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# SECURE AND OUTSTANDING FOR TERTIARY

Erected by :
KHAIRIL ANUAR BIN MOHD RAZALI

## Enhanced, refined and continued by :

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A SYLLABUS

God created the natural numbers; everything else is the work of man.
LEOPOLD KRONECKER (1823 – 1891)
(in a reference to the development of mathematics)

## CORE PACKAGE ELECTIVE PACKAGE

Compulsory for all students and contains Students only have to choose 1
5 components. from 2 elective packages.

## Geometry Component Trigonometry Component Science & Technology

- Coordinate Geometry - Circular Measure Application Package
- Vector - Trigonometric Function - Solutions of Triangle
- Motion Along A Straight
Algebraic Component Calculus Component Line
- Functions - Differentiation
- Quadratic Equations - Integration Social Science Application
- Quadratic Functions Package
- Simultaneous Equations Statistics Component - Index Numbers
- Indices & Logarithms - Statistics - Linear Programming
- Progressions - Probability Distributions
- Linear Law - Probability
- Permutations & Combinations

1. In Elective Package, students who are keen to science and technology are encourage to
choose Science and Technology Application Package while students who are keen to
commerce, literature and economy are encourage to choose Social Science Application
Package.
2. In Core Package, each teaching component contains topics that have connection with one
branch of mathematics. Topics in any component were arranged in a hierachy so that
any simple topic, was learned, before moving on to more complex topics.

3. Majority of topics listed above are continuation of Lower Secondary Mathematics, Form 4 or
Form 5 Mathematics that have or still being taught. For instance, the basic of Linear
Programming topic is the drawing of Inequalities Region that was learnt from Graphs of
Functions topic in Form 5 Mathematics.
4. Although there are a few new topics and concepts, candidates can still apprehend them with
a high algebraic dan arithmetic skills and plenty of time going through the facts and technical
things in those topics.
5. Project Work is encourage to give opportunity for students to use knowledge and skill that
have been learned in a real and challenging situation. It gives benefit such as mind
stimulation, makes learning more meaningful, chance to apply mathematical skill and

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Project Work Report must contain the following items:
a. Topic
b. Introduction
c. Method / Strategy / Procedure
d. Findings
e. Discussion / Method of solving
f. Conclusion / Pengitlakan
6. To make teaching and learning easier, two annual schemes are suggested; Component
Scheme and Topical Scheme.
In Component Scheme all topics on Algebra are taught first before moving on to other
schemes. This scheme suggest contents from those that have been taught to the new ones.
Topical Scheme gives more room by introducing algebraic and geometrical topics before
introducing new branch such as calculus.

## Algebraic Component Progressions

- Progressions
- Linear Law
Integration

Calculus Component
Linear Law
- Integration

Vector
Geometri Component
- Vector
Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometry Component
- Trigonometric Functions Permutations and
Combinations
Statistic Component
- Permutations & Probability
Combinations
- Probability
- Probability Distributions Probability Distributions

## Science & Technology Social Science

Application Package Application Package Motion Along A Straight Line
- Motion Along A Staight Line - Linear Programming Or
Linear Programming
PROJECT WORK PROJECT WORK
PROJECT WORK
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B EXAMINATION FORMAT

## Half the battle in mathematics is the invention of a good notation.

PIERE SIMON LAPLACE (1749 – 1827)
(as paraphrased by E. T. Bell)

## ITEM PAPER 1 (3472/1) PAPER 2 (3472/2)

Type Of
Subjective Test Subjective Test
Instrument
(Short Question) (Limited Response and structure)

Part A [ 40 Marks ]
6 questions (Answer all)
Part B [ 40 Marks ]
5 questions (Choose 4)
Number Of 25 questions (Answer All)
Question Part C [ 20 Marks ]
4 questions (Choose 2)
(2 questions from Science &
Technology Application Package ; 2
Questions from Social Science
Application Package)

Total Marks
80 marks 100 marks

## Exam Duration 2 hours 2 hours 30 minutes

Contextual Covers all field of studies Covers all field of studies from Form 4
Coverage From Form 4 to form 5. to Form 5.

