GMSARN International Conference on Sustainable Development: Issues and Prospects for the GMS 12-14 Nov.

2008

1













Abstract— This paper presents the design and fabrication of five speed manual gear-box for four wheel drive passenger car
which is intended to attach with 1 HD-T engine (common-rail high version, direct injection turbo engine). In an automobile,
the power train carries the power from the engine to the car wheels and consists of the clutch, transmission, propeller shaft,
differential and wheel axles. The gear-box is one of the most important parts of the power train. In the 1 HD-T engine gear-
box, the five forward speed and one reverse gears are helical type. Gears and shafts are designed with AISI 4150 OQT 1000
heat treated alloy steel. This paper will provide the necessary concepts, design procedure techniques to design shafts and
helical gears. It is also included the calculation of gear ratios from Progressive Gear Steps. The sample counter shaft and
gears assembly is fabricated only to know the manufacturing processes with localized material. The detail drawings and
stress analysis is made by using “Auto Desk” software based on Ansys technology. Road load performance graphs are
described by using MATLAB program.

Keywords— Auto Desk Software, Fabrication, Five Speed Manual Gear-box, 1 HD-T Engine.

1.

INTRODUCTION
All form of motorized transport, including vessels and
aircraft, need transmissions to convert torque and
rotation. The average engine would have power enough
to operate a car without a transmission provided the car
operated on reasonably level roads and maintained
sufficient speed. When the car must be started from a
standstill, or when attempting to negotiate steep grades,
the engine would not provided sufficient power and the
car would stall. Much less torque is required to move a
car rolling on level ground than is necessary to drive the
same car up a steep hill. To enable the engine to increase
torque to the drive line, it is obvious that a torque
multiplier (transmission) is needed. By using a
transmission, it is possible to adapt the available power of
the engine to meet changing road and load conditions.
There are two types of transmission, namely, manual
transmission and automatic transmission. Manual
transmission type is used for so many cars in various
models and locations. If the car has a manual gear box,
the driver moves the shift lever to shift gears. Automatic
gearbox does the job automatically without any effort by
the driver. Manual transmission consists of a cast iron or
aluminum housing, shafts, bearings, gears, synchronizing
devices and shifting mechanisms. Automatic transmission
includes a torque converter, compound planetary gear set,
two or more disc clutches and one or more bands. The
aim of this paper is to obtain the design and working
procedure for mass production in related fields. Figure1
shows the neutral position of gear meshing.

Mon Mon Zaw is with Mandalay Technological University,
Mandalay, Myanmar (Phone: +95-9-5350760; Fax: +95-2-88702;
Email: okka.gtc@gmail.com, okkamon@gmail.com).











Fig .1. Neutral Position Gear Meshing
2. REQUIRED DATA OF 1 HD-T ENGINE
To design and analysis of 1 HD-T engine gearbox, the
required data are collected and assumptions are extracted
from automotive transmissions handbook.
Car type 4WD Passenger Car
Curb weight 1630 kg
Gross vehicle weight 2590 kg
Overall vehicle length 4890 mm
Overall vehicle width 1940 mm
Overall vehicle height 1925 mm
Tyre type 205/75 R 16
Maximum car speed 180 km/h
Engine type 1 HD-T
Bore × Stroke 94 × 100
Compression ratio 18.6: 1
Combustion chamber Direct injection type
Displacement 4164 cc
Maximum power 118 kW at 3600 rpm
Maximum torque 360 kW at 2100 rpm
Mon Mon Zaw
Design and Fabrication of Five Speed Manual Gear-box
for Four-Wheel Drive Passenger Car

G
1
G
3
G
5
G
7
G
9
G
11
G
12
G
13
G
10 G
8
G
6
G
4
G
2
Counter Shaft
Input Shaft
3
rd
- 4
th
Synchronizer
5
th
Synchronizer
1
st
- 2
nd
Synchronizer
Reverse
Idler Gear
4
th
Gear
(Clutch Gear)
Reverse Gear
1
st
Gear
2
nd
Gear
5
th
Gear
3
rd
Gear
Output
Shaft


2
3. CALCULATION OF GEAR RATIOS
To calculate gear ratios, the following equations are used.
i
A
= i
S
i
G
i
E
(1)
i
G
,
tot
= = (2)

By using progressive gear step,
1 z
tot , G ) 2 z )( 1 z ( 5 . 0
2
1
i
1

− −
ϕ
= ϕ
(3)
i
n
= i
Z
φ
1
(z-n)
φ
2
(z-n-1)
(4)
where, i
A
= the total power train ratio
i
S
= the moving-off element ratio
i
G
= gearbox ratio
i
E
= final drive ratio
From specified car weight, desired tyre size, and
specification of 1 HD-T engine, the result of gear ratios
are as follows;
1
st
speed = 4.048
2
nd
speed = 2.16
3
rd
speed = 1.36
4
th
speed = 1
5
th
speed = 0.88
4. DESIGN CALCULATION OF GEARS
In gear design, choose AISI 4150 OQT 1000 material
which has Brinell Hardness 401, yield stress 1250 MP
a

and ultimate tensile stress 1360 MP
a
. The diameters of
gears are unknown. The center distance is 98 mm. For the
forward speed gears, the design condition was unsatisfied
with this brinell hardness values. So, the material was
necessary to make heat treatment to get BHN 601.
Gear designs are calculated by using Lewis Equation.
t
2
all
all
2
F
k S
y m
1 π
=

cos ψ (5)
S
all
=
ψ cos π
2
3 2
m n ky
M
t (6)
where M
t
= Torque in weaker gear, Nm
Ft = Transmitted force, N
n = Number of teeth on weaker gear
m = Number of module
y = Form factor
k = 6 for helical gear(upper limit)
ψ = Helix angle of gear tooth form
S
all
= Allowable stress
Table 1 shows the results of gear meshing.
5. SHAFT DESIGN CALCULATION
The shafts are designed according to the point of view of
the strength and critical speed. The shaft design
calculations are mainly based on the ASME code
equation.
For a solid shaft with axial loading, the ASME code
equation is:
( )
2
t t
2
a
b b
s
3
M K
8
d F
M K
S
16
d +

