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purpose. The word system is a common one that is used to describe almost any orderly arrangement of ideas or constructs. People speak of educational systems, Computer systems, management systems, business systems, and of course, information systems. In the old of all system models, a system is a process. A common theme is systems analysis is the use of models to view and present a system. The simplest process model of a system is base on inputs, outputs, and the system itself – view as a process. A process is work performed on, or in response to, incoming data flows or conditions. A synonym is transform. Actor: An actor is anything that needs to interact with the system to exchange information. To the system an actor could be a customer, user, department, organization, or another system. Use case analysis is the process of identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system responds to them. Timebox: A timebox is a nonextendable period of time, usually 60 to 120 days, by which a candidate system must be placed into operation. A systems analyst facilitates the study of the problems and needs of a business to determine how the business system and information technology can best solve the problems and accomplish improvements for the business. The product of this activity may be improved business process, improved information systems, or new and improved computer applications. Problems are undesirable situations that prevent the organization from fully achieving its purpose, goals, and/or objectives. A Problem is (a) a situation requiring corrective action, or (b) an opportunity to improve a situation, or (c) a directive to change a situation. Problem solving is the act of studying a problem environment in order to implement corrective solutions that take the form of new and improved systems. The next five problems solving activities are collectively called a Systems Development Life Cycle when performed by a systems analyst. Systems Planning – the ongoing study of a business problem environment to identify problem-solving possibilities. The purpose is to identify and prioritize those information systems applications whose development would most benefit the business as a whole.
Systems Analysis – the study of the business problem environment and the subsequent definition and prioritization of the requirements for solving the problem. (Note the emphasis is on the business not the computer.) Systems Design (System synthesis) – the evaluation of alternative problem solutions, and the detailed specification of the final solution. Throughout design, the emphasis usually shifts from the business to the computer solution. Systems Implementation – the construction of the problem solution and the delivery of that system solution into production. Computer programs are written and tested, managers and users are trained to use the new system, and data and operations are converted to the new system. System Support – the ongoing maintenance and enhancement of the system solution after it has been placed into operation. (This may be weeks, months, or years). An information System is an arrangement of people, data, processes, interfaces, and geography that are integrated to support and improve the day-to-day operations in a business, as well as fulfilling the problem-solving and decision-making information needs of business managers.
SYSTEM ANALYSIS Introduction Scope, Purpose and Methods of System Analysis System Analysis is a problem-solving technique that decomposes a system into its component pieces for the purpose of studying how well those component parts work and interact to accomplish their purpose. Information System Analysis is defined as those development phases in a project that primarily focus on the business problem, independent of any technology that can or will be used to implement a solution to that problem. System analysis is driven by the business concerns of system owners and system users. Hence, it addresses the DATA, PROCESS, and INTERFACE building blocks from system owners’ and system users’ perspectives. The system analyst serves as facilitator of systems analysis. The documentation and deliverables produced by systems analysis tasks are typically stored in a repository.
and system builders keep the documentation associated with one or more systems or projects. spreadsheet. Methods The following are methods of system analysis: . A repository is normally implemented as some combination of the following: • A network directory of word processing. reports. and other computergenerated files that contain project correspondence. A repository may be created for a single project or shared by all projects and systems. systems designers. A gain is to bridge the gap between those who need computer-base business solution and those who understand information technology.A repository is a location (or set of locations) where systems analysis. and data. • One or more CASE tool dictionary or encyclopedias. • Printed documentation (such as that stored in binders and system libraries) • An intranet website interface to the above components (useful for communication) The Business community Preliminary Investigation Problem Analysis Operation and Support Implementation Requirement Analysis Construction Decision Analysis Design Purpose System analysis is done in order to perform system design.