## Constructual Knowledge : 20 % Application Skill : 60 %

Inclination Application Skill : 80 % Problem Solving Skill : 40 %

## Easy : Moderate : Difficult Easy : Moderate : Difficult

Difficulty Level 6 : 3 : 1 4 : 3 : 3

Overall
Easy : Moderate : Difficult = 5 : 3 : 2

1. Scientific Calculator
Additional Tools 1. Scientific Calculator
2. Mathematical Table Book
2. Mathematical Table Book
3. Geometrical Tools
3. Geometrical Tools

1. Other than providing time as suggested above, candidates should also set aside the last 5 – 10
minutes to recheck and arrange answers.

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2. Short questions usually are on basic skill in a topic. It also doesn’t involve other topics. For
example, short question on Circular Measure only involves matters and facts about Circular
Measure only and doesn’t involve other topics.

3. The situation differs in long questions where usually skills from a few topics are gathered
together. A clear example is the long question from the Circular Measure topic which
includes the Coordinate Geometry and Trigonometry topics.
4. Content of Paper 1 is short questions from Core Package of the syllabus. Have a good grasp
at least on the basic works of these topics.
5. To build self confidence in preparation for examination, there are a few strategies and
routines that can be carried out. Among them are
5.1 Start with solving Paper 1’s short questions because usually they are not outside the
topic asked, what the questions want are very clear and they do not need a lot of working
method. Then, go to long question in Paper 2.
5.2 Follow the topical flow as suggested in page 2.
5.1 Sharpen your Algebraic and Lower Secondary Mathematics Skills.
The key word to our strategy is begin from the easiest and move to the more difficult work.

## C ANSWERS AND MARKS

The moving power of mathematical invention is not reasoning but imagination.
AUGUSTUS DE MORGAN (1806 – 1871)

1. Do not cancel out non completed answers or answers you feel are not correct because correct
ideas and working method will be considered and given marks.
2. Long subjective questions usually are divided into a few parts such as part (a), (b) and (c),
where answer in (a) will be used in part (b) and so on. Though mistake in part (a) will cause
mistake in part (b) and (c), marks will still be given to correct working methods. (If working
mark is 1 and answer is 0 in part (a), then chance of getting working marks in latter parts are
still there).
3. The important things to note are ANSWER IS NEAT AND TIDY, WORKING METHOD
SHOWN CLEARLY and FINAL ANSWER IS DENOTED.
4. Marks allocated for a question, predict level of difficulty and number of working method that
has to be written.
5. Answers, where possible, should be written in the simplest form.
6. Give the precise answer base on what the question want.
7. In sketching graphs, characteristics like shape of the graph, min/max points and x or y-
intercepts must be priortize. In drawing graphs, characteristics like uniform scale, a few
points correctly plotted, and smooth curve are the important things looked upon.

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8. In general, types of marks given are INDEPENDENT marks, WORKING/METHOD
marks and ANSWER marks. INDEPENDENT marks do not need working method,
candidates will loose ANSWER marks if WORKING marks are not obtained.
9. To demonstrate these important points, let us together study examples below. (Empty spaces
are provided for student to jot down notes and other important matters).

Example 1 (Paper 2)
A slice of cake has the surface OAB in the shape of a sector with radius 15 cm. Length of arc AB
is 10 cm and the cake is 6 cm thick. Find
O
(a) Angle of the sector in radian (1 mark)
(b) Total surface area of the cake (4 marks) A

Example 2 (Paper 1)
Given f(x) = 4x(2x – 1) 4. Find f ’(x). (2 marks)

Example 3 (Paper1)
Given the geometric progression 8, 24, 72, ……. . Find the smallest number of term that has to
be taken in order that its sum exceed 50,000. (4 marks)

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D LIST OF FORMULAE

A chess player may offer the sacrifice of a pawn or even a piece, but a mathematician the game.
G. H. HARDY (1877 – 1947)
(commenting on the method of proof by contradiction)

1. List of formulae supplied in the examination is limited to certain formulas and facts. This
means there are still many formulas / facts / concepts that are not given.

2. Candidates are encourage to familiarise themselves working with this short and limited list of
formulae and memorise other formulas / facts / concepts that are not listed.

3. Among the techniques that can be practised in order not to forget formula / fact / concept
easily are by :

## 3.1 Doing as many as possible exercises repeatedly.

3.2 Doing all sub-topic exercises from your text book or other reference book.
3.3 From sub-topic exercises, move to sumative exercises that incorporates back these sub-
topics.

