Deforestation and increased road-building in the Amazon Rainforest are a significant concern because of increased human encroachment upon wild areas, increased resource extraction and further threats to biodiversity. Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a nonforest use.[1] Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to agriculture or urban use. The term deforestation is often misused to describe any activity where all trees in an area are removed. However in temperate mesic climates, the removal of all trees in an area²in conformance with sustainable forestry practices²is correctly described as regeneration harvest.[2] In temperate mesic climates, natural regeneration of forest stands often will not occur in the absence of disturbance, whether natural or anthropogenic.[3] Furthermore, biodiversity after regeneration harvest often mimics that found after natural disturbance.[4] Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees or derived charcoal are used as, or sold, for fuel or as lumber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland. Disregard or ignorance of intrinsic value, lack of ascribed value, lax forest management and deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that allow deforestation to occur on a large scale. In many countries, deforestation is an ongoing issue that is causing extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of indigenous people. Among countries with a per capita GDP of at least US$4,600, net deforestation rates have ceased to increase.[5][6] Contents [hide] 1 Causes 2 Environmental problems 2.1 Atmospheric 2.2 Hydrological 2.3 Soil 2.4 Ecological 3 Economic impact 4 Forest transition theory

5 Historical causes 5.1 Prehistory 5.2 Pre-industrial history 6 Industrial era 6.1 Rates 6.1.1 Regions 7 Control 7.1 Reducing emissions 7.2 Farming 7.3 Forest management 7.3.1 Sustainable practices 7.4 Reforestation 7.5 Forest plantations 8 Military context 9 See also 10 References 11 External links [edit]Causes

There are many causes of contemporary deforestation, including corruption of government institutions,[7][8] the inequitable distribution of wealth and power,[9] population growth[10] and overpopulation,[11][12] and urbanization.[13] Globalization is often viewed as another root cause of deforestation,[14][15] though there are cases in which the impacts of globalization (new Àows of labor, capital, commodities, and ideas) have promoted localized forest recovery.[16] In 2000 the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) found that "the role of population dynamics in a local setting may vary from decisive to negligible," and that deforestation can result from "a combination of population pressure and stagnating economic, social and technological conditions."[10] According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) secretariat, the overwhelming direct cause of deforestation is agriculture. Subsistence farming is

[18] Many important forest functions have no markets. logging is responsible for 14% of deforestation and fuel wood removals make up 5% of deforestation.[25][26][27][28] Deforestation is a contributor to global warming. India. By the 1990s the majority of deforestation was caused by industrial factors. others that the poor lack the ability to pay for the materials and labour needed to clear forest. during late 19th century and the earlier half of the 20th century. and hence.[18] From the perspective of the developing world.[24] [edit]Environmental problems [edit]Atmospheric Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography. Developing countries feel that some countries in the developed world.[33] Trees and other plants remove carbon (in the form of carbon dioxide) from the atmosphere during the process of photosynthesis and release oxygen back into the atmosphere during normal respiration. including extractive industries.[29][30] and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect.[20][21] Some argue that poor people are more likely to clear forest because they have no alternatives.[31] According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change deforestation. mainly in tropical areas.[23] Whereas deforestation was primarily driven by subsistence activities and government-sponsored development projects like transmigration in countries like Indonesia and colonization in Latin America.[22] Some commentators have noted a shift in the drivers of deforestation over the past 30 years. large-scale cattle ranching.[32] But recent calculations suggest that carbon dioxide emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (excluding peatland emissions) contribute about 12% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions with a range from 6 to 17%. the benefits of forest as carbon sinks or biodiversity reserves go primarily to richer developed nations and there is insufficient compensation for these services. Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions.responsible for 48% of deforestation. commercial agriculture is responsible for 32% of deforestation. and that it is hypocritical to deny developing countries the same opportunities: that the poor shouldn't have to bear the cost of preservation when the rich created the problem.[17] The degradation of forest ecosystems has also been traced to economic incentives that make forest conversion appear more profitable than forest conservation. could account for up to one-third of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Both the decay and burning of wood releases much of this stored carbon back to the . no economic value that is readily apparent to the forests' owners or the communities that rely on forests for their well-being. and extensive agriculture. Java etc. cut down their forests centuries ago and benefited greatly from this deforestation.[20] One study found that population increases due to high fertility rates were a primary driver of tropical deforestation in only 8% of cases. Only when actively growing can a tree or forest remove carbon over an annual or longer timeframe. such as the United States of America.[19] Experts do not agree on whether industrial logging is an important contributor to global deforestation.