Fact-finding (or information gathering) is a classical set of techniques used to collect information about system problems. requirements discovery and management can be significantly accelerated using joint requirement planning. Fact-finding Techniques • Sampling of existing documentation. and priorities. files. system users. Alternatively. and some systems designer and builders to jointly perform systems analysis. Business Process Redesign (or BPR-also called business process reengineering) . opportunities. Joint Requirements Planning The classic fact-finding techniques listed above are invaluable. databases and memos. and requirements.• • Requirement Discovery Methods Business Process Redesign Methods Both model-driven and accelerated system analysis approaches attempt to express user requirements for a new system. The requirements for a system are dependent on the analysts’ ability to discover the problems and opportunities that exist in the current system: thus. The following are discovery approaches: • Fact-Finding • Joint requirement planning Fact-Finding Techniques – Fact-finding techniques are an essential skill for all systems analysts. either as models or prototypes. • Questionnaires and surveys of the management and user community. all approaches to systems analysis require some form of requirements discovery. benchmarking others’ solutions. and site visits. users. Consequently. reports. systems analysis. opportunities. JRP is generally considered a part of joint application development (or JAD). • Research of relevant literature. forms. analysts most become skilled to identifying problems. • Observation of the current system in action and the work environment. however. Joint requirements planning (JRP) techniques use facilitated workshops to bring together all the system owners. and technical staff. A JRP-trained or –certified analyst usually plays the role of facilitator for a workshop that will typically run from three to five full working days. Requirements discovery This includes those techniques to be used by systems analysts to identify or extract system problems and solution requirements from the user community. a more comprehensive application of the techniques to the entire system development process. • Interviews of appropriate managers. solution requirements. they can be time-consuming in their classic forms.
independent of information technology. A system Analyst studies the problems and needs of an organization in determine how people. Some BPR projects focus on all business processes. either real or anticipated. SoundStage case study will demonstrate these methods in the context of a typical first assignment for a system analyst. BPR is also applied within the context of information system development projects. • The FAST phases • FAST tasks that implement a phase.Identify the problem . It is not uncommon for project to include a study of existing business processes to identify problems. This may create new information system and application development projects to implement or support the new business processes. and inefficiencies that may be addressed in requirements for new and improved information systems and computer applications. and information technology can best accomplish improvements for the business. processes. data. o Opportunities to improve a situation despite the absence of complaint. Automated bureaucracy. Each business process is thoroughly studied and analysed for bottleneck. communications.Is the application of systems analysis methods to the goal of dramatically changing and improving the fundamental business processes of an organization.Analyze and understand the problem . FAST (Framwork for the Application of System Technology) Systems Analysis Strategies Like most commercial methodologies. it integrates all the popular approaches. o Directives to change a situation regardless of whether anyone has complained. Functions of System Analyst The main jobs of the analyst are: . Once the business processes have been redesigned. The term problem will be used to describe many situations including: o True problem situation. that require corrective action. The interest is BPR was driven by the discovery that most current information systems and applications merely automated existing and inefficient business processes. The systems analysis techniques will be applied within the framework of: • Your information system building block. value returned. automation does not necessarily contribute value to the business and it may actually subtract value from the business. The system analyst is basically a problem solver. and opportunities for elimination or streamlining. most BPR projects conclude by examining how information technology might best be applied to the improved business processes. regardless of their automation. Instead. our hypothetical FAST methodology does not impose a single approach on system analysts. bureaucracy.
you will work with a team of systems analysts. As a systems analyst. and others on a common mission. . Note that. it is very likely that systems analysts would work in project teams with a senior analyst in charge. programmers. while knowing that your unique skills helped make that happen. Project team Business analyst: • Analyzing the key business aspects of the system • Identifying how the system will provide business value • Designing the new business processes and policies Systems analyst: • Identifying how technology can improve business processes • Designing the new business processes • Designing the information system • Ensuring that the system conforms to information systems standards Infrastructure analyst: • Ensuring the system conforms to infrastructure standards • Identifying infrastructure changes needed to support the system • Change management analyst Developing and executing a change management plan. You will feel the satisfaction of seeing systems that you designed and developed make a significant business impact. • you will work with a variety of people and learn how they conduct business.Evaluate the result • To examine the feasibility of potential computer applications. and designs an information system to implement them. their implementation and review. and challenging jobs around. Being a systems analyst is one of the most interesting. Specifically. identifies opportunities for improvements. and other specialists • Developing and monitoring the project plan • Assigning resources • Serving as the primary point of contact for the project The key person in the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is the systems analyst who analyzes the business situation.. exciting. technical writers. • Developing and executing a user training plan Project manager: • Managing the team of analysts. • Design of computer-based systems.Identify the solution requirements .Design and implement the best solution . programmers.Identify alternative solutions . • Analysis existing systems with a view to improve their computerization.
