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Information of Short Report
Definition:
Reports can fulfill four different, and sometimes related, functions. They can be used as controls to ensure that all departments are functioning properly, to give information, to provide an analysis, and to persuade others to act.

Purpose and Significance:
Business and industry, as well as university, often demand short technical reports. They may be proposals, progress reports, trip reports, completion reports, investigation reports, feasibility studies, or evaluation reports. As the names indicate, these reports are diverse in focus and aim, and differ in structure. However, one goal of all reports is the same: to communicate to an audience. Your audience for an academic report is already very well informed. Your professor and teaching assistants will not usually read your report in order to extract knowledge; instead, they will look for evidence that you understand the material and ideas your report presents. Your document, then, should not only convey information clearly and coherently (such as numbers, facts or equations), but should also, where appropriate, detail the logical processes you relied upon (such as interpretation, analysis, or evaluation).

Purpose & audience
Before starting to write a report, there are two key questions that need to be clarified: D D What is the purpose of the report? Who is the audience for the report?

Purpose
What is the purpose of the report? Is it to: D D D collect data and present the findings? analyse a situation or activity? review and evaluate the literature on a topic and identify issues?

All of these reports are forms of a research report, but they fulfil different functions.

D D D Accident or Inspection reports Trip or Conference reports Laboratory or Test results 2. eg information. Structure (Sections/Parts/Components): D Short report . etc. D Progress reports . it is important to think of the task in more objective terms. Monthly reports. ie to see it as a 'real' task. Sales reports. To help locate a report in a more realistic context. eg actually writing a consultant's report for a company. ideas.Audience Although lecturers are the obvious audience for any assessment task.Provide data to clarify questions or concerns raised on an issue. Most workplaces will have a required standard format for many of these reports. or provide information on an activity.Annual reports. Reports can be of different types. D Status reports . Analytical Basic Reports Basic reports provide information about a particular situation. Progress. Quarterly reports.Keep managers informed on regular basis about projects. Time-Related: These reports provide information that is generated periodically. 1. etc. and ask: D D D Who will read the report? What are the audience's needs. motivation etc? How much detail needs to be included in the report? Types: An important aspect of getting started to write a good report is recognizing and writing the correct TYPE of report for the situation. D Informational reports . Event-Based: These are generally short reports but their length is determined by the information required. Basic Comprehensive Status. think carefully about all the potential readers of a report. programs. Informational Investigative.

D Title page D Introduction D Discussion D Recommendations D References D Science report D Title page D Introduction D Method & materials D Results D Discussion D Conclusion D Appendices D References D Business report D Title page D Executive summary D Table of contents D Introduction D Discussion D Conclusion D Recommendations D Appendices D References D Engineering report D D D D D D D D D D Title page Executive summary (optional) Introduction Objectives Analysis Discussion Recommendations & action plan Conclusion Appendices References Research report .

D D D D D D D D D D Title page Executive summary Introduction Method / methodology Results / findings Discussion Conclusions Recommendations Appendices Bibliography ormat and Layout: Research reports are the most common type of report. You will need to check with your teacher / lecturer what the expected lengths of the various sections should be as well as the expected formats and headings to be used in your report. findings. Although this concentrates on research reports. All content is based on a sample report. conclusions & recommendations D Written last mainly in past D Are the aims of the purpose of the research clearly stated? D Are the results summarised? D Are the conclusions & Check list Table of contents Executive summary (Abstract) . The sample report used in this section is only a short report modelling the different sections. many of the sections are applicable to other types of reports. Standard research report sections Section Title page Key features D Title of report D Name of author / student D Organisation / course D Date D Lists the content of the report D Page numbers D Summarises the whole report in a logical order D Outlines purpose. This section explores a research report and outlines the requirements of the different sections. research methods.

tense D Should be no more than one page Introduction D Outlines context.no interpretation D Interprets & evaluates results D Analyses results ² draws together Results / findings D Are the results clearly summarised / stated? D Is visual data used where appropriate? Discussion D Are the results explained & interpreted? D Are the results linked to other similar research & to each other? D Are the results summarised? D Do the recommendations suggest possible solutions / actions / pathways etc Conclusion D Brief summary of findings Recommendations D Suggest suitable changes / solutions D Action plan for recommendations if required D List of terms. background & purpose D Defines terms & sets limits of the research recommendations outlined? D Is the purpose of the research clearly stated? D Is the context & background explained? D Are the limits of the study outlined? D Are the important concepts & terms defined? D Are the research techniques / methods clearly outlined? Method D Explains the research methodology and methods used D In scientific reports. eg graphs. this would detail the experimental procedures D Presents the findings / results D Can use visual data. eg acronyms used Glossary . tables etc D acts only .

