycle
curves, areas with steep slopes, use of very high or low pulling — method for control of, and allowable variation in, curva-
tension values etc. shall be identified and special procedures ture of the pipe between the point of departure from the
for the operation shall be prepared. reel and entry into the straighteners
— description of straighteners
814 In the event of buckling a survey of the pipeline shall be — proposed procedure for qualification of the installation
performed before repair to establish the extent of damage and method by fracture mechanics assessment and validation
feasibility of the repair procedure. After completion of the testing.
repair, a survey shall be performed of the pipeline over a length
sufficient to ensure that no further damage has occurred. E 300 Qualification of the installation manual
815 If loss or major damage to weight and corrosion coating or 301 In addition to the applicable requirements of D300, qual-
anodes and their cables/connectors are observed, repair shall be ification of the installation manual shall include:
performed and inspected according to established procedures.
816 Prior to abandonment of the pipeline, all internal equip-
— qualification of welding procedures according to the spe-
ment except the buckle detector shall be removed and all cific requirements given in Appendix C, including δ-R or
welds, including the abandonment and recovery head welds, J-R testing
shall be filled to a level that the pipe can be safely abandoned — engineering critical assessments to determine the maxi-
on and retrieved from the seabed. In the event that the cable mum allowable weld defects
will have to be released from the vessel, a buoy and pennant — validation of engineering critical assessment by testing, if
wire should be attached to the abandonment and recovery relevant, see Appendix A
head. The buoy shall be large enough to remain on the surface — testing of pipe coating durability
when exposed to the weight of the pennant wire, as well as any — testing of straighteners and resulting pipe straightness.
hydrodynamic loads from waves and current. 302 A fracture assessment including testing shall be per-
Alternatively, seabed abandonment with a ROV friendly hook- formed as specified in Appendix A.
ing loop may be used. Winch tension and cable lengths shall be 303 Bending tests on pipe coating shall be performed to
monitored, and the specified values shall not be exceeded dur- demonstrate that successive bending and straightening will not
ing the abandonment and recovery operation. impair the pipe coating and field coating. No degradation of
Before recovery the pipeline shall be surveyed over a length the coating properties shall occur. For this test the coating test
away from the abandonment and recovery head, sufficient to may be carried out on plates. Alternatively, previous test
ensure that no damage has occurred. results may be used as documentation given that it is the same
manufacturer, chemical composition and strain level.
817 An as-laid survey shall be performed either by continu-
ous touch down point monitoring or by a dedicated vessel, and 304 The straighteners shall be qualified using pipe which is
shall, as a minimum, include the requirements given in J. delivered to the pipeline and bent corresponding to the mini-
mum curvature fed into the straighteners. It shall be demon-
strated that the strain resulting from the straightening is within
the assumptions made for the validation testing, and that the
E. Additional Requirements for Pipeline specified straightness is achieved. The straightening shall not
Installation Methods Introducing Plastic cause damage to coating. The maximum deformation used dur-
ing straightening to the specified straightness shall be recorded
Deformations and regarded as an essential variable during installation.
E 100 General E 400 Installation procedures
101 The additional requirements of this subsection are appli- 401 In addition to the relevant applicable procedures of this
cable to pipeline installation by methods which give total sin- subsection, the following procedures are required as applica-
gle event nominal strain ≥ 1.0% or accumulated nominal ble:
plastic strain ≥ 2.0%.
102 The specific problems associated with these installation — loadout/spooling of pipe onto reel
methods shall be addressed in the installation and testing spec- — pipe straightening
ifications. — anode and anode double plate installation
— installation, welding and NDT of additional pipe strings
103 Pipes used for such installation methods shall meet the — any other procedure needed due to the nature of the oper-
supplementary requirement, pipe for plastic deformation (P), ations.
see Sec.7 I300.
104 For installation welding, the sequence of pipes included E 500 Requirements for installation
in the pipe string shall be controlled such that variations in 501 Adequate support of the pipestring shall be provided
stiffness on both sides of welds are maintained within the when loading the reel. Tension shall be applied and monitored
assumptions made in the design. This may be achieved by during reeling in order to ensure that the successive layers on
matching, as closely as possible, wall thickness/diameter of the the reel are sufficiently tightly packed to prevent slippage
pipes and the actual yield stress on both sides of the weld. between the layers. Adequate measures shall be taken to pro-
105 100% automated ultrasonic testing (AUT) according to tect the coating during reeling.
the requirements given in Appendix E or manual ultrasonic 502 If the reel is used for control of the pipeline tension dur-
testing according to the requirements given in Appendix D ing installation it shall be demonstrated that such use will give
shall be performed. acceptable redundancy and will not induce excessive stresses