4. Following are a few problems that might be encountered on the list of formulae supplied :

4.1 List of formulae are long and plenty and might cause candidates to be in doubt which
formulae is the right one.

## Try to look at the suitable

Trigonometric Identity (Basic
Identity @ Addition Identity @
Double Angle Identity.

## Example 5 : Solve the equation log x 16 – log x 2 = 3.

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Indices and logarithms law are
not supplied. So write down these
laws ini and then make a choice
which is suitable to be used
- Laws are not necessarily read
from left to right but can also
be done the other way round.)

4.3 Cannot use the precise formulae because the problem given cannot be interpreted
correctly.

Example 6 : A square has a perimeter of 160 cm. The second square is form by joining
midpoints for the sides of the first square and so on as depicted in the
diagram. Find :
(a) Perimeter of the eight square
(b) The sum of perimeter of 5 squares formed.

## Age Number of resident

1 - 20 50
21 - 40 79
41 - 60 47
61 – 80 14
81 - 100 10

4.5 Formulae / fact / concept that you thought are only used in Mathematics only (not in
Additional Mathematics) and didn’t bother about them.

## Example 8 : Area and volume of solids formulas (used in Differentiation topic).

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Translation concepts (used in Coordinate Geometry topic ).

## Tangen to circles law (used in Circular Measure topic)

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FOR PAPER 2 :
1. Choose long questions in Part B where the form of question and answering method does not
change a lot form year to year.
Example 9 : Long questions from Linear Law topic
Table shows values of x and y obtained from an experiment. It is known that y and x is related
by the equation y = axn
x 1.2 1.8 2.3 2.6 3
y 2.3 5.2 8.5 10.8 14.4

## (a) Plot lg x against lg y (5 marks)

(b) Find the value of a and n (4 marks)
(c) Find the value of y when x = 2 (1 mark)

An experiment involving adiabatic expansion is carried out. The pressure, P, for mercury and
volume, V, for air obtained are as follows:

## V 100 125 150 175 200

P 58.6 42.4 32.8 27.0 22.3

## Variables P and V is related by P = kVn where k and n are constant.

(a) Change the equation that relates P and V to the linear form (1 mark)
(b) Draw the graph of lg P against lg V. (5 marks)
(c) From your graph, find the value of k and n. (4 marks)

2. Choose long questions in Part C where the form of question and answering method does not
change a lot from year to year.
Example 10: Long question from Linear Programming topic.

Kasmah wish to sew shirts and pants to be sold to the public. A pants needs 40 minutes preparation
and 1 hour of sewing time. A shirt needs 50 minutes preparation time and 40 minutes of sewing time.
Kasmah sews x pants and y shirts.
(a) Given at least 10 hours are use for preparation and the maximum sewing time is 16 hours.
Write 2 inequalities base on these informations.
(b) Given the total preparation time is less than or the same as the total sewing time. Show that
y ≤ 2x.
(c) Contruct and shade the region that satisfies the above inequalities.
(d) The profit from the sale of a pants and shirt respectively is RM5 and RM8. Find from the graph
the maximum profit that Kasmah can obtain.

Housing developer Rejeki Halal wish to build type A and type B houses. To build type A houses needs
120 m2 of land and a cost of RM56,000. To build type B houses needs 300 m2 of land and a cost of
RM84,000. The developer wish to build x type A houses and y type B houses according to the
following constraints:
I : Number of type A houses built must exceed number of type B houses.
II : Land area that can be used to build both type of houses is 2400 m2.
III : Maximum capital for building the houses is RM840,000.

## (a) Write 3 inequalities that satisfy the above constraints.

(b) With a scale of 1 cm to 1 unit on each axis, draw graphs of the three inequalities. Hence, shade
The region, R, that satisfies the above constraints.
(c) Base on your graph,
(i) What is the maximum unit of type B house built if number of type A houses is 10.
(ii) By selling all the houses, the developer obtain profit of RM15,000 for each unit of type A
house and RM24,000 for each unit of type B house. How much are the maximum profit obtain by
the developer ?

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3. There are questions that incorporate topics. Among those that usually are combined together
(2 IN 1) are Differentiation and Integration topic.