and reading brochures. Finally.• It is important to remember that the primary objective of the systems analyst is not to create a wonderful system. Each of these phases has steps: information gathering includes steps like searching for schools. applying. requesting . there are several phases that all students go through: information gathering.. design. Students then use techniques (e. Second. Third. the goal is to enable the organization to perform work better so it can earn greater profits or serve its constituents more effectively. and accepting.g. and delivering it to users.g. If you have taken a programming class or have programmed on your own. For example. the house (or the information system) starts with a basic idea. current business processes.. building it. Different projects may emphasize different parts of the SDLC or approach the SDLC phases in different ways. First. The primary goal is to create value for the organization. and implementation (Figure 1-2). but all projects have elements of these four phases. Internet searching) that can be applied to steps (e. which rely on techniques that produce deliverables (specific documents and files that provide understanding about the project). In many ways. a set of blueprints is designed that presents much more detailed information about the house (e. the type of water faucets. The goal is not to acquire the tool. each improving on the other) until the customer agrees that the picture depicts what he or she wants. and other information systems to provide value. An investment in an information system is like any other investment. Many failed systems were abandoned because the analysts tried to build a wonderful system without clearly understanding how the system would support the organization’s goals. designing the system. this idea is transformed into a simple drawing that is shown to the customer and refined (often through several drawings. requesting information. where the telephone jacks will be placed).. building an information system is similar to building a house. because the tool is simply a means to an end.g. analysis. the house is built following the blueprints—and often with some changes and decisions made by the customer as the house is erected. Each phase is itself composed of a series of steps. The SDLC has a similar set of four fundamental phases: planning. which for most companies means increasing profits (government agencies and not-for-profit organizations measure value differently). this probably sounds pretty simple. when you apply for admission to a university. Various stages of the System Life Cycles The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is the process of understanding how an information system (IS) can support business needs. such as a new machine tool.
Planning The planning phase is the fundamental process of understanding why an information system should be built and determining how the project team will go about building it. In this section. it is important to understand that the SDLC is a process of gradual refinement. there are two important points to understand about the SDLC. an organization may follow one of many variations on the overall SDLC. It has two steps: 1. you should get a general sense of the phases and steps that IS projects move through and some of the techniques that produce certain deliverables. steps. etc. Preliminary survey or study. The feasibility analysis examines key aspects of the proposed project: _ The technical feasibility (Can we build it?) _ The economic feasibility (Will it provide business value?) _ The organizational feasibility (If we build it. These deliverables are used as input to the design phase.. First. which then refines them to produce a set of deliverables that describes in much more detailed terms exactly how the system will be built. which decides whether the project should be undertaken. accounting department. The purpose of this survey is to establish whether there is a need for a new system and if so to specify the objectives of the system. and some of the techniques that are used to accomplish the steps. For now. .) in the form of a system request. We should emphasize that. will it be used?) The system request and feasibility analysis are presented to an information systems approval committee (sometimes called a steering committee). the system’s business value to the organization is identified—how will it lower costs or increase revenues? Most ideas for new systems come from outside the IS area (from the marketing department. in practice. Second. During project initiation.information) to create deliverables (e. evaluations of different aspects of universities). The IS department works together with the person or department that generated the request (called the project sponsor) to conduct a feasibility analysis. The deliverables produced in the analysis phase provide a general idea of the shape of the new system. and it explains how a system that supports the need will create business value. These deliverables in turn are used in the implementation phase to produce the actual system. A system request presents a brief summary of a business need. we describe at a very high level the phases. Each phase refines and elaborates on the work done previously.g.
2. An analysis strategy is developed to guide the project team’s efforts.g. and where and when it will be used. At this stage in the life cycle a detailed study is conducted. staffs the projects. The analyses. Analysis The analysis phase answers the questions of who will use the system. The next step is requirements gathering (e. The system concept is then used as a basis to develop a set of business analysis models that describes how the business will operate if the new system were developed. members of the approval committee) that decide whether the project should continue to move forward. The purpose of this study is fully to understand the existing system and to identify the basic information requirements.g. During this phase. we will use it in this book as well. the project team investigates any current system(s). and develops a concept for the new system. 2. Because it is really the first step in the design of the new system.. system concept. The set of models typically includes models that represent the data and processes necessary to support the underlying business process.Investigation and fact recording. The deliverable for project management is a project plan that describes how the project team will go about developing the system. some argue a better name would be analysis and initial design. The system proposal is the initial deliverable that describes what business requirements the new system should meet. The analysis of this information—in conjunction with input from the project sponsor and many other people—leads to the development of a concept for a new system. This phase has three steps: 1. identifies improvement opportunities. It is important to . Because most organizations continue to use the name analysis for this phase. and then ways to design a new system (called the to-be system). The study is far more detailed and comprehensive than the feasibility study. Once the project is approved.. some experts argue that it is inappropriate to use the term analysis as the name for this phase. and models are combined into a document called the system proposal. Such a strategy usually includes an analysis of the current system (called the as-is system) and its problems. through interviews or questionnaires). what the system will do. and puts techniques in place to help the project team control and direct the project through the entire SDLC. the project manager creates a work plan. it enters project management. This requires a contribution from the users both of the existing systems and of the proposed system. During project management. 3. which is presented to the project sponsor and other key decision makers (e.
