This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
One of your best clients raises pigs in 600 pig nurseries from 3 to 12 week-of-age, then trucks them to the finishing farm where pigs from one nursery are placed in a single building where they stay until marketed. Lately, there have been problems in some of the finisher barns and, to a lesser extent, the nurseries. Starting 4-6 weeks after arrival, some pigs begin to look gaunt and lose weight. Many of the thin pigs have visibly enlarged inguinal and submandibular lymph nodes. There is more coughing than normal and when moved around some pigs begin panting heavily and have difficulty breathing. By 8 weeks in the finisher, death losses since arrival are approximately 8 times higher than normal in 3 buildings. 1. All of the following are possible causes for respiratory disease in pigs except: a. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus b. Pseudorabies virus c. Porcine circovirus type 2 d. Enzootic pneumonia of swine virus e. Porcine herspesvirus-1 f. Swine Influenza virus 2. All are possible causes of weight loss leading to emaciation in pigs except (select the 2 most correct): a. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus b. Chronic bacterial pneumonia that resulted in pulmonary abscesses and fibrosis c. Porcine circovirus type 2 d. Enzootic pneumonia of swine virus e. Aujeszky’s disease virus 3. Which is not true of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) a. it is caused by a double-stranded, DNA virus that is very resistant to environmental inactivation b. it is caused by a single-stranded, RNA virus that is easily inactivated in the environment, unless frozen and then it is stable. c. the causative virus is inactivated by low pH (< 6.0) and thus does not normally survive passage through the stomach. d. the causative virus is inactivated by high pH (>8.0) e. in naive herds it is common for there to be clinical signs in all ages of pigs. 4. Which virus listed in question 1 usually spreads the fastest and causes the most acute outbreaks of respiratory disease with coughing being a prominent clinical signs?
5. You necropsy 5 pigs and find that they all have lesions of bronchopneumonia typical of bacterial infection. List two viruses listed in question 1 that are often associated with increased bacterial infections in pigs? a. b. 6. The owner is worried that the pigs might have porcine respiratory coronavirus. Based on what history you have and the necropsy lesions, is respiratory coronavirus likely to be a significant clinical problem? Why or why not?
7. You decide to bleed 15 pigs, pool the sera into 3 tubes with serum from 5 pigs in each tube. You submit the sera for virus isolation and serology. Each pool has a high ELISA titer for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The lab isolates PRRSV from all 3 pooled samples in spite of the fact that they have high antibody titers. The most likely reason is a. the antibodies are neutralizing b. the antibody titers are probably a cross reaction to swine influenza virus c. the antibodies are probably not neutralizing d. the presence of antibodies in the serum has nothing to do with whether or not the sera are virus isolation positive e. The antibodies are probably neutralizing, but not hemagglutinating. 8. Which of the following viruses is most likely to be eliminated by thorough cleaning, disinfection, and allowing the building sit empty for 2 week: a. porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus b. porcine circovirus type 2 c. porcine parvovirus d. porcine rotavirus 9. The owner is worried that some of the pigs are infected in utero and are persistently infected and infecting their herd mates at the finishing farm. Indicate for each of the following diseases whether or not in utero infection and persistent or latent infection is known to occur: a. porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus b. pseudorabies virus c. porcine circovirus type 2 d. swine influenza virus e. transmissible gastroenteritis virus f. porcine parvovirus 10. The manager of the nursery facility tells you that for the past 1.5 months there has been mild to moderate diarrhea in pigs about 3 to 7 days after weaning. The death loss is less than 2%,
but the pigs become dehydrated and lose weight for a few days. There has not been any evidence of diarrhea at the farrowing facility. a. What are the two most common causes of viral diarrhea in U. S. pigs? 1. 2. b. What is a possible reason the pigs develop diarrhea after weaning, but not before?
c. The owner recently read an article in his International Pig Newsletter about porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and is concerned it might be a problem. You tell him that the virus unlikely in Kansas because
11. The USDA veterinarian at a local slaughter plant found pigs from your client that have ulcers of the skin on the lips, ventral claws, and around the coronary bands. There are also ulcers affecting the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, and, with careful examination, one can find fluid filled vesicles on or around the lips. The USDA veterinarian closes the plant and takes samples to be tested for vesicular diseases, which include (circle all that are correct): a. Foot and mouth disease b. Vesicular stomatitis c. Bluetongue d. Swine vesicular disease e. Vesicular exanthema of swine f. Porcine circovirus type 2 12. Your client’s hog operation is located in southwestern Kansas. If this is indeed a vesicular disease, which is most likely? Why?