4. Also, choose long questions from “solo” topics (topic that does not involve other topic).

## F GENERAL GUIDE ON PROBLEM SOLVING

As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not
refer to reality.
ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879 – 1955)

1. In our short seminar session, a detail guide for each question is not possible. Even though, a
bit of general guide are provided below.

## Example 11 : Given f(x) = 2x2 – 1 , find f ’(x)

x+1

Example 12 : Find the straight line equation that passes through (2,1) and perpendicular
with the line 2x + y –3 = 0

## Example 13: Given f : x ax + b and 3 - -5

Find a and b.
-2 - --1
f
x ax + b

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Example 14: Distance of the point (k, 3) to (5, 7) is 5 units. Find the values of k.

Example 15: A point P(x, y) is moving such that its distance from the line y = - 2
is equal its distance from the point (6, 6). Find the point’s loci equation.

## (b) Forming equation after making comparison.

Example 16 : Given the function f(x) = 3x + c and its inverse function given as
f -1(x) = mx + 4/3. Find the value of m and c.

## 2.3 “ Forming own equation” method.

Example 17: The sum of the first three terms of a geometric progression that has
a common ratio –1/3 is 42. Calculate the sum of the third term until
the fifth term.

3 Other than the methods given above, skills listed below are also important :

## 3.1 Algebra – solving linear, simultaneous, quadratic equation and simplifying

expressions.
3.2 Arithmetic – adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing fractions, decimals and
negative number.
3.3 Reading Mathematical Tables.
3.4 Using Scientific calculator.

Without these skills, plenty of questions are answered only half way..
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G TOPICAL STUDY (ANALYSIS)

All the measurements in the world are not the equivalent of a single theorem that produces a significant advance in
our greatest sciences.
KARL FRIEDRICH GAUSS (1777 – 1855)
(generally ranked with Archimedes and Newton at the pinnacle of mathematical achievement)

1. It is very important for candidates to know inter topics relations in the syllabus. From this
inter topics relations, at least we can see

## 1.1 Which topic that is always used in other topics.

1.2 Which topic that usually “stands alone” (does not involve other topics)
1.3 Important topics whereby without them, many other topics cannot be completed with ease
and flow.

## Following are the relations between topics in Additional Mathematics

LINEAR PROGRAMMING
COORDINATE GEOMETRY

LINEAR LAW

PROGRESSIONS

DIFFERENTIATION
FUNCTIONS

INTEGRATION
CIRCULAR MEASURE
MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE

## INDICES & LOGARITHMS

SOLUTIONS OF TRIANGLE
STATISTICS
PERMUTATIONS & COMBINATIONS
INDEX NUMBERS
VECTOR
SIMULTANEOUS EQN.
PROBABILITY

## Question : What is the importance of (i) Trigonometry (ii) Graphs of Function

(iii) Statistics (iv) Gradient & Area Under Graphs (v) Volume & Area of
Solids topics (from Mathematics subject) to our Additional Mathematics ?

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2. After spending a lot of time giving attention and solving questions, try to identify what are
the important formulas, concepts and facts needed for each topic. Following are among the
important points that can be listed down for each topic.

CIRCULAR MEASURE

## Short question : - Converting radians to degrees and vice versa.

- Using the formulae s = jθ and L = ½j2θ
- Can apply the Tangen to a circle and Trigonometric Law

Long question : - Other than the above skills, long questions also involves Coordinate
Geometry, Solutions of Triangles and Trigonometry topics.
- Involves the Area of a segment = ½j2θ - ½j2sinθ formulae.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

## Short question : - Sketch the information given.

- If sketches are given, add the information given in the diagram.
- Involves the Distance, Midpoints, Area, Gradient, Equation of a
Straight Line, Paralllel and Perpendicular formulas..
- Quadratic Equations are involve too.

Long question : - Other than the above items, long questions usually involves
Dividor with the ratio of m:n and Locus Equation.

PROGRESSIONS

Short question : - Type of progression is usually informed and this makes it easier for us
to choose formulas.
- Sometimes we have to use “own formula” first.

Long question : - Type of progression is not informed. We have to carry out a test
Whether it is an arithmetic ar geometric progressions first
- Algebra involves sometimes is quite difficult.
- Logarithms sometimes are needed for problems involving Geometric
Progressions.