and program design) is the system specification that is handed to the programming team for implementation. and network infrastructure that will be used. The analyst team develops the program design. or whether the company will buy an existing software package. The system is built and tested to ensure it . the user interface.g. the system will add or change the infrastructure that already exists in the organization. whether it will be outsourced to another firm (usually a consulting firm). and the specific programs. This leads to the development of the basic architecture design for the system that describes the hardware. and files that will be needed. the steps in the design phase determine exactly how the system will operate. The database and file specifications are developed. This phase has three steps: 1. database and file specifications. 3. during which the system is actually built (or purchased. because for most systems it is the longest and most expensive single part of the development process. System construction is the first step. forms.remember. The interface design specifies how the users will move through the system (e. Implementation The final phase in the SDLC is the implementation phase. At the end of the design phase. This is the phase that usually gets the most attention. and another decision is made by the project sponsor and approval committee about whether to terminate the project or continue. and network infrastructure. and reports that will be used. These define exactly what data will be stored and where they will be stored. interface design. In most cases. The design phase has four steps: 1. This collection of deliverables (architecture design.. 2. in the case of a packaged software design). Although most of the strategic decisions about the system were made in the development of the system concept during the analysis phase. in terms of the hardware. which defines the programs that need to be written and exactly what each program will do. The design strategy must be developed. that the deliverable from the analysis phase is both an analysis and a high-level initial design for the new system. the feasibility analysis and project plan are reexamined and revised. navigation methods such as menus and on-screen buttons) and the forms and reports that the system will use. 4. Design The design phase decides how the system will operate. databases. This clarifies whether the system will be developed by the company’s own programmers. software. however. software.
2. Interview Direct observation Observation is a fact-finding technique wherein the systems analyst either participates in or watches a person perform activities to learn about the system. Since the cost of bugs can be immense. 3. It may include a direct cutover approach (in which the new system immediately replaces the old system). The system is installed. etc. This plan usually includes a formal or informal post-implementation review. One of the most important aspects of conversion is the development of a training plan to teach users how to use the new system and help manage the changes caused by the new system. Most organizations spend more time and attention on testing than on writing the programs in the first place. This technique is often used when the validity of data collected through other methods is in question or when the complexity of certain aspects of the system prevents a clear explanation by the end-users. Sometimes observations are conducted to check the validity of data obtained directly from individuals. as well as a systematic way for identifying major and minor changes needed for the system. The analyst team establishes a support plan for the system. . Investigation and Analysis Methods of Collecting data • Interview • Questionnaire • Direct observation and • Examination of existing documents. Installation is the process by which the old system is turned off and the new one is turned on. or a phased conversion strategy (in which the new system is installed in one part of the organization as an initial trial and then gradually installed in others). testing is one of the most critical steps in implementation. Advantages o Data gathered by observation can be highly reliable. a parallel conversion approach (in which both the old and new systems are operated for a month or two until it is clear that there are no bugs in the new system).performs as designed.