13. Of the viral diseases listed in question 12, which is the most contagious? 14. The manager of the farm where the affected pigs came has you look at a group of sheep being raised by her oldest child as a 4-H project. The sheep are obviously very reluctant to move, they are salivating excessively and their feet have a few ulcers and/or crusts. The
owner also has 2 horses that are in contact with the sheep, and the horses are perfectly healthy. If the sheep have the same vesicular disease as the pigs, the pigs are affected by:
15. After sending samples from the pigs and sheep to the USDA foreign animal disease laboratory, you determine that the pigs do not have a vesicular disease. Two possible causes of the clinical signs described in the sheep include: a. Cache Valley virus b. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease c. Contagious ecthyma virus d. Bluetongue virus e. Sheep and goat poxvirus 16. Match the virus in the left column with the most important method of transmission from the right column ___Cache Valley Virus a. Mosquitoes ___Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus b. Animal to animal ___Contagious ecthyma virus c. Culicoides sp. ___Sheep and goat pox virus d. aerosol ___Bluetongue virus e. Colostrum and milk ___Ovine progressive pneumonia virus ___Caprine arthritis—encephalomyelitis virus 17. Two viral diseases of pigs, sheep, or goats that can affect humans are: a. b. 18. Indicate whether each of the following arboviruses are RNA or DNA viruses: _______Bluetongue virus _______Rift Valley virus _______African swine fever virus _______West Nile virus _______Cache Valley virus _______Western equine encephalomyelitis virus
19. The primary clinical signs and pathologic lesions caused by viral infections are the result of replication in and damage to a particular cell type. Match the disease in the left column with the cell type in the right column that is the primary site of replication for that virus (you may or may not use all answers or you might use some more than once):
___Bluetongue ___Cache Valley virus intestine ___Rotavirus ___Contagious ecthyma ___Transmissible gastroenteritis ___swine influenza ___Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
a. crypt epithelium of the small intestine b. villous epithelium of the small c. d. e. f. g. h. crypt epithelium of the large intestine cells of the central nervous system macrophages epithelium lining bronchi and bronchioles Endothelium Epithelium of the skin
20. Viral diseases of sheep and/or goats that are caused by Lentiviruses are: a. Pulmonary carcinomatosis b. Bluetongue c. Ovine progressive pneumonia d. Contagious ecthyma e. Caprine arthritis—encephalomyelitis 21. A client has several sheep with ovine progressive pneumonia. She notes that the lambs from these ewes are smaller than average at weaning. A probably reason for this is:
22. There is an outbreak of pseudorabies in pigs owned by an occasional client of yours. The group of pigs most likely to have the highest mortality is: a. pregnant sows and gilts b. nursing piglets c. weaned piglets 3 to 6 weeks-old d. weaned piglets 7 to 12 weeks-old e. finishing pigs over 3 months-old
23. The clinical signs in the group with the highest mortality is most likely to be a. anorexia, intense pruritus, abortion and death b. central nervous signs with opisthotonos, incoordination, trembling, and seizures c. severe diarrhea leading to dehydration d. dyspnea, tachypnea, coughing, and death e. Intense pruritus followed by death 24. The owner has a group of sheep and is concerned that pseudorabies could spread to the sheep. The state department of agriculture allows vaccination for pseudorabies. Should the owner vaccinate the sheep? Why or why not
25. A client has a flock of sheep diagnosed with the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep. That disease is:
26. The area USDA veterinarian has the owner bleed the flock and send whole blood samples off for genetic testing. The test results come back and the amino acid combinations at codons 136 and 171 of the PrP gene are: a. AA RR b. AA QR c. AV QR d. AA QQ e. AV QQ (Key: A = alanine; V = valine; R = arginine; Q = glutamine) Circle all of the above amino acid combinations that are highly susceptible to the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy disease in the preceeding question. 27. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are unique in that they are thought to be caused by ________________, which are different from other infectious agents in what way?
28. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects deer and elk is:
29. Both porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) are characterized by poor growth, enlargement of lymph nodes, and interstitial pneumonia. A major difference in the two diseases is: a. With PRRS there is lymphoid necrosis, and with PMWS there is widespread lymphoid hyperplasia. b. With PRRS there is lymphoid hyperplasia, and with PMWS there is lymphoid depletion with replacement by macrophages. c. With PRRS there is lymphoid depletion with replacement by macrophages, and with PMWS there is lymphoid hyperplasia. d. With PRRS there is widespread necrosis of the epithelium lining bronchi and bronchioles, and with PMWS there is necrosis of the epithelium that lines alveoli. e. PRRS almost exclusively affects suckling pigs, while PMWS almost exclusively affects weaned, finishing pigs.
30. Two important diseases of swine that are clinically indistinguishable and which are characterized clinically by widespread hemorrhages are: a. Foot and mouth disease and swine vesicular disease b. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome c. Pseudorabies and rabies d. Border disease and classical swine fever e. Classical swine fever and African swine fever
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.