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The Society gratefully acknowledges those companies that support the program by allowing their professionals to participate as Lecturers. And special thanks to The American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) for their contribution to the program.

SPE 2006 -2007 Distinguished Lecturer Series

Managed Pressure Drilling
A new way of looking at drilling hydraulics… …Overcoming conventional drilling challenges

Don M. Hannegan, P.E. Director, Emerging Technologies Controlled Pressure Drilling - Weatherford International Ltd.


As opposed to a conventional open -to-atmosphere returns system. pressurizable fluid system that allows greater and more precise control of the wellbore pressure profile than mud weight and mud pump rate adjustments alone.Generic Description of Managed Pressure Drilling Managed Pressure Drilling MPD is an advanced form of primary well control typically employing a closed. Influx not invited . MPD enables the circulating fluids system to be viewed as a pressure vessel.Conventional Well Control 2 .

Any flow incidental to the operation will be safely contained using an appropriate process. fluid density. circulating friction. 3 .” 2. and hole geometry. or combinations thereof.Formal Definition (IADC developed – SPE adopted) “MPD is an adaptive drilling process used to more precisely control the annular pressure profile throughout the wellbore. MPD may include control of backpressure. fluid rheology. MPD processes employ a collection of tools and techniques which may mitigate the risks and costs associated with drilling wells that have narrow downhole environment limits. The objectives are to ascertain the downhole pressure environment limits and to manage the annular hydraulic pressure profile accordingly. MPD may allow faster corrective action to deal with observed pressure variations. Technical Notes 1. The ability to dynamically control annular pressures facilitates drilling of what might otherwise be economically unattainable prospects. by proactively managing the annular hydraulic pressure profile. annular fluid level. 4. 3. MPD techniques may be used to avoid formation influx.

“Controlled Pressure Drilling” Family of Technologies Common Equipment RCD NRV’s Choke RCD NRV Choke View circulating fluids system as one would a pressure vessel 4 .

“More Productive Drilling” 5 .MPD .

Water Depth = <600 feet -Impact of Trouble Time Drill Days Lost to Trouble Time • 22% of 7.680 total drill days from spud date to date TD was reached Trouble Time Cost Impact – GoM Shelf Gas Wellbores • Deep wells average dry-hole cost per foot = $444.GOM Shelf Gas Wells Wellbores Drilled 1993 2002.Problem Incidents -. Average Impact = $71 More precise wellbore pressure management can address a significant amount of the NPT 22% of total drill days lost to NPT Source James K Dodson Company Study 6 . Average impact = $98 • ‘Shallow well average dryhole cost per foot = $291.

$44MM Ave. AFE . 1st Quarter 2004 7 6 .$44MM Ave. BML 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 ConocoPhillips DEA Presentation. Cost . AFE .$71MM Pre-drill AFE Actual Cost TD. 1000’s Ft.Cost implications of NPT Ultra-Deep GOM Well Cost ~60% More Than AFE $MM 10 $20 12 14 $40 $60 $80 $100 $120 Ave.

open-to-atmosphere drilling or bell nipples is making uniquely good sense on many fronts • Conventional Well Control principals apply • However. UBD-type preplanning & training applicable to several Variations • “Real time Well Control” mentality also important to several Variations • Offshore Regulatory Agency should be brought in early-on • Onshore applications not capturing the full potential of the technology 8 .Offshore value to operations much greater • Does not invite influx of hydrocarbons but one is tooled up to better deal with any incidental to the operation with less interruption to the drilling program • Equipment “kit” for all Variations of MPD fits aboard most offshore rigs • Drilling offshore with a closed mud returns system vs. more than half are MPD to reduce NPT • Because MPD addresses NPT .S.Benchmark – June 2006…U. Rig Count 1669 + 570 RCD’s = majority of land programs drilling at least one section with closed returns system KEY POINTS • Of those with closed systems.

enhance well control. land programs.) • Proactive – Fluids and Casing programs designed. to drill with ability to: – Adjust EBHP/EMW with minimum interruptions to drilling ahead – Achieve a deeper open hole – Lowest hanging fruit when practiced onshore – Greatest savings when practiced offshore 9 .Categories of MPD • Reactive – Tooled up to more efficiently react to downhole surprises.S. etc. from the start. (Common to U. using surface backpressure to adjust EMW.

