# CURRICULUM OF PHYSICS BS (4-YEAR

)

2008

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

**CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
**

Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Riaz ul Haq Tariq Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Khan Executive Director Member (Acad) Deputy Director (Curri) Assistant Director Assistant Director

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CONTENTS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Introduction --------------------------------------------------------- 07 Objectives ----------------------------------------------------------- 09 Frame Work/Template for BS (4-YEAR) in Physics ------ 10 Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Physics ----------- 11 Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Physics------------ 14 Recommendations ------------------------------------------------ 66 Details of Compulsary Courses (Annexures A, B, C, D & E.) ------------------------------------ 67

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PREFACE

Curriculum development is a highly organized and systematic process and involves a number of procedures. Many of these procedures include incorporating the results from international research studies and reforms made in other countries. These studies and reforms are then related to the particular subject and the position in Pakistan so that the proposed curriculum may have its roots in the socio-economics setup in which it is to be introduced. Hence, unlike a machine, it is not possible to accept any curriculum in its entirety. It has to be studied thoroughly and all aspects are to be critically examined before any component is recommended for adoption. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976, the Federal Government vide notification No. D773/76-JEA (cur.), dated December 4th 1976, appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees, certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges, universities and other institutions of higher education. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives, the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. According to the decision of the special meeting of Vice-Chancellor’s Committee, the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic, Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards, and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. It also aimed to give a basic, broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. The new BS degree shall be of 4 years duration, and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees, 63.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses, and 36.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level, comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities, degree awarding institutions, R&D organizations and respective accreditation councils. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Physics in a meeting held on March 28-29, 2008 at the 4

revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. The final draft prepared by the National Curriculum Revision Special Committee.RIAZ-UL-HAQ TARIQ
Member Academics
June 2008
5
. Lahore. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions.
DR. duly approved by the competent authority. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17.HEC Regional Center.

HEC BACK TO STAGE-I
6
. LI R&D HEC National Curriculum Revision Committee Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Preparation Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission
ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. PREP. UNI.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV
CURRICULUM UNDER CONSIDERATION
CURRICULUM IN DRAFT STAGE
FINAL STAGE
FOLLOW UP
COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS
APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP
PREPARATION OF FINAL CURRICULUM
QUESTIONNAIRE
CONS. R&D. OF NCRC. EXP. COL. REC. VCC.
FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC
COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRICULUM
PREPARARTION OF DRAFT BY NCRC IMPLEMENTATION OF CURRICULUM
REVIEW
Abbreviations Used: NCRC.

Prof. The following attended the Meetings: 1. Manzoor Hussain. University of Peshawar.Hassan Amir Shah. Karachi to adjust and finalize the BS Physics (4 Year) curriculum in the light of HEC approved guidelines and generic unified frame work / template for social and natural sciences for the program. Ashraf Chaudhry. Department of Physics. Muhammad Siddique Kalhoro. Chairman. Khairpur. Prof. Khan 2. 4. Qidwai. Prof. Shah Adul Latif University. University of the Punjab. Department of Physics. 5. Chairman. held on November 16-17. Prof. Prof. Qurban Ali Bhatti. 6.I. Ansar A. Dr. 8. Department of Physics. Karachi. Dr. Gomal University.Introduction
The 2nd and Final NCRC Special Meeting in Physics was held on March 28-29.Dr.Dr. This meeting was follow up of the preliminary meeting. Centralized Resource Laboratory. Bahauddin Zakria University. 2008 at HEC Regional Centre. Lahore. Professor. Lahore. 3. Department of Physics.Muhammad Riaz Khan. University of Sindh. Dr. University of Karachi. Prof. Muhammad Ayub. Dr. D. Department of Physics. Multan 7 Convener
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
. Director. Government College University. Prof. Department of Physics. Director Institute of Physics. Jamshoro. Lahore. Dr. 2007 at HEC Regional Centre. Dr. Prof. 7. Peshawar. Department of Physics.

10. Riaz Ahmad as a secretary. M. The objective of the meeting was explained and the forum was requested to select a convener & secretary of the meeting. B. Dr. Dr. the participants agreed to the following scheme of study and course outlines for BS (4 Year) program in Physics in the light of the guidelines and format approved by HEC for BS (4-years) program for natural sciences:
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. Mr. Chairman. Department of Physics. Lahore
Member
Member
Member/ Secretary
The Meeting started with a recitation from Holy Quran by Mr.9. Regional Centre. Karachi welcomed the participants. Dr. 2007 at HEC. Islamabad. Shafiullah Khan. University of Balochistan. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Riaz Ahmad. Incharge HEC Regional Centre. The committee unanimously selected Prof. Prof. Dr. Government College University. University Multan 11. Younis Nadeem. Mr. After a thorough and long discussion. Department of Physics. Assistant Director HEC. Prof. Syed Zafar Ilyas.Z. Lahore. Associate Professor. Shafiullah Khan requested the participants to finalize the revised curriculum of Physics (2005) in line with HEC approved template for BS (4 year) program in the light of decisions taken in the first NCRC special meeting in physics held on November 16-17. Muhammad Ayub as convener and Dr.

Students will develop problem-solving skills which will be helpful in applying their knowledge to the real world. able to face the challenges of the modern world. Students will be prepared for careers in teaching. Students will develop skills in written as well as oral communication in English. 9. Students will develop habit of independent learning and get motivation for selfeducation. The primary aim of the programme is to produce broad-based graduates.
. 3. Student will learn fundamentals principles of Physics. Students will be able to design and conduct experiments and analyse experimental data. Students will develop and understanding of different basics of Physics and their applications to real problems. 9
4.
10. Students will develop the ability of working in an interactive group. 11. 2. Students will develop hands-on experience in different laboratory techniques. 6. 7. 8.Objectives of BS 4 Year program in Physics
The Objective of BS 4 Year Program is to impart the best possible education in the subject so that students will utilize the knowledge of Physics in practical life which will be beneficial for the society. Students will develop effective skills in mathematics and its applications to the solutions of Physics problems. Students will develop critical and rational reasoning so that they will be able to work on complex and unforeseen problems and seek their solution. 5. The graduates will be able to apply their knowledge of Physics for their professional growth and for obtaining further Higher Education in specialized fields of Physics
The main educational objectives of BS (4-year) program are:
1. research and industry in government / private organizations. Students will develop in-depth understanding of some specialized area of Physics by opting for a number of elective courses. This programme will equip the students with firm foundation in principles of Physics and their applications.

Heat & Thermodynamics 5. 7. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Cr hr 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3
9-10 courses 30-33 Credit hours Cr hr 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Subject 1. 15. 6. 3. 3. 10. Mechanics – I 2.LAYOUT FOR BS (4 YEAR) PHYSICS
General Courses to be chosen from other departments 7-8 courses 21-24 Cr. Lab-II 12. Lab-III 13. 3. MATHEMATI-CS-I 8. Optics / University Option 9. 4. 12. Modern Physics & Electronics 7. 2. 9. ENGLISH-I ENGLISH-II ENGLISH-III ENGLISH-IV* PAKISTAN STUDIES ISLAMIC STUDIES / ETHICS 7. 8. 3. Mechanics – II 4.III Elective – IV / Research Project Cr hr 3 3 3 3
12
Total Credit Hours 132 * University has the option to recommend any other course in lieu of English-IV ** University may recommend any other course in lieu of Mathematics-II GOF= General Subjects from Faculties other than Science GRF= General Subject from Science Faculty
10
. Electricity & Magnetism – II 8. 4. 4. 2. 16. Lab-IV Cr hr 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 29
25
21
Major courses including research project/internship 11-13 courses 36-42 Credit hours Subject 1. Electricity & Magnetism-I 6. 13. hours Subject GOF-I GRF-I Maths-III GOF-II GOF-III GRF-II Maths-IV
Compulsory Requirements (the student has no choice)
Discipline Specific Foundation Courses
9 courses 25 Credit hours Subject 1. 5. 6. 14.I Elective . 11. 2. 5. Lab-I 11. MATHEMATICS-II** 9. Atomic & Molecular Physics 10. Quantum Mechanics – I Classical Mechanics Electronics Lab-V Mathematical Methods – I Quantum Mechanics –II Electromagnetic Theory-I Thermal & Statistical Physics Nuclear Physics Solid State Physics Lab-VI Computational Physics Lab-VII Electromagnetic Theory-II University Option Mathematical Methods – II Cr hr 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 45
Elective Courses within the major 4 courses 12 Credit Hours Subject 1. Elective l .II Elective . Waves and Oscillations.

Hrs. 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 19
Remarks Com-8 Found-6 Found-7 Gen-3 Found-8 Gen-4 Found-9
Remarks Comp-9 Found-10 Gen-5 Gen-6 Found-11 Gen-7 Found-12
English-IV University Option Modern Physics & Electronics GOF-III Maths-IV Electricity & Magnetism-II GRF-II Lab-IV Total
11
. Remarks
English-I Pak Studies Maths-1 Introduction to Computers Mechanics-I GOF-I Lab-I Total Title English-II Islamic Studies Maths-II GRF-I Waves & Oscillations Mechanics-II Lab-II Total
3 2 3 3 2 3 1 17
Comp-1 Comp-2 Comp-3 Comp-4 Found-1 Gen-1 Found-2
Semester-II Cr. Hrs. 3 2 3 3 3 2 1 17
Remarks Comp-5 Comp-6 Comp-7 Gen-2 Found-3 Found-4 Found-5
Semester-III Title Cr.SCHEME OF BS (4 YEAR) PROGRAMME IN PHYSICS
Semester-1
Title Cr. Hrs. English-III 3 Electricity & Magnetism-I 3 Heat & Thermodynamics 3 Maths-III 3 Optics/University Option* 3 GOF-II 3 Lab-III 1 Total 19 Title Semester-IV Cr Hrs.

Hrs. Mathematical Methods of 3 Physics-I Quantum Mechanics-I 3 Thermal & Statistical 3 Physics Classical Mechanics 3 Electronics 3 Lab-V 2 Total 17 Semester-VI Title Cr. Elective-II 3 Elective-III 3 Elective-IV/Research Project 3 University Option* 3 Total Total Credit Hours = 132 12
Remarks Maj-1 Maj-2 Maj-3 Maj-4 Maj-5 Maj-6
Remarks Maj-7 Maj-8 Maj-9 Maj-10 Maj-11 Maj-12
Remarks Maj-13 Found-13 Maj-14 Elective Maj-15
Remarks Elective Elective Elective Maj-16
GOF= General Subjects from Faculties other than Science Faculty GRF= General Subject from Science Faculty The Universities may reshuffle courses within semesters * University Option is given to universities in order to introduce subjects according to specialization of qualified staff available
Note:
12
. Computational Physics 3 Atomic & Molecular Physics 3 Electromagnetic Theory-II 3 Elective-I 3 LAB-VII 2 Total 14 Semester-VIII Cr Title Hrs.Semester-V Cr Title Hrs. Hrs. Mathematical Methods of 3 Physics -II Quantum Mechanics -II 3 Electromagnetic Theory -I 3 Nuclear Physics 3 Solid State Physics 3 Lab-VI 2 Total 17 Semester-VII Title Cr.

Riaz Ahmad (Secretary) Prof. Assistant Director (Curriculum). Muhammad Ayub (Convener)
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. Islamabad on the prescribed format by 10th April.Course Profiles
Dr. The Meeting ended with thanks from the chair. HEC. Dr. Riaz Ahmed was requested to prepare the course profiles for different courses and submit the same to Mr.
Dr. Shafiullah Khan. 2008.

Obtaining general expression for work done (2dimensional case) and applying to simple cases e.g. their derivation.
Vector Analysis:
Review of Vector in 3 dimensions and fundamental Operations. Cosines. Equations of motion. Power and Energy:
Work done by a constant force. Divergence Theorem. (Physics + Math)
2 Cr.g. To give basic understanding of laws of motion and their applications is daily life. Cylindrical Coordinaties. terminal velocity. Deriving kinetic equations for x(t). Stoke’s Theorem.
Particle Dynamics:
Dynamics of uniform.h
Objectives:
1. Divergence of a vector. To give mathematical concept and expressions of various physical parameters used in mechanics. Constant and variable forces.
Work. Centrifugal force as an example of pseudo force. Obtaining x(t). Spherical polar coordinates. physical importance and applications to specific cases. Effect of drag forces on motion.DETAILS OF COURSES MECHANICS-I Pre-requisite
A Level Physics and F. special examples. work done by a variable force (1-2 dimension). 2. Work energy theorem. General 14
. gradient of a scalar. Direction. Calculation of pseudo forces for simple cases (linearly accelerated reference frames). Non inertial frames and Pseudo forces. curl and line integral (mutual relation). Projectile motion with and without air resistance. Vector identities. Time dependent forces. 3. Qualitative discussion to develop understanding. Coriolis force. (Essentially a review of grade-XII concepts via integration technique to calculate work done (e. Divergence and curl of a vector.Sc. v(t) via integration. v(t) for this case using integration method. Physical significance of each type. in vibration of a spring obeying Hooke’s Law). pulling a mass at the end of a fixed string against gravity. To give concept of vector and their various properties. normal forces and contact forces. Vector and scalar triple products. flux. circular motion. the banked curve. Applying Newton’s Laws to obtain v(t) for the case of motion with time dependent (Integration approach) drag (viscous) forces.