studies. customer complaints. o Observation is relatively inexpensive compared with other fact-finding techniques. suggestion box notes. o Accounting records. Next. people may let you see what they want you to see. and other scheduled operating reports. noise level). lighting. o If people have been performing tasks in a manner that violates standard operating procedures. Disadvantages o Because people usually feel uncomfortable when being watched. o Some systems activities may take place at odd times. The famous Hawthorne experiment proved that the act of observation can alter behaviour. These include: o Interoffice memoranda. the analyst may want to collect and review documents that describe the problem. physical layout. These documents may include: o The company’s mission statement and strategic plan. work measurement reviews. In addition to documents that describe the problem. minutes. o Information systems project requests-past and present. o Formal objectives for the organization subunits being studied. To accomplish this. they may unwittingly perform differently when bring observed. o Some tasks may not always be performed in the manner in which they are observed by the systems analyst. o Policy manuals that may place constraints on any proposed system.o The systems analyst is able to see exactly what is being done. the analyst may want to trace the history that led to the project. Complex tasks systems analyst can identify tasks that have been missed or inaccurately describing physical environment of the task (e. Other techniques usually require substantially more employee release time and copying expenses. and reports that document the problem area. causing a scheduling inconvenience for the systems analyst. o Observation allows the systems analyst to do work measurements. traffic. Examination of existing documents The first document the analysis should seek out is the organization chart. o The tasks being observed are subject to various types of interruptions. they may temporarily perform their jobs correctly while you are observing them. there are usually documents that describe the business function being studies or design. In other words. performance reviews.g. .
o Program documentation. The need for Identifying Problems/Flaws Problems are identified to: • Improve performance • Improve information (and data) • Improve economics. • Identify the hardware capacities the can support the system. process and interface requirement for the new system. o Completed forms that represent actual transactions at various points in the processing cycle. o Samples of manual and computerized database. This documentation may include: o Various types of flowcharts and diagrams. don’t forget to check for documentation of previous system studies and designs performed by systems analysts and consultants. The purpose is to specify these requirements without prematurely . All documentation collected should be analysed to determine the information’s currency. and databases. outputs. • Improve control of security • Improve efficiency of people and processes • Improve service to customers. employees. or task instructions for specific day-to-day operations. partners. o Samples of manual and computerized screen and reports. o Design documentation. or increase profits. Also.o Standard operating procedures (SOPs). etc. job outlines. Don’t discard outdated documentation. such as inputs. The need for specifying the required hardware and software for developing a new system The designers’ intent is to prepare software and hardware specification that: • Fulfill the business process requirements of system users and • Provide sufficient detail and consistency for communicating the software design to system builders. The need for identifying the user and information requirements necessary to resolve the identified problem • Is to identify the data. suppliers. o Computer operations manual and training manuals. o Project dictionaries or repositories. control costs.
• The team collects information from the system user and discusses requirement and priorities.00 C3: Company accredited by LMART Rule 1 personal yes Doesn’t matter Rule 2 payroll Doesn’t matter yes Rule 3 personal no Doesn’t matter Rule 4 payroll Doesn’t matter no Condition stubs Action stubs . at this point. This could be a very small or very large document depending on the methodology or system complexity. Rules (the columns) describes which actions are to be taken under a specific combination of conditions. keep analysis at the business level! • Is to find out what user need or want out of the new system. the possible policy actions or decisions. The below figure illustrates the three components of a simple decision table. Condition stubs (the upper rows) describe the conditions or factors that will affect the decision or policy. Decision tables are very useful for specifying complex policies and decision-making rules. so as to design to meet the requirement of the user. System Modelling Different modeling tools in system analysis Decision table Data flow diagram Decision tree Decision table A decision table is a tabular form of presentation that specifies a set of conditions and their corresponding action.expressing computer alternatives and technology details. in the form of statements. • To identify deliverable for a business requirements statement. Conditions and Actions C1: Type of check C2: Check amount less then equal to $ 78. Action subs (the lower rows) describe.
For this reason. The DFD for any nontrivial product is likely to be large. Synonyms include bubble chart.A1: Cash the check A2: Don’t cash the check x x x Rule x A sample of decision table Data flow Diagram (DFD) Is a tool that depicts the flow of data through a system and the work or processing performed by that system. The symbols Double square arrow Rounded rectangle Source or destination of data Flow of data Process that transforms a flow of data Open-Ended Store of data Rectangle The data flow diagram for Kwame’s software shop Package_Data Package_detail s Customer Processorders Credit_status Customer_Data . guaranteed to contain considerably more than 7+ 2 elements. the DFD must be developed by stepwise refinement. and process model. as such. The DFD is a pictorial representation of all aspects of the logical data flow and. transformation graph.