1. All diagrams and illustrations should be labeled and numbered. The main sections are given single arabic numbers 1.References or bibliography Appendix D List of all cited references D Attachments. Headings should be clear .13 and so on. 3 and so on. 1.12 ²²²²²²²The following suggestions will help you to produce n easily read report: Leave wide margins for binding and feedback comments from your tutor. An example structure would look as follows. eg surveys.highlighted in old or underlined. measurements and technical terminology should be listed in glossary of terms at the back of your report.11 ²²²²²²²2. Sub-sections can be further divided into . 1.11.12.21 ²²²²²²²2.3 and so on.1 ²²²²²²²1.1. Paragraphs should be short and concise. 2.2. 1.1. The most common system is the decimal notation system. Methodology 2. Referencing Style/Citation/Bibliography: References . 1. Sub-sections are given a decimal number .1 ²²²²²²²2.2 ²²²²²²²1. Introduction 1. All standard units.1.11 ²²²²²²²1. questionnaires etc Most reports have a progressive numbering system.

or are available through public e-print/preprint servers. GenBank:U49845. for example. Citations in the reference list should contain all named authors. Swiss-Prot:Q96KQ7. GenBank at the NCBI (GenBank). Reference citations should not appear in titles or headings. unpublished data and personal communications should not be included in the reference list. in the order in which they are cited in the text. but may be included in the text and referred to as "unpublished data". or "personal communications" giving the names of the involved researchers. "unpublished observations". unpublished abstracts. followed by any in tables or legends. regardless of how many there are.see Additional files section in main document The Accession Numbers of any nucleic acid sequences. Protein Data . protein sequences or atomic coordinates cited in the manuscript should be provided.All references must be numbered consecutively. The databases for which we can provide direct links are: EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database (EMBL). PDB:1BFM. DDBJ:AE000812. Obtaining permission to quote personal communications and unpublished data from the cited author(s) is the responsibility of the author. PIR:S66116]. Notes/footnotes are not allowed. Journal abbreviations follow Index Medicus/MEDLINE. Citation/Bibliography: Manuscripts for Short Report articles submitted to Journal of Biomedical Semantics should be divided into the following sections: D Title page D Abstract D Findings D List of abbreviations used (if any) D Competing interests D Authors' contributions D Acknowledgements D References D Figure legends (if any) .see Figure legends section in main document D Tables and captions (if any) . the reference numbers must be finalized and the bibliography must be fully formatted before submission. [EMBL:AB026295. If automatic numbering systems are used.see Tables section in main document D Description of additional data files (if any) . DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ ). EMBL:AC137000. Please avoid excessive referencing. Only articles and abstracts that have been published or are in press. in square brackets. may be cited. in square brackets and include the corresponding database name. Each reference must have an individual reference number.

institutional addresses. Where an author gives no competing interests. the listing will read 'The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests'. Findings This should be a brief statement of the work and findings of not more than 1500 words in a single section. Authors should disclose any financial competing interests but also any non-financial competing interests that may cause them embarrassment were they to become public after the publication of the manuscript. either now or in the future? If so. The corresponding author should also be indicated. When completing your declaration. Protein Information Resource (PIR) and the Swiss-Prot Protein Database (SwissProt).Bank (PDB). D Do you hold any stocks or shares in an organization that may in any way gain or lose financially from the publication of this manuscript. Three or more figures or tables should accompany the text. which should precede the competing interests and authors' contributions. funding. please specify. List of abbreviations If abbreviations are used in the text. either they should be defined in the text where first used. Abstract This should not exceed 350 words and should consist of a single section. Competing interests A competing interest exists when your interpretation of data or presentation of information may be influenced by your personal or financial relationship with other people or organizations. or salary from an organization that may in any way gain or lose financially from the publication of this manuscript. Authors are required to complete a declaration of competing interests. either now or in the future? Is such an organization financing this manuscript (including the article-processing charge)? If so. please consider the following questions: Financial competing interests D In the past five years have you received reimbursements. fees. and email addresses for all authors. or a list of abbreviations can be provided. All competing interests that are declared will be listed at the end of published articles. Title page This should list the title of the article. . the full names.

writing assistance. If you are unsure as to whether you or one of your co-authors has a competing interest. please specify. Non-financial competing interests Are there any non-financial competing interests (political. or salary from an organization that holds or has applied for patents relating to the content of the manuscript? If so. or analysis and interpretation of data. and understand the standpoint of the author(s). commercial or any other) to declare in relation to this manuscript? If so. intellectual. We suggest the following kind of format (please use initials to refer to each author's contribution): AB carried out the molecular genetic studies. or acquisition of data. please specify. the individual contributions of authors to the manuscript should be specified in this section. . and participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. Authors' contributions In order to give appropriate credit to each author of a paper. D Do you have any other financial competing interests? If so. Authors' information You may choose to use this section to include any relevant information about the author(s) that may aid the reader¶s interpretation of the article. and 3) have given final approval of the version to be published. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. collection of data. funding. 2) have been involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content. or general supervision of the research group. JY carried out the immunoassays. D Do you hold or are you currently applying for any patents relating to the content of the manuscript? Have you received reimbursements. FG conceived of the study. Acquisition of funding. participated in the sequence alignment and drafted the manuscript. academic. or a department chair who provided only general support. religious. please specify. MT participated in the sequence alignment. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help. alone. ES participated in the design of the study and performed the statistical analysis. fees. does not justify authorship. personal. An "author" is generally considered to be someone who has made substantive intellectual contributions to a published study. All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an acknowledgements section. please discuss it with the editorial office. ideological. To qualify as an author one should 1) have made substantial contributions to conception and design.please specify.

