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Reviewing for the Final EOC in Civics and Economics

The Test
• There will be 100 total questions on each test but only 80 are actually scored.
• 60 Higher Order Thinking Skills
• 40 Lower order thinking skills
• 10 questions from each goal

Civics and Economics

Goal % Value
1 12
2 12
3 6
4 8
5 12
6 12
7 11
8 11
9 10
10 6

Things to Remember and Look Out For

Best Answer-This means that there are more than one right answer in the answer set. You
can tell best answer questions because they will have phrases that have the following
wording and appearance:
• most likely
• best
• most accurately

Negative answers-This means that you will not see these type of answers on the test:
• Not
• No
• Except

Court Cases-There are always a few court cases on the test. They will be in italics with
the date in parenthesis at the end. It is important to know that typically the date will give
away the answer, e.g. all court cases from 1801-1834 are from the Marshall court and
John Marshall almost always made a ruling that tried to strengthen the national/federal
government over the state government; court cases from the 1950s to the present
typically dealt with extending individual rights. Court cases will always have the
following appearance:
• Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
• State v. Mann (1830)
• Swann v. Board of Education of Charlotte-Mecklenburg (1971)
• Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier (1988)

Test Taking Strategies

• Students should look for key terms and phrases in the question and the answers.
These are capitalized, bold, italics, etc.
• Take short breaks
• Don’t skip around
• Don’t be afraid to change your first answer
• Never leave an answer blank
• Frequently check to make sure that questions match numbers
• Mark out incorrect answers.
• Responses that use absolute words, such as "always" or "never" are less likely to
be correct than ones that use conditional words like "usually" or "probably."
• Look for grammatical clues
• Formulate your own answer before reading the options.
• Eliminate unlikely answers first.
• Select answers that are longer and more descriptive.

Sample DPI Questions

1. How did the Stamp Act, the Tea Act, and the Intolerable Acts
encourage American colonists to consider revolution against British
A by ignoring American representatives in Parliament on issues of
taxes levied in the
American colonies
B by raising taxes in the American colonies without granting the
colonies any representation in Parliament
C by representing an effort in Britain to end the slave trade in the
D by revealing the British plan to expand the American colonies farther
west on the continent

Right Answer-B
Don’t get caught up in the details of Stamp Act, Tea Act and
Intolerable Act. The “and” says that they are all in the same
ball park. A student may read the question, “How did acts
encourage colonist to consider revolution?” This simplifies the
question. Legislation was not liked because it was often
“taxation without representation.” This can be found on the
“Cheat Sheet.”

2. Which reason best explains why many Anti-Federalists finally

agreed to the ratification of the U.S. Constitution?
A the addition of the Bill of Rights
B arguments by George Washington
C a desire to create a better relationship with the Federalists
D a fear that civil war would break out if the dispute were not settled

Right Answer-A
The “best” should tell the student that this is a best answer
format question. They definitely should read through all
answer choices since there will be more than one right answer.
By not reading through all choices the student risks not seeing
a better answer. From the “Cheat Sheet,” the Anti Federalists
wanted a Bill of Rights. Other answers that could be
considered correct would be that they wanted to have a better
relationship with the Federalist, but this is not the best answer
and they might have been afraid that civil war would break out
and this is not the best answer either.

3. What is federalism?
A a form of government with elected representatives
B a division of power between the national and state governments
C a belief in the idea of national sovereignty
D a form of government in which elected officials make all economic

Right Answer-B
From the “Cheat Sheet” you know that federalism is a division
of power between national and state governments.

4. Who can prevent the president of the United States from controlling
the Supreme Court by blocking appointments to the bench?
A state legislatures
B the Joint Chiefs of Staff
C governors
D the Senate

Right Answer-D
From the “Cheat Sheet” you are aware of the powers of the
president to appoint and the powers of the senate to approve.