FUNCTIONS

## Short question : - Using the concept “if f(x) = 2x + 1 then f(u) = 2u + 1 @

f(t – 1) = 2(t – 1) + 1 @ f(#*) = 2(#*) + 1” and so on.
- Finding the inverse and composite function.
- Sketches of graphs of Absolute Value Function (this does not restricted
to linear graphs only but also quadratic and trigonometric graphs).
- Forming “Equation by Comparison”.

Long question : - Other the above items, question of finding f if given fg and g, or
finding g if given fg and f, usually is in this part.

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## Short and : - Finding roots

Long question - Using “Condition of type of roots”
- Forming equation from roots .
- Relations with Quadratic Function

## Short and : - Sketching graph with “Finding x-intercept” method.

Long question - Sketching graph with “Completing the square” method.
- Relation with Quadratic Equation topic.
- Solving Quadratic Inequalities.

## Short and : - Write down indices and logarithmic laws.

Long question - Not necessarily laws are read from “left to right” but can also be the
other way around.
Example 18: Solve 5logx3 + 2logx2 – logx324 = 4

## - Don’t create “own formulae”

Example 19: Solve log3x + log93x = -1

## - Sometimes we can be given linear, quadratic or

simultaneous equation in indeks and logarithm form.
Example 20 : Solve 22x – 2x – 2 = 0

## - Once in a while readings of log table or calculator are needed.

Example 21 : Evaluate log 4 5

LINEAR LAW

## Short question : - Linearise non-linear function (i.e change to the form of Y = mX + c)

- Finding value of constant by comparing constant of non-linear function
with constant of linear function obtained from graph.

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Long question : - Other than the above skills, long question involves drawing of Best Fit
Line using transparent long ruler.
- This is quite easy to be done because we only plots graph by following
the instruction but be careful when shifting points to the graph paper.
- A little algebra and knowledge on logarithm usually needed in
linearising function.
- Make sure you can find gradient and read y-intercept of the graph drawn
- Scale used is very important. Draw as big as possible but not until
y-intercept can’t be read.

STATISTICS

Short and : - Which formulae wish to be used depends on data type (either Grouped
Long question Data or Ungrouped Data)
-You must be able to identify which is data and which is frequency.

Example 22 : Find mean of the number of student for the data below.

5 30
4 35
3 40

## - Experience in drawing ogives and histograms from Mathematics subject

are needed.

SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS

Short and : - Make x or y subject of a formula from the linear equation and subtitute
Long question in the non-linear equation.
- Quadratic equation will be obtained and solve it using formulae or
factorisation.
- Don’t forget to find the other variable value.
- Long question usually is in implicit form concealed in questions from
other topics.

## Example 23 : Find the distance between two points of intersection of

the graph x + y = 10 with the graph x2 – y + y2 + 10 = 0

DIFFERENTIATIONS

## Short question : - Can differentiate functions using the various techniques.

- Other terms for differentiation – Gradient Function, Derivative of x
with respect to y, Gradient of Curve and Tangent Gradient
- Differentiation usage in finding Tangent/Normal equations,
Rate of Change, Small Changes/Approximation and Min/Max Problems.
- A rough visualisation of diagram is very useful.

Example 24 :
Find equation of the tangent to the curve y = x3 –2 at (-2, -10).

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Long question : - Application of Differentiation (tangent/normal equation, min/max value
Rate of change, small changes and approximations) usually were
incorporated together.

INTEGRATIONS

## Short question : - Can integrate functions using techniques available.

- Integration application in finding curve equation and area under graphs
are needed.

## Long question : - Integration appllication usually were incorporated together.

- Volume of revolution is involve in this section..
- Because graphs are involved, knowledge from Coordinate Geometry,
Function, Quadratic Function, Simultaneous Equation are very
useful.

## Short and : - Sketch the problems visualisation if possible.

Long question - Can derive the function s, v and a by diffrentiating or integrating.
- Don’t forget “ + c “ when doing indefinite integrals .
- Interpretation certain terms as listed below is very important when
solving problems..