references not in the correct style may be retyped. Links Web links and URLs should be included in the reference list. in the collection. and for the manuscript preparation in the acknowledgements section. Please also acknowledge anyone who contributed materials essential for the study. followed by any in tables or legends. or "personal communications" giving the names of the involved researchers. analysis. but may be included in the text and referred to as "unpublished data". regardless of how many there are. and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Authors must describe the role of the funding body. in study design. unpublished abstracts. and interpretation of data. Acknowledgements Please acknowledge anyone who contributed towards the study by making substantial contributions to conception. "unpublished observations". if any. Reference citations should not appear in titles or headings. or analysis and interpretation of data. Notes/footnotes are not allowed. current positions they hold at institutions or societies. Note this section should not be used to describe any competing interests. or who was involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content. Examples of the Journal of Biomedical Semantics reference style are shown below. Obtaining permission to quote personal communications and unpublished data from the cited author(s) is the responsibility of the author. or any other relevant background information. References All references must be numbered consecutively. necessitating tedious proofreading. Please take care to follow the reference style precisely. Journal abbreviations follow Index Medicus/MEDLINE. or are available through public e-print/preprint servers. for each author. may be cited. Citations in the reference list should contain all named authors.This may include details about the authors' qualifications. in the writing of the manuscript. unpublished data and personal communications should not be included in the reference list. in the order in which they are cited in the text. Please also include their source(s) of funding. the reference numbers must be finalized and the bibliography must be fully formatted before submission. in square brackets. Each reference must have an individual reference number. acquisition of data. Please list the source(s) of funding for the study. in the following format: The Mouse Tumor . but who does not meet the criteria for authorship. Only articles and abstracts that have been published or are in press. Authors should obtain permission to acknowledge from all those mentioned in the Acknowledgements. Please avoid excessive referencing. including both the title of the site and the URL. Please refer to authors using their initials. They should be provided in full. If automatic numbering systems are used. design.

43(Suppl 3):149-170. Bork P: BRCA1 protein products: functional motifs. Koonin EV. Barnes PJ: Clinical aspects of exhaled nitric oxide. Ponder B. Article within a journal supplement 2. Book chapter. Whole issue of journal 7. or article within a book 6. LoConte L. Burger JA. New York: Chapman and Hall.Biology Database [http://tumor.do] Journal of Biomedical Semantics reference style Style files are available for use with popular bibliographic management software: D D D BibTeX EndNote style file Reference Manager Article within a journal 1. 42:s250. Edited by Lewin RA. Volume 2. Nat Genet 1996. Maini RN: Mesenchymal cells. Published abstract 4. Marinova-Mutafchieva L.org/mtbwi/index. Stoneham: Butterworth-Heinemann.informatics. Altschul SF. 2nd edition. Schnepf E: From prey via endosymbiont to plastids: comparative studies in dinoflagellates. Eur Respir J. Edited by Smith Y.jax. In Breast Cancer Res 1998. Jones X: Zeolites and synthetic mechanisms. In Origins of Plastids. in press. stromal derived factor-1 and rheumatoid arthritis [abstract]. Bray JE. 1993:53-76. Johnston S. In Proceedings of the First National Conference on Porous Sieves: 27-30 June 1996. and contacts prediction. Sillitoe I: Analysis and assessment of ab initio three-dimensional prediction. Zvaifler NJ. 13:266-267. Chodosh L (Eds): Innovative oncology. Baltimore. Arthritis Rheum 1999. Article within conference proceedings 5. Kharitonov SA. Proteins 1999. Orengo CA. Hubbard T. Taylor P. In press article 3. 1996:16-27. . secondary structure.

do] . Stanford University. 1995:54-56. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database [http://tumor. Baltimore.jax. Monograph or book in a series 10. PhD thesis.org/mtbwi/index. Stoneham: Butterworth-Heinemann. London. Computer Science Department. In Cultured Human Cells and Tissues. Link / URL 13. Advisory Committee on Genetic Modification: Annual Report.] Book with institutional author 11. PhD thesis 12. Whole conference proceedings 8. Complete book 9. Gadek JE: The alveolar macrophage. 1996. 1999. Hunninghake GW. [Stoner G (Series Editor): Methods and Perspectives in Cell Biology.informatics. Margulis L: Origin of Eukaryotic Cells. vol 1. New Haven: Yale University Press. Kohavi R: Wrappers for performance enhancement and oblivious decision graphs. Smith Y (Ed): Proceedings of the First National Conference on Porous Sieves: 27-30 June 1996. 1970. 1995. Edited by Harris TJR.10:1-72. New York: Academic Press.

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