• It will help the analysts for better understanding of the problems of the current system. Decide what sections to computerize and how (Batch or Online) 3. Define the Data stores 6. Define the physical resources 7. function and machine. processing methods. and people implications. An example is show below. there is a need to include name. Determine the input-output specification 8. Determine the Details of the Data Flows 4. • To enhance alternate solutions of their input/output methods. Define the Logic of the Processes 5. A Decision Tree A decision tree makes it easy to check that all possibilities have been taken into account. Draw the DFD 2. data storage methods. Determine football seat prices 40-yard line: $20 Faculty: Undergraduate: $2 Alumnus: Sample of decision tree The need for recording information about the current system • To know the problem of the current system • To enable analysts estimate the costs of developing the expected system.First refinement Steps to consider (How to perform structured system analysis) 1. When order is make online. Determine the sizing 9. Justify the need for a new system End zone: $ 12 40-yard line: $40 . Determine the hardware requirements. From the example it is immediately obvious that the cost to an alumnus of a seat behind the end zone has not been specified. computer hardware and software requirements. especially in more complex cases. Data immediate access The issue of data immediate access depends on what queries are going to be put to the product.
• If the system does not provide desirable and reliable service to those who need it. Modelers need to synchronize the different views to ensure consistency and completeness of the total system specification. • Archival requirements (from a business perspective) The criteria/qualities of an efficient and effective system (quality assurance) Data and process models represent different views of the system. • Throughput requirement – the volume of the inputs per some time period. users and management should validate that all possible creates. one or more event processes were probably omitted from the process models. and control requirements. Some methodologies exempt associative entities from this requirement. one R. there should be one data store in the process models for each entity in the data model. But these views are interrelated. More importantly. minimum processing delays. but we believe it is simpler (and more consistent) to apply the rule to all entities on the data model. Any error omissions should be recorded both on the matrix and in the corresponding data and process models to ensure proper synchronization. and deletes have been included. In short. • If the system does not make maximum use of available resources including people. delete) matrix. Again. .There will be the need for a new system if the current system does not measure the following: • If the current system performance does not provide adequate throughput and response time. • If the information from the current system does not provide end-users and managers with timely. • If the system does not offer adequate service level and capacity to reduce the cost of the business or increase the profits of the business. The linkage between data and process models is almost universally accepted by all major methodologies. and usefully formatted information. • Response time requirement – how fast the typical event must be handled. and one D entry for system completeness. Data-to-process-CRUD (create. • If the system does not offer adequate controls to protect against fraud and embezzlement and to guarantee the accuracy and security of data and information. The synchronization quality check is stated as follows: Every entity should have all least one C. one U. and the like. reads. The decision to include or not inclined attributes is based on whether processes need to be restricted as to which attributes they can access. updates. accurate. • Security. time flow of forms. If not. audit. Note: Each event process should be described to the CASE repository with the following properties: • Event sentence – for business perspective. pertinent. read. when is not flexible and expandable. update.
• Peak periods/treatment of exceptions. The cost and benefits of the new system should be compared with those of the existing system. that the attempt be made. we should identity and document what processes must be performed at which locations. the requirements of internal check. It is important when choosing the hardware to ensure that it is capable of being expanded (units added) when the need arises. simplification and standardization.Process models illustrate the essential work to be performed by the system as a whole. Before we design the information system. This is particularly important as the centralized nature of computer processing makes possible the integration of many procedures carried out independently under conventional methods. Work flows. System should be designed with possible integration of procedures in mind. the columns indicate locations. the objectives that were agreed at the beginning of the project. Flexibility. Specialisation. and the link with clerical procedures. and the cells document which processes must be performed at which locations. exceptional items (i. • Modularity of hardware. . Some work may be unique to one location. a requirements specification was not produced at the end of the analysis stage and so the system specification had to serve both purpose. but it may be more convenient to have them dealt with separately by conventional methods. This is not easy to do because of the difficulty of quantifying benefits such as “better” or “more” information. The best work flows must be attained. Similarly. Points to be considered here are: • Integration of procedures. The analyst will have them in mind throughout the design stage. Economical.e those not recurring frequently) could be designed into the system. and still in some organizations. This includes methods of transmitting data to and from the computer. But process must be distributed to locations where work is to be performed. Other work may be performed at multiple locations. The purpose must be to meet the demands of the requirements specification and for that matter. It is important. The benefits to be derived from the practice of the “three Ss” are well known. we should identify and document what processes must be performed at which locations. At one time. The system can be designed to cope with peak-period processing. the number of stages in processing. This can be accomplished through a process-to-location-association matrix. Criteria for Design Purpose. however. file ( or database) organization. an alternative arrangement is to use a third party’s facilities for the unusually high loads. Before we design the information system. A process-to-location-association matrix is a table in which the rows indicate processes (event or elementary processes).