5. Which term describes the approval or rejection of a proposed

constitutional amendment by the popular vote?
A recall
B initiative
C referendum
D censure

Right Answer-C
When an amendment is referred to the public for vote, it is
called a referendum.
6. Which court case helped to establish the supremacy of the North
Carolina Constitution?
A Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
B State v. Mann (1830)
C Swann v. Board of Education of Charlotte-Mecklenburg (1971)
D Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier (1988)

Right Answer-C
There is only one answer that has a city in NC mentioned. That
is Charlotte. You can rule out answers A and B because from
the “Cheat Sheet” you know that court cases from 1801 to
1834 establish the supremacy of the National/Federal
government over the state government. Those two answers
should be physically marked out. At worst, it now a 50-50
guess for the right answer.

7. Which propaganda technique is represented by the quote, “My

opponent is soft on crime!”?
A name calling
B bandwagon
C glittering generality
D stacked cards

Right Answer-C
There is no name calling in the quote so answer A can be
marked out. Bandwagon refers to getting on a wagon that is
moving in a particular direction concerning public opinion, e.g.
“Everyone is on the bandwagon for this candidate.” C is
correct because even if one does not know what a glittering
generality might be, glittering means that something looks
good (looks good when said in this case-like crime) and
generality refers to soft. Soft is general. Thereby glittering
generality is the correct answer.

8. Which is a civic duty required by U.S. law for 18-year-old male

A registering with Selective Service
B volunteering for a political campaign
C serving as a legislative page
D voting in all elections

Right Answer-A
Immediately, a student should think of duty and responsibility
together since duty is mentioned in the question. It may be
helpful to circle duty in the question. You know from the
“Cheat Sheet” that a duty is something that you must do
contrasted to responsibility which is something that you
should do. It may be easier for the student to immediately
cross the responsibilities-the things that they should do but
are not required to do.

9. “Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the

several States which may be included within this Union, according to
their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the
whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a
Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other
Persons.” excerpt from U.S. Constitution
Article I, Section 2, Clause 3

Which statement most accurately explains the significance of the

A For the first time, direct taxes were levied on citizens by the
B The U.S. government cannot force American Indians to pay taxes.
C The framers of the Constitution determined who could be free.
D After many debates, a compromise was reached on the issues of
taxation and slavery.

Right Answer-D

The “most accurately” should tell the student that this is a

best answer format question. They definitely should read
through all answer choices since there will be more than one
right answer. By not reading through all choices the student
risks not seeing a better answer. The excerpt is in t
“representatives … apportioned… three fifths of all persons”
and the title address at the bottom tells you that it is in the
Constitution. Although the words compromise were not used in
the excerpt, students should associate the three fifths phrase
with the word compromise and that can be found in the last
answer-something that they would have missed if they had not
read all the choices.

Which court correctly completes the diagram above?
A United States Court of Records
B United States Civil Court
C United States Superior Court
D United States Court of Appeals

Right Answer-D
Often, the testers will not ask for obscure courts such as the
US Court of Records. They are trying to reach the most
important items. Civil and Superior courts refer to state courts.
The only major court that is left is the US Court of Appeals.

11. Which type of law is being enforced when the Environmental

Agency (EPA) closes a business due to environmental contamination?
A criminal
B administrative
C civil
D constitutional

Right Answer-B
The EPA is an agency in the Executive Branch, therefore it does
not make criminal or constitutional law. Agencies make
administrative laws.

12. Who has the primary responsibility to inform citizens of national

government regulations?
A executive departments and agencies
B senators and representatives
C special interest groups
D the federal courts

Right Answer-B
Since senators and representatives have the primary
responsibility of making the laws, another branch will have the
responsibility of carrying or enforcing the laws-which means
informing citizens. This is the duty of the executive branch.