Systems of Particles:
Two particle systems and generalization to many particle systems. Centre of mass of solid objects. law of gravitation. M. Position. Power. Law of conservation of total energy of an isolated system.
MECHANICS-II Pre-requisite
A Level Physics and F. D. 2. of Uniform Rod. Kolenkow. 3. 2. Conservation of momentum during collision in one and two dimensions. Cylinder and Sphere. John Wiley. Speigel. application to motion of a rocket (determination of its mass as a function of time).h
Objectives:
1. (Physics + Math)
2 Cr. Energy changes with respect to observers in different inertial frames. To give the basic concept of rotational motion. Basic formulae and applications. Simple applications. and 3 dimensional conservative systems. obtaining velocities in C. frame. An Introduction to Mechanics. Conservative and non conservative forces: Conservation of energy in a system of particles. physical properties of matter and relativistic mechanics Uses of above concepts in daily life in a scientific way
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. velocity and equation of motion. Krane.Sc. Derivation of basic equation. Collisions in centre of Mass reference frame (One and two dimensions). Inelastic collision. Centre of mass. Mc-Graw Hill. Calculating C. 1978.proof of work energy theorem: Qualitative review of work energy theorem. Vector Analysis and an Introduction to Tensor Analysis. R.M. D. McGraw Hill. Resnick. 2. Vol. Calculation of Centre of Mass of solid objects using integral calculus. Conservation of Energy in 1. Kleppner and R.
Recommended Books:
1. Halliday.M. Momentum Changes in a system of variable mass. 5th ed. 1999. Derivation using integral calculus.
Collisions:
Elastic Collisions. Physics. 1959. I & II.

Effects of torque on the angular momentum. application to simple cases. precessional motion. fluid flow through a cylindrical pipe (Poiseulle's law). Radial and transversal velocity and acceleration. Proof and Illustration.
Elastic Properties of Matter. Elastic limit. Physical basis. Its mathematical treatment. Rotational dynamics of rigid bodies. Fluid Statics. Relation between three types of elasticity. Derivation. Rolling without slipping. Transformation of velocity.
Angular Momentum:
Angular Velocity. Poisson’s ratio.e. Conservation of angular momentum. Discussion with examples.
Special Theory of Relativity:
Inertial and non inertial frame.
Bulk Properties of Matters. bar and solid sphere. Parallel axis and Perpendicular axis theorems. Physical basis. Variation of Pressure in fluid at rest and with height in the atmosphere. scalar and vector form.Rotational Dynamics:
Relationships between linear & angular variables. The spinning Top. relativistic momentum and Relativistic energy. variation of mass with velocity. role in formation of drops and bubbles. Combined rotational and translational motion. Elastic Modulus. The Lorentz Transformation. Energy considerations in planetary and satellite motion. Universal Gravitational Law. Relativity of length. Postulates of Relativity. calculation of escape velocity. Equations of rotational motion and effects of application of torques. Determination of moment of inertia of various shapes i. Relativity of time. effects of Torque and its relation with angular momentum. Moment of Inertia. obtaining the Coefficient of viscosity. Qualitative discussion on application of gravitational law to the Galaxy. Tension. mass energy relation and its importance. Motion of Planets and Keplers' Laws (Derivation & explanation) Motion of Satellites. Gravitational field & Potential. Kinetic energy of rotation. Relativity of mass. Surface Tension. Physical basis of elasticity. (Lorentz invariants) E2=c2 p2+m2oc 4
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. Stability of spinning objects. Assumptions on which inverse transformation is derived.
Gravitation:
Gravitational effect of a spherical mass distribution. Consequences of Lorentz transformation. Gravitational Potential Energy (develop using integration techniques). Viscosity. practical example of viscosity. for disc. Compression & shearing.

McGraw Hill.
Sound:
Beats Phenomenon. Waves speed. Physical pendulum.h
Objective:
1. 2. Standing waves. Longitudinal and transverse Oscillations. 1978.
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. SHM and uniform circular motion. Halliday. To understand the basics of waves. mechanism of wave production. 1959. Phase velocity of traveling waves. Derivation & discussion. v(t). Wave equation. Analytical treatment. Mechanical analysis. Obtaining and solving the basic equations of motion x(t).
Waves in Physical Media:
Mechanical waves. Speigel. Discussion of solution. Vol. Krane. Interference of waves. D. Kleppner and R. An Introduction to Mechanics. Physics. 5th ed. 2. Resonance. Lissajous patterns.Recommended Books:
1. Examples of resonance. Equation of forced oscillation. Power and intensity in wave motion. I & II. discussion of its solution. Discussion of its solution. Torsional oscillator. Travelling waves. Equation of damped harmonic motion. Application of SHM. propagation and interaction with other waves use of basic concept of waves in their application in daily life
Harmonic Oscillations:
Simple harmonic motion (SHM). 3. Kolenkow. R.
WAVES & OSCILLATIONS Pre-requisite
A Level Physics and F. Phase changes on reflection. D. simple pendulum. Forced oscillations and resonances. Vector Analysis and an Introduction to Tensor Analysis. Group speed and dispersion. Damped harmonic motion. John Wiley. Resnick. Energy considerations in SHM. Sinusoidal waves.Sc. Mc-Graw Hill. M. 1999. a(t). Natural frequency. Quality factor. (Physics + Math)
3 Cr. Principle of superposition (basic ideas). Combinations of harmonic motions.

Krane. 1986. To determine the value of “g” by compound pendulum / Kater’s Pendulum. 18
. John Wiley. Longitudinal vibrations of a rod. 1999. Normal modes. Beats in coupled oscillations. Two coupled masses. Tata McGrawHill Publishing company Limited.h
Intermediate with Physics and Math or A level Physics
Objectives
To develop the experimental capability understanding the concept of Mechanics. Fourier methods of analyzing general motion of a continuous system. 3. Determination of moment of inertia of a solid/hollow cylinder and a sphere etc. of students in
Modulus of Rigidity by Static & Dynamic method (Maxwell’s needle. Two coupled LC circuits. Pain. Many coupled oscillator. Investigation of phase change with position in traveling wave and measurement of the velocity of sound by C.
Normal Modes of Continuous systems:
Transverse vibration of a string.K. Measurement of viscosity of liquid by Stoke’s / Poiseulli’s method. 5th ed. Physics. J.R. 7. Atomic vibrations. 8. 6. 1. 5th Edition 1999. 2. Vibrations of air columns.
Recommended Books:
1. I & II. and angular velocity of a body in circular motion. To study the damping features of an oscillating system using simple pendulum of variable mass. Surface tension of water by capillary tube method. General methods of finding normal modes. Forced oscillations of two coupled oscillators. Energy relations in coupled oscillations.
LAB-I Pre-requisites
1 Cr. Vol. 5.Coupled Oscillators and Normal modes:
Two coupled pendulums. radius. Bajaj. H. 4.O. D. 3. The Physics of Waves & Oscillations. 2. To study the dependence of Centripetal force on mass. The Physics of Vibrations and Waves. Resnick. Halliday. N. Barton’s Apparatus).

The determination of Stefan’s constant. The determination of resolving power of a diffraction grating. Determination of “J” by Callender – Barnis method. 5. 2. The determination of wavelength of light/laser by Diffraction grating. 10. K. CBS Publishing
Note: At least five experiments to be performed and Universities may opt for other experiments according to the available facilities
LAB-II Pre-requisites
1 Cr. The measurement of specific rotation of sugar by Polarimeter and determination of sugar concentration in a given solution. Nelkon and Ogborn. 9. 7. Bhattacharya. 3. Heimann Educational Books Nolan and Bigliani. Determination of temperature coefficient of resistance of a given wire. Determination of wavelength of sodium light by Fresnel’s biprism. H. 4.
Recommended Books:
1. To determine frequency of AC supply by CRO. 11. 4. The determination of wavelength of Sodium –D lines by Newton’s Ring. Longman. 8. Advanced Level Practical Physics. 12. Selected Experiments in Physical Sciences. Surjeet Pub Ind.
To study the conservation of energy (Hook’s law). University Practical Physics. D.9. 6. Experiments in Physics. 2.
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. C. To determine thermal Emf and plot temperature diagram. Calibration of thermocouple by potentiometer.h
Intermediate with Physics and Math or A level Physics
Objectives
To develop the understanding of students in measuring the thermal and optical parameters and to remove the fear of students to use various gadgets in laboratory 1. To determine Horizontal/Vertical distance by Sextant. Marrow. 3.

Torque and energy of a dipole in uniform field. Electric flux: Gauss's law. (Integral and differential forms) and its application.
Recommended Books:
1. 4. 2. CBS Publishing
Note: At least nine experiments to be performed and Universities may opt for other experiments according to the available facilities
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM-I Pre-requisites
3 Cr. field of infinite sheet of charge. Dipole in an electric field. Experiments in Physics. Heimann Educational Books Nolan and Bigliani. infinite line of charge. Longman. disc of charge. 17. 20
.h
Intermediate with Physics and Math or A level Physics
Objectives
1. Electric field of continuous charge distribution e. Point charge in an electric field.
To study the combinations of harmonic motion (Lissajous figures). Bhattacharya. Field of infinite line of charge. To determine the stopping potential by photo cell. K. Selected Experiments in Physical Sciences. Surjeet Pub Ind. field near a charged conducting sheet.13. Charge in isolated conductors. To determine the Thermal conductivity of good and bad conductors using Lee’s and Searl’s apparatus. D. Nelkon and Ogborn. To study the laws of vibration of stretched string using sonometer. Advanced Level Practical Physics. C. H. Marrow. 3.g Ring of charge. conductor with a cavity. 14. 16. field of spherical shell and field of spherical charge distribution. To study the parameters of waves (Beats phenomenon). To give the concept of electric field. 3. 2. electrical potential and dielectrics To understand the DC circuits To know the effect of magnetic field and basic magnetic properties of materials
Electric Field:
Field due to a point charge: due to several point charges. University Practical Physics. Electric dipole. 15.

Gauss's Law for Magnetism: Discuss and develop the concepts of conservation of magnetic flux. cylindrical. Basic ideas. McGraw-Hill.
D C Circuits:
Electric Current. 1993. σ. Capacitor with dielectric. applications to solenoids and toroids. Differential form of Gauss’s Law.
Recommended Books:
1.
21
. Capacitors of various shapes. M. resistance. Application of Gauss's Law to capacitor with dielectric. multiple loops. Ampere's Law. Magnetic dipole: Energy of magnetic dipole in field. Poisson’s and Laplace equation without solution. B. Skove Physics Classical and Modern (2nd edition). Recall the previous results. resistivity. Paramagnetism. Keller. spherical etc.
Capacitors and dielectrics:
Capacitance. Defining M. Field as the gradient or derivative of potential. Ohm’s Law. Diamagnetism.
Magnetic Field Effects and Magnetic Properties of Matter:
Magnetic force on a charged particle. W. Inc. energy transfer in an electric circuit. Growth and Decay of current in an RC circuit and their analytical treatment. potential due to dipole. Do not derive. force on two parallel current changing conductors. E.Bohr Magneton. Hysteresis in Ferromagnetic materials. and conductivity. Electric field of dielectric. µ. voltages at various elements of a loop. Biot-Savart Law: Analytical treatment and applications to a current loop. Lorentz Force with its applications in CRO. potential due to collection of point charges. Torque on a current loop. Potential and field inside and outside an isolated conductor. J.. J. Magnetic Materials. (Integral form). Magnetization. ρ.Electric Potential:
Potential due to point charge. Norton theorem and Superposition theorem. Origin of Atomic and Nuclear magnetism. Equation of continuity. Electric potential of continuous charge distribution. Energy per unit volume. Integral and differential forms. Use of Kirchhoff's Ist & 2nd law. Discuss quantitatively. magnetic force on a current. Thevenin theorem. Energy stored in an electric field. Gettys. current density J. Calculating the current in a single loop. calculating the electric field in a capacitor. Ferromagnetism Discussion. F. and calculation of their capacitance. An atomic view.

Kip Fundamentals of Electricity and Magnetism (2nd Ed. R. Diffusion. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Internal energy of an ideal gas. Inc. K. Halliday. Second Law of thermodynamics. Work done on an ideal gas. Krane Physics (Vol-II). A. 2. Entropy & probability. Carnot theorem. Joule-Thomson effect and 22
. 1969. Entropy. D.
Thermodynamics:
Review of previous concepts. Chand & Co.Review of previous concepts. Carnot engines. Enthalpy.. Liquification of gases.h
Intermediate with Physics and Math or A level Physics
Objectives
1. Maxwell distribution. N.
HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS Pre-requisites
3 Cr. Entropy in irreversible process. 4. Distribution of energies. Thermodynamic functions: Thermodynamic functions (Internal energy. 5. A. Resnick. 1992. Reversible and irreversible processes. TdS equations. Qualitative discussion. Van der Waals equation of state. S. Conduction and viscosity. Calculation of efficiency of heat engines. Distribution of molecular speeds.2. Internal energy of an ideal gas: Equipartition of energy. F. Entropy in reversible process.. Energy equations and their applications. Mean free path and microscopic calculations of mean free path. Refrigerators. Brownian motion. Qualitative description. Helmholtz functions) Maxwell’s relations. Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distribution. isothermal.).
Heat and Temperature:
Temperature. J.. Thermodynamic temperature scale: Absolute zero: Entropy. Edminister Schaum’s Outline Series. 1959. S. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 3. 3. Intermolecular forces. Heat engine. Vasudeva Magnetism and Electricity.. Theory and Problems of Electromagnetism. Kinetic theory of the ideal gas. Entropy & second law. Low Temperature Physics. John Willey & sons. First law of thermo-dynamics and its applications to adiabatic. Gibb’s functions. 1986. cyclic and free expansion. D. To give the concept of heat and temperature To give the concept of classical distribution function To understand the laws of thermodynamics and their application
Statistical Mechanics:
Statistical distribution and mean values.