The length of the processing cycle is a most important consideration. Maintenance requirements. The reliability of all the hardware and software must be considered. Exiting system. Continuous control. etc. procedures. in the design of any new system. The analyst must ensure the facilities require for the new system have a proven record of reliability. so that only deviations from plan are reported for management’s attention. if old-fashioned equipment is currently being operated. the ideal medium for the subsequent input should be used. Consideration must be given to the existing staff. choice of method of presentation is important. Reliability. The analyst must consider all the methods of input and try to reduce the steps necessary between origination of data and its input. Controls should be incorporated. As the majority of steps are carried out automatically. Time. equipment. In a stock-control system. the excepted life of the hardware and the back-up facilities (in case of breakdown) must be considered. Forms. The analyst must ensure that only necessary output is produced. Audit trails (i. although it may well not be incorporated into the design of a new computer system. the procedures already exist for transferring the source data into a machine-sensible form. Where possible. SYSTEM DESIGN Introduction Purpose and Principles of various design methods • SSADM • Prototyping • Object oriented . When output is required in a humanly legible form. The presentation of source data to the computer and the production of output document will be subject to strict time constraints. and the needs of the person receiving the output will determine which one is appropriate. Methods available are visual display.Exception principle. The analyst must design the system to satisfy time requirements. graphical.e documentary records of various state in processing that can be used to check that procedures have been carried out correctly) must be laid to the satisfaction of the auditors. modes of access and processing methods must be considered. for example. printed copy. warnings would be given of slowmoving stocks. For example. there is an even greater need for the care in internal check. If output from one run is used as the input to another. forms. Speeds of equipment. data should be presented to the computer in a machine-sensible form. etc. The principle of exception should be incorporated in the design of the new system.
The rapid results provided by this method give rise to its name. The operation belong to the object whereas in a process oriented program that data . A “mock-up” of a proposed system or subsystem is produced for demonstration purposes at the early stages of a project so as to aid the users and designers to make decisions about what is required. representative or working model of the users’ requirements or a proposed design for an information system. Object oriented programming (OOP) –(Object oriented design –(OOD)) Is control Oriented or Process Oriented in that they create program level structures based primarily upon processing corresponds such as functions and procedures.Prototyping There are three activities which are sometimes described as prototyping: • Mock-ups. Following the review the prototype is extended and upgraded to become version 1 of the new system. get_breadth” “get_area”. a prototype eventually evolves into the final information system. It is normally incomplete at this stage but may have all of the essential features in a simplified form. the prototype has the appearance of the final system but lacks any real processing or storage capabilities. A prototype is a smaller-scale. Usually. After a review the prototype is further upgraded. In RAD. Rapid application development (RAD) techniques emphasize extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the system development process. This suggests that at the heart of any object is data representing its current state. A simplified version of the system is built and then reviewed. “get_length”. For example. the object “rectangle” might be identified as one on which operations might be performed. It may serve the same purpose as a mock-up but because it has some of the capabilities of a real system it can provide the opportunity to try out ideas and to investigate user interface for a new system. • Trial prototyping: A simplified working model of the proposed system or subsystem is produced. • Rapid application development (RAD). At this early stage this is like trail prototyping. The basic principle behind prototyping is that users know what they want when they see it working. The operations to be performed on a rectangle might include “create”. and so on. RAD is sometimes called a spiral approach because you repeatedly spiral through the phases to construct a system in various degrees of completeness and complexity. “remove”.
volumes. and frequency of reports and documents. The analyst will need to consider form. Individual objects are created and combined into a complete program. . Consideration would be given to: Data collection methods and validation Types of input media available Volume of input documents. and delete that object.may be thought of as belonging to the procedures or functions. eg. Choice of output media will also have to be made including when to use hard copy and when to use screen displays. Design and Specification Objectives and limitations/constraints of the new system The system outline • Output • Input • Files and processes • Systems • Flowcharts • Computer run charts • Procedure flowcharts • Modes of operation Output It is necessary to consider what required from the system before deciding how to set about producing it. Each object consists of both the data that describes the object and the processes that can create. Input Consideration of input will be influenced greatly by the needs of output. types. The necessity for quick response from the system would determine the need for an online type of input. read. update. Object-oriented analysis and design introduced object diagrams that document a system in terms of its objects and their interactions. These requirements will have become clear as the project progressed. Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) attempts to merge the data and process concerns into singular constructs called objects. Business objects might correspond to real things of importance in the business such as customers and the orders they place for products.