Trees extract groundwater through their roots and release it into the atmosphere. The idea consists in providing financial compensations for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation and forest degradation".[35] Rainforests are widely believed by laymen to contribute a significant amount of world's oxygen.[citation needed] [edit]Hydrological The water cycle is also affected by deforestation. but is lost in runoff and returns directly to the oceans. Forests are stores of carbon and can be either sinks or sources depending upon environmental circumstances.atmosphere. which then percolates to groundwater systems. however. and plants in general. flooding and landslides ensue. When part of a forest is removed.[citation needed] Trees. According to one study. stems and trunks slow down surface runoff. Instead of trapping precipitation. their litter. which is then evaporated back to the atmosphere (canopy interception). in deforested north and northwest China. Deforestation also contributes to decreased evapotranspiration. In order for forests to take up carbon. Deforestation reduces the content of water in the soil and groundwater as well as atmospheric moisture.[37][38] However. the average annual precipitation decreased by one third between the 1950s and the 1980s. forests are a major source of aquifer depletion on most locales.[30] Forests are also able to extract carbon dioxide and pollutants from the air. . thus contributing to biosphere stability. as water is not recycled to downwind forests. deforested areas become sources of surface water runoff. Mature forests alternate between being net sinks and net sources of carbon dioxide (see carbon dioxide sink and carbon cycle). so that erosion. resulting in a much drier climate. retain and transpire precipitation. affect the water cycle significantly: their canopies intercept a proportion of precipitation.[42] Shrinking forest cover lessens the landscape's capacity to intercept. the trees no longer evaporate away this water. the wood must be harvested and turned into long-lived products and trees must be re-planted. That quicker transport of surface water can translate into flash flooding and more localized floods than would occur with the forest cover.[34] Deforestation may cause carbon stores held in soil to be released. which contributes to global warming.[36] although it is now accepted by scientists that rainforests contribute little net oxygen to the atmosphere and deforestation will have no effect on atmospheric oxygen levels.[40][41] Forests enhance the recharge of aquifers in some locales. Reducing emissions from the tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in developing countries has emerged as new potential to complement ongoing climate policies. which lessens atmospheric moisture which in some cases affects precipitation levels downwind from the deforested area.[39] Deforestation reduces soil cohesion. which moves much faster than subsurface flows. the incineration and burning of forest plants to clear land releases large amounts of CO2.

and providing the sediment that gives the Yellow River its yellow color and that causes the flooding of the river in the lower reaches (hence the river's nickname 'China's sorrow').[43] As a result. approximately 2 metric tons per square kilometer (6 short tons per square feet). their leaves control the humidity of the atmosphere by transpiring. creating dramatic incised valleys. The forest may have little impact on flooding in the case of large rainfall events. and if the soil is sufficiently shallow they act to keep the soil in place by also binding with underlying bedrock. In certain regions of southwest US. they contribute to terrestrial evaporation and reduce soil moisture via transpiration.[36] [edit]Soil Deforestation for the use of clay in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro. by increasing the amount of runoff and reducing the protection of the soil from tree litter. the presence or absence of trees can change the quantity of water on the surface. is studying how to restore the former ecosystem. in Bandelier National Monument for example. Tree roots bind soil together. in Jacarepaguá Undisturbed forests have a very low rate of soil loss. The trees themselves enhance the loss of grass between tree canopies. by removing the trees. Tropical rainforests produce about 30% of our planet's fresh water. Removal of trees does not always increase erosion rates. Tree removal on steep slopes with shallow soil thus increases the risk of landslides. This in turn changes erosion rates and the availability of water for either ecosystem functions or human services. The bare intercanopy areas become highly erodible. Forestry operations themselves also increase erosion through the development of roads and the use of mechanized equipment. 99% of the water absorbed by the roots moves up to the leaves and is transpired. in the soil or groundwater. which overwhelm the storage capacity of forest soil if the soils are at or close to saturation. However most . Since then it has been eroding. shrubs and trees have been encroaching on grassland. The hill depicted is Morro da Covanca. which can threaten people living the soil that increase infiltration of water. and reduce erosion. This can be an advantage in excessively leached tropical rain forest soils. The US Forest Service. their litter and other organic residue change soil properties that affect the capacity of soil to store water.large conduits . or in the atmosphere.their roots create macropores .[citation needed] Deforestation generally increases rates of soil erosion. China's Loess Plateau was cleared of forest millennia ago.