kick loss scenarios. ballooning. “breathing”. wellbore instability • HSE (Returns Flow Control) – Closed vs.Variations of MPD • PMCD (Pressurized Mud Cap Drilling) – Offset wells have experienced total or near total losses • CBHP (Constant Bottomhole Pressure) – Offset wells have experienced narrow margins. “high ECD”. Open-to-atmosphere mud returns at rig floor • RC (Reverse Circulation) • DG (Dual Gradient. several methods) – Light fluids or solids injection into casing or marine riser – Riserless example – Demo 2000 Deepwater RMR Field Trials JIP 10 .

except HSE) – Manual – Semi-automatic – PC Controlled Automatic 11 .Key tools for most Variations of MPD • Rotating Control Device – Floating Rigs (wave heave) – External Riser RCD – Subsea RCD – Internal Riser RCD (IRRCH) .Fixed Rigs (no wave heave) – Passive & Active annular seal design “land” models – Marine Diverter Converter RCD – Bell Nipple Insert RCD – IRRCH (in marine diverter or surface annular) • NRV’s (Wireline Retrievable is an option worth considering) • Choke Options (dedicated recommended.

tighter the annular seal • Does not require a dedicated technician • This design is most commonly used on MPD applications • Best rubber performance • RCD friendly drill string • Good stack alignment 12 . interference when new • High pressure capable models have redundant stripper rubbers on a common inner race of the bearing assembly • Requires no external-to-tool source of energy to function • Higher the differential pressure.RCD’s are Key MPD Enablers • Passive annular seal design shown • 7/8-in.

For Rigs with little or no wave heave “Passive and active annulus seal Marine Diverter Converter RCH – converts typical marine diverter to designs. low or high pressure capable. single or redundant rotating diverter. 13 . barrier.

Bell Nipple Insert RCD – no wave heave Aka. 23 14 .Ekofisk © 2005 Weatherford. Upper Marine Riser Rotating Control Device 500 psi Operating DNV Certified . All rights reserved.

5000 psi static/2500 psi dynamic Bell Nipple RCD Bearing Assembly Bottom Stripper Rubber Remote Operated Hydraulic Latch Upper Marine Riser Seal Area Flowline Outlets 15 .

PMCD. RC PMCD Shown Model 7100 – 2500psi rated Rotating Control Device 6” HCR 6” Line for circulating well to Flow Line 2” Fill-up Line from Trip Tank Pump 4” HCR 4” PMCD Line from Mud Pump 4” Kill Line to Choke Manifold 4” HCR Riser Tensioners support full riser weight and PMCD equipment Riser Slip Joint is used in the collapsed position 1 16 . DG. HSE. CBHP.External Riser RCD for Floating Rigs All Variations of MPD .

HazId/HazOp’s – Project Management – Real time decision-making • Continuous Circulating Valve • Continuous Circulating System 17 .Other Tools • Downhole Casing Isolation Valve (Downhole Deployment Valve) • Nitrogen Production Unit • ECD Reduction Tool • Real time Pressure & Flow Rate Monitoring • UBD technology & mentality (except for the HSE Variation) – Training – Planning.

MPD Example .GoM Proactive CBHP Variation EMW = MWHH + ΔAFPCIRC + ΔBPSURFACE Only three mud density changes to TD Surface backpressure applied during connections No losses upon resuming circulation 18 .

Proactive CBHP Wild River/Cecilia Drilling Performance $1.000 $800. 19 Cost from Spud.Onshore Value Case ..000 15 $600.200.000 .000 5 $200. $1.000.000 $0 2002 CFS* 2003 DFS 2004 0 Days from Spud.000 25 20 $1..000 30 Increase ROP.000 10 $400.600.400. Reduce NPT (kick-loss scenarios) $1.