σ
+
π
=
(7)
where M
t
= Torsional moment, Nm,
M
b
= Bending moment, Nm,
F
a
= Axial load, N,
d = Shaft diameter, m,
K
b
= Combined shock and fatigue factor applied
to bending moment
K
t
= Combined shock and fatigue factor applied
torsional moment
σ = Column-action factor
Table 2. Results of Shaft Design
Type
of
Shaft
Material
S
u

(MPa)
S
y


(MPa)
Dia
(mm)
Length
(mm)
Input
Shaft
4150
OQT1000
1360 1250
25-
30
244
Output
Shaft
4150
OQT1000
1360 1250
21.5-
50
462
Count
-er
Shaft
4150
OQT1000
1360 1250
30-
45
375
Idler
Shaft
4150
OQT1000
1360 1250
27-
28
110
The critical speed of shafts is calculated by using
Rayleigh-Ritz equation.

ω
c
= (8)


where W
n
= Weight of n
th
mass,
δ
n
= Static deflection at the n
th
mass and

i = Total number of masses
Table 3. Results of Critical Speed from Shafts
Type of Shaft Min: and
Max: Speed
(rpm)
Critical
Speed
(rpm)
Remark
Input Shaft
Output Shaft
Counter Shaft
Idler Shaft
2100 - 3600
480 - 4113
1600 - 2742
770 - 1316
393618
357231
199658
305397
The
first
critical
speed is
consid-
ered.
6. MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF COUNTER
SHAFT AND GEARS ASSEMBLY
In the practical implementation of the sample production
elements for counter shaft, the processing of
manufacturing methods and heat treatments need to be
considered.
z
G
G
i
i
i
i 1
min ,
max ,
====


1
2
1
δ
δ
i
n n
n n
i
W
W g


3
Table 1. Results for Gear Meshing
Gear
Pair
1
st
2
nd
3
rd
4
th
5
th
R
Particular G
9
G
10
G
7
G
8
G
3
G
4
G
1
G
2
G
5
G
6
G
11
G
12
G
13

Pitch Dia
(mm)
149 47 126 70 105 91 85 111 79 117 145 90 45
No. of teeth 43 13 39 23 38 33 34 44 32 47 43 25 13
Torque
(Nm)
1470 / 470 826 / 470 536 / 470 360 / 470 317/ 470 1553 / 970 /470
Helix angle 23 30 30 30 30 23
Gear ratio 4.048 2.16 1.36 1 0.88 4.313
Face Width
(mm)
25 21.5 22 25 23 27
Module No.
(mm)
3.5 3 2.75 2.5 2.5 3.5
Addendum
(mm)
3.5 3 2.75 2.5 2.5 3.5
Dedendum
(mm)
4.05 3.471 3.182 2.893 2.893 4.05
Clearance
(mm)
0.55 0.471 0.432 0.393 0.393 0.55
Tooth
thickness
(mm)
5.5 4.71 4.32 3.93 3.93 5.5

The desired gear blank is fixed on three jaws of Semi-
Auto Lathe to make turning and facing roughly. And
then, it is placed on Engine Lathe by fitting spindle with
jig to fine turning and facing for required dimensions.
Drilling machine could be used to drill the gear blank for
desired hole. After drilling, the gear needs to spline
internally on Broaching Machine. To form gear tooth, the
gear blank is attached on Hobbing Machine and fed with
desired size hobbing cutter. The gear can get surface
harden by making with High-Frequency Induction
Hardening Machine. The surface of the gear is grinded
with Surface Grinder. In Chamfering Machine, the gear
must be chamfered the edges of gear tooth for smooth
running. Carburizing process adds carbon to the gear to
improve chemical properties. After carburizing, the final
tooth grinding has been taken. The procedures of all six
gears are the same.
The first process of counter shaft production is to cut
the raw material on Sawing Machine to get required
length. After that the raw shaft is placed on Copy Lathe
and turning and facing can be done not only for rough but
also for fine. The shaft is externally splined by using
Spline Hobbing Machine. After this process, the shaft is
placed in the furnace to heat treat by Quenching Method.
And then it is taken out from the furnace and immersed in
salted water to harden the material. It needs to chamfer
and fine cylindrical grind before finishing.


4
After getting gears components and counter shaft, these
parts are fitted in order their positions. To get more
tightening and strength, welding between shaft and gears
has been done. And then final carburizing is made the
whole counter shaft and gears assembly. The fine
grinding must be done as ending process for sample
counter shaft and gears assembly. Figure 2 shows the
sample product of counter shaft and gears assembly.
Fig.2. Sample Product of Counter Shaft and Gears
Assembly
The sample counter shaft and gears assembly is
fabricated only to know the manufacturing processes with
localized material.