13. Which type of cost occurs when an individual pays for a piano
lesson instead of going to a movie?
A opportunity cost
B marginal cost
C fixed cost
D residual cost

Right Answer-A
Once again, the test takers are most likely going to test the
most highly covered items from the curriculum. Opportunity
cost falls into that category. It is also on the “Cheat Sheet.”

14. Under which economic system would factors of production most

likely be owned by the government?
A market economy
B command economy
C traditional economy
D mixed economy

Right Answer-B

The “most likely” should tell the student that this is a best
answer format question. They definitely should read through
all answer choices since there will be more than one right
answer. By not reading through all choices the student risks
not seeing a better answer. The “Cheat Sheet” has each of
those mentioned. Tradition is based on tradition, mixed is
based on several different types of systems. Governments
typically command or own.

15. In a command economy, how are the prices of goods and services
A market forces of supply and demand
B the central government
C independent agencies and independent regulators
D business owners

Right Answer-B
Command, control, government make the decisions for prices,
whereas in a market economy it is controlled by supply and

16. Which term is used to describe a situation where most people who
are looking for work are able to find a job?
A full employment
B structural unemployment
C underemployment
D seasonal employment

Right Answer-C
Full means that the economy is full of job seekers but not job
availability. It is also the opposite of the underemployment
answer. This is often a good giveaway, when see two answers
that are opposites, then one of those must be the right
answer. A student should look for another answer that
matches one of the two choices. If one is found then it
eliminates the similar answer as the right answer.

17. A new technology increases the speed of computers without

increasing production costs. What is the likely effect of this
A The price of new computers will decline.
B The price of new computers will increase.
C The demand for new computers will decline.
D The demand for new computers will increase.

Right Answer-D
What are unlikely answers? They should be crossed out. A
makes computers better but they cost (cost of production) the
same. It is unlikely that the price of computers will go down.
Since the computers are better because of speed, consumers
will probably will want the new computers more. A and C can
be marked out.

18. What consumer behavior is the Federal Reserve Board trying to

encourage when it implements a loose monetary policy?
A increased saving and reduced spending
B decreased saving and increased spending
C increased saving and spending
D decreased saving and spending

Right Answer-D
Loose monetary policy means that they are trying to make
money easy to get to. It is said to be loose. If the FED wants
people to have more money in their pocket, then they are
wanting people to spend more money. There are only two
answers that say increase spending, B and C. The FED is not
trying to encourage saving.

19. Which action is a civic responsibility of U.S. citizens?

A voting during local elections
B paying taxes
C attending school
D maintaining security

Right Answer-A
Once again, students should place the word responsibility with
the word duty. Contrast that which is required with that which
is recommended. B, C and D are all required. Students should
mark out one by one those things that are required and if
unsure then they are left with a guess.

20. How is a civic action such as voting different from serving on a

A Voting is more important to democracy than jury duty.
B All citizens can vote, but only some are qualified for jury duty.
C Jury service is considered a civic duty while voting is a responsibility.
D U.S. democracy cannot function without voters, but can exist without

Right Answer-C
Students should guess an answer before looking at the answer
choices. “Voting is not required and jury service is required.”
Now look at the answer choices. This makes answer C correct
because it most closely represents the thought that “Voting is
not required and jury service is required.”
“Cheat Sheet”