Offshore Value Case – Proactive CBHP CBHP Managed Pressure Drilling Reduces Drilling Time by 83%. using the constant bottomhole pressure (CBHP) variant of managed pressure drilling (MPD). • Drilling time was reduced from 30 days to 5 days (83 percent). Provides Operational Savings of $1 Million Location: Formations: Depth: Pore pressure: Well type: Hole size: No.844 PSI (196 bar) Deviated 8-1/2 in. 20 . Results • The well was drilled with no loss of circulation. Lower Terciary 12. • Drill the well in less time than the 30 days allowed. southwest Gulf of Mexico Medium Cretaceous. of wells: Chuc 172.457 ft (3. 1 Objectives • Drill the well without the total circulation loss experienced in a previous well.797 m) 2.

mud cap spotted… • …Drill ahead with seawater & no returns 21 . drilling conventionally • Upon encountering severe losses. RCD Bearing & Stripper Rubber Assembly is installed.PMCD on Fixed Rigs • Photo – Jackup for Chevron Angola.

seals pressured 500 psi riser system • X-over spool connect to proprietary flange of slip joint Inner Barrel • Note importance of hoses clearing riser tensioner cables in catenaries swing • Taller spool or swivel flange may be required on drill ships to accommodate changes in heading 22 .External Riser RCD w/Subsea BOP • Riser telescoping slip joint locked.

External Riser RCD w/Surface BOP Pressure containment capability usually determined by that of flexible flowlines • Remote operated valves on manifolds? • Length of hoses to compensate for heave and reach hard piping? • Number and size of hoses to accommodate returns rate and desired redundancy? • Annular BOP size? • Drill pipe size and tool joint O.? • Overpressure relief device to diverter dump line? • Hose flush by-pass to prevent cutting settling when not circulating for extended periods? • Secondary spills containment device? • Will drill string stabilizers be used? • Maximum temperature of returns? • Moored Semi or DP Drillship? 23 .D.

PMCD & CBHP MPD with SURFACE BOP • Santos Indonesia • PMCD . CBHP with mud in deeper open hole to deal with narrow margins 24 .Drilling with seawater and no returns to deal with near total losses in cavernous voids • After casing is set below that trouble zone.

Asia Pacific Region MPD Activity – June 2006 MPD Type HSE HSE/CBHP PMCD PMCD PMCD PMCD HSE CHBP PMCD PMCD PMCD PMCD-DDV Country Vietnam Vietnam Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Operator Cuu Long (ConocoPhillips) JVPC (Japan Vietnam) Sarawak Shell Sarawak Shell Sarawak Shell Sarawak Shell Petronas Carigali Petronas Carigali Santos KNOC KNOC Pearl Oil Project Duration 5 year program 6 month program 3 wells 8 wells on 3 fields 2 wells 2 wells 1 well 1 well 11 wells 1 well 5 + 2 wells 4 wells Formation Type Fractured Granite Basement Fractured Granite Basement Carbonate Carbonate Carbonate Carbonate Fractured Schist Basement Fractured Schist Basement Carbonate Carbonate Carbonate Carbonate Rig Type Jack Up GALVESTON KEY & ADRIATIC 11 Jack Up TRIDENT 9 Semi-Submersible STENA CLYDE Semi Tender WEST ALLIANCE Semi-Submersible OCEAN EPOCH Jack Up DEEP DRILLER 2 Jack Up ENSCO 52 Jack Up ENSCO 52 Semi-Submersible SEDCO 601 Semi-Submersible SEDCO 601 Drillship FRONTIER DUCHESS Jack Up SHELF EXPLORER 25 .

Riserless Dual Gradient .Demo 2000 Deepwater Riserless Mud Recovery JIP 26 .

Integrated Riserless Top Hole Drilling Package Subsea Rotating Control Device w/ Guide Funnel ROV Hose connection Class 4 Torque Tool bucket AGR Norway Suction Module SMO Running/Retrieving/Testing Sub Vetco E H-4 Connector 27 .

land operations • All “first adopters” of MPD offshore plan future wells. • Synergistic with DwC and several other emerging technologies. • Step-change technology.Conclusion • The challenging hydraulics of the world’s remaining prospects indicate MPD will evolve to become a key enabling technology. • Proactive MPD is lowest hanging fruit for U. • A candidate technology to deal with the Boyles Law challenges of drilling for commercial quantities of methane hydrates 28 .S.S. onshore MPD is growing globally. • Following U. • Increases recoverable assets. economic and HSE viability. example. • Adds technical.

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