DET NORSKE VERITAS


Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2007 Amended October 2008
Page 112 – Sec.10 see note on front cover

or have other detrimental effects. — launching of the pipestring


503 The curvature of the pipe, peaking and sagging, between — ballast control during tow
the point of departure from the reel and entry into the straight- — ballast control during installation
eners shall not exceed the maximum values assumed in design — installation and joining of additional pipestrings.
and ECA and validated in the material testing of the girth F 600 Contingency procedures
welded pipes.
601 In addition to the applicable procedures of D600, contin-
504 Anodes should be installed after the pipe has passed gency procedures are required for:
through the straightener and tensioner. The electrical connec-
tion between anodes and pipe shall meet the specified require- — weather conditions in excess of the operating limit condi-
ments and shall be verified at regular intervals, see Sec.9. tions
— ballast system breakdown or partial failure
— loss of towing tension
— excessive towing tension
F. Pipeline Installation by Towing — pre-designation of temporary mooring area(s) along the
tow route
F 100 General — third party marine activities.
101 The specific problems associated with pipeline towing
operations are to be addressed in the installation and testing F 700 Arrangement, equipment and instrumentation
specifications. The weight and buoyancy distribution control 701 Vessels shall be equipped with:
during fabrication, launching of the pipestring, tow, ballast
control, environmental loads and contingencies shall be — measuring equipment that continuously displays and
addressed when the requirements are specified. records the towing speed and tensions
102 Tows may be performed as: — measuring equipment that continuously displays and mon-
itors the depth of the pipestring and its distance from the
— surface or near-surface tows, with the pipestring supported seabed
by surface buoys — measuring equipment that continuously display the posi-
— mid-depth tows, where the pipestring is towed well clear tion of any ballast valves. The flow rates during any bal-
away from the seabed lasting and de-ballasting are to be displayed.
— bottom tows, where the pipestring is towed in contact
702 All measuring equipment shall be continuously moni-
with, or close to, the seabed.
tored during the tow and installation.
103 For surface tows, all aspects pertaining to the tow are 703 Installation of strain gauges to monitor the stresses in the
subject to agreement in each case. pipestring during tow and installation shall be considered.
104 For bottom or near bottom tows, the pipeline route shall F 800 Pipestring tow and installation
be surveyed prior to the tow and the route shall avoid rough
seabed, boulders, rock outcrops and other obstacles that may 801 Launching of pipestrings shall be performed such that
cause damage to the pipeline, coating or anodes during the tow over-stressing of the pipestring and damage to the coating and
and installation. During bottom and near bottom tows, ade- anodes are avoided. If pipestrings are moored inshore awaiting
quate monitoring with ROVs and of the pipeline position at the tow, adequate precautions shall be taken to avoid marine
critical phases is required. Satisfactory abrasion resistance of growth influencing pipestring buoyancy, weight and drag.
the pipeline coating shall be demonstrated. All aspects pertain- 802 Notification of the tow shall be given to the relevant
ing to bottom tows are subject to agreement in each case. authorities, owners of subsea installations crossed by the tow-
105 For mid-depth tows, the requirements in F200 through ing route and users of the sea.
F800 are generally applicable. 803 Towing shall not commence unless an acceptable
weather window for the tow is available. During the tow a
F 200 Installation manual standby vessel shall be present to prevent interference with the
201 An installation manual shall be prepared by the Contrac- tow by third party vessels.
tor and, in addition to the requirements of A500 and applicable 804 Tension in the towing line and the towing depth shall be
requirements of D200, it shall include: kept within the specified limits during the tow. If required, bal-
— description of towing vessel(s) including capacities, lasting or de-ballasting shall be performed to adjust the towing
equipment and instrumentation depth to the specified values.
— description of pipestring instrumentation. 805 Installation shall be performed by careful ballasting and de-
ballasting. Care shall be exercised to prevent over-stressing of the
F 300 Qualification of installation manual pipestring. The use of drag chains during the installation is recom-
301 Qualification of the installation manual shall include the mended. The installation operation shall be monitored by ROV.
applicable requirements of D300.
F 400 Operating limit conditions
G. Other Installation Methods
401 Operating limit conditions with regard to weather win-
dow for the tow, the seastate and current and allowed strain G 100 General
gauge values (if installed) shall be established.
101 Other installation methods may be suitable in special
F 500 Installation procedures cases. A thorough study shall be performed to establish the fea-
sibility of the installation method and the loads imposed during
501 Installation procedures meeting the requirements of this installation. Such methods are subject to agreement in each case.
standard and the installation specifications shall be prepared
and agreed. In addition to the applicable procedures of D500,