## Displacement - position from O (point of reference)

Maximum displacement/Stationary/Momentarily at rest - ds/dt = 0
-v=0
Maximum Velocity/Uniform Velocity/Fix Velocity - dv/dt = 0
- a=0
Beginning from a fix point O - when t = 0, s = 0.
Change direction - ds/dt = 0
- v=0
To the left of point O - s < 0
Return to the point O - s = 0

LINEAR PROGRAMMING

## Short question : - Defining inequalities region.

- Finding solution certain function from region.
- Changing constraints to inequalities and vice versa.

## Long question : - Changing constraints to inequalities.

- Constraints are usually given, but there are also some that are implicitly
stated.
- Drawing inequalities region (use Mathematic’s experience).
- Draw as big as possible but not too big until part of the region cannot be
shown.
- Find solution (min cost @ max profit problem) by subtituting corner
points in the function that is to maximise or minimise.

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TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

## Short and : - Identify suitable “tools” to be used .

Long question TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS DEFINITION
TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS IN QUADRANTS FORMULAS
COTANGENT, COSECANT, SECANT
TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES – Basic, Double Angle, Addition
TABLE BOOK

Example 25: Given tan x = 1/3. Without using table, find kos (x –45o)

## - Usually question are on solving equations and graph sketching or

drawing where knowledge from Functions and Graphs of Functions
topics are gravely required.
SOLUTIONS OF TRIANGLES
Short and : - The precise use of formulae that is the sine rule, cosine rule or area
Long question of a triangle formula.
- Knowledge of Lines and Planes in 3D topic sometimes are required.
PROBABILITY
Short question : - Usually involves Simple Probability problems.
Long question : - Usually involves Permutations & Combinations problems.
VECTOR
Short question : - Usually, you have to shift problem to the Cartesan Plane for a clearer
picture.
- Hence, knowledge from Coordinate Geometry can be applied.
- Vector Unit Formula is sometime needed.
Long question : - Usually find other alternative “route” that is “suitable” to “arrive”
at “destination” and state this “route” in defined vector notation.
- Addition, subtraction and multiplication of vector with scalar are
required.
PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION
Short and : - Finding probability of Binomial Distribution
Long question - Finding n, r, p q of Binomial Distribution
- Mean, Variance and Standard Deviation of Binomial Distribution.
- Normal Distribution Table
- Finding probability of Normal Distribution
- Given probability, find Normal Distribution Score

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H COMMON MISTAKES

## 1. Non-suitable final answer is not deleted.

Example 26: Solve the equation 2log 5 (x – 1) = 1 + log 5 (1 – x)

## 2. Answer given is not complete.

Example 27 : Solve the equation sin (2x + 32o) = -sin 72o for 0o ≤ x ≤ 360o

## 3. Using formulas that are not on any Mathematical List

Example 28 : If log 9 y = 2 + log 3 x , express y in terms of x.

## Example 29 : Given sin x = m , express kos (90o + x) in terms of m.

4. Working method shown is correct, but still no marks awarded because the work is half
way completed.
Example 30 : Solve sin (2x + 32o) = - sin 72o for 0o ≤ x ≤ 360o

## 5. Mistakes on graphs - not drawn big enough

- drawn too big till y-intercept can’t be shown
- best fit line not drawn using long transparent ruler.

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6. Answer not written explicitly.

7. Linear, quadratic and simultaneous equation that involves log, indices and
trigonometry can’t be solve properly.
8. Adding information not given and thus changing the original question.
Example 31 : The weather is defined as cloudy, rainy, sunny and windy. Find the
probability that it will rain in two consecutive days.

## 9. Solving quadratic inequalities like quadratic equation. Quadratic inequality by

right should be solve by graphical or number line method.
10. No precision in answer even though the question is quite easy.
Example 32:

## Given diameter = 36 cm.

PQ = 3OP and PQ is tangent to the cicle.
Oo R Find
(a) the angle made by the arc PR at
centre of the circle.
(b) area of shaded region.
P Q

I CONCLUSION
[The Universe] cannot be read until we have learnt the language and become familiar with the characters in which
it is written. It is written in mathematical language ……..
GALILEO GALILEI (1564 – 1642)

1. From our long discussion, it is observed that Additional Mathematics is a subject that
requires time to grasp and be fluent on.
2. With strong and sound basic skills (Algebra, Arithmetic, Shape, Number) and a lot of
exercises, only then the important and main content of Additional Mathematics can be
grasped.
3. A sound grasp of Mathematics SPM is required to make a notable advance in