business systems. a system is a process. Design of input layouts. Input is processed against the stored data to produce the necessary output. calculate profit. Computer systems. management systems. A pre-defined process symbol Used where a decision has to be made in selecting the subsequent path to be followed. information systems. People speak of educational systems. The process symbol Used to present a process which has been set out in detail elsewhere eg. In name The input/output symbol Used to show the flow/path of a sequence of symbols. In recent years flowcharts have been heavily criticized as being cumbersome and inefficient tools for the job. Add number to sub total. Files and processes The elements are very much linked to input and output. In the old of all system models. and of course. Horizontal lines without arrow heads are assumed to flow left to right. . The terminal symbol Used to present any kind of processing activity. Place marks into numerical order . Vertical lines without arrow heads are assumed to flow to bottom. Soft marks ie. Flowcharts Flowcharts were originally introduced as aids to systematic process of analyzing problems and developing suitable computer-based solutions. etc. Yes Decision symbol Used where data input or output is to be performed eg. Used as the first or last symbol in a program or separately drawn program module. Considerations involved in designing files are: Storage media Method of file (database) organization and access File (database) security Record (table) layout Systems The word system is a common one that is used to describe almost any orderly arrangement of ideas or constructs. E.g Is number even? No.
process a batch of inputs/outputs together. then fed in a batch mode to a centralized database.g. because on-line data entry can be done on PCs o Remote batch -.data are input on-line on several machines. can save data entry time. Output requirement • Format • Volume .Used to add explanatory notes or descriptions..8) x 17) Exit Detailed Flowchart Modes of operation o Batch mode -. incoming mail (purchase orders). Start Is Number of hour work of greater than 8 ? Let cost be Hours x 8. clearly the way of the future. sometimes most appropriate solution e.5 Let cost be ( x 8.process inputs/outputs as they become available. cheques) o On-line mode -. particularly if end user can do the input. outgoing mail (invoices.5) ((Hours .
g. pre-recoded. For example. This application is know a PoS (Point of sale) data capture. which will be described shortly. which consist of boxes set out in a grid in rows and columns that correspond to character positions on the screen. what values it is valid for them to take and what actions are to be taken if an attempt is made by a user to enter invalid data. o The formats in which input data values are to be entered. e. Forms design and screen layout • How is data entered into the computer? For data input (or output) may be specified on special forms called screen layout charts. . pre-printed data on some suitable medium attached goods may be read or collected as the goods are sold. Range Check • Within a pre-determined range. the layout of screens may need specifying along with a description of how a dialogue with the user should take place. Design Validation Routines • Check input data is sensible and valid before processing.• • • Peak loading Special stationery and Media Format Input requirement • Data capture method • Input specification • Forms design and screen layout • The user dialogue • Coding method • Error control Data capture method • How will the data be collected? The data is “captured” at source in a machine –sensible form. They are similar to print layout charts. their data types. For example. Input specification The two main considerations here are the definitions of: o The data items to be input.
g. o Dates actually exist e. Text etc… o For currency data . o E.g. 31/04/07 or 29/02/07 do not exist but are in the correct format Length Check • Has the correct number of characters. Character check • Check for / Reject particular characters. Existency • A code exists. Add the 'Total Cost' field of a number of transactions together.o The month of a person's DOB should lie between 1 and 12. Presence Check • This checks that important data is actually there and has not been missed out.g. o A date must have at least 6 numbers in it. E.g.digits point digit digit Batch Totals • This checks for missing records. o Hyphen or apostrophe Type / Format Check • A check that data is of the right type. o A telephone bill amount is less than some maximum value for consumer bills. • Numerical fields may be added together for all records in a batch. Customers may be required to give their telephone numbers or surname. o No numbers in text.g. . o Bar code exists in the stock file.g.g. o A bank account number may always be 10 digits long. • The batch total is entered and the computer checks that the total is correct. o Number. E. Hash Totals • Some sort of meaningless arithmetic performed on a field. E. o A phone number has 12 numbers. E. E.
Add the Telephone Numbers together for a number of Customers.g. .E.
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