W.h. M. 4. Longman 1967. Addison-Wesley 1954.
Polarization
Plane elliptically and circularly polarized light. Lee and F. 1951. Zemansky. J. Reif. Eye pieces. A. Thermodynamics. To understand the concept of reflections. Production of each type and their uses.
Recommended Books:
1. McGraw Hill 1965. Peltier’s effect. Chromatic aberration. lens formula by deviation method. Sears. Heat and Thermodynamics. lens formula. sign convention. McGrawHill Professional Book Group. 3. Statistical Physics. 5. Malus law. Optical activity in liquids
Interference
Far field approximation. M. Introduction to Statistical Physics. Berkley Physics series. J. McGraw Hill. Schaum's Outline of Thermodynamics. Holography. Thermoelectricity.
OPTICS Pre-requisites
3Cr. interference. Fresnel’s biprism). Typical cases of interference phenomena. 1995. Aberrations. W. Polarizing angle and Brewster law. Induced optical effects. Pointon. 3rd Edition. 2. To develop understanding about the optical devices
Geometrical Optics
Geometrical optics and its laws.
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.
Intermediate with Physics and Math or A level Physics
Objectives
1. Analytical treatment of interference phenomenon. Thomson effect
Seabeck’s
effect. diffraction and polarization. M. Uni-axial crystals. Abbott. Fibre optics. point source and extended source. refraction.its equations. F. (thin films.Thermocouple. Refraction at a spherical surface. two lens systems. Fabry Perot & Michelson interferometer. Review of topics related to chromatic aberration. 2.

R. its structure. Line spectra. Positive & negative feed back R. common emitter. p-type. Diffraction grating. D. Diffraction applications. Hecht. its basic structure and operation. neutron and electron diffraction. Diffraction pattern of a rectangular aperture.and Planck’s law. Diffraction pattern of a circular aperture. Fresnel diffraction. Explanation using quantum theory. energy band in solid and energy gaps. p-n junction diode. n-type semiconductor materials. The quantization of energy. Oscillators. Addison – Wesley Publishing Company 1987. consequences. free electron model. Transistor as an amplifier (common emitter mode).vibrator (basic). Stefan Boltzmann-.
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. Inc. Study of Fourier theorem and its analysis. 4. Halliday. 3.
Recommended Books:
1. load line.. Resnick.
Origin of Quantum Theory:
Black body radiation. NAND.
ELECTRONICS & MODERN PHYSICS Pre-requisites
3 Cr. Fraunhofer diffraction. AND. X-ray diffraction.C.h
Intermediate with Physics and Math or A level Physics
Objectives:
1. hybrid parameters (common emitter). E. Monostable multi. Optics. K. operating point. transistor biasing for amplifiers. To give the concept of modern physics To know the nuclear structure and radioactivity To know some nuclear reactions and production of nuclear energy To give basic understanding of Plasma and LASER
Electronics:
Basic crystal structure.Diffraction
Huygen’s principle. John Willey & sons. Krane. Resolving power of lenses. characteristics and application as rectifiers. characteristics of common base. Wiens. Double slit diffraction pattern. Dispersing properties of prism and grating. Transistor. NOT. Diffraction by a single slit. NOR and their basic applications. S. common collector. Physics. 1992. Logic gates OR. Application to grating. Photoelectric and Compton effect. 2. 2.

) its definition and relation to probability of particle.P. Tipler and Ralph A. Inductance of a Solenoid. Pauli’s exclusion principle and its use in developing the periodic table.. Halliday.Wave Nature of Matter:
Wave behaviour of particle (wave function etc. Angular momentum of electrons. Vector atom model. Inductance. 3. D. Quantum Physics of Atoms. 4. 2004. Concepts of Modern Physics (fifth edition) McGraw-Hill 1995. 3.
Recommended Books:
1. Calculation and application using differential and integral form. LR Circuits. 2. S. Robert M.
Atomic Physics:
Bohr’s theory (review). 6. John Wiley & Sons 1961 Sanjiv Puri. Eisberg and Robert Resnick. R. 2002. Bohr’s Magnetron. Modern Physics 3rd edition. energy levels of electron. 1992. Modern Physics.
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM-II Pre-requisites:
FSC level Physics and Electricity and Magnetism I
3Cr. Nuclei and Particles. Frank-Hertz experiment. X-ray spectrum (continuous and discrete) Moseley’s law. Fundamentals of Modern Physics. molecules. K. Llewellyn. Wave packets and particles. d’Broglie hypothesis and its testing. Atomic spectrum. 2. Physics. localizing a wave in space and time. John Wiley & Sons. Growth and Decay of 25
. DavissonGermer Experiment and J. Solids. Induced electric fields. To understand the laws of electromagnetic induction To understand the AC circuits To know the generation and propagation of Electromagnetic waves
Inductance:
Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction. Thomson Experiment. Review of emf. Resnick. W H Freeman and Company 2000. “Basic definition”. Faraday Law and Lenz’s Law. Robert M Eisberg. Inc. Arthur Beiser. Spin quantization. Narosa Publishing House. Orbital angular momentum. 2nd edition.h
Objectives:
1. Krane. 5. Toroid. Paul A. John Willey & sons.

RMS values. J. Resnick.. Analytical treatment and discussion of physical concepts. Power in A. Development of concepts. Inc. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Edminister Schaum’s Outline Series. Vasudeva Magnetism and Electricity. Analytical treatment. Krane Physics (Vol-II). obtaining the velocity of light from Maxwell's equations. D. McGraw-Hill Book Co. phase angles. N.C circuits: phase angles.. Ampere's Law). Analytical expression for time dependent solution. A. Derive. Kip Fundamentals of Electricity and Magnetism (2nd Ed. Series and parallel circuits i. Qualitative discussion. Electromagnetic Oscillation. 1969. A. 2. Maxwell's equations. acceptor and rejector. Gettys. 1986. 1993. S. R. Skove Physics Classical and Modern (2nd edition). E. Chand & Co. Energy transport and the Poynting Vector. M. Inc. 4.
26
. 3. McGraw-Hill. Energy density and the magnetic field. Generating an electro. applications.
Alternating Current Circuits:
Alternating current. S. Halliday. Energy stored in a magnetic field. J. Induced magnetic fields & displacement current. D. Travelling waves and Maxwell's equations.. inductive and capacitative elements. F. K. W. J.. Quantitative analysis using differential equatins. 1959.. 1992. 5.current.
Electro-Magnetic Waves (Maxwell's Equations):
Summarizing the electro. Forced electromagnetic oscillations and resonance.magnetic wave.e.). power factor. (Integral & Differential forms) Discussion and implications.
Recommended Books:
1. Theory and Problems of Electromagnetism. analytical treatment. Graphical analysis. AC current in resistive. F.magnetic equations. (Gauss's law for electromagnetism. John Willey & sons. obtaining differential form of Maxwell's equations. Keller. Single loop RLC circuit. Faraday Law.

8. Measurement of resistance using a Neon flash bulb and condenser Conversion of a galvanometer into Voltmeter & an Ammeter To study the characteristics of Photo emission and determination of Plank’s constant using a Photo cell Calibration of an Ammeter and a Voltmeter by potentiometer Charge sensitivity of a ballistic galvanometer Comparison of capacities by ballistic galvanometer.h
Objectives:
To know the electrical circuit elements. Study of electric circuits by black box. 3rd Edition. phase and time period of a complex signal by CRO.
Recommended Books:
1. 10. 4. To study the application of Lorentz force by CRO. Thevinin. Cambridge University Press Nolan and Bigliani. curve & measure the magnetic parameters. 3. CBS Publishing. Study of the parameter of wave i. Measurement of low resistance coil by a Carey Foster Bridge. 15. 13. To study the network theorems (Superposition. 3. C K Bhattacharya.H. Norton). University Practical Physics.
27
. Surjeet Pub Ind. 2. 14. 5. Resonance frequency of an acceptor circuit Resonance frequency of a Rejecter Circuit. G L Squires.
Note: At least eight experiments to be performed and Universities may opt for other experiments according to the available facilities. 7.e. Practical Physics. amplitude. 6. Experiments in Physics. Measurement of self/mutual inductance. their experimental measurement and to give understanding of electrical circuits and use of CRO. 12. To study the B. 9. 11. 2. 1.LBORATORY III Pre-requisites:
FSC level Physics and Electricity and Magnetism I
1 Cr.

3. To understand the behaviour of nuclear radiation including beta and gama radition. 3rd Edition. 3. Determination of range of α particles. To study the characteristic curves of a G. To develop understanding and uses of electronic devises including GATS. Smoothing effect of a capacitor ii. Determination of e/m of an electron. 11 12. Characteristics of a semiconductor diode (Compare Si with Ge diode) Setting up of half & full wave rectifier & study of following factors i. 2.M counter.
7. counter and use it to determine the absorption co-efficient of β-particle in Aluminum. Determination of ionization potential of mercury. To set up and study various logic gates (AND. Surjeet Pub Ind. To set up an electronic switching circuit using transistor LDR and demonstrate its use as a NOT Gate. 6. Study of regulation of output voltage with load. 10. 13. G L Squires. Ripple factor & its variation with load. C K Bhattacharya. CBS Publishing. Transistors. Use of computer in the learning of knowledge of GATE and other experiments. Cambridge University Press Nolan and Bigliani. 14. Characteristics of a transistor. Experiments in Physics. University Practical Physics.
28
. Mass absorption coefficient of lead for γ-rays using G.h
Objectives:
1. OR. M. 2. Practical Physics.
Recommended Books:
1.LAB-IV Pre-requisites:
FSC level Physics and Electricity and Magnetism I
1 Cr. 15. 4. To set up a single stage amplifier & measure its voltage gain and bandwidth. 9. iii. NAND etc) using diode and to develop their truth table. 5. To set up transistor oscillator circuit and measure its frequency by an oscilloscope. 8.

Diagonalization of matrices. SU(2) groups. Spherical and Cylinderical coordinate system. 2nd ed. Arfken. Continuous groups-O groups. Cauchy integral theorem and integral formula.
Curvilinear Coordinates and Tensors:
Curvilinear coordinate system. G. Gradient. Discret groups-Dihedral groups. Quotient rule. To develop the mathematical background of student in vectors. Matrices. Tensor algebra. Group representation. Similarity transformations. Vector differentiation and gradient. Covariant and contravariant tensors. Invariant subgroups. Hermitian matrices. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices.h
Objectives
1. Complex integration.
MATHEMATICAL METHODS-I Pre-requisite
General Mathematics
3 Cr. tensors. Lie groups
Complex Variables:
Functions of a complex variable. Mathematical Physics. Cartesian. Cauchy Riemann conditions and analytic functions. Calculus of residue. Divergence and Curl in the curvilinear coordinates system.Note: At least five experiments to be performed and Universities may opt for other experiments according to the available facilities. Academic Press. Vector integration. Curl and Stoke's theorem. matrices and some of their uses in the world of physics To give basic understanding of group theory and complex variables used in physics
Vector Analysis:
Review of vectors Algebra. Green’s theorem in the plane. 1970. Determinants. Orthogonal matrices. Taylor and Laurent series. 29
. Divergence and Gauss’s theorem.
Matrices:
Linear vector spaces. 2.
Group Theory:
Introduction to groups.
Recommended Books:
1.

M. 5. Schrodinger and Heisenberg pictures. Particle in a box. Hsu. Matrix representation of angular momentum operators.
QUANTUM MECHANICS-I Pre-requisite
FSc Physics and Modern Physics & electronics
3 Cr. Applied Mathematics for Engineers and Physicists. Dirac notation. Three dimensional isotopic oscillator. Central potentials.
Formalism of Quantum Mechanics:
The state of a system. The hydrogenic atom. Hermitian operators. The eigenvalues and eigen functions of L2 and Lz. Functions and expectation values.
E.2. Three dimensional square well potential. 4. 2. Solutions of Schrodinger equation for free particles. Pipes and Harvill. State of a system. Dynamical variables and operators. Commuting and non commuting operators. R. Addition of angular momenta. Butkov. Three dimensional square well potential. McGraw Hill 1979.h
Objectives
1. Fourier Analysis Simon Schuster Series. 30
. 1971. Understanding the behaviour of quantum mechanical particle and development of Schrodinger equation in one and three dimensions introduction to Quantum mechanical operators and determination of angular momentum of a quantum mechanical particle
Quantum Mechanics of One Dimensional Problems:
Review of concepts of classical mechanics. P. The potential barrier problems. The hydrogenic atom. Symmetry principles and conservation laws. Time evolution of a system. Speigel.
Schrodinger Equation in Three Dimensions:
Separation of Schrodinger equation in cartesian coordinates. Heisenberg uncertainty relations. The linear harmonic oscillator. Mathematical Physics. Addison-Wesley 1968. H. McGraw Hill.
Angular Momentum:
Orbital angular momentum. Spin. The free particle. Complex Variables Schaum’s Outline Series. 3. Properties of one dimensional potential functions. 1967.

statistical interpretation of entropy. Reading Mass. Schwable. reduction of derivatives. 'Theory of Quantua'. Singapore (1992). Narosa Publishing House. PRENTICE Hall. 3. Cieplak & J. Greiner. J. 'Introductory Quantum mechanics'. 'Introduction to Quantum Mechanics' Longman Scientific & Technical London (1990). 3. Reading Mass. Boltzmann H-theorem.Dirac Statistics To develop the understating of lattice dynamics in solid materials. (1980). McGraw Hill Book Company. Inc. 6. 4.L.H. Addison Wesley Publishing Company. F. 2.J. Greiner.. 5. M. R. 8 B. New Delhi (1992). Springer Verlag. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. Bransden & C.Books Recommended:
1. Berlin (1990). David J. To develop the understanding of thermal properties by using statistical means in thermodynamics Development of various statistics like Boltzmann Statistics.
31
. Bialynicki-Birula. 'Quantum Mechanics'. W. Townsend. distribution functions. Int. Kaminski.
Equilibrium Thermodynamics:
Basic postulates. 2.
THERMAL AND STATISTICAL PHYSICS Pre-requisite:
FSc Physics and Heat and Thermodynamics
3 Cr. fundamental equations and equations of state. 'A Modern Approach to Quantum Mechanics'. W. 'Relativistic Quantum Mechanics'. response functions Maxwell's relation. Griffiths. Oxford University Press.
Elements of Probability Theory:
Probabilities.S.h
Objectives:
1. New York (1992). (1980). Bose – Einstein statistics and Fermi. Joachain. 7. 'Quantum Mechanics: An Introduction'. Addison Wesley Publishing Company. Liboff.