7. ANALYSIS OF STRESSES BY USING AUTO
DESK SOFTWARE 2007
The following procedure is to analysis the stresses,
deformation and safety factor of a given model by using
the program Auto Desk.













Fig.3. Stress Analysis Procedure of Auto Desk Software
2007
The following figures represent the stresses distribution
for counter shaft in five speed manual gearbox when the
gears are in first speed position. Figure 4 shows the forces
acting on the counter shaft. W
2
, W
4
, W
6
, W
8
, W
10
and
W
13
are 16.67N, 11.77N, 16.67N, 10.3N, 4.9N and 4.41N
respectively. F
a2
, F
r2
and F
t2
are 4804.4N, 3028.8N and
8321.5N respectively. F
a10
, F
r10
and F
t10
are 8417.25N,
7217.5N and 19830N respectively.

Fig.4. The Forces Acting on Counter Shaft

Fig.5. Maximum Principal Stress on Counter Shaft

Fig.6. Minimum Principal Stress on Counter Shaft
As shown in Figure 5, the maximum principal stress,
the maximum and minimum stresses are 416.091MPa and
87.264MPa respectively. From Figure 6 the maximum
and minimum stresses are 95.344MPa and 362.791MPa
respectively. But the actual maximum stress acting on the
counter shaft, the yellow color is 248.306 Mpa in
To run the
program by
iteration method
Minimum principal
stress distribution
in the model
Maximum
principal stress
distribution in
the model
To run the
program by
iteration method
Analysis
Results
Model of
drawing for
Counter Shaft
Selection of
Materials
Restraint of
work piece
To select the
Loads on the
surface
The loads
changed due to
the operation
W13
W10
W8
W6
W4
W2+Ft2
Fa2
Fr2
Ft10
Fa10
Fr10


5
maximum principal stress and the strong green color is
159.175 Mpa in minimum principal stress. The maximum
stresses on the counter shaft due to the first operation are
less than the permissible strength of material.
8. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF 1 HD-T
ENGINE GEARBOX
The graph of the forces opposing vehicle motion and
engine performance characteristics which provides the
background to the need for a wide range of gearbox
designs used for different vehicle applications will be
considered as necessity of a gearbox. Top gear ratio is
selected so that the maximum road speed corresponding
to the engine speed at which the maximum brake power is
obtained.









Fig.7. Typical Engine Performance Graph

Fig.8. Traction Diagram of Tractive Effort and Total
Running Resistance vs Road Speed
The acceleration and climbing performance in the
various gears of the transmission must be checked. In the
traction diagram, the traction available in each gear and
the traction required at various gradients are plotted as a
function of the vehicle speed. The traction available is
reduced by the power-train efficiency, η
tot
, which also
includes the effect of losses due to accessories such as
servo pumps.
Maximum values of the horsepower are different from
different engines but the shapes of the power cures are
similar. The typical characteristics may be obtained with
the aid of empirical formulas. One of them giving the
most exact data and suggested by prof. Leiderman is of
the following form.
where N
e
= Horsepower of an engine in b.h.p,

|
|
¹
|

\
|

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
3
max N
2
max N max N
max e
n
n
c
n
n
b
n
n
a N N

(9)
where,
n
Nmax
= Number of revolutions per minute
corresponding to the maximum horsepower of an engine,
n
Mmax
= Number of revolutions per minute
corresponding to the maximum torque of an engine,
n
min
= Minimum number of revolutions per
minute,
N
max
= Maximum engine power in b.h.p,
M
max
= Maximum engine torque in kg.m,
n = Number of revolutions in r.p.m. which
corresponds to N
e
and
a,b,c = Coefficients which are different for
different types of engines.
After the values of horsepower N
e
have been found, it
is easy to determine the values of engine torque M
e
and to
plot its curve with the aid of the following formula.
M
e
=716.2
n
N
e
(10)
Where M
e
is the engine torque in kilogram meter.
Tractive force is the force transmitted from the engine
to the driving wheels. For a moving automobile, the
tractive resistance F
Z
is equal to the sum of all resistance.
The formula of Equation 3.5. became;
F
Z
=
r
T g e
r
R M η
=F
Ro
+F
St
+F
L
+F
a
(11)
where M
e
= Effective torque of the engine in Nm,
R
g
= Overall gear ratio of the transmission,
η
T
= Overall efficiency of the transmission and
r
r
= Radius of wheel in meter.
The car velocity is calculated by the following formula,
V
a
=2πr
r
o gb
r r
N
1000
60
(12)
where N = Number of revolutions of the engine in r.p.m,
r
gb
= Gear ratio of the gear-box and
r
o
= Gear ratio of the main drive.
According to the selected tire type, the rolling diameter
(D) of the specified type of wheel is calculated by using
the following equation.
D=2B×
B
H
+d=2H+d (13)
where B = Width of the wheel tire cross sectional area,
m,
d = Diameter of the wheel rim, m,
bhp,kgm
n(min)
n(Mmax) n(Nmax) n(max)
Rpm
N(max)
M(max)