1. Constitution created a Republic—a republic is a system where people elect

leaders to represent them in the Government. All states must create a
representative form of government.
2. Colonist wanted separation from England because they felt their inalienable
rights were being denied them.
3. Colonists were tired of high taxes without having a voice in government (“no
taxation without representation”)
4. Northern colonies made their money from shipping, while southern colonies
made their money by farming. Only white land owners were allowed to vote.
5. The ideas that were the foundations of the American way of government came
from the enlightenment and philosophers who had revolutionary ideas that
gradually became accepted by democratic societies everywhere.
6. The Articles of the Confederation were very weak (created a weak National
government) the Constitution strengthened the power of the National government
greatly. After winning their independence the thirteen states of the United States
lived under the A of C. This lasted only ten years because of the weak central
government left too much power in the hands of the states.
7. The first 10 amendments to the constitution are known as the Bill of Rights. The
purpose of the Bill of Rights is to insure that the strong National Government did
not infringe on the freedoms of those under that government.
8. The Federalist supported a strong National Government. Anti-Federalist
(Republicans; Democrats; Democratic Republicans) sought to protect the rights
of individuals and the States against abuses of the Federal government.
9. The Legislative branch makes law. Our federal legislative branch is made up of
the House and Senate. The Legislative Branch is called Congress and they make
laws for our country. The Speaker of the House will become president if the
president and the vice president both die.
10. The Executive branch enforces law. The top executive in the federal
government is the president. The top executive in the state is the governor. The
president is elected by the Electoral College, if he receives 270 votes.
11. The President appoints federal judges with the approval of the Senate
12. The Judicial branch interrupts law. The Supreme Court and other Federal
courts make up the Judicial branch.
13. The jury decides the guilt of a suspect.
14. The US Constitution can only be changed by amendment.
15. When the Constitution and State law conflict, the Constitution is the supreme law
of the US. The US Constitution holds supreme power.
16. Most significant Supreme Court cases deal with the clarification of the rights of
citizens. Judicial Review (Marbury v Madison, 1803) allows the Supreme
Court to get rid of any laws that violate citizen's rights.
17. Most things that are true about concerning the Federal government are also true
about State governments though the names may be different. Examples include:
the chief executives are the President and the Governor. They have similar
powers. State constitutions mirror the Federal Constitution but are only applied
in the state where the constitution is from.
18. One person may sue another in a civil trial. In a criminal trial the defendant is
prosecuted by the state.
19. The fourteenth amendment to the constitution extends the Bill of Rights to
protect citizens from their states.
20. State Governments make the bulk of their revenue from income tax (48% for
income, 22% for sales).
21. Revenue is money brought in by the government. Expenditures are things that
the government spends money on.
22. Political parties on the local, state and federal level work independently of one
another for the most part. A platform is a list of issues and where the party stands
on these issues.
23. Having a pluralality of votes means that you have the most votes but less than a
majority (51%).
24. The US has always had a two party system. The Republican party is generally
more conservative and the Democratic party is generally more liberal.
25. Law in America has its foundation in the legal traditions from Europe and
ancient times. This is called common law.
26. Lobbies and Special Interest Groups use money to support candidates that will
champion legislation that their group supports.
27. The four factors of production are land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurial skills
(sometimes called management).
28. Free Market, Command, Mixed, and Traditional Economies are all different
because of the different way that the factors of production are managed. The US
has a market economy (aka free market or free enterprise) that is controlled by
the buyer and his/her consumer spending. Other key elements of the market
economy and private ownership, supply and demand, profit motivated,
capitalism, and free enterprise. The government regulates some aspects of a
free market economy to prevent people from limiting competition.
29. Scarcity means that all resources are limited. Scarcity causes all consumers and
producers to make choices. The study of how those choices are made is called
30. Supply and demand of scarce goods and services affect prices. The buyer
represents demand and the seller represents supply.
31. Opporunity cost is the price of making one choice over another.
32. Market economies go through phases of growth and decline called the business
cycle. A recessionary period is a time of low economic activity and high
unemployment. An inflationary period is a time of high economic activity and
low unemployment.
33. The Federal Reserve controls the money supply by raising and lowering the
discount rate, which controls the interest rate.
34. A change or addition to the Constitution is called amendments and there 27 of
35. Police must have a search warrant before entering a suspect's house.
36. Extradition means to send a suspect back to the state where the crime was
37. Federalism finds state and federal governments working together to rule the
38. A duty is something that we have do to as citizens while a responsibility is
something that we should do.
39. Most large companies are owned by stockholders
40. Sole proprietorships make up the largest percentage of American businesses