h
Objectives:
1. 1965. Pauli and Van Vleck paramagnetics. 2. ELBS/John Willey. Gas of electrons in solids. Fermi-Dirac statistical systems. examples (collection of simple harmonic oscillators. Boltzmann distribution. Theorem of equipartition of energy. F.
Advanced Topics:
Fluctuations. examples) partition function. Examples of thermodynamics of these systems. Bose-Einstein Condensation. A. Kittel. Elements of Statistical Physics. Van der Waals Gas: mean field calculation. Black body radiations. Formation of Microcononical.
Partition Function:
Relations of partition function with thermodynamic variables. Statistical Physics. Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics. Longman 1967.
Statistical Mechanics of Interacting Systems:
Lattice vibrations in solids. counting of states (in classical and quantum mechanical systems. Ferromagnets in Mean Field Approximation. Introduction to density matrix approach. Mandl. 2. John Wiley 1958. McGraw Hill.J. Introduction to Statistical Physics.Formulation of Statistical Methods:
Ensembles. Bose-Einstein. canonical and grand canonical partion function. To develop the basic knowledge of classical world using the laws of Physics To develop the understanding of two bodies central force problems
32
. 3. F.
Statistical Systems:
Maxwell-Boltzmann. 1988. 4. Pointon.
Books Recommended:
1. C. Reif. 2nd Ed.
CLASSICAL MECHANICS Pre-requisites:
Mechanics I & II
3 Cr.

2. Addison Wesley. Liouville's theorem.N. 4. Moment of inertia. 2nd. and Hamilton equations of motion. Mathematical Methods of Classical Mechanics Springer verlag. Equation of motion and solution for one body problem. Rasband. Arnold. Lagrange's equation and its applications.
To give understanding of kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies Development of Hamiltonian equation and use of canonical transformation in classical physics
Elementary Principles:
Brief Survey of Newtonian mechanics of a system of particles. 3. Alembert's principle. Edn.
Books Recommended:
1. The coriolis force. Eulerian angles.3. Goldstein.
Rigid Body Equation of Motion:
Angular momentum.I. New York (1983). Euler's theorem. Reading. Tensors and dyadics. John Wiley & Sons. New York (1980).
Hamilton Equation of Motion:
Legendre transformation Conservation theorems. 'Dynamics'. 'Classical Mechanics'. H. Rigid body problems and Euler's equations.
Canonical Transformations:
Examples of canoical transformations. Rutherford scattering.
Variational Principles:
Calculus of variation and Hamilton's principle. two body problem and its reduction to one body problem. Lagrange and Poison brackets.. 33
. Massachusetts (1980). V.
Two Body Central Force Problem:
Low and least action. constraints. Derivation of Lagrange's equation from Hamilton's principle. S.
Kinematics of Rigid Body Motion:
Orthogonal transformations. Virtual work. Kepler's Laws Laboratory and centre of mass systems.

Matzner & L. Hybrid-p and h. 5. Power class A. its data and sheet parameters.
Operational Amplifiers:
Ideal op-amps. Photodiodes. Frequency response. 2. Ebers-Moll. Prentice Hall Inc. Shepley.
34
. Zener regulators. London (1991).h
Objectives:
1. Common emitter. Multistage Amplifiers.
Special Diodes:
Zener diodes.J. Summing. Junction FET. Non inverting and inverting circuits. 'Introduction to Analytical Dynamics'. Common source and common drain amplifiers. Woodhouse. B. 'Classical Mechanics'.A. Biasing. MOSFET. Switching circuits. Simple op-amp arrangements. Varistors and their applications. Biasing and stability.M. Tuned RF Voltage amplifiers. Field Effect
FET:
Transistors.z and y-parameter models. Varactor diodes. RC coupled and direct coupled stages.
Transistor Circuits:
Bipolar transistors. Op-amp applications. Integrator and Differentiator.C. Active filters. parameters and ratings. Negative feedback. Comparators. Light emitting diodes. The differential amplifiers. Frequency response. Schottky diodes. Feedback and stability.
ELECTRONICS Pre-requisites:
Modern Physics and Electronics
3 Cr. To develop the understanding of different electronic circuit elements and devices like diode. N. Common base and common collector amplifiers.
R. Operation and construction. Tunnel diodes. I-F Amplifiers and automatic gain control. amplifiers. Instrumentation amplifier. and C amplifiers.. transistors. oscillators and voltage regulators used in daily life alliances To understand the day to day electronic devices..4. Oxford Science Publications. Oxford (1987).

To make the students confident in their studies by showing and measuring parameter which they have used in theoretical work.H.T. Singapore (Latest Edition). 3. A. McGraw Hill Book Company..Oscillators:
Armstrong. 3.S. To study the characteristics of a Geiger-Muller counter and to examine the attenuations of beta particles in Al-and Pb foils. 2. 'Electronic Principles'. 4. Malvino.B. Measurement of the spectrum of gama rays from a radioisotope. in a scintillation counter. Merril Publishing Company Columbus (1988). Bell. Millman & C. Carpenter.L. Measurement of the half life of a radio nuclide. To expose the students to advance level experimentation in Physics.J.. M. 'Electronic Devices'. C. To study the pulseheight as a function of the H. 'Electronic Design Circuit & Systems'. 5. Hartley. G. D. California (1991).L. 'Integrated Electronics'.
List of Experiments
1. The Bengamin/Cummings Publishing Co. J. 2. New Delhi (1988). Power supply.
Books Recommended:
1.C.
Voltage Regulators:
Series. Virginia (1980). Roden. CMOSS. T.P. 3. Savant Jr. 2. 35
. Colpit's Phase shift and 555 timer oscillators. Halkias. Shunt and switching regulators.h
Objectives:
1. Floyd. Shielding and attenuation of gamma rays. 'Electronic devices & Circuits'. Tata McGraw Hill.
LAB V Pre-requisites:
LAB I –IV
1 Cr. Reston Publishing Company Inc. To make them familiar to such experiments whose out come can be used in developing future research capabilities and teaching skills.

Second solution. etc. 3. Skin effect. Fourier Transforms Solution of Boundary value problems and their uses
Differential Equations in Physics:
First and second order linear differential equations. Velocity. Radio frequency measurement.
36
.
Books Recommended:
1.J. 6.
MATHEMATICAL METHODS-II Pre-requisite
General mathematics and Mathematical Methods-I
3 Cr. Experiments with transmission lines. Frobenius series solution of differential equations. Melissinos. A.4. Experiments in Modern Physics (McGraw-Hill). Experiments in Modern Physics (Academic). Fourier Series. H. Partial differential equations of theoretical physics.C. 5. Separation of variables. AC circuits and dielectric constants of water and ice. 9.
Note: At least five experiments to be performed and Universities may opt for other experiments according to the available facilities. Standing wave ratio. Higgings. 2.Mark and H. Nonhomogenous differential equations. Experimental Electronics (McGraw-Hill).
To study the characteristics of a solid-state detector and use it to measure the spectra of alpha and beta particles.h
Objectives:
1) 2) 3) To give the understanding of Differential equations and their uses in Physics Introduction to special functions. Measurement of characteristic impedance.Homogeneous differential equations. 7.
Note: At least five experiments to be performed and Universities may opt for other experiments according to the available facilities. Olsono. Use of a Lithium-drifted Ge-counter for gamme spectroscopy and to compare its performance with that of a nal-detector. 8.T. etc. R.

Special Functions:

Bessel functions and Hankel functions, Spherical Bessel functions, Legendre polynomials, Associated Legendre polynomials, Spherical harmonics Laguerre polynomials, Hermite polynomials.

Fourier Series:

Definition and general properties, Fourier series of various physical functions, Uses and application of Fourier series.

Integral Transforms:

Integral transform, Fourier transform, Convolution theorem, Elementary Laplace transform and its application.

**Boundary Value Problems and Green's Functions:
**

Boundary value problems in Physics, Non-homogeneous boundary value problems and Green's functions, Green's functions for one dimensional problems, Eigenfunction expansion of Green's function, Construction of Green's functions in higher dimensions.

Books Recommended:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5 6. 7. 8. G. Arfken, Mathematical Physics, 2nd ed, Academic Press, 1970. R. Bronson, ‘Differential Equations’ Schaum’s Outline Series, McGraw Hill, New York. E. Butkov, ‘Mathematical Physics Addison-Weseley London . M.L. Boas, 'Mathematical Methods in Physical Sciences', John Wiley & Sons, New York (1989). C.W. Wong, 'Introduction to Mathematical Physics', Oxford University, Press, New York (1991). Hassani, 'Foundations of Mathematical Physics', Prentice Hall International Inc., Singapore (1991). Chattopadhyay, 'Mathematical Physics', Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi, (1990). H. Cohen, 'Mathematics for Scientists & Engineers' Prentice Hall International Inc., New Jersey (1992).

**QUANTUM MECHANICS-II Pre-requisites:
**

Quantum Mechanics I

3 Cr.h

37

Objectives:

1. 2. 3. to understand the use of approximation in Quantum mechanics to understand the theory of scattering and interaction of quantum systems with radiation to understand the basics of relativistic quantum mechanics

Approximate Methods:

Time independent perturbation theory for non degenerate and degenerate levels, the variational method, The WKB approximation, Time dependent perturbation theory.

**Identical Particles and Second Quantization:
**

Indistinguishability of identical particles, Systems of identical particles, Quantum dynamics of identical particle systems, statistics, Symmetry of states, Fermions, Bosons.

Theory of Scattering:

Scattering experiments and cross sections, Potential scattering, The method of partial waves, The Born’s approximation.

**The Interaction of Quantum Systems with Radiation:
**

Electromagnetic field and its interaction with one electron system, Transition rates, Spontaneous emission, Selection rules for electric dipole transitions, The spin of photon and its helicity.

**Relativistic Quantum Mechanics:
**

Schrodinger relativistic equation, Probability and current densities, KleinGordon equation and hydrogen atom, Dirac relativistic equation.

Books Recommended:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. B.H. Bransden & C.J. Joachain, 'Introduction to Quantum Mechanics' Longman Scientific & Technical London (1990). J.S. Townsend, 'A Modern Approach to Quantum Mechanics', McGraw Hill Book Company, Singapore (1992). W. Greiner, 'Quantum Mechanics: An Introduction', Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Reading Mass. (1980). R.L. Liboff, 'Introductory Quantum mechanics', Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Reading Mass. (1980). Bialynicki-Birula, M. Cieplak & J. Kaminski, 'Theory of Quantua', Oxford University Press, New York (1992). W. Greiner, 'Relativistic Quantum Mechanics', Springer Verlag, Berlin (1990). 38

7. 8 9.

F. Schwable, 'Quantum Mechanics', Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi (1992). David J. Griffiths, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, PRENTICE Hall, Int., Inc. S.Gasiorowicz, Quantum Physics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Singapore.

**ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY Pre-requisites:
**

Electricity and magnetism I & II

3 Cr.h

Objectives:

1. 2. 3. To give the basic understanding in static electromagnetic fields and time dependent electromagnetic fields To develop knowledge of propagation, reflection and refraction of electromagnetic waves To develop the understanding of skin effect and wave guides

Fundamental Concepts:

Recapitulation of the fundamental concepts, Induction B, Addition of Laplace equation and methods of images. Magnetic intensity H, Maxwell's equations in differential and integral forms, Poynting theorem and energy conservation.

**Static Electromagnetic Fields:
**

Electrostatic fields in several dielectric media, Magneto static fields of magnetized matter, Magnetostatic field of stationary current, Magnetization current.

**Time Dependent Electromagnetic Fields:
**

Maxwell's equations for quasi stationery fields, Potentials of a rapidly varying field, Fields of uniformly moving and accelerated charges, Radiation from an accelerated charge, Field of oscillating expansion of electro magnetic field, Multiple fields. Expansion of emf.

**Reflection and Refraction of Electromagnetic Waves:
**

Laws of reflection and refraction, Fresnel's formula, Total reflection, Refraction in conducting media, Reflection from a conducting surface.

39

Books Recommended:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. H.C. Ohanion, 'Classical Electrodynamics', Allyn & bacon Inc., Massachusetts (1988). Y.K. Lim, 'Introduction to Classical Elecrodynamics, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pt., Singapore (1986). P.C. Lorrain & D.R. Corson, 'Electromagnetic Fields and Waves', W.H. Freeman & Co., New York (1978). C.R. Paul & S.A. Nasar, 'Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields, McGraw Hill Book Company, Singapore (1987). A.M. Portis, 'Electromagnetic Fields', John Wiley & Sons, New York (1978). D. Grifftns, An introduction to Dynamics, Prentice Hall, 1984 Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, John Wiley, 1975 Ritze Millfadad Chiristy, Foundation of Electromagnetic Theory

**NUCLEAR PHYSICS Pre-requisites:
**

Modern Physics and Electronics

3 Cr.h

Objectives:

1) 2) 3) To understand the nuclear structure using different nuclear models To understand the nature of nuclear forces To give understanding of radioactivity and nuclear reactions

History:

Starting from Bacqurel’s discovery of radioactivity to Chedwick’s neutron.