6

B
H
= Aspect ratio and
H = Radial thickness of wheel, m.
The rotational speed of wheel (rpm)
wheel
is calculated by
the following formula.
(rpm)
wheel
=
D
V
π
(14)
The rotational speed of engine (rpm)
engine
is calculated by
the following formula.
(rpm)
engine
=(rpm)
wheel
×R
g
(15)
where R
g
is the overall gear ratio. The overall gear ratio is
calculated by;
R
g
=r
gb
×r
o
(16)
According to the local test facilities, the road load
performance analysis of 1 HD-T engine gearbox is
calculated. Calculated road load performance graph is run
with MATLAB program. In performance analysis of
1 HD-T engine gearbox, the road load performance for
gradient 0(level road), 2 and 4 percent are calculated.
In the calculated road load performance graph, car
speed and tractive force resistance are plotted. The
tractive force resistance (F
Z
) curve is plotted for each gear
in the gearbox. The two lines F
RO
and F
St
correspond to
the rolling resistance and the gradient resistance,
respectively. As both resistances do not depend on the
speed the indicated lines are parallel to the velocity axis.
The curve F
L
corresponds to the air resistance which is
proportional to the square of the speed. So, the function F
= f (V
a
) for F
L
is expressed by a curve.
Figures 9, 10, and 11 represent the graphs of road load
performance of a 1 HD-T engine gearbox for gradient 0,
2 and 4 percent. In these figures, the violent color curve is
the total tractive force resistance for 5th gear, which is the
sum of air resistance, wheel resistance, gradient
resistance and inertia force resistance. In these figures,
wheel resistance (F
RO
) and radient resistance (F
St
)
Table 4. Results of Calculated Road Load Performance
Position
Car Speed
(km/hr)
Tractive Force
Resistance
(kg)
1
st
Gear 18 – 30 1345
2
nd
Gear 32 – 54 756
3
rd
Gear 49 – 83 491
4
th
Gear 72 – 124 332
5
th
Gear 82 – 141 330
Reverse 17 - 29 1422
vary with each gradient angle. Tractive force resistances
are not varied because of using the same gearbox. The
lower the gear number in the gearbox, the higher the
tractive force resistance.
The air resistances in various gradient road levels are
nearly constant from car speed up to 40 km/hr and then
gradually increased which depend on gradient angle. The
maximum tractive force is occurred in engine speed 2800
rpm in every gear step.
The results of calculated road load performance for
five speed 1 HD-T engine gearbox are described in Table
4. The road load performance graphs for gradient 0, 2 and
4 percentage are described as follows.
Fig.9. Graph of Road Load Performance for Level Road
Fig.10. Graph of Road Load Performance for Gradient 2
Percent

Fig.11. Graph of Road Load Performance for Gradient 4
Percent
Advantage of using MATLAB program of calculated


7
road load performance is the graphs of variety of
gradients are plotted automatically. The plotted tractive
characteristic of an automobile enables to solve some
tractive problems, to write the tractive balance equation
for any given speed, and to determine the nature of an
automobile motion and the resistances overcome by an
automobile.
9. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
In this paper, the design and analysis of 1 HD-T engine
gearbox has been described. In this gearbox, there are all
together five forward speed and one reverse. Among the
five forward speeds, the fourth drive is the direct drive
and the final drive is the overdrive.
By considering the road load performance of the car
speed and engine speed, the progressive gear step method
is used and the gear ratios are evaluated. From this result,
assumption for the center distance which is based on the
maximum torque of the input speed from the engine is
desired and then solved for the number of teeth and gear
parameters. Then rechecking the speed ratio range, the
exact gear ratio for the design can be calculated.
In continuation, helical gears and shafts designs are
calculated. In this design, structural rigidity combined
with lightness must always be the first consideration for
the durability of the wearing parts and smoothness of
running.
Gears and shafts are designed with 4150 OQT 1000
heat treated alloy steel, which has brinell hardness 401,
yield stress 1250 MPa and ultimate stress 1360 MPa. The
required design calculation of helical gears can also be
calculated through both strength and dynamic check. The
shafts are designed according to the point of view of the
strength and critical speed. In the shaft design, the shaft
diameters for variety of speeds calculated by using the
ASME code equation. In addition, it is continued to
check the critical speed of the shafts with overestimation
method.
In manufacturing process, the sample product is only
counter shaft and gears assembly because of time and
cost limits. The material used in all the manufactured
sample shaft and gears is alloy steel which has the nearly
chemical compositions to AISI 4150 OQT 1000 material.
In this manufacturing of sample products, low grade high
strength alloy steel which is imported from china is used.
Analyses of maximum and minimum principal stresses,
deformation and safety factor for counter shaft are
computed by using Auto Desk 2007 software. Model of
drawing for counter shaft are drawn. And then material
selection and restraint work piece are made. The specific
alloy steel and selected bearings are placed for counter
shaft. After giving the loads acting on the counter shaft,
the program runs by iteration method. By using Ansys
technology under Auto Desk soft ware, the variety graphs
are plotted automatically.
The calculated road load performance of 1 HD-T
engine gearbox and the required MATLAB program are
also provided. In the graphs of road load performance of
a five speed manual gearbox, car speed and tractive force
resistance are plotted for gradient 0, 2 and 4 percent
respectively. The plotted tractive characteristic of an
automobile enables to solve some tractive problems, to
write the tractive balance equation for any given speed,
and to determine the nature of an automobile motion and
the resistance forces are overcome by an automobile.
In this five speed manual gearbox design, to complete
the whole gearbox design, the casing, the hub sleeve ring
gears, synchronizer cone and synchronizer ring design
should be calculated for further study of the more proven
design. The analyses are made for only counter shaft in
this paper and if the other shafts and gears could be
analyzed, the design of transmission can be effectively
improved. Finally, the design calculation methods of
gears and shafts of this paper can be provided for any
automobile gearbox.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to express heartfelt gratitude to her
supervisor Dr. San San Yee, Professor, Department of
Mechanical Engineering, West Yangon Technological
University and co-supervisor Dr. Than Than Htike,
Associate Professor and Head, Department of Mechanical
Engineering, Pyay Technological University, for their
willingness to share the ideas, invaluable knowledge,
helpful guidance, suggestions and experience and
correction on this paper.
The author would like to express the deepest gratitude
to beloved parents and the teachers from Mechanical
Engineering Department, Yangon Technological
University, for their noble support and encouragement to
attain the destination without any trouble.
NOMENCLATURE
Symbol Description SI Unit
D Gear diameter mm
d Shaft diameter mm
E Modulus of elasticity N/mm
2
F Force N
f Coefficient -
G Modulus of rigidity N/mm
2
g Acceleration, due to gravity m/s
2
I Moment of inertia m
4