[61] However. and wood pulp for paper.[61] Species-area models are known to overpredict the number of species known to be threatened in areas where actual deforestation is ongoing.[47] With forest biotopes being irreplaceable source of new drugs (such as taxol). providing habitat for wildlife. and greatly overpredict the number of threatened species that are widespread. have played a key role in human societies.[60] Most predictions of forestry related biodiversity loss are based on species-area models. approximately 1 species per year from mammals and birds which extrapolates to approximately 23.[54] It has been estimated that we are losing 137 plant.000 species a year. comparable to the roles of water and cultivable land. allowing for the roots to stay rooted. [edit]Ecological Deforestation results in declines in biodiversity.[48] Since the tropical rainforests are the most diverse ecosystems on Earth[49][50] and about 80% of the world's known biodiversity could be found in tropical rainforests.[46] moreover.[62] Historically utilization of forest products. animal and insect species every single day due to rainforest deforestation. which equates to 50. developed countries continue to utilize timber for building houses.[44] The removal or destruction of areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity. deforestation can destroy genetic variations (such as crop resistance) irretrievably.000 species per year for all species.deforestation only affects the trunks of trees. In developing countries almost three billion people rely on wood for heating and cooking.[58] Such predictions were called into question by 1995 data that show that within regions of Southeast Asia much of the original forest has been converted to monospecific plantations.[59] Scientific understanding of the process of extinction is insufficient to accurately make predictions about the impact of deforestation on biodiversity. many such models have been proven to be wrong and loss of habitat does not necessarily lead to large scale loss of species.[51][52] removal or destruction of significant areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded[53] environment with reduced biodiversity. Today.[56][57] The known extinction rates from deforestation rates are very low.[63] .[55] Others state that tropical rainforest deforestation is contributing to the ongoing Holocene mass extinction. Predictions have been made that more than 40% of the animal and plant species in Southeast Asia could be wiped out in the 21st century. including timber and fuel wood. but that potentially endangered species are few and tree flora remains widespread and stable.[59] [edit]Economic impact Damage to forests and other aspects of nature could halve living standards for the world's poor and reduce global GDP by about 7% by 2050. with an underlying assumption that as the forest declines species diversity will decline similarly. a major report concluded at the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting in Bonn. forests foster medicinal conservation.[45] Forests support biodiversity. negating the landslide.

higher prices of forest products) that lead to forest cover stabilization. global economic forces.. Illegal logging causes billions of dollars of losses to national economies annually.. or it might through good policies be able to ³bridge´ the forest transition. and . after which forest cover stabilizes and eventually starts recovering.[67] The forest area change may follow a pattern suggested by the forest transition (FT) theory.[24] Then deforestation rates accelerate (HFHD. low forest cover . including forests. FT is not a ³law of nature. while it tends to overestimate BAU deforestation for countries at the later stages (LFHD and LFLD). or overexploitation of wood products. which is linked to the pattern of natural resource use. Southeast Asia and many other regions have experienced lower revenue because of declining timber harvests.The forest products industry is a large part of the economy in both developed and developing countries.g.[64] The new procedures to get amounts of wood are causing more harm to the economy and overpowers the amount of money spent by people employed in logging. and forest cover is reduced (LFHD.high deforestation rate). and an extrapolation of historical rates therefore tends to underestimate future BAU deforestation for counties at the early stages in the transition (HFLD). The choice of forest cover and GDP per capita also fits well with the two key scenarios in the FT: (i) a forest scarcity path. whereby at early stages in its development a country is characterized by high forest cover and low deforestation rates (HFLD countries). structure of the economy). typically leads to loss of long-term income and long term biological productivity (hence reduction in nature's services). and government policies. human population density.´ and the pattern is influenced by national context (e. Countries with high forest cover can be expected to be at early stages of the FT. Madagascar.[66] [edit]Forest transition theory The forest transition and historical baselines. stage of development. Short-term economic gains made by conversion of forest to agriculture.[65] According to a study. before the deforestation rate slows (LFLD. The price on the European market for an offset tied to a one-ton reduction in carbon is 23 euro (about US$35). FT depicts a broad trend. high forest cover . West Africa. GDP per capita captures the stage in a country¶s economic development. "in most areas studied.low deforestation rate). A country may reach very low levels of forest cover before it stabilizes. where forest scarcity triggers forces (e.high deforestation rate). the various ventures that prompted deforestation rarely generated more than US$5 for every ton of carbon they released and frequently returned far less than US$1".g. low forest cover .

The Neolithic period saw extensive deforestation for farming land.(ii) an economic development path. and fire became the prime tool to clear land for crops. for example the environs of the Palace of Knossos were severely deforested in the Bronze Age. They include the noted Langdale axe industry in the English Lake District. starting in southern Europe and gradually moving north to Great Britain.[69] It was probably used to convert closed forests into more open ecosystems favourable to game animals. Widespread decrease in elm pollen across Europe between 84008300 BC and 7200-7000 BC. Evidence of deforestation has been found in Minoan Crete. where new and better off-farm employment opportunities associated with economic growth (= increasing GDP per capita) reduce profitability of frontier agriculture and slows deforestation. but from a wide variety of hard rocks from across Britain and North America as well. larger areas began to be deforested. quarries developed at Penmaenmawr in North Wales and numerous other locations. Small scale deforestation was practiced by some societies for tens of thousands of years before the beginnings of civilization.[72] [edit]Pre-industrial history Throughout most of history. Removal of the forests led to decreased transpiration. Mesolithic foragers used fire to create openings for red deer and wild boar. and polishing tools. and the Caribbean. including bracelets. the tropics. resulting in the formation of upland peat bogs. Rough-outs were made locally near the quarries. may represent land clearing by fire at the onset of Neolithic agriculture.[68] With the advent of agriculture. In most areas.[24] [edit]Historical causes Further information: Timeline of environmental events [edit]Prehistory An array of Neolithic artifacts. axe heads. Central America. brambles.[68] The first evidence of deforestation appears in the Mesolithic period. This step not only increased the mechanical strength of the axe. but also made penetration of wood easier.[70][71] Stone axes were being made from about 3000 BC not just from flint. . In Europe there is little solid evidence before 7000 BC.[73] only after shortages of wood and other forest products occur are policies implemented to ensure forest resources are used in a sustainable manner. such as the Amazon. chisels. grasses and nettles. humans were hunter gatherers who hunted within forests. shade-tolerant species such as oak and ash are replaced in the pollen record by hazels. and some were polished locally to give a fine finish. Flint was still used from sources such as Grimes Graves but from many other mines across Europe. In Great Britain.