Basic Properties of Nucleus: Nuclear size, mass, binding energy, nuclear spin,magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moment, parity and statistics. Nuclear Forces: Yukawa's theory of nuclear forces. Nucleon

scattering, charge independence and spin dependence of nuclear force, isotopic spin.

**Nuclear Models: Liquid drop model; Fermi gas model, Shell model;
**

Collective model.

40

1995. Zetsche. F.
Structure of Solids
Lattices and basis. the magnetic lens spectrometer. Heat and Thermodynamics. theory of Gamma decay. Simple crystal structures. Nuclear Physics. compound nucleolus theory of nuclear reaction and its limitations. Statistical Physics. Neutrino hypothesis. Fundamental types of lattice. Bejamin. 4. Fermi theory of Beta decay. 1977. Nuclear Physics.
Books Recommended:
1. 4. Electricity & Magnetism I & II. 1980. C. 5.
Nuclear Reactions:
Conservation laws of nuclear reactions.
41
. cross sections for nuclear reactions. B. Q-value and threshold energy of nuclear reaction. Breit-Wigner one level formula including the effect of angular momentum.
Objectives:
1. direct reaction. To develop a basic knowledge of crystallography To understand the x-ray diffraction in crystal investigation To understand the binding forces in crystalline material To develop the understanding of lattice dynamics and its uses in derivation of theories of specific heat To understand the behaviour of free electrons in metals and Fermi Energy. 1999. McGraw Hill. Nuclei and Practicles. Kaplan. Addison-Wisely. Nuclear isomerism. multipolarity of Gamma rays. energy level and level width. Particle and Nuclei. 3. 5. space groups and binding forces. Kenneth S. Position and orientation of planes in crystals. Rith. Povh. 1995. Symmetry operations. Scholtz. Krane. Atomic potential. K. 3. 2.Theories of Radioactive Decay:
Theory of Alpha decay and explanation of observed phenomena. measurement of Beta ray energies. Introducing Nuclear Physics. Green. resonance reactions.
SOLID STATE PHYSICS Pre-requisite
3 Cr. 2.h
Quantum Mechanics . Segre.

R. fcc. Oxford Science Publications 1990. 1996. Kittle. Neutrons and electrons from crystals. orthorhombic and hexagonal crystals. Density of state in one.A. 7. two and three dimensions. Solid State Physics. 1976. Rosenberg. Ashcroft and N. Bragg’s law. III. Elliott. bcc. M.A. M. To expose the students to advance level experimentation in Physics To make them familiar to such experiments whose out come can be used in developing future research capabilities and teaching skills. H. Wahab. C. Laue method.
LAB VI Pre-requisites
LAB I. Enumeration of normal models. Narosa Publishing House. rotating crystal method. Scattered wave amplitude. Ewald construction and Brillouin zone. 4. Pearson Education 2000. Omar. 42
. Reciprocal lattice. To make the students confident in their studies by showing and measuring parameter which they have used in theoretical work. Introduction to Solid State Physics. Powder methods. 3. Kohn Wiley. 5. 2. G. Rinehart & Winston. Thermal conductivity and resistivity. Umklapp processes.
Recommended Books:
1. II. Wiley. The Physics and Chemistry of Solids. 1999.Crystal diffraction and reciprocal lattice:
Diffraction of X-rays. 6. 1998. Reciprocal lattice to sc. S. 2. Einstein model. An Introduction. Elementary Solid State Physics. Holt. 3rd Edition. The Solid State. Fourier analysis of the basis. 7th Ed. Academic Press 1992. N. Mermin. D. IV
1 Cr. classical model. 3. High Temperature Superconductivity. M.
Objectives:
1. Comparison with experimental results. Debye model of heat capacity.h. Solid State Physics. Burns. By.
Phonons and Lattice Vibrations:
Lattice heat capacity.M. W.

K. G. Design of high or medium voltage dc power supply and measurement of the voltage regulation.4. the operational amplifier. 2. Study of leaser parameters. C. coupled amplifier and a study of its characteristics.F. 10. To design and build a lotic circuit (using AND/OR/NOR gates) for performing a given function.
Recommended Books:
1. Design of a medium wave T. 12. Mathematical Methods. Squires. To design and build a linear integrator to enable digitization of photo-multiplier pulses.R. 3rd Edition. Basic Numerical Analysis and Analytical Tools for Numerical Analysis. etc. Ripple factor etc. Transistor pulse-circuitry (three types of flipflop and the Schmidt trigger circuit).F.
Study of random processes and fluctuations in random processes (Poission distribution. etc.
Note: At least five experiments to be performed and Universities may opt for other experiments according to the available facilities.h
Undergraduate Level Physics and Elementary Mathematics and Linear Algebra. Design of high or medium voltage dc power supply and measurement of the voltage regulation. Design of an L. Experiments in Physics. Power out-put selectivity. 5. University Practical Physics. 6. Bhattacharya. or to design and build a height-to-width converter. 8. CBS Publishing. 7.C. Computer and Programming Skills. Practical Physics. Surjeet Pub Ind. Gain characteristics and spectral response of a photo-multiplier tube. 9. To build and investigate the properties of hard value multivibrators. or superheterdyne receiver and measurement of its sensitivity.R. Ripple factor. 13. Cambridge University Press Nolan and Bigliani. L.) Measurement of transistor hybrid parameters.
COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS Pre-requisites:
3 Cr.
43
. 3. etc. 11.

.C. Doing Physics with random numbers. Introduction of computer languages To know the use of computer in numerical anlysis Computer simulation and modeling
Computer Languages:
A brief introduction of the computer languages like Basic.. Massachusetts (1991). 'An Introduction to Computer Simulation Methods'. 'Numerical Methods for Engineers with Personal Computer Applications.Objectives:
1. 3. The mathematical models. Merman. Diffusion. L. Some systems of interest for physicists such as Motion of Falling objects. California (1986). C. 4. Chanle. Addison Wesley Publishing Company. Bristol (1987). Tobochnik. Regression and interpolation. Pascal etc and known software packages of computation. Koonini.
Modeling & Simulations:
Conceptual models.
Numerical Methods:
Numerical Solutions of equations. Numerical integration and differentiation. P. S. Chapra & R. H. Field of static charges and current. 2. De Jong. Gould & J.
Books Recommended:
1. Computational Techniques in Physics' Adm Hilger. 2. 3. 'Introduction to Computational Physics'. Oscillatory motion. Random numbers and random walk. Many particle systems. New York (1965
PHYSICS-401 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS 4 Cr. S. Wave phenomena. Phy-306 (Quantum Mechanics)
44
. Kepler's problems. Dynamic systems.h
Pre-requisite
Phy-202 (Modern Physics). Macheown & D.P. 5.T. M. Relationship of modeling and simulation. The Benjamin/Coming Publishing Inc. Addison Wesley Publishing Company Inc.K. Error analysis and technique for elimination of systematic and random errors. Populations genetics etc. McGraw Hill Book Company. Computer simulation.J. Computational Physics'. Rading Massachusetts(1988).

Chapman and Hall. Diatomic molecules-rotational. Central field approximation. Stern Gerlach experiment. Transition probabilities of diatomic molecules. 2.
Interaction with field (7 hours)
Many electron atoms in an electromagnetic field. Born Oppenhimer approximation. jj coupling and other type of coupling. Fermi Golden rule. Stark effect. Spectrophysics. Paschen back effect. 1988. Thorn. Joachain. Atoms in radiation field. 5. To review the existing theories of atomic structure To introduce the experimental proof of quantisation To introduce the use of Schrodinger Equation in real system like Hydrogen atom To understand the Molecular spectrum To understand the LASER production and Operation
Structure of Atoms (5 hours):
Review of Bohr’s theory. Sommerfeld model. Frank Hertz experiment and approximation methods. normal Zeeman effect. Polyatomic molecules (brief introduction).
One Electron System (12 hours)
Review of Schrodinger equation for hydrogen atom. 4. Hydrogen molecule (Heitler London and molecular orbital theories)
Recommended Books:
1. B. Quantum numbers. electron spin and Hund’s cases. 2. Hartree Fock methods and self consistent field. Periodic system of the elemments. Anne P. Hydrogen Molecular ion (LCAO approximation). Thomas Fermi potential. vibrational. LS coupling. 3. and electronic spectra. London 1983.Objectives:
1. Raman effect. Radiative transitions. X-ray spectra. 45
. Einstein coefficients. Longmans.
Many body Systems (12 hours)
Pauli exclusion principle. Anomalous Zeeman effect. Spin orbit coupling. Selection rules.J. Bransden and C. Stark effect. Physics of atomic and Molecules.
Molecules (12 hours)
Ionic and covalent bonding. Hyperfine structure. second edition. H.

2. 1975 Ritze Millfadad Chiristy. Waves guided by parallel plane conductor. New York (1978). Prentice Hall.. Pt. Wave Guidance.
Skin Effect and Wave Guides:
High frequency current in a semi infinite conductor. Internal impedance at high frequencies. Loren z. 'Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields. Classical Electrodynamics.
Books Recommended:
1.C. Foundation of Electromagnetic Theory 46
. Quantum Physics of Atoms. 2.H. 'Electromagnetic Fields and Waves'. Paul & S.K. Corson. second edition. 'Electromagnetic Fields'. Lim.3.. An introduction to Dynamics. New York (1978). Q of a cavity resonator. H. grange and Coloumb grange. Solids. W. World Scientific Publishing Co.
Objectives:
1.C. Allyn & bacon Inc. 3. Portis. Nasar. 7. 4. Resnick. Massachusetts (1988). Nuclei and Particles. Scattering by a bound electron.M. To give the basic understanding in static electromagnetic fields and time dependent electromagnetic fields To develop knowledge of propagation. McGraw Hill Book Company. Lorrain & D. D. 6. Grifftns. 3. Power transfer and attenuation.R.
ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY II Pre-requisites:
Electricity and magnetism I & II
3 Cr. 'Classical Electrodynamics'.A. John Wiley and sons 1985. John Wiley & Sons. and R. Dispersion in metallic conductor.. Molecules. Group velocity. Forced oscillation of an electronic oscillator. Eisberg. Transmission by a rectangular. Singapore (1986). John Wiley. Singapore (1987). 1984 Jackson. 'Introduction to Classical Elecrodynamics. 5. Dispersion in dilute medium and dense media. reflection and refraction of electromagnetic waves To develop the understanding of skin effect and wave guides
Propagation
of
Plane
Electromagnetic
Waves:
monochromatic waves and plane waves. Wave guides as cavity resonators. A. Ohanion. C.
R. Y. Freeman & Co.R. Waves guided by dielectrics.h. P.

Source strength of Co60 by gamma coincidence methods. 14. To expose the students to advance level experimentation in Physics. 4. 15. The Frank-hertz experiment (Measurement of excitation potential of Hg). 12. To make the students confident in their studies by showing and measuring parameter which they have used in theoretical work.
Lab-VII
1. 16. To study the Zeeman effect for a line in the spectrum of helium. Determination of Planck’s constant (h) by using the photoelectric effect. 10. 13. To prove the Rutherford law of scattering of charged particles.R. Use of an analogue computer for solving differential equations. 9. Measurement of the total neutron cross-section. Determination of the charge on an electron (e) by Millikan’s method. 7. Fabry-Perot interferometer used as a gas refractometer. Electron spin resonance (E. 47
. Determination of the Rydberg constant from the spectrum of hydrogen. 6. Measurement of the spectrum of gamma rays from a radioisotope (e. 2.g. 2. To make them familiar to such experiments whose out come can be used in developing future research capabilities and teaching skills. Study of their optical properties. To examine the stopping-power of various substances for thermal neutrons.) by microwave absorption. Determination of the constituents of substance by activation analysis. To examine the characteristics of a Solid-State detector and to use it for alpha and beta Spectroscopy and compare the results with those obtained by a scintillation counter. 11. Pre-requisite:
Undergraduate physics and Labs I-VI
Objectives:
1. 8. 3.Cs) and study of their photoelectric and Compton absorption.h
A project can be introduced instead of these experiments.PROJECT
3 Cr.S. Experiments with microwaves. 3. 5.

17. Applied Electronics (John-Wiley and Sons). Simple diode manufacture and point-contact transistor.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (N. 18.S. Measurement of the conductivity of Si and Ge as a functions of temperature. Gray. 3.R. To determine the energy gap in silicon and Germanium. 20.Mark and N. 22. To build a medium or short-wave transmitter. Experiments in Modern Physics (McGrawHill).) of protons in water. 24.
Books Recommended:
1. Melissionos.
All experimental courses are only recommended but Universities may opt other experiments according to facilities and expertise available to them. 23. Drift mobility. The measurement of the Hall effect in germanium and silicon. 2. 21.T.
Note: At least 12 experiments to be performed and Universities may opt for other experiments according to the available facilities.M.C. Experiments in Modern Physics (Academic). Olson. demonstrating transistor action). The study of the Mossbauer effect. 19.
48
. H. T. A. (Shockley-Haynes experiments for Germanium.

Time-variant E and B fields.h
Objectives:
1. 1960 (D. Fluid description of plasma. 2nd ed.DETAIL OF ELECTIVE COURSES
These elective courses can be chosen from the list or new elective course may be offered according to the availability of staff and necessary infrastructure. To know aout the surface physics and its applications Learn about the interaction of surface with the ions. Uniform and nonuniform E and B fields.W. Occurrance of plasma. N.
PLASMA PHYSICS Pre-requisite:
Electrodynamics. Debye shielding. operational conditions. Applications of plasma physics. 2.
SURFACE PHYSICS Pre-requisites:
Solid state Physics
3 Cr. To know fluid description of the plasma.h
Objectives:
1.A.
F. 2. Wave propagation in plasma. 49
. Principles of Plasma Physics. electrons etc. 1973 (McGraw Hill). S.Glasstone and R. Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions. waves and oscillations
3 Cr. Introduction to plasma Physics. (Plenum). Single-particle motion in electromegnatic field.Trivelpiece. 3. radiation losses from plasma. To learn about the importance of the plasma alongwith the basic concept of plasma. University may also tailor these courses according to their facilities.
Introduction.Krall and A.H. Reaction rates and power density.Lovberg. The plasma parameter.F. Criteria for plasma.Van Nestrand).
Books Recommended:
1.Chen. 2. Concept of temperature. Introduction to Controlled Fusion: Basic nuclear fusion reactions. Derivation of dispersion relations for simple electrostatic and electromagnetic modes.

Surface energies and the Wulff Theorem. physiorption. derivation. Profiling.
Studying Surfaces:
What is UHV? Do we need UHV to study surfaces? The kinetic theory of gases. Desorption Bonding . The surface structures of very small metal particles. More complex ceconstruction. 3 D crystal structures. comparison of particle scattering techniques. potential energy curves and adsorption energetics. Quantification of Auger spectra. Electron emission processes. the kinetics of adsorption. adsorbate phase diagrams and phase transitions. Specific types of surface.
Surface Structures and Reconstructions:
Lattice concept. The electronic structure of semiconductor surfaces. Discussion of the merits of different types of electron energy analysers and electron deterctors. Comparison of different types of pumps with measurement of vacuum pressure.
Adsorption. An introduction to surface Physics. Desorption and experimental probes of surface structure such a LEED and RHEED. Theory and practice of Auger electron spectroscopy. catalysis.An Introduction to Surfaces:
What is a surface? The energetics and thermodynmics of creating a surface. Electron spectroscopes. Signal processing and spectral analysis. stability. Catalysis and Growth Processes:
Adsorption mechanisms and kinetics chemisorption vs. adsorption. growth mechanisms. Magnetic processes at surfaces. The structure of semi-conductor surfaces.
Electron-Surface Interactions:
Electron diffraction and quasi – elastic scattering. hcp. vibrational spectroscopy. Auger depth. concept of vacuum and standard vacuum hardware components. Adsorption mechanisms and kinetics for low coverages Langmuir Isotherms.
The Structure of Adsorbate Layers:
Experimental probes of surface structure such as LEED and RHEED. Desorption. fcc. Free electron theories and the work function.
50
. 2D surface structures.
The Electronics and Magnetic Structure of Surfaces:
Band theory. Growth processes. bcc and stepped surfaces and a discussion of their relative energies. Preparing a clean surface.

SEM. theory and practice of Rutherford. 2. SIMS imaging and depth profiling. Introduction to Surface and Thin Film Processes Cambridge University Press (2000). SPM. STEM.
FLUID DYNAMICS Pre-requisite
Classical Mechanics. An Introduciton to the theory and practice of SIMS. Basic concepts in surface imaging and localized spectroscopy.Atom/ion surface interactions:
Comparison of particle scattering techniques.
Books Recommended
1. The finite volume method. Introduction to solution of Partial Differential Equiation’s using finite difference methods Advanced Techniques.
Surface Microscopy:
Classification of microscopy techniques. Turbulent Boundary layer. Imaging XPS. Back scattering. Thin aerofoil. Incompressible and 51
. Electrodynamics
3 Cr.
Boundary Layer Theory:
Laminar Boundary layer. To know the fundamentals of Fluid Mechanice and its applications To learn about the computational aspect for solving diffusion equation. Atomic Force Microscopy.
Computational Fluid dynamics-I:
Introduction to numerical computation.
Computational Fluid Dynamics-II:
Governing equations in integral and differential form. Compressible flows. Venables. governing equations of fluid motion. Kinematics of the flow field. An introduction to the theory and practice of scanning Tunneling Microscopy.
Basic Fluid Mechanics:
Fundamentals of Continuum mechanics.h
Objectives
1. Scanning probe microscopy techniques. Optical microscopy. Reduced forms of governing equations. Boundary value problems. Reynold’s number. Incompressible flows. John A. Introduction to numerical solution of Ordinary Differential equation’s using multi-step methods. Auger depth profiling. the continuity equation.

Computational Fluid Dynamics for Engineers.
Books Recommended:
1. Use of a commercial code for the predication off complex flows. Cryogenic pumps.V. “Computational Fluid Dynamics”. 1993. Pumping Speed. guttering pumps.
Experimental Methods:
Introduction to laboratory techniques. K. White. Measurement of total pressure in Vacuums Systems. P.A. Pump down Time Ultimate pressure. Discrete methods for the steady state and time dependent advection diffusion equation. 52
. Incorporation of turbulence models. Units pressure ranges. Hoffmann and S.T. Turbo molecular pumps.
Vacuum Techniques:
Gas Transport: Throughout. Hydrodynamics. Albuquerque. Hemosa Publishers. 4. 3. 1991. sorption pumps. Diffusion pumps. Time marching schemes. To learn about the measuring techniques along with data analysis. 6th edition 1993.J. Doer. Manometers.Lamb. 3. turbulent jets and plumes. temperature.M. 2.
METHODS OF EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS Pre-requisites
Experimental labs and techniques used in these labs. To learn about the vacuum techniques To learn the detection techniques about radiation.1 & 11.h
Objectives:
1. Ion pumps. 1980. vortex shedding and vibrations. Fundamental concepts. Roache. S.M. Fore-Vacuum Pumps: Rotary Oil pumps.. Laboratory sessions (preceded by lectures): water waves. Production of ultrahigh vacuum. N. Vol. The pressure correction method on staggered and unstaggered grids. 2. H. Hemisphere. air flow past a cylinder aero foils. Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow. hydraulic jumps. F.. Viscous flud flow (second Edition).compressible flow & their methods. Patankar. Schemes for solving large algebraic systems. Perini gauges. Mcgraw Hill. 5. sorption pumps (High Vacuum). Chiang.
3 Cr.

Counters.
53
. flow. leak detection equipment. tilt. speed. power magnetic field. phase. neutron detectors. current voltage. Ramp Generators. Design of high Vacuum system. Statistical Control of Measurements.
Sensor Technology:
Sensors for temperature. Interfacing. Lock in Amplifiers. scintillation detector. channeltron. rotation position. Integrators. Nonlinear functions. difference amplifiers. Vacuum Components. Statistical Methods. Vacuum valves. Logarithmic amplifiers. charge sensitive pre-amplifiers. Rejection of data. Mean Value and Variance.
Radiation Detection and Measurement:
GM tubes. Multichannel analyzer. metal. Isolators.The McLoad gauges. Differentiators. Spectrographs and Interferometers. summing amplifiers. alpha/beta detectors. current to voltage converter. and single channel analyzer. Surface to Volume ratio. cosmic rays detectors. Mass spectrometer for partial measurement of pressure. Data manipulation. Visual c/visual Basic. level. Errors of Computation. pressure displacement. rotation. Pump Choice. Precision. Special Techniques and problems. Repair Techniques. interpolation and extrapolation. Power supplies. preliminary Estimation. x-rays/gamma detectors. photo multipliers. vacuum Flanges. Signal Generators. explosive and heat. Propagation of errors. Errors of Direct measurements. Accuracy. Mechanical feed throughs & Electrical feed throughs Leak detection: Basic consideration. Spectroscopy amplifiers.
Data Analysis:
Evaluation of measurement: Systematic Errors. Significance of results. RS 232. Liquid Nitrogen trap. Coincidence circuits. Least squares fit to a polynomial. smoothing. Accidental Errors. DA/AD conversion. pumping system design.
Computer Introduction:
Introduction to computers. linear and parabolic interpolation. Boxcar averages.
Electronics and Electronic Instruments:
Operational amplifiers. GPIB Interface.

The ozone filter. J. Transport of matter. 3. The spectroscopy of bi-molecules. (Zero-dimensional Greenhouse Model). Bevington.
Introduction to the Essentials of Environmental Physics:
The economic system. elements of weather and climate. The transition electric dipole moment. Yarwood.Toping.Books Recommended:
1. Turbulent jets and planes. ground water. Academic Press. 2. Human Perceptions and noise criteria. Turbulence. The emission spectrum of sun.D.1. flow in reverse. High Vacuum Techniques. P. McGraw Hill. Energy and momentum. Statistical Treatment of Methods of Experimental Physics.B.
ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Pre-requisite:
Physics (FSc)
3 Cr. IOP.h
Objective:
1. the social and political context. climate variations and modeling. active control of sound. To become familiar with the essentials of environment nad Global climate To learn to use spectroscopy for environments. 1962.
Noise:
Basic Acoustics. reducing the transmission of sound.
The Global Climate:
The energy Balance. Flow equations of fluid Dynamics. Turbulence Diffusion. Solar UV and life. Data Reduction and Error Analysis for Physical Science.Young. Chapman Hall.
Basic Environmental Spectroscopy:
Black body radiation.
54
. enjoying the sun. Gaussian plumes in air. The Einstein Coefficients.
Transport of Pollutants:
Diffusion. H. Inc. living in green house. Lambert – Beer’s law. 2. 4. J. Errors of Observations. New York & London Vol.

evolution. 1999. Measurement.
INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM COMPUTING Pre-requisite:
Quantum Mechanics and Computational Physics
3 Cr. surface wind velocity. utilization of photo synthetically active radiation. Universal 55
. Dynamic action of seliq. Guyot Praxis Publication. To be familiar with the quantum computing To learn about the Quantum circuits . Quantum Computation: Quantum Circuits. density matrix. and cryptography
Computer technology and historical background. vertical profiles in the lower layers of the atmosphere. Egbert Booker and Rienk Van Gron Belle.Radiation:
General laws of Radiation. 2. Single qubit operation. Atmospheric Pressure. Controlled operations. Physics of Environmental and Climate. operator function. Atmospheric Circulation. Measurement of temperature. Environmental Physics. statistical analysis of climatic data. cloud and Precipitation. The atmospheric greenhouse effect. EPR and Bell’s inequality. air humidity. Schmidt decomposition. Schrodinger equation. interaction of electromagnetic radiation and plants. Radiation balance.
Books Recommended:
1. quantization from bits to qubits. Basic principles and postulates of quantum mechanics: Quantum states. General characteristics of measuring equipments. John Wiley and sons. Thermal action of selief.h
Objectives
1. automatic weather stations. Natural radiation. 2.
Topo Climates and Micro Climates:
Effects of surface elements in flat and widely unduling areas. 1998. 2nd ed. climatic indices. Lateral movement in the atmosphere.
Climatology and Measurements of Climate Factor:
Data collection and organization.
Atmosphere and Climate:
Structure of the atmosphere. precipitation. quantum measurement. superposition.

Brylinsky and G. Chuang. Schor’s algorithm.
The Fundamental Interactions:
The electromagnetic coupling. A. leptons. RSA cryptography. hadrons. rotation in space. Quantum Cryptography: Uncertainty principle. the group SU (2). A.
Symmetry Transformation and Conservation Laws:
Translation in space. The Physics of Quantum Information: Quantum Cryptography. time reversal. the weak coupling. To learn about the Quark models. Quantum Computation and Quantum Information by M. quarks.
PARTICLE PHYSICS Pre-requisite
Quantum Physics
3 Cr. Springer Verlag. Trapdoor function. Breaking unbreakable codes: Code making. Zeilinger. Nielson and I. and Ekert protocols. mesons. Quantum Search Algorithm. Heidelberg (2000).P. BB90. Quantum cryptography with and without eavesdropping. Ekert. Williams and S. 2. Polarization and Spin basis. Cambridge 2000. To learn about the interaction of these particles.
56
. systems of identical particles. Berlin. Chapman & Hall/CRC (2002). 3.K. H. and A. One time pad. CPT theorem. Quantum Teleportation. 3. L. To know the particles and their classification. 2. baryons.
Books Recommended:
1. Quantum Computation by P. Code breaking on classical and quantum computers. Bouwmester. Single qubit and CNOT gates. Chen.h
Objectives
1. Clearwater. Springer Verlag (1997). parity. Mathematics of Quantum Computation by A. iso-spin charge conjugation.quantum gates. BB84.
4. Exploration in Quantum Computation by C.
Particle Classification:
Quantum numbers. the strong coupling. G parity. Cambridge University Press. Experimental realization.

John-Wiley and Sons. the quarkonium model. angular momentum. McGraw Hill.
1. and Drell. production experiments.. Relatvistic Quantum Mechanics by Bjorken.. phase space considerations. mesons in quark model. (1984). 3. polarization ad photon spin. quarks. parity and C parity of photon. and Martin. World Scientific. 3. the Breit-Wigner resonance formula. heave meson spectroscopy. (1995). S. baryon resonances. D. 4.h
Objectives.
Books Recommended:
1. 2. partial wave formalism and the optical theorem.D. J. Introduction to Elementary Particles by Griffiths. To use numerical techniques to solve the differential equations.
Hadron Spectroscopy:
Formation experiment.
COMPUTER SIMULATION Pre-requisites
Mathematical Physics
3 Cr. To understand the simulation in classical physics and Quantum Physics
57
. D. F.. John-Wiley and Sons. hadrons baryons.
The Standard Model (qualitative treatment only):
Unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions Glashow-SalamWeinberg Model.
The Quark Model:
The group SU (3).The Electromagnetic Field:
Gauge invariance and Maxwell’s equations. 2. (1987). Learn techniques to understand and develop compter simulations. (1990). A. Quantum Mechanics by Riazuddin and Fayyazuddin. Quarks and Leptons by Halzen.D.

External points and strings. Noise in Signal. Diffraction and Polarization. Electromagnetic Waves. special functions and Guassian quadrarure. Approaches to Equilibrium.
58
. Canonical and Micro-Canonical Ensembles.activity and radioactive decay series. nature of computer simulation. partial differential equations (elliptic and parabolic types)
Simulation in Classical Physics:
Motion of Falling Objects. Raynold averaging and its applications to Navier stokes equations.
Computational Methods for Continuous Medium:
Fluid equations. matrix operation. Reduce forms of the governing equation. Molecular Dynamics in Solids. Random-walk problem. Two-Dimensional Trajectories (Kepler’s Laws.Carlo Simulation. schemes for solving large algebric system. Mean and Turbulant kinetic energy equation. Distribution Functions in Statistical Physics. percolation theory. Techniques and class of computer simulation. Discrete methods for the steady state and time dependent diffusion equation. Oscillatory Motions). Governing equation in integral and differential forms. Coupled oscillator). One Dimensional Dynamics (Accelerating cars and objects on springs).
Random Process and Quantum Physics:
Random Number and their uses. Interference. Monte. Time marching schems. Geometrical Optics (Ray Tracing an Principle of Least Time). use of commercial code for prediction of off complex flow. spherical and cylindrical coordinates. Electric Currents and Magnetic Fields. Wave phenomena (Fourier analysis. initial (boundary) and eigen value problems. numerical integrations. finite volume method.
Numerical Approaches:
Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations. Numerical Solution of time-independent (and dependent). Guassian Distribution. Driven LRC Circuits (Time varying). radio. incorporation of furbulence model. Particle in Bound and Free States. Energy and Center of Mass. Accuracy and stability of numerical techniques. LRC Circuits. Electric Fields and Potentials. computer graphics and programming languages. The pressure-corection method on staggered and unstaggered grids. compressible and incompressible flow and their methods.Introduction:
Importance of computers in physics. principles of vector computing in Cartesian. Schrodinger Wave Equation.

Zabolitzky. Roache. Albuquerque. 3. 5. 1988.G. Winkelman and J. Inc. thermal conduction and heat transport.
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS Pre-requisites
Electronics
3 Cr. Springer-Verlage Berlin. K-maps and their uses.W. 2. F. (BCD. Inc.. New York. Inc. Quantum Mechanics Simulation. 1988. 1991. To understand the computer interface and micro-controller alongwith the emedded system. An Introduction to “Computer Simulation Methods” Part-I & II. Computer Simultation and Computer Algebra (Lectures for Beginers).J. W. their inter-conversion. (A Series of the Consortium for upper level Physics software). basic logic gates. New York. Octal and Hexadecimal number system.M. Johnston and Styer.
Review of Number Systems:
Binary. D.). Addison Wesley Publishing Company. N. Modelling ideal (MHD). To learn the basics of digitl electronics sucha sa Boolian Algebra. New York. ASCII. concepts of logic. Gray etc. John Wiley & Sons.1995.
Boolean Algebra:
DeMorgan’s theorem. truth table. Parity in Codes
59
. 1993. 3. simplification of Boolean expression by Boolean Postulates and theorem. Hillar. 6. Introduction to Computational Physics. P. To develop logic circuit using th Boolean Algebra. resistive and viseus flow of plasmas. De Jong.h
Objectives
1.
Books Recommended:
1. 2. Hehl. Harvey Gould and Jan Tobochink. Stauffer. Marvin L. Don’t care condition. Addison Wesley Publishing Company. New York. Different codes.Magnetohydrodynamics. Hemosa Publishers. Computational Fluid Dynamics.

McMillan. 8086 processor family. Digital System Design and Micro possessor J. ECL. RAM. addition. programming and interfacing. Exclusive OR gate. micro processor (ALU. NAND. Barrey B. Ripple.
Micro Computers:
Computers and its types. PROM. Micro Electron. NOR Logic.C. (Static and dynamic) Memory mapping techniques. Intel Microprocessor Hierarchy. (1999). Larry D. Instruction set and their types.
Books Recommended
1. Digital Logic and Computer Design Morris Mono 1995 Prentic Hall Tocheim. full adder. Counters (Ring. EAPROM. gate design. subtraction (2’s compliments. 60
. Macmillan Publishing Company. Propagation delay time. CMOS). UP Registers. Addressing modes. half subtractor. T-FF. OR-AND. 4. decoder. Discussion on 8085/8088.
Memory Devices:
ROM. PLA.IC logic families:
Basic characteristics of a logic family. 2. McGraw Hill. 1993. Philips 80C51 & 80C552 and Motorola 68Hc05/08. TTL. Jones. Control and Time Section). D-FF. Different logic based IC families (DTL.
Micro-controller/ Embedded System:
Introduction to Embedded and microcontroller based systems. Brey. The Microprocessor and microcontroller applications and environment. Digital Electronics. dissipation. 6.
Combinational logic circuit:
Logic circuits based on AND – OR. Intel UPS Architecture. 5. (Fan in/out. EE PROM. noise margins etc. Interfacing with peripherals. RTL. Prentic Hall (1998). Shift Register. microcontroller characteristics.
Sequential Logic Circuit:
Flip-flops clocked RS-FF. half adder. Typical Microcontroller examples:. Principles and applications of digital electronics. full subtractor encoder. JK-FF. BORTIE (NBF). up-down. features of a general purpose microcontroller. basic architecture of computer. Microchip Inc and PIC microcontroller. Synchronous) A/D and D/A Converters. all generation of computers. 3.

2. Detailed study of PWR and CANDU type reactors. Description of fission reaction. Bubble chambers. Mass distribution of fission energy.Floyd. photographic emulsions.7. Photo neutron sources Charged particle sources.
Neutron Physics:
Neutron Sources. Radioactive sources.
Nuclear Radiation Detection and Measurements:
Interaction of nuclear radiation with matter. slow neutron detectors.
61
. 8th edition. Cloud chambers. Electron-Synchrotrons. Reactor as a neutron source. The Design of Small-Scale Embedded Systems. Average number of neutrons released. Digital Fundamental. Synchrocyclotron. Cyclotron. Tim Wilmshurst. Scintillation counters and solid-state detectors. Proton-synchrotron. fast neutron detectors. To learn the nuclear detection system and techniques fr their measurements To learn about the charged particles accelerator and nuclear reactor To develop understanding of neutrons physics.
EXPERIMENTAL NUCLEAR PHYSICS Pre-requisite
Nuclear Physics
3 Cr. Gas-filled detectors. 8. Types of nuclear reactors (Power and Research).
T. Theory of fission and spontaneous fission.
Elementary Reactor Physics:
Controlled fission reactions. Betatron. Nuclear chain reaction and applications. Alternating-gradient Synchrotron. 3. Nuclear fission. Palgrave (2003). Measurement of neutron cross-sections as a function of energy.h
Objectives
1.
Charged Particle Accelerators:
Linear and orbital accelerators Van de Graaff.L. slowing down of neutrons.

Krane. F. Level Occupation at Thermal Equilibrium. R. Stable Resonators. Data Detection and Error analysis for physical sciences. Scholtz. 4. Wave Reflection and Transmission at a Dielectric Interface. Stimulated Transition. Matrix Formulation of Geometrical Optics. 4. Kenneth S. . Povh. Concentric (Spherical) Resonator. Spinger. Absorption and Stimulated Emission Rates. Radiation Detection and Measurement. Resonator. Introducing Nuclear Physics. Confocal. Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics. Semiconductor.
Spectroscopy of Molecule and Semiconductors:
Electronic Energy Levels. 2. Unstable Resonators. John Wiley. Rith. F. Radiative and Nonradiative Decay. 1977. 2. William. 6. Knoll. Philips Berington and D. Glenn. Stability Condition Standing and Traveling Waves 62
. Absorption and Gain Coefficients. Segre. Coherence. Pumping Schemes. 1989. Bejamin. Nuclei and Practicles. Directionality. Zetsche. Keith. Molecular Energy Levels. Applications of lasers
Introductory Concepts:
Spontaneous Emission. Particle and Nuclei. Stimulated Emission.
LASERS Pre-requisite:
Quantum Mechanics I and Atomic Physics
3 Cr. Resonance Energy Transfers. Ring Resonator. Generalized Spherical Resonator. 2002. 1994.h
Objectives
1.Books Recommended:
1. 3. 5. K. Develop fundamental concepts about lasers Learn the principles of spectroscopy of molecules and semiconductos Understand the optical resonators and laser system. Absorption. Leo. B. 3. C. Properties of Laser Beam: Monochromaticity.
Optical Resonators:
Plane Parallel (Fabry-Perot) Resonator. Selection Rules. Brightness. 1995. 1999.

E. latest edition. (Latest Edition). W. Milonni. Lasers. Nitrogen Laser and Excimer Lasers. Line broadening. Plenum Press New York & London (1992). Wiley. University. Optimum Output Coupling. Drilling. Quantum Optics.
Pumping Processes:
Optical pumping: Flash lamp and Laser. pumping efficiency. H.A. Cutting. and Group-Delay Dispersion. Berlin (Latest Edition). Laser Tuning. Oscillation and Pulsations in Lasers. C. New York. Silfvast. Laser Theory. Atmospheric Physics
Books Recommended
1. Chemical Pumping. Laser. Science Books Mill Valley. (1986). J. Fabry-Perot Interferometer. CO2 laser.
3. Gas lasers: Helium Neon laser. Holography. 5.
63
.in a two Mirror Resonator. Springer. Small Signal Gain and Loop Gain.
Continuous Wave (CW) and pulsed lasers
Rate Equations. Electrical Pumping: Longitudinal Configuration and Transverse Configuration. Cambridge University Press (1997). Laser Fundamentals. Defense Industry. A. Threshold Pump Power. T. Principles of Lasers. Welding etc. Laser Communication. Free-Electron and X-Ray Lasers
Laser applications:
Material Processing: Surface Hardening. Svelto. Siegman. 4. Scully and Zubairy. Haken. Medicine.
Lasers Systems :
Solid State Lasers: Ruby Laser. Gas Dynamics Pumping. Eberly and P. Group Velocity. 2. Phase Velocity. Longitudinal and Transverse Modes in a Cavity. Threshold Condition and Output Power. Multilayer Dielectric Coatings. O. QSwitching and Mode-Locking Methods. Nd: YAG & Nd: Glass Lasers and Semiconductor Lasers: Homojunction Lasers Double-Heterostructure lasers.

Oxford University Press. 3. microwave background. the Big Bang expansion rate. Elements of Tensor Calculus: Manifolds and coordinates. Hubble’s law. four-vectors. concept of ether. structure of space-time.D. kinetic and total energy. equation of geodesics deviation.
Relativistic Mechanics: Force equation in relativity. J.RELATIVITY AND COSMOLOGY Pre-requisites
Mechanics. metric tensor. conservation of energy and momentum. the light-cone.
Special Relativity:
Galilean relativity. W.h
Objectives
1. Lie derivative. cosmological red-shift. relativity of simultaneity. length contraction. time dilation.V. Books Recommended:
1. Introducing Einstein’s Relativity. Cambridge University Press. rest mass. Introduction to Cosmology.
64
. Einstein’s postulates of special relativity. history of the universe. FSc Physics
3 Cr. matter and radiation domination. Michelson-Morley experiment. Einstein’s field equations.McComb. Dynamics and Relativity. To learn about the Special theory of relativity To learn the basics of relativistic mechanics and develop understanding about the General theory. 2. time paradox. 1989. curves and surfaces. geodesics. 2.D.D’Inverno. 1992. General Relativity: Principles of general relativity. tensor fields. proper time. velocity transformation and velocity addition. R. line element. Riemann tensor. Minkowski space time tensors. Lorentz transformations. Oxford University Press. Cosmology: Newtonian cosmology.Narlikar. 1999.

1988. New Age International Pub. Solid State Physics.
65
. Kittle. Dielectrics. Dia. The Solid State. S. Hall. John Wiley. Para and Ferro-magnetism. Read Jr. New Delhi. Tata McGraw Hill.E. Dislocations in crystals. J. Point defects and dislocations in solids.SOLID STATE PHYSICS-II Pre-requisite:
Solid State Physics I
3Cr.
Books Recommended:
1. Magnetic relaxation and resonance phenomena. Christman. Guinier & R. 6. New York. Boltzmann equation. Jullien. Solid State Physics. 2003. 1989. To understand the transport properties in solids To understand the crystal defects and their importance To understand the dielectric and magnetic properties of materials To give basic understanding of superconductivity. Solid State Physics. 7th edition 1996. Co. Introduction to Solid State Physics. Oxford University Press. 3. C. John Wiley & Sons. Oxford.T. C. 4. John Wiley & Sons.M.O. 7.Pillai. 2. McGraw Hill. 3. Solid State Physics. H. Superconductivity and devices. 1989. Kachaava.R. 4.
Transport properties of solids. 1982. Introduction to superconductivity with applications. 1991. 2. W. New York. 5. A.h
Objectives:
1.

4. 2. the Provinces will have to be involved at the highest level for the implementation for the BS program. For the smooth and uniform implementation of the BS (4-year) program throughout the country. 5. in consistency with the approved revised scheme of studies and curriculum of Physics for the program. namely Part-I (2-years) and Part-II (2years). Refresher courses on new topics in Physics may be arranged for college teachers. The Directorate Colleges of Provinces should be provided special funds by the respective provinces for qualified manpower and for building of necessary infrastructure for starting BS (4-year) program or at least the Part-I of this program at Colleges. Until the introduction of 4-year composite bachelor degree program in Colleges and Universities. 3. the program can be split up in two parts. To implement the BS (4-year) program the Colleges will have to provide extra facilities for teaching extra courses and for Lab equipment. the HEC may take up the matter with the provincial Directorate of Colleges to introduce the BS (4-year) program both in Colleges and University departments.General Recommendations:
The Committee made the following recommendations: 1. The HEC should provide special funds for building infrastructure for the BS (4-year) program and development of teaching faculty at the university departments.” may not be used with the nomenclature of the program.
66
. the suffix “Hons. completed at College and university department respectively. As all the BS programs are of four years duration.

clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling
Comprehension
Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students)
Listening
To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers
Translation skills
Urdu to English
Paragraph writing
Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher
Presentation skills
Introduction
Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building
Recommended books:
1. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase.Annexure “A”
COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Course Contents
Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. a) Functional English Grammar
67
.

and speed reading.J. Writing. Third edition.V. minutes of meetings.V.
Course Contents
Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Exercises 1. 2. Third edition. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 0194313492 Practical English Grammar by A. Speaking
c)
d)
English II (Communication Skills)
Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Upper Intermediate. 1997. Oxford University Press. Martinet. Thomson and A. Exercises 2. Reading/Comprehension 1. Reading. Oxford University Press. Martinet.J. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Thomson and A. Third Impression 1992. 1997. intensive and extensive. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. style and pronunciation)
Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review
68
. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Fourth Impression 1993. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. b)
Practical English Grammar by A. ISBN 0194313506
Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills.1.

Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Writing. introduction to presentations. Oxford University Press 1986. clarity. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Third Impression 1991. Practical English Grammar by A. 2. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Exercises 2. Reading. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. descriptive and argumentative writing). Reading 1.Recommended books:
Communication Skills a) Grammar 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. narrative. form. Writing. Thomson and A.V. Fourth Impression 1993. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin.J. Writing 1. language.
b)
c)
English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills)
Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking
Course Contents
Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Third edition. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Advanced. 2. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. discursive. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Fourth Impression 1992. Martinet. content. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing
Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building
69
.

Mandell. St.Recommended books:
Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Advanced by Ron White. 3. Martin’s Press. 2. College Writing Skills by John Langan. Kirszner and Stephen R. argumentative and report writing). Compiled by norther Illinois University. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. descriptive. A Custom Publication. Writing. without taxing the taste of engineering students).
b) c)
Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Third Impression 1992. 2004. Kathleen Shine Cain. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education.
70
. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 (particularly suitable for discursive.

Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Study the process of governance. People and Land i. politics. 2. Society and social structure c. contemporary Pakistan. government. 1971-77 d. 1947-58 b. Economic institutions and issues b. national development. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Historical Perspective a. Ethnicity d. 1977-88 e. ideological background of Pakistan. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. Location and geo-physical features. b.
Course Outline
1.Annexure “B”
Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives
• • Develop vision of historical perspective. ii. Contemporary Pakistan a. 1958-71 c. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan 71
. 1999 onward 3. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Indus Civilization Muslim advent
iii. 1988-99 f. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c.

1998. 2. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. 5. Shahid Javed. Vol. Ansar. Amin.
72
. 1976. 10. K. Akbar.The Emergence of Banglades. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. 9. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. 7. Islamabad. Muhammad Waseem. 12. Afzal. S. Lawrence. 1980. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Mehmood. I. 3. 1980. 1967. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. 13. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Zahid.K. 1993. 8. Noor ul. Zaidi. Khalid Bin. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Ethno . Political Parties in Pakistan.M. 1972.National Movement in Pakistan. Politics in Pakistan. Club Road. Burki. 1993. Institute of Public Policy Research. Party. Mehmood. Wilcox. Washington: American Enterprise. Wayne. State & Society in Pakistan. 1994. 1987. Sayeed. Aziz. Haq. Safdar. S. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Safdar. Lahore: Vanguard. Ziring.Books Recommended
1. M. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. 11. Lahore: Idara-eSaqafat-e-Islamia. The Political System of Pakistan. Karachi: Royal Book Company. 14. 2000. Lahore. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 4. II & III.. Tahir. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. 6. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Rafique. nd. Karachi: Oxford University Press. History & Culture of Sindh. Enigma of Political Development.

21.40.58.6.
Detail of Courses Introduction to Quranic Studies
1) Basic Concepts of Quran 2) History of Quran 3) Uloom-ul -Quran
Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran
1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.19.W) in Makkah 73
.20) Related to thinking. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.Tadabar (Verse No1.14)
Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.Annexure “C”
ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives:
This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.W) I
1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154)
Study of Sellected Text of Holly Quran
1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.A.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.56.57.

A.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina
Introduction To Sunnah
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Basic Concepts of Hadith History of Hadith Kinds of Hadith Uloom –ul-Hadith Sunnah & Hadith Legal Position of Sunnah
Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 1) 2) 3) 4) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence Nature of Differences in Islamic Law Islam and Sectarianism Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues
Islamic Culture & Civilization
Islam & Science
1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science
Islamic Economic System
1) 2) 3) 4) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics Islamic Concept of Riba Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce
Political System of Islam
1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 74
.3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah
Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) II
1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.

Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. Bhatia. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. International Islamic University. “Studies in Islamic Law. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University.S. Ahmad Hasan. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. “Emergence of Islam” . IRI. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad.3) Basic Institutions of Govt. Pakistan. in Islam
Islamic History
1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids
Social System of Islam
1) Basic Concepts Of Social System Of Islam 2) Elements Of Family 3) Ethical Values Of Islam
Reference Books:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (2001)
75
.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute.

set operations. types of functions. Sharron S. trigonometric identities. matrix inverse. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. functions. geometric progression. harmonic progression. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. Houghton & Mifflin. introduction to sets. cube roots of unity. Boston
76
.
COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS)
1. Wooton W. 1987. College Algebra and Trigonometry.
Recommended Books:
Dolciani MP.Annexure “D”
Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. determinants. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Mathematics at secondary level 3+0
Prerequisite(s): Credit Hours:
Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Beckenback EF. system of linear equations. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. types. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. complex numbers. not majoring in mathematics.
Course Outline:
Preliminaries: Real-number system. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. 1978. PWS-Kent Company. Cramer’s rule.

New York Stewart J. left-hand and right-hand limits. 1995. 1983. differentiation of polynomial. Davis S. not majoring in mathematics. change of variables in indefinite integrals. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. integration by parts. PWS-Kent Company.Swokowski EW. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. 1986. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. not majoring in mathematics. Calculus (11th edition). solution of equations involving absolute values. Finney AR. Bevens I. rational and transcendental functions. Addison-Wesley. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines.
77
. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). PWS-Kent Company. continuity. John Wiley. 2005. USA 3.
Course Outline:
Preliminaries: Real-number line. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. 2005. derivatives. inequalities. functions and their graphs. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. continuous functions. Reading. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Boston
2. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) Mathematics II (Calculus) 3+0
Prerequisite(s): Credit Hours:
Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Ma.
MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Mathematics I (Algebra) 3+0
Prerequisite(s): Credit Hours:
Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Boston Thomas GB.
Recommended Books:
Anton H. integration by substitution. Calculus (3rd edition).

Boston 4. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). Freshman and Company. various forms of equation of a line. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Analytic Geometry. hyperbola. intersection of two lines. Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. 1986. 1987. equation of a line. Boston Swokowski EW. locus of a point in various conditions.
Objectives
78
. parallel and perpendicular lines. Scott. College Algebra and Trigonometry. 2008 and onward
Title of subject: Discipline : Pre-requisites : Credit Hours : Minimum Contact Hours: Assessment : Effective :
Aims
: :
To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Conic Sections: Parabola. After completion of this course the student should be able to: • • • Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. slope of a line. distance between two points. Circle: Equation of a circle. Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. angle between two lines. distance between a point and a line. circles determined by various conditions. PWS-Kent Company. ellipse. the general-second-degree equation
Recommended Books:
Abraham S. intersection of lines and circles. PWS-Kent Company. 1969 Kaufmann JE.Course Outline:
Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination.

frequency polygon. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. moments. Algebra
: : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. Latest Edition. E. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. types of functions.. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem.. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes.Contents
1. Latest Edition. W. R. types of frequency series. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. 3. array. PWS-Kent Company. bar frequency diagram histogram. trigonometric identities. set operations. J. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. individual. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. nature of roots of quadratic equations. Swokowski. relationship of statistics with social science. Cramer’s rule.. standard deviation. Introduction to sets. Kaufmann. Prentice Hall. deciles and percentiles. inverse of matrices. cumulative frequency curve. determinants. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Graphs: Graph of straight line.. ungrouped and grouped data. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. system of linear equations. skewness and kurtosis. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. R. E. discrete and continuous series. types of matrices. Wilcox. E. 4. geometric and harmonic progressions. circle and trigonometric functions. Walpole. Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. quartiles. equations reducible to quadratic equations. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. R. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Measures of dispersion: Range. characteristics of statistics. Latest Edition. 2. Boston. Statistics :
Books Recommended:
1. variance. 79
. functions.
2. tally sheet method.

Calculus Single and Multivariable. Continuity. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Frank A. 6. implicit differentiation. McCallum. Mathews. the chain rule. theorems of differentiation. 3rd Edition. 1983. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Preliminary calculus. Addison Wesley publishing company. Jhon Willey & Sons.
MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level
Credit Hours: Prerequisites:
Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 5. Rational Functions. 80
. Calculus. H. Inequalities. Integration by Parts. quotients. Equation of a Line. Schaum’s Outline Series. W. Thomas. E. Elliott Mendelson. Second Edition 1992. 3. Calculus.
Course Outline:
Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Swokowski. Inc. 1999. products. Gleason. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Calculus. Least-Squares Line. Inc.5. 4th edition. and Transcendental Functions. Anton. Prentice-Hall. logarithmic differentiation. 8th edition. 2002. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Davis. 11th Edition. Slope of a Line. Trigonometric Functions. 4. 6. special points of a function. Bevens. Leibnitz’ theorem.
Recommended Books:
1. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS
Contents
1. 2005. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Continuous Functions. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Boston. 2.Jr. S. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. 2005. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Hughes-Hallett. et al. John Wiley & Sons. I. John H. Extreme Values of Functions.

geometric series. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • • • • The need for complex numbers Manipulation of complex numbers Additions and subtraction. complex conjugate. series involving natural numbers. logarithmic integration. solving polynomial equations Complex logarithms and complex powers Applications to differentiation and integration
• •
3. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. infinite and improper integrals. arithmetico-geometric series. standard Maclaurin series Evaluation of limits 81
.2. the inverse of differentiation. plane polar coordinates. the difference method. identities of hyperbolic functions. applications of integration. operations with power series Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. inverses of hyperbolic functions. substitution method. solving hyperbolic equations. approximation errors in Taylor series. finding the nth roots of unity. division Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form
and
argument. calculus of hyperbolic functions Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series.
de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities.
• Integration Integration from first principles. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. reduction formulae. modulus multiplication. integral inequalities. alternating series test • • • • Operations with series Power series Convergence of power series. integration using partial fractions.
• Hyperbolic functions Definitions. integration by parts. integration by inspection. sinusoidal function.

mean values of functions Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. masses. equation of a plane Using vectors to find distances Point to line. moments of inertia.
Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints Double integrals Triple integrals Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants 82
. the inner product. Pappus’ theorems. line to plane Reciprocal vectors
5. vector triple product Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. vector product.4. scalar triple product. line to line. Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product.
Multiple integrals • • •
• 6.
Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. point to plane.
Vector algebra • • • • • • • • •
7. centers of mass and centroids.

curl of a vector field Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. of a unitary matrix.
Vector calculus • • • • • • • • •
83
. spherical polar coordinates
• 8. of a general square matrix Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. combinations of grad. divergence of a vector field. Hermitian. symmetric and antisymmetric. div and curl Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. unitary normal Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. differential of a vector Integration of vectors Space curves Vector functions of several arguments Surfaces Scalar and vector fields Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field.• • • • •
The inverse of a matrix The rank of a matrix Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns Special square matrices Diagonal. orthogonal.

Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Collection of primary and secondary data. Unit 5. Histogram. Discrete and continuous variables. Graphs and their Construction. Rounding of a Number. Exercises Unit 6. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Types of frequency curves. Population. Bar charts.Annexure “E”
INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS
Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Moments and Moments ratios. Quantiles. Presentation of Data Introduction. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Significant digits. Editing of Data. Historigram. The semiInter-quartile Range. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Data. Probability and Probability Distributions. Exercises. Coefficient of variation. Change of origin and scale. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Exercises. The Variance and standard deviation. Errors of measurement. Unit 4. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Diagrams. The Mode. definition of outliers and their detection. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. The Mean Deviation. Unit 3. Empirical Relation between Mean. Standardized variables. Sources. Pie chart. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. bias. Absolute and relative measures. Ogive for Discrete Variable. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Unit 2. properties of Good Average. Box and Whisker Plot. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Constructing of a frequency distribution. sampling with and without replacement. Range. Different types of Averages. Observations. Stem and Leaf Display. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Median and mode. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Difference of means and proportions. Exercises. sample design and sampling frame. 84
. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. sampling and non sampling errors. probability and non-probability sampling. Exercises. Exercises.

r and R2. New York. Muhammad. Unit 11. 1982. Inc. simple linear regression. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. cause and effect relationships.
Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Exercises Unit 9. Macmillan Publishing Co. Test statistics.. Statistical problem. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters.Single Population Introduction. 2005. Correlation. R. null and alternative hypothesis. Contingency Tables. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Kitab Markaz. Exercises. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”.Unit 7. acceptance and rejection regions. 3rd Ed. Exercises. F. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. examples. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Unit 8. Coefficient of linear correlation. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. E. level of significance. Testing of Hypothesis. Examples
Recommended Books
1 2 Walpole. “Introduction to Statistics”. Type-I and Type-II errors.. its estimation and interpretation. Exercises Unit 10.
85
. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples.