Government in Pakistan from 1988-1990

In 1988, President Ziaul-Haq dissolved the Junejo Government and announced that fresh elections would be held in November 1988. But on August 17, 1988, he was killed in a C-130 plane crash in Bhawalpur, along with Benazir Bhutto taking oath as the first woman Prime Minister of Pakistan of the crash has never been ascertained and still remains a riddle. After the death of General Zia, Ghulam Ishaq Khan, Chairman of the Senate, took over as acting President. Elections for the National and Provincial Assemblies were held on November 16 and 19, 1988, respectively. The Revival of the Constitutional Order had amended the Constitution, which empowered the President to appoint, at his discretion, any member of the National Assembly as Prime Minister. Ghulam Ishaq Khan appointed Benazir Bhutto as Prime Minister of Pakistan on the condition that she would offer full support to him in the forthcoming presidential elections. According to the deal between Ghulam Ishaq Khan and Benazir Bhutto, Pakistan Peoples Party voted for Ghulam Ishaq Khan. Ghulam Ishaq Khan was also the consensus candidate of Islami Jamuhri Ittehad. Four candidates took part in the elections, with Ghulam Ishaq Khan winning and securing the highest 608 votes. Constitutional Amendments made by the R. C. O. and the Eighth Amendment, that had given the President a great deal of power, inevitably led the five senior Generals and the American Ambassador. The cause

In the 1988 elections. President Ghulam Ishaq Khan appointed Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi as the caretaker Prime Minister. 1990.. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto announced that the ban on Student Unions and Trade Unions would be lifted. Benazir was barely able to pull through with 12 votes to her advantage. her Government was accused of corruption and dismissed by the President. the P. Q. deserted the Pakistan People Party and on November 1. P. N. 1989. Government hosted the fourth S. M. P. C. 1990. P. members and 13 members of the Federally Administered tribal Area. Less than two years later. But soon. A. Summit Conference in December 1988. M. showed a clear majority. P. 1990. daughter of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. a no-confidence motion was moved against the Prime Minister by the opposition. Soon after taking oath. was sworn in as the Prime Minister. A. which had formed an alliance with the P. the appointment of the Military Chiefs and the Superior Court Judges. M. The conflict between the President and the Prime Minister arose in two areas. The dissolution of the National Assembly was soon followed by the dissolution of the Provincial Assemblies. Government and the Establishment. With the cooperation of 8 M. The P. Q. Fresh elections were scheduled on October 24. on August 6. Benazir Bhutto. also broke away and started creating trouble in Sindh. Pakistan Peoples Party won 94 seats in the National Assembly without forming any alliance. Ghulam Ishaq Khan. A. P. Pakistan and India finalized three peace agreements. R. P. The conflict between the President and the Prime Minister had its drop scene on August 6. Serious conceptual differences arose between the P.President and the Prime Minister into conflict. when the President dissolved the National Assembly and Benazir Bhutto was dismissed from power. . who exercised his power through the controversial Eighth Amendment of the Constitution. Benazir's Government started facing problems on the political front. As a result of the Conference. P. P. P. the first woman to govern an Islamic State.

1993. and declared a state of emergency in the country. the President had the power to appoint a caretaker Prime Minister and a caretaker Cabinet at the Federal as well at Provincial level. 1990. General Elections were scheduled to be held on July 14.Caretaker government from October 24. 1990. Elections were scheduled to be held on October 24. Ghulam Ishaq Khan did not appoint a neutral or non-partisan caretaker Cabinet or Prime Minister. Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif was elected as Prime Minister on November 1. 1990. Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi. and the Eighth Amendment. respectively. 1990. President Ghulam Ishaq Khan again dissolved the National Assembly. exercising his power once again through the Eighth Amendment. This time they deepened to such an extent that they led to the resignation of both President Ghulam Ishaq Khan . but were canceled when the Supreme Court quashed the Presidential Order and reinstated Nawaz Sharif as the Prime Minister. 1993. President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dissolved the National and Provincial Assemblies on August 6. Using these powers. 1990 As a result of the changes made in the Constitution by the R. C.1990 to November 1. 1st era of Nawaz Sharif government Elections for the National and Provincial Assemblies were held on October 24 and 27. and appointed Mir Balakh Sher Khan Mazari as the caretaker Prime Minister. Differences between Nawaz Sharif and Ghulam Ishaq Khan arose once again. He chose the leader of the Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi opposition in the former National Assembly. as the new caretaker Prime Minister of Pakistan. Nawaz Sharif's Government remained in power till April 19. O.

was given a boost. Benazir Bhutto returned to power for the second time and Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari was elected as the new President of Pakistan. During his tenure as the Prime Minister. Caretaker government from April 19. A massive uplift of Murree and Kahuta was Nawaz Sharif addressing the parliament done during his term as Chief Minister of Punjab. His most important contribution was economic progress despite U. The National and Provincial Assemblies were also dissolved. O. It followed the unhealthy tradition of removing elected governments through the use of the controversial Eighth Amendment. 1993 . S. 1993. when President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dissolved the National Assembly. Projects like Ghazi Brotha and the Gawadar miniport were initiated. sanctions on Pakistan through the Pressler Amendment on sanctions. and Ghulam Ishaq Khan was appointed the caretaker President. Nawaz Sharif's Government remained in power till April 18 1993. C. Land was distributed among landless peasants in Sindh. once again exercising his power through the Eighth Amendment. the "Islamabad Accord" was reached between various Afghan factions. which brought about the dismissal of two elected governments. Fresh elections for the National and Provincial Assemblies were held.and Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on July 18. The next President followed the same tradition and created continuous instability in the country. Moin Qureshi was appointed as the caretaker Prime Minister. The stupendous Motorway project was initiated that was completed during his second tenure. This brought to an end the presidency of Ghulam Ishaq Khan. Nawaz Sharif made efforts to strengthen the industrial sector with the help of the private sector. In an attempt to end the Afghan crisis. Relations with the Central Asian Muslim republics were strengthened and E.

when the Supreme Court revoked the Presidential Order and reinstated Nawaz Sharif as the Prime Minister. Balakh Sher Mazari Another caretaker government after an order from SC On May 26. At the time of his appointment. 1993. Moin Qureshi Moin Qureshi. 1993. However. and appointed Mir Balakh Sher Khan Mazari as the Caretaker Prime Minister. both resigned from their offices on July 18. Balakh Sher Mazari's tenure as Caretaker Prime Minister ended on May 26. General Elections were scheduled to be held on July 14. the Supreme Court of Pakistan declared the Presidential Order of the Assemblies' dissolution as unconstitutional and ruled for restoring the Nawaz Government and the National Assembly. 1993. . 1993. 1993. was appointed as the Caretaker Prime Minister and Ghulam Ishaq Khan was appointed as the caretaker President. because of the serious differences between the President Ghulam Ishaq Khan and the Prime Minister Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif. along with the dissolution of the Central and Provincial Assemblies.President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dissolved the National and Provincial Assemblies on April 19. a top World Bank official.

Despite the fact the Moin Qureshi was new to the economic and political environment of Pakistan. it was. making Pakistan Television and Radio Pakistan autonomous. downsizing of the administrative machinery and abolishing the discretionary power of the Prime Minster and the Chief Ministers of allotting residential plots to their favorites. which were appreciated by the general public. One of the steps included his effort to expose the misdeeds of the previous governments by publishing the lists of defaulters of bank loans and taxpayers. in his last days. he made his presence felt during his short tenure of 90 days. he made a large number of promotions and other administrative decisions in favor of his relatives. Moin Qureshi made the State Bank of Pakistan an autonomous body with an effort to keep out political interference in the working of the bank. During this time he undertook numerous steps. It goes to his credit that he undertook various endeavors in a short period of time and made a serious effort to recover Government dues. felt that as he was a political outsider. however. Second era of Benazir Bhutto . he would remain neutral. He took numerous other steps including the imposition of a nominal tax on agriculture.Moin Qureshi was totally unknown in Pakistan. These lists exposed a number of affluent persons who were involved in abusing the banking system and dodging the tax collectors. The only blot on Moin Qureshi's tenure as Prime Minister was that.

1993. Benazir again faced trouble from the opposition. Her visit resulted in the passing of the Brown Amendment by the U. P. During her second tenure. Q. P. formed the new government with the help of alliances. Benazir Bhutto took oath as Prime Minister on October 19. S. first Lady Hillary Clinton and her daughter Chelsea in 1995. S. Benazir Bhutto taking oath as Prime Minister for the second respectively. 1993. 1995. In April 1994. The resignation announcement of fresh elections for the National and Provincial Assemblies. S. Hillary's visit considerably changed the world's perceptions about Pakistan and highlighted Pakistan as a liberal. despite payments. The second tenure of Benazir Bhutto was. in 1993 The elections were boycotted by the M. Senate on September 21. P. Two weeks later Nawaz Sharif called a "wheel jam" strike on October 11. the P. Nawaz Sharif led a "train march" from Karachi to Peshawar. time. however. No party emerged with an absolute majority in the elections. M. candidate. easing restrictions on . The Presidential election was held on November 13. S. This was followed by general strike on September 20. highlighted by the visit of the U. In the autumn of 1994. 1993. P. and projected Pakistan's stance on the F-16 fighter planes withheld by the U. As a result the P. The elections were held on October 6 and 9.Benazir Bhutto returned to power for the second time in 1993 after the resignation of both President Ghulam Ishaq Khan and Prime Minister led to Nawaz the Sharif on July 18. Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari. Benazir visited the U. won by 274 to 168 votes against the then acting President Wasim Sajjad. modern and forwardlooking country..

Mir Murtaza Bhutto. Differences soon appeared and the Government felt that there was interference in the political matters of the Government by the President.Pakistan. M. Q. M. Benazir Bhutto's brother. under the Article 58(2) b of the Eighth Amendment. President Farooq Leghari dismissed Benazir Bhutto's Government on charges of corruption and mismanagement on November 5. 1996. was assassinated under mysterious circumstances in a police ambush on September 20. a smooth relationship could not be established between the Government and M. Things were not going well between the President and Benazir's Government. Q. . The high-profile killing of her brother in her tenure damaged her political career. In spite of all her political endeavors. It also helped in attracting foreign investors. 1996. On the domestic front she continued facing problems with M.

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