however. Easter Island has suffered from heavy soil erosion in recent centuries. leading to the city's abandonment.g. 1. which slowly buried the Roman settlement in alluvium and gradually moved new construction to higher ground. 1-11. A typical progress trap was that cities were often built in a forested area. ranging from the later Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age. as happened repeatedly in Ancient Asia Minor. These maps represent only virgin forest lost. alluvial silt from two small rivers raised the riverbeds and widened the floodplain. In early medieval Riez in upper Provence. vol.g. mining and metallurgy often led to deforestation and city abandonment. e. pottery). also followed a period of increased settlement growth (and apparently of deforestation) in the upper river basins. 1925. wherever adequate evidence exists. or to graze pigs) for wildlife to remain viable. 1850. The elite's (nobility and higher clergy) protection of their own hunting privileges and game often protected significant woodlands. concurrently the headwater valleys above Riez were being opened to pasturage. to collect firewood. which moved port commerce to Antwerp.[citation needed] With most of the population remaining active in (or indirectly dependent on) the agricultural sector. The Relation of Geography to Timber Supply.[citation needed] Loss of old growth forest in the United States. by Dave Foreman and Howie Wolke (Harmony Books.[citation needed] . p. a major phase of erosion follows.000 years the introduction of farming in the various regions of Greece. Clarus. Priene and Miletus. and 1920 maps: From William B. Source of "Today" map: compiled by George Draffan from roadless area map in The Big Outside: A Descriptive Inventory of the Big Wilderness Areas of the United States. Because of fuel needs. 1620. shipbuilding. Tjeered van Andel and co-writers[74] summarized three regional studies of historic erosion and alluviation and found that.[76][77] The famous silting up of the harbor for Bruges.g. by about 500-1. where harbors had to be abandoned because of the silt deposited by the Meander) and in coastal Syria during the last centuries BC. size or extent of 1620 due to population increases and food cultivation. The thousand years following the mid-first millennium BCE saw serious. The historic silting of ports along the southern coasts of Asia Minor (e. aggravated by agriculture and deforestation. timber and fruits. Greeley's. construction. local wood supplies become difficult to obtain near enough to remain competitive. Economic Geography. and the examples of Ephesus. Enough wild green was usually left standing (and partially used. which would provide wood for some industry (e. He attributed the collapse to deforestation and over-exploitation of all resources. The disappearance of the island's trees seems to coincide with a decline of its civilization around the 17th and 18th century. intermittent pulses of soil erosion in numerous places. 1992). When deforestation occurs without proper replanting. the main pressure in most areas remained land clearing for crop and cattle farming.In ancient Greece.[75] Jared Diamond gives an extensive look into the collapse of the ancient Easter Islanders in his book Collapse. Some regrowth has occurred but not to the age.

Even when speculators sought to encourage towns. Genghis Khan's Mongol hordes in eastern and central Europe. This led to a weakening of the domestic economy after Columbus' discovery of America. cattle. Cantor's summary of the effects of late medieval deforestation applies equally well to Early Modern Europe:[78] Europeans had lived in the midst of vast forests throughout the earlier medieval centuries. They believed flooding was linked to widespread forest clearing upstream. The large-scale building of wooden sailing ships by European (coastal) naval owners since the 15th century for exploration. The land was reclaimed by nature. From 1100 to 1500 AD. etc. even in Stuart England. trade. plantations. mining. After 1250 they became so skilled at deforestation that by 1500 they were running short of wood for heating and cooking. In France. They were faced with a nutritional decline because of the elimination of the generous supply of wild game that had inhabited the now-disappearing forests. Piracy also contributed to the over harvesting of forests.)[citation needed] In Changes in the Land (1983).Major parts in the spread (and thus more durable growth) of the population were played by monastical 'pioneering' (especially by the Benedictine and Commercial orders) and some feudal lords' recruiting farmers to settle (and become tax payers) by offering relatively good legal and fiscal conditions. and looked to the untapped forests of New England to supply the need. slave trade±and other trade on the high seas consumed many forest resources. Stuart England was so widely deforested that it depended on the Baltic trade for ship timbers. The massive use of charcoal on an industrial scale in Early Modern Europe was a new type of consumption of western forests. William Cronon analyzed and documented 17th-century English colonists' reports of increased seasonal flooding in New England during the period when new settlers initially cleared the forests for agriculture. When the oak plantations matured in the mid-19th century. When populations were quickly decreased by causes such as the Black Death or devastating warfare (e. Colbert planted oak forests to supply the French navy in the future. the relatively primitive production of charcoal has already reached an impressive level. this could lead to settlements being abandoned. as in Spain. Each of Nelson's Royal Navy war ships at Trafalgar (1805) required 6. Norman F. colonisation. significant deforestation took place in Western Europe as a result of the expanding human population. which throughout medieval times had provided the staple of their carnivorous high-protein diet. [edit]Industrial era .g. By 1500 Europe was on the edge of a fuel and nutritional disaster [from] which it was saved in the sixteenth century only by the burning of soft coal and the cultivation of potatoes and maize. as the economy became dependent on colonial activities (plundering. but the secondary forests usually lacked the original biodiversity. Thirty Years' War in Germany).000 mature oaks for its construction. settlers needed an agricultural belt around or sometimes within defensive walls. the masts were no longer required because shipping had changed.

[83][84] Some scientists have predicted that unless significant measures (such as seeking out and protecting old growth forests that have not been disturbed)[82] are taken on a worldwide basis. and changed its channel laterally. and that all tropical forests will be gone by the middle of the 21st century. Several French colonial towns of the Illinois Country..[87] A 2002 analysis of satellite imagery suggested that the rate of deforestation in the humid tropics (approximately 5. and with them hundreds of thousands of irreplaceable species. the extinction of species).[79] The wholescale clearance of woodland to create agricultural land can be seen in many parts of the world.[80] 80% will have been lost.In the 19th century.g. a newer analysis of satellite images reveals that deforestation of the Amazon rainforest is twice as fast as scientists previously estimated. such as Kaskaskia. Attempts to improve navigation by the use of snagpullers often resulted in crews' clearing large trees 100 to 200 feet (61 m) back from the banks.[80][81] It has been estimated that about half of the Earth's mature tropical forests²between 7. The steamboat crews cut wood every day from the riverbanks to fuel the steam engines. Between St.2 million sq mi) that until 1947 covered the planet[82]²have now been cleared.9 million to 3 million sq mi) of the original 15 million to 16 million km2 (5.[92][93] . with a loss to the cultural record of their archeology. Philippe. Louis and the confluence with the Ohio River to the south.8 million to 6.8 million hectares per year) was roughly 23% lower than the most commonly quoted rates. Specific parallels are seen in the 20th-century deforestation occurring in many developing nations. introduction of steamboats in the United States was the cause of deforestation of banks of major rivers. now only cover 5-7%.[80] Estimates vary widely as to the extent of tropical deforestation. by 2030 there will only be ten percent remaining.[85][86] Scientists estimate that one fifth of the world's tropical rainforest was destroyed between 1960 and 1990[citation needed]. [edit]Rates Orbital photograph of human deforestation in progress in the Tierras Bajas project in eastern Bolivia Global deforestation sharply accelerated around 1852. the Mississippi became more wide and shallow.5 million and 8 million km2 (2.[88] Conversely. Illinois were flooded and abandoned in the late 19th century. with increased and more severe flooding one of the environmental results. such as the Central forest-grasslands transition and other areas of the Great Plains of the United States.[89][90] Some have argued that deforestation trends may follow a Kuznets curve.[80][83] with another ten percent in a degraded condition. such as the Mississippi River. They claim that that rainforests 50 years ago covered 14%[citation needed] of the world's land surface.[91] which if true would nonetheless fail to eliminate the risk of irreversible loss of non-economic forest values (e. Cahokia and St.

[99] which do not take into account unofficial activities like illegal logging. Myanmar. two-thirds of lowland tropical forests have been turned into pasture since 1950 and 40% of all the rainforests have been lost in the last 40 years. have begun to develop programs aimed at curbing deforestation. Guinea. Nigeria.[101] In South Asia.[104] Brazil has lost 90-95% of its Mata Atlântica forest. including the United Nations and the World Bank.[105] Madagascar has lost 90% of its eastern rainforests.[100] Despite these uncertainties. Sri Lanka.[102] Much of what remains of the world's rainforests is in the Amazon basin. [edit]Regions Main article: Deforestation by region Rates of deforestation vary around the world. China. The blanket term Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) describes these sorts of programs. where the Amazon Rainforest covers approximately 4 million square kilometres.[103] The regions with the highest tropical deforestation rate between 2000 and 2005 were Central America²which lost 1. India. the Philippines. Thailand. the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Indonesia. have lost large areas of their rainforest.[96] The London-based Rainforest Foundation notes that "the UN figure is based on a definition of forest as being an area with as little as 10% actual tree cover. including habitat loss such as deforestation. which would therefore include areas that are actually savannah-like ecosystems and badly damaged forests.[111][112] The World Wildlife Fund's ecoregion project catalogues habitat types throughout the world. about 88% of the rainforests have been lost.A 2005 report by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that although the Earth's total forest area continues to decrease at about 13 million hectares per year. less than 1% of Haiti's forests remained.[97] In Central America. Bangladesh. Southeast Asia and parts of South America are among the regions of highest concern to environmentalists. Laos."[97] Other critics of the FAO data point out that they do not distinguish between forest types.[109][110] Several countries. Up to 90% of West Africa's coastal rainforests have disappeared since 1900.3% of its forests each year²and tropical Asia.[106][107] As of 2007.[94][95] Still others claim that rainforests are being destroyed at an ever-quickening pace. showing for example that even in the rich forests of parts of Canada such as the Mid-Continental Canadian forests of the prairie provinces half of the forest cover has been lost or altered. Ghana and the Côte d'Ivoire. [edit]Control [edit]Reducing emissions Main article: Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation Major international organizations. notably Brazil. the global rate of deforestation has recently been slowing. there is agreement that destruction of rainforests remains a significant environmental problem. Malaysia.[108] Mexico. Liberia.[98] and that they are based largely on reporting from forestry departments of individual countries. which use direct monetary or other incentives to encourage developing countries to limit and/or roll back . have declared their deforestation a national emergency.

which rely on remote forest monitoring using satellite imagery and other data sources. greenhouse.deforestation. government. These tools. In Tonga. and biodiversity. include the Center for Global Development's FORMA (Forest Monitoring for Action) initiative [114] and the Group on Earth Observations' Forest Carbon Tracking Portal. [edit]Forest management Efforts to stop or slow deforestation have been attempted for many centuries because it has long been known that deforestation can cause environmental damage sufficient in some cases to cause societies to collapse. highly productive. but at the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties-15 (COP-15) in Copenhagen in December 2009. In 16th century Germany landowners also developed silviculture to deal with the problem of deforestation.2012. paramount rulers developed policies designed to prevent conflicts between short-term gains from converting forest to farmland and long-term problems forest loss would cause. but it also is an extremely beneficial . that will approach USD 30 billion for the period 2010 . given back to the soil. whilst in areas with a strong dry season there is always a risk of forest fires destroying a tree crop before it matures.[113] Significant work is underway on tools for use in monitoring developing country adherence to their agreed REDD targets. is the concept of food forests in permaculture. In the areas where "slash-and-burn" is practiced. is not only a durable carbon sequestration method.[115] Methodological guidance for forest monitoring was also emphasized at COP-15 [116] The environmental organization Avoided Deforestation Partners leads the campaign for development of REDD through funding from the U. These methods are often dependent on chemical inputs to maintain necessary yields. This is because on older and less fertile soils trees grow too slowly for silviculture to be economic.S. Intensive farming can also decrease soil nutrients by consuming at an accelerated rate the trace minerals needed for crop growth. with an emphasis on plant and animal species of interest for food. These systems have low dependence on fossil fuels and agro-chemicals. The biochar thus created.[citation needed]The most promising approach. are highly self-maintaining. however. and hydroponics. cattle are grazed on farm land that is resting and rejuvenating. Cyclic agriculture actually increases the fertility of the soil. In cyclic agriculture. such as high-yield hybrid crops.[119] the shoguns developed a highly sophisticated system of long-term planning to stop and even reverse deforestation of the preceding centuries through substituting timber by other products and more efficient use of land that had been farmed for many centuries. including forestry and investments through international institutions. Funding has been an issue. no dry season and very young soils (through volcanism or glaciation). an accord was reached with a collective commitment by developed countries for new and additional resources. However.[117] [edit]Farming New methods are being developed to farm more intensively. and with strong positive impact on soil and water quality. timber and other uses.[118] while during the seventeenth and 18th centuries in Tokugawa. which consists of agroforestal systems carefully designed to mimic natural forests. Japan. autonomous building gardens. these policies tend to be limited to environments with good rainfall. switching to "slash-and-char" would prevent the rapid deforestation and subsequent degradation of soils.

it has introduced the Green Wall of China project. [edit]Sustainable practices Certification.55%. The forest coverage was 12% two decades ago and now is 16. the project is not very successful. The government claims that at least 1 billion trees have been planted in China every year since 1982. In Western countries. one of the richest soils on the planet and the only one known to regenerate itself. which aims to halt the expansion of the Gobi desert through the planting of trees.amendment to the soil. increasing consumer demand for wood products that have been produced and harvested in a sustainable manner is causing forest landowners and forest industries to become increasingly accountable for their forest management and timber harvesting practices. as provided by global certification systems such as PEFC and FSC. This is no longer required today. due to the large percentage of trees dying off after planting (up to 75%). Also. The Arbor Day Foundation then protects the land from deforestation.[122] In the People's Republic of China.[citation needed] There has been a 47million-hectare increase in forest area in China since the 1970s. However.[123] An ambitious proposal for China is the Aerially Delivered Re-forestation and Erosion Control System and the Proposed sahara forest project coupled with the Seawater Greenhouse.55% of China's land mass increased in forest coverage.[122] The total number of trees amounted to be about 35 billion and 4. By promoting the positive attributes of forest products from sustainably managed forests. Asia as a whole gained 1 million hectares of forest between 2000 and 2005. Tropical forest in El Salvador expanded more than 20% between 1992 and 2001. where large scale destruction of forests has occurred. . The Arbor Day Foundation's Rain Forest Rescue program is a charity that helps to prevent deforestation. one study projects that global forest will increase by 10%²an area the size of India²by 2050."[120] [edit]Reforestation Main article: Reforestation In many parts of the world. Mixed with biomass it brings the creation of terra preta. but March 12 of every year in China is the Planting Holiday. the government has in the past required that every able-bodied citizen between the ages of 11 and 60 plant three to five trees per year or do the equivalent amount of work in other forest services. Based on these trends. "A major condition for the adoption of sustainable forest management is a demand for products that are produced sustainably and consumer willingness to pay for the higher costs entailed.[121] The amount of woodland has increased in 22 of the world's 50 most forested nations. reforestation and afforestation are increasing the area of forested lands. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). certification focuses on the demand side of environmental conservation. contributes to tackling deforestation by creating market demand for timber from sustainably managed forests. especially in East Asian countries. Certification represents a shift from regulatory approaches to market incentives to promote sustainable forest management. The charity uses donated money to buy up and preserve rainforest land before the lumber companies can buy it.

"[130] . Organizations such as Community Forestry International. deforestation resulted which could "be replaced only by long forestry development over perhaps a century. African Conservation Foundation and Greenpeace also focus on preserving forest habitats. it has been suggested by forestry writers Botkins and Sedjo that high-yielding forest plantations are suitable. Sources in the U.S. By contrast."[129] Reforestation through tree planting could take advantage of changing precipitation patterns due to climate change. zone of occupation in Germany after World War II. This would be done by studying where precipitation is projected to increase and setting up reforestation projects in these locations. Forester Chad Oliver has suggested a forest mosaic with high-yield forest lands interpersed with conservation land. natural forests produce about 1-2 cubic meters per hectare. Greenpeace in particular has also mapped out the forests that are still intact [124] and published this information on the internet. attempts were made to lower German industrial potential. Sierra Leone and Liberia are especially important candidates because they also suffer from an expanding desert (the Sahara) and decreasing biodiversity (while being important biodiversity hotspots). To address this threat. It has been calculated that plantations yielding 10 cubic meters per hectare annually could supply all the timber required for international trade on 5% of the world's existing forestland. of which forests were deemed an element. therefore. [edit]Forest plantations To meet the world's demand for wood. World Wide Fund for Nature.[128] One analysis of FAO data suggests that afforestation and reforestation projects "could reverse the global decline in woodlands within 30 years. Before the onset of the Cold War defeated Germany was still considered a potential future threat rather than potential future ally." As a consequence of the practice of clear-felling. Conservation International. government admitted that the purpose of this was the "ultimate destruction of the war potential of German forests.S. One example of deliberate deforestation is that which took place in the U. [edit]Military context American Sherman tanks knocked out by Japanese artillery on Okinawa. there are some examples of military causes. The Nature Conservancy.[127] These maps mark the amount of afforestation required to repair the damage caused by man.This also locks in the way of life of the primitive tribes living on the forest land.[125] HowStuffWorks in turn has made a simpler thematic map[126] showing the amount of forests present just before the age of man (8000 years ago) and the current (reduced) levels of forest. Areas such as Niger. 5-10 times more forestland would be required to meet demand. While the preponderance of deforestation is due to demands for agricultural and urban use for the human population. Cool Earth.

together with bombs and bulldozers. it contributed to the destruction of 44% of the forest cover. decay and maggots".[132] or inadvertently such as in the 1945 Battle of Okinawa where bombardment and other combat operations reduced the lush tropical landscape into "a vast field of mud. land-use change and forestry Moisture recycling Mountaintop removal .War can also be a cause of deforestation. lead.[133] See also: Environmental issues with war [edit]See also Environment portal Ecology portal Earth sciences portal Biology portal Sustainable development portal Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Deforestation Assarting Biochar CDM & JI A/R projects Deforestation during the Roman period Desertification Ecoforestry Economic impact analysis Environmental issues with paper Extinction Forestry Illegal logging Land use. either deliberately such as through the use of Agent Orange[131] during the Vietnam War where.

P. ^ http://dictionaryofforestry. A. S. Barbe Baker Satoyama Slash-and-burn Slash-and-char Terra preta Wilderness Intact forest landscape World Forestry Congress Biodiversity [edit]References Notes ^ http://dictionaryofforestry. Mather. The National Commission on Science for Sustainable Forestry. Toral. (2006).org/dict/term/regeneration_cut%28ting%29 ^ Oliver. ^ "Use Energy. E. Forest Development in North America following major disturbances. Fang.. T.. Washington DC ^ Kauppi. Get Rich and Save the Planet". J. (January 3. P.. "Returning forests analyzed with the forest identity". The New York Times. Sedjo. For. April 20.J. Mgmt.D. C.1073/pnas. . H. E. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (46): 17574. Ausubel.. 2002.Natural landscape Neolithic Overpopulation Rainforest Richard St.0608343103. "Corruption blamed for deforestation".. doi:10. Philippine Daily Inquirer. 2009 ^ Burgonio. Ecol. Biodiversity and sustainable forestry: State of the science review. A. 2008). 3(1980):153-168 ^ Patel-Weynand. PMID 17101996. Waggoner. J.

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and U. The Economics of Deforestation: The Example of Ecuador. 2006.2005 co-production including BBC and ZDF Whitney. Routledge. 2004. Botkin p 246-247 ^ Sample. Michael. Harmssen. office of Military Government. University of Chicago Press. study shows". II. DIANE Publishing. For similar observations see G. ISBN 0-333-73146-8 FAO&CIFOR report: Forests and Floods: Drowning in Fiction or Thriving on Facts? Fenical. Macmillan Press. ISBN 0226-89926-8 Wunder. A Year of Potsdam: The German Economy Since the Surrender (1946). "Logging the Globe" p. (1996). 119. The Guardian. p. (2003). The German Forest Resources Survey (1948). Chicago. The two quotes used by Balabkins are referenced to. Trujen Verlag. 1948). Rutgers University Press. ^ World forest cover map ^ "Alternative thematic map by Howstuffworks. From Coastal Wilderness to Fruited Plain : A History of Environmental Change in Temperate North America from 1500 to the Present. November 14. Gordon G. "Germany Under Direct Controls. ^ Nicholas Balabkins.W. ISBN 0-521-57658-X Williams. 48 ^ "Encyclopedia of World Environmental History". William (September 1983). ISBN 0-415-93733-7 ^ Patricia Marchak. ISBN 1428923977. ^ No Man's Garden Daniel B. "Forests are poised to make a comeback.S. 1964. 157 ^ Okinawan History and Karate-do General references BBC 2005 TV series on the history of geological factors shaping human history (name?) A Natural History of Europe . Economic Aspects Of Industrial Disarmament 1945-1948. p. (2000). Cambridge University Press. respectively: U. 147. Office of Military Government. Reparationen. Ian. London. medicines. Plants: the potentials for extracting protein. and other useful chemicals (workshop proceedings). Lebensstandard (Bremen: F. p. in pdf" (PDF). Ethiopia deforestation references . p.^ [2][dead link] ^ "World Intact Forests campaign by Greenpeace".S. I. Sozialproduct. Sven. Deforesting the Earth. "Marine Plants: A Unique and Unexplored Resource".70.

Includes 350 page report and 15 page summary United Nations EarthWatch EU Forestry. Africa and the Middle east. (2003). Deforesting the earth: From prehistory to global crisis: An Abridgment. Tree choppers become tree planters. OneWorld Tropical Forests Guide Some Background Info to Deforestation and REDD+ In the media March 14.CIDA Forestry Advisory Network DEFORESTATION: Tropical Forests in Decline Our disappearing forests . [edit]External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Deforestation Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 by the FAO Comprehensive assessment of forests and forestry. Appropriate Technology. A Great Agrarian cycle? Productivity in Highland Ethiopia. Independent Online: Destruction of forests in developing world 'out of control' Films online . M. 2006. 38-39. Retrieved November 18. (2006). J. xx: 3. (1990). from JSTOR database. 2006. 2007. C. (2003). Cool Earth United Nations Forum on Forests CFAN . Williams. Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 1900 To 1987. Chicago: The university of Chicago Press. from ABI/INFORM Global database.Parry. Santabarbara. (Document ID: 538367341). A continental Overview of Environmental Issues. CA: ABC CLIO.C.Greenpeace China Cocaine destroys 4 m2 of rainforest per gram The Guardian "Avoided Deforestation" Plan Gains Support . K & Hillstrom. Hillstrom. 30(4) to scholarly resource Central Michigan University. Peru . Retrieved November 22.Worldwatch Institute 3D Mapping for the Cloud Forest in Chanchamayo. J. Mccann.

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