i Ratio -
L Length m
M Bending moment Nm
m Module mm
N Rotational speed rpm
n Number of teeth Teeth
r Wheel radius m
S Permissible stress N/mm
2
Greek Letters
ψ Helix angle Degree,°
φ Gear step -
σ Column-action factor -
η Efficiency -
δ Shaft deflection mm
ω Angular velocity rad/s
REFERENCES
[1] Wright Douglas: July 2006. Design and Analysis of
MachineElement.http://www.mech.uwa.edu.au/DANo
tes/gears/contact.html
[2] Toyota Motor Corporation: February 2006. Drive
Train , http://www.toyota.com/TM.html
[3] Toyota Company: 2004. New Car Feature Land-
Cruiser, Toyota Company.
[4] Julian Happian – Smith: 2002. An Introduction to
Modern Vehicle Design, 1st Ed., Reed Educational


8
and Professional Ltd., Oxford.
[5] Than Than Htike, Daw.: 2002. Machine design 1,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, YTU.
[6] Jornsen Reimpell, Helmut Stoll and Jurgen W.
Betzler: 2001. Automotive Chassis Engineering
Principle, 2nd Ed., Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd,
Oxford.
[7] Newton, K., W Steeds: 2001. The Motor Vehicle,
13th Ed., Reed Educational and Professional
Publishing Ltd., England.
[8] Gisbert Lechner and Harald Naunheimer: 1999.
Automotive Transmissions, 1st Ed., Springer-Verlag
Berlin Heideberg, New York.
[9] Spoots, MF., T.E Shoup: 1998. Design of Machine
Element, 7th Ed., Mc Graw. Hill Book Company.
[10]William H. Crouse: 1985. Automotive Mechanics, 9th
Ed., Tata Mc Graw. Hill Publishing Company. Ltd.
[11]Robert L. Mott, P.E.: 1985. Machine Element in
Mechanical Design, 2
nd
Ed.,Charles E. Merrill
Publishing Company.
[12]Hall, Holowenko and Laughlin: 1982. Theory and
Problems of Machine Design, Mc Graw Hill Book
Company.

DESIGN CALCULATION OF GEARS th rd nd Type of Shaft Input Shaft Output Shaft Count -er Shaft Idler Shaft Material 4150 OQT1000 4150 OQT1000 4150 OQT1000 4150 OQT1000 Su (MPa) 1360 1360 1360 Sy (MPa) 1250 1250 1250 Dia (mm) 2530 21. For the forward speed gears.550 3045 2728 Length (mm) 244 462 375 1360 1250 110 In gear design. The diameters of gears are unknown. For a solid shaft with axial loading. Kb = Combined shock and fatigue factor applied to bending moment Kt = Combined shock and fatigue factor applied torsional moment σ = Column-action factor Table 2. SHAFT DESIGN CALCULATION 6.36 4th speed = 1 5 speed = 0.048 2 speed = 2. 1st speed = 4. Results of Shaft Design From specified car weight. Gear designs are calculated by using Lewis Equation.2742 770 . iA= iSiGiE i i1 = iG . the design condition was unsatisfied with this brinell hardness values. the following equations are used. 5.1316 Critical Speed (rpm) 393618 357231 199658 305397 Remark The first critical speed is considered. the material was necessary to make heat treatment to get BHN 601. and specification of 1 HD-T engine. (7) where (3) (4) ϕ1 = z −1 1 ϕ2 0. the processing of manufacturing methods and heat treatments need to be considered.  1  Sall kπ 2 cos ψ  m2y  = F   all t The critical speed of shafts is calculated by using Rayleigh-Ritz equation.16 3 speed = 1. CALCULATION OF GEAR RATIOS (1) (2) equation. desired tyre size. m. max ==== iG .3. Nm. the ASME code equation is: d3 = 16  σF d  2 K b M b + a  + (K t M t ) πSs  8   2 To calculate gear ratios.5 ( z −1)( z − 2 ) i G . Nm. N. d = Shaft diameter. choose AISI 4150 OQT 1000 material which has Brinell Hardness 401. The center distance is 98 mm. Mb = Bending moment. Results of Critical Speed from Shafts Type of Shaft Input Shaft Output Shaft Counter Shaft Idler Shaft Min: and Max: Speed (rpm) 2100 . δn = Static deflection at the nth mass and i = Total number of masses Sall= ky π 2 2Mt n m3 cosψ where Mt = Torque in weaker gear. yield stress 1250 MPa and ultimate tensile stress 1360 MPa. 2 . min iz By using progressive gear step. ω c= g1i ∑Wn δ n ∑W δ i 1 (8) 2 n n (5) (6) where Wn = Weight of nth mass. So.4113 1600 . Table 3. Nm Ft = Transmitted force. iA= the total power train ratio iS = the moving-off element ratio iG = gearbox ratio iE = final drive ratio Mt = Torsional moment. the result of gear ratios are as follows. The shaft design calculations are mainly based on the ASME code In the practical implementation of the sample production elements for counter shaft.3600 480 . N n = Number of teeth on weaker gear m = Number of module y = Form factor k = 6 for helical gear(upper limit) ψ = Helix angle of gear tooth form Sall = Allowable stress Table 1 shows the results of gear meshing.88 4. Fa = Axial load.tot= G . tot in = iZ φ1(z-n) φ2 (z-n-1) where. MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF COUNTER SHAFT AND GEARS ASSEMBLY The shafts are designed according to the point of view of the strength and critical speed.

Drilling machine could be used to drill the gear blank for desired hole. The first process of counter shaft production is to cut the raw material on Sawing Machine to get required length.Table 1.75 2.93 3.5 4.5 4.393 0. Results for Gear Meshing Gear 1st Pair Particular Pitch Dia (mm) No.55 0.36 30 1 30 0. the gear must be chamfered the edges of gear tooth for smooth running. After this process.5 21.5 3. The surface of the gear is grinded with Surface Grinder. it is placed on Engine Lathe by fitting spindle with jig to fine turning and facing for required dimensions.5 3.75 2. Carburizing process adds carbon to the gear to improve chemical properties. To form gear tooth.5 22 25 23 27 G9 G10 G7 G8 G3 G4 G1 G2 G5 G6 G11 G12 G13 2nd 3rd 4th 5th R 149 47 126 70 105 91 85 111 79 117 145 90 45 43 13 39 23 38 33 34 44 32 47 43 25 13 1470 / 470 826 / 470 536 / 470 360 / 470 317/ 470 1553 / 970 /470 23 4. the shaft is placed in the furnace to heat treat by Quenching Method.71 4.5 3. After carburizing. And then it is taken out from the furnace and immersed in salted water to harden the material.313 3.893 4.93 5. The shaft is externally splined by using Spline Hobbing Machine.471 0. It needs to chamfer and fine cylindrical grind before finishing.05 3.393 0. In Chamfering Machine. the gear needs to spline internally on Broaching Machine. 3 . the gear blank is attached on Hobbing Machine and fed with desired size hobbing cutter.432 0.5 2. The procedures of all six gears are the same.88 23 4.048 30 2. of teeth Torque (Nm) Helix angle Gear ratio Face Width 25 (mm) Module No.893 2.05 0. And then. After drilling.55 The desired gear blank is fixed on three jaws of SemiAuto Lathe to make turning and facing roughly.5 2. the final tooth grinding has been taken. (mm) Addendum (mm) Dedendum (mm) Clearance (mm) Tooth thickness (mm) 5.32 3. After that the raw shaft is placed on Copy Lathe and turning and facing can be done not only for rough but also for fine. The gear can get surface harden by making with High-Frequency Induction Hardening Machine.5 3 2.471 3.16 30 1.182 2.5 3 2.

9N and 4. Maximum Principal Stress on Counter Shaft Restraint of work piece The loads changed due to the operation To select the Loads on the surface To run the program by iteration method Analysis Results Minimum principal stress distribution in the model Maximum principal stress distribution in the model To run the program by iteration method Fig. Fr10 and Ft10 are 8417. 3028.67N. But the actual maximum stress acting on the counter shaft. 7.2.25N.5. Minimum Principal Stress on Counter Shaft Fig. 7217.67N. Stress Analysis Procedure of Auto Desk Software 2007 The following figures represent the stresses distribution As shown in Figure 5. W8. deformation and safety factor of a given model by using the program Auto Desk. the maximum and minimum stresses are 416. The Forces Acting on Counter Shaft The sample counter shaft and gears assembly is fabricated only to know the manufacturing processes with localized material. for counter shaft in five speed manual gearbox when the gears are in first speed position. W10 and W13 are 16.4. Fa10. ANALYSIS OF STRESSES BY USING AUTO DESK SOFTWARE 2007 The following procedure is to analysis the stresses. Figure 2 shows the sample product of counter shaft and gears assembly. To get more tightening and strength. Figure 4 shows the forces acting on the counter shaft. Model of drawing for Counter Shaft Selection of Materials Fig.8N and 8321. Fa2.6. W6.41N respectively. W4. From Figure 6 the maximum and minimum stresses are 95.5N and 19830N respectively. 11.344MPa and 362. And then final carburizing is made the whole counter shaft and gears assembly. welding between shaft and gears has been done.091MPa and 87.791MPa respectively. W2+Ft2 W4 W6 W8 W10 W13 Fa10 Fr10 Ft10 Fa2 Fr2 Fig.4N. 16. the yellow color is 248. Sample Product of Counter Shaft and Gears Assembly Fig. The fine grinding must be done as ending process for sample counter shaft and gears assembly.264MPa respectively.306 Mpa in 4 .5N respectively. W2. 4. 10.3. Fr2 and Ft2 are 4804.After getting gears components and counter shaft.77N. the maximum principal stress. these parts are fitted in order their positions.3N.

Tractive force is the force transmitted from the engine to the driving wheels. 5 . nNmax = Number of revolutions per minute corresponding to the maximum horsepower of an engine.b. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS ENGINE GEARBOX OF 1 HD-T   n N e = N max a     n N max    n  + b  n   N max   n  − c  n   N max 2     3     (9) where. Typical Engine Performance Graph Where Me is the engine torque in kilogram meter. FZ= M e Rg η T rr =FRo+FSt+FL+Fa (11) where Me = Effective torque of the engine in Nm. m. Mmax = Maximum engine torque in kg. nmin = Minimum number of revolutions per minute.m. nMmax = Number of revolutions per minute corresponding to the maximum torque of an engine. Maximum values of the horsepower are different from different engines but the shapes of the power cures are similar. ηtot.2 The graph of the forces opposing vehicle motion and engine performance characteristics which provides the background to the need for a wide range of gearbox designs used for different vehicle applications will be considered as necessity of a gearbox. bhp. which also includes the effect of losses due to accessories such as servo pumps. where Ne = Horsepower of an engine in b.175 Mpa in minimum principal stress.p. D=2B× H +d=2H+d B (13) where B = Width of the wheel tire cross sectional area. ηT rr = Overall efficiency of the transmission and = Radius of wheel in meter. became. The maximum stresses on the counter shaft due to the first operation are less than the permissible strength of material.p.8. Traction Diagram of Tractive Effort and Total Running Resistance vs Road Speed The car velocity is calculated by the following formula. The traction available is reduced by the power-train efficiency.maximum principal stress and the strong green color is 159.5. The formula of Equation 3. Top gear ratio is selected so that the maximum road speed corresponding to the engine speed at which the maximum brake power is obtained. The typical characteristics may be obtained with the aid of empirical formulas. Va=2πrr N rgb The acceleration and climbing performance in the various gears of the transmission must be checked. it is easy to determine the values of engine torque Me and to plot its curve with the aid of the following formula. Leiderman is of the following form.p.p. In the traction diagram. According to the selected tire type.m. Me=716. rgb= Gear ratio of the gear-box and ro = Gear ratio of the main drive. For a moving automobile. 60 ro 1000 (12) where N = Number of revolutions of the engine in r. d = Diameter of the wheel rim. m.7. 8. Rg = Overall gear ratio of the transmission.h. n = Number of revolutions in r.h. Nmax = Maximum engine power in b. the rolling diameter (D) of the specified type of wheel is calculated by using the following equation. One of them giving the most exact data and suggested by prof.kgm N(max) M(max) Rpm n(min) n(Mmax) n(Nmax) n(max) Ne n (10) Fig. the traction available in each gear and the traction required at various gradients are plotted as a function of the vehicle speed. After the values of horsepower Ne have been found. the tractive resistance FZ is equal to the sum of all resistance.m. which corresponds to Ne and a.c = Coefficients which are different for different types of engines. Fig.

The results of calculated road load performance for five speed 1 HD-T engine gearbox are described in Table 4. (rpm)engine=(rpm)wheel×Rg (15) where Rg is the overall gear ratio. Graph of Road Load Performance for Gradient 4 Percent vary with each gradient angle. The lower the gear number in the gearbox. The rotational speed of wheel (rpm)wheel is calculated by the following formula. car speed and tractive force resistance are plotted. gradient resistance and inertia force resistance. the violent color curve is the total tractive force resistance for 5th gear. 2 and 4 percentage are described as follows. The tractive force resistance (FZ) curve is plotted for each gear in the gearbox. 2 and 4 percent. Figures 9. the higher the tractive force resistance. and 11 represent the graphs of road load performance of a 1 HD-T engine gearbox for gradient 0. Results of Calculated Road Load Performance Fig. In these figures. 2 and 4 percent are calculated.10. (rpm)wheel= V π D The air resistances in various gradient road levels are nearly constant from car speed up to 40 km/hr and then gradually increased which depend on gradient angle. The road load performance graphs for gradient 0.29 Tractive Force Resistance (kg) 1345 756 491 332 330 1422 Fig. Advantage of using MATLAB program of calculated 6 . the road load performance for gradient 0(level road). m. Calculated road load performance graph is run with MATLAB program. The overall gear ratio is calculated by. respectively.H = Aspect ratio and B H = Radial thickness of wheel. 10. which is the sum of air resistance. Tractive force resistances are not varied because of using the same gearbox. As both resistances do not depend on the speed the indicated lines are parallel to the velocity axis. In performance analysis of 1 HD-T engine gearbox. the road load performance analysis of 1 HD-T engine gearbox is calculated.11. Rg=rgb×ro (16) According to the local test facilities. In the calculated road load performance graph. The curve FL corresponds to the air resistance which is proportional to the square of the speed. the function F = f (Va) for FL is expressed by a curve. The maximum tractive force is occurred in engine speed 2800 rpm in every gear step. wheel resistance. (14) The rotational speed of engine (rpm)engine is calculated by the following formula. Graph of Road Load Performance for Gradient 2 Percent Position 1st Gear 2nd Gear 3rd Gear 4th Gear 5th Gear Reverse Car Speed (km/hr) 18 – 30 32 – 54 49 – 83 72 – 124 82 – 141 17 . Graph of Road Load Performance for Level Road Fig. In these figures. The two lines FRO and FSt correspond to the rolling resistance and the gradient resistance. wheel resistance (FRO) and radient resistance (FSt) Table 4. So.9.

the casing.uwa. Among the five forward speeds. Drive Train . due to gravity m/s2 I Moment of inertia m4 i Ratio L Length m M Bending moment Nm m Module mm rpm N Rotational speed n Number of teeth Teeth r Wheel radius m S Permissible stress N/mm2 Greek Letters ψ Helix angle Degree. An Introduction to Modern Vehicle Design. Pyay Technological University. Professor. it is continued to check the critical speed of the shafts with overestimation method. Toyota Company. In the shaft design. In continuation. helical gears and shafts designs are calculated.http://www. Department of Mechanical Engineering. The calculated road load performance of 1 HD-T engine gearbox and the required MATLAB program are also provided. the hub sleeve ring gears. suggestions and experience and correction on this paper. the program runs by iteration method. the variety graphs are plotted automatically. structural rigidity combined with lightness must always be the first consideration for the durability of the wearing parts and smoothness of running. Finally. Reed Educational 7 . invaluable knowledge. http://www. San San Yee. [4] Julian Happian – Smith: 2002. the design of transmission can be effectively improved. Analyses of maximum and minimum principal stresses. From this result. In manufacturing process. which has brinell hardness 401. The plotted tractive characteristic of an automobile enables to solve some tractive problems. The required design calculation of helical gears can also be calculated through both strength and dynamic check. assumption for the center distance which is based on the maximum torque of the input speed from the engine is desired and then solved for the number of teeth and gear parameters. Than Than Htike. 9. and to determine the nature of an automobile motion and the resistances overcome by an automobile. Then rechecking the speed ratio range. The plotted tractive characteristic of an automobile enables to solve some tractive problems. deformation and safety factor for counter shaft are computed by using Auto Desk 2007 software.html [2] Toyota Motor Corporation: February 2006. the exact gear ratio for the design can be calculated. West Yangon Technological University and co-supervisor Dr. NOMENCLATURE Symbol Description SI Unit D Gear diameter mm d Shaft diameter mm E Modulus of elasticity N/mm2 F Force N f Coefficient G Modulus of rigidity N/mm2 g Acceleration. the progressive gear step method is used and the gear ratios are evaluated.toyota. helpful guidance. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION In this paper. In this design. to complete the whole gearbox design. The material used in all the manufactured sample shaft and gears is alloy steel which has the nearly chemical compositions to AISI 4150 OQT 1000 material. In this gearbox. 2 and 4 percent respectively. The author would like to express the deepest gratitude to beloved parents and the teachers from Mechanical Engineering Department. In the graphs of road load performance of a five speed manual gearbox. the fourth drive is the direct drive and the final drive is the overdrive. The analyses are made for only counter shaft in this paper and if the other shafts and gears could be analyzed. low grade high strength alloy steel which is imported from china is used.au/DANo tes/gears/contact. synchronizer cone and synchronizer ring design should be calculated for further study of the more proven design. car speed and tractive force resistance are plotted for gradient 0. Associate Professor and Head. Design and Analysis of MachineElement. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to express heartfelt gratitude to her supervisor Dr. After giving the loads acting on the counter shaft. yield stress 1250 MPa and ultimate stress 1360 MPa. By considering the road load performance of the car speed and engine speed. there are all together five forward speed and one reverse..road load performance is the graphs of variety of gradients are plotted automatically. The shafts are designed according to the point of view of the strength and critical speed. the design calculation methods of gears and shafts of this paper can be provided for any automobile gearbox. the shaft diameters for variety of speeds calculated by using the ASME code equation. Yangon Technological University. New Car Feature LandCruiser. The specific alloy steel and selected bearings are placed for counter shaft. to write the tractive balance equation for any given speed. and to determine the nature of an automobile motion and the resistance forces are overcome by an automobile.html [3] Toyota Company: 2004. to write the tractive balance equation for any given speed.mech. the sample product is only counter shaft and gears assembly because of time and cost limits. In this manufacturing of sample products. Department of Mechanical Engineering.° φ Gear step σ Column-action factor η Efficiency δ Shaft deflection mm ω Angular velocity rad/s REFERENCES [1] Wright Douglas: July 2006. Gears and shafts are designed with 4150 OQT 1000 heat treated alloy steel.edu. 1st Ed. In addition. the design and analysis of 1 HD-T engine gearbox has been described. In this five speed manual gearbox design. for their willingness to share the ideas. By using Ansys technology under Auto Desk soft ware. for their noble support and encouragement to attain the destination without any trouble. And then material selection and restraint work piece are made. Model of drawing for counter shaft are drawn.com/TM.

[7] Newton. Helmut Stoll and Jurgen W. Betzler: 2001. Merrill Publishing Company. [11]Robert L. Crouse: 1985. [6] Jornsen Reimpell. 7th Ed. Mott.. [9] Spoots. New York. 2nd Ed.. Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd. [10]William H. 8 . K. Theory and Problems of Machine Design. Daw. 9th Ed.. [8] Gisbert Lechner and Harald Naunheimer: 1999. Tata Mc Graw. The Motor Vehicle. MF.. Oxford.: 1985. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd.. Ltd. Oxford. Automotive Transmissions.E. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heideberg.: 2002.and Professional Ltd. P. 1st Ed. W Steeds: 2001. Mc Graw.. Automotive Mechanics. T. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Automotive Chassis Engineering Principle. Holowenko and Laughlin: 1982.. Mc Graw Hill Book Company. England. Hill Book Company. Machine Element in Mechanical Design. [12]Hall.. Design of Machine Element. 2nd Ed. [5] Than Than Htike. 13th Ed.Charles E.. Machine design 1.E Shoup: 1998. Hill Publishing Company. YTU..

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful