Presented at Indonesian Aquaculture 2010 BANDAR LAMPUNG, 4 – 6 OKTOBER 2010



Prepared by : The Engineering Leader

( Romi Novriadi )

Approved by :

Engineering Manager

Head of Batam Mariculture Centre Development

( Muh Kadari )

( Dr. Djumbuh Rukmono, MP)

THE COMBINATION OF SEAWEED AND ACTIVE SLUDGE BIOFILTER AS A WATER TREATMENT SUPPLY FACILITIES ON THE FISH REARING TANK By: Romi Novriadi and Muh Kadari Mariculture Centre Development of Batam Jl. Raya Barelang, 3rd Bridges, Setokok-Batam Island PO BOX 60 Sekupang, Batam - 29422 E-mail: ABSTRACT

Biologically, the objectives of Water quality management are to reduce the soluble components, particularly organic compounds until the safety limits of the environment by utilizing microorganisms and / or plants. In order to set aside the dissolved organic matter, the microorganisms will use the organic materials as nutrients for growth into new cells and carbon dioxide. Biotransformation process occurs in a variety of ways according to the microorganisms involved in it, for example the autotrof or heterotrophic microbes type. One of the biofiltration techniques that can be done to produce the optimal water quality for fish rearing media is by doing a combination of active sludge and Seaweed as a biofilter. The usage of activated sludge because of the ability of microbes that live on the sludge substrates can decomposed organic elements, particularly the toxic as NH3 and NO2. while the usage of seaweed because of its absorbent properties, and also can change the carbon dioxide into dissolved oxygen in water, so it is expected other than to produce clear water also has its own freshness for fish. Results of the experiments conducted by the Year 2009 funds shows that the Combination of this biofiltration system Seaweed and active sludge is quite effective to produce the optimal water quality for fish rearing media. NH3 concentration can be reduced up to 80%, and NO2 can be reduced up to 2060%. For the parameters of turbidity and TDS, with this combination Biofilter systems can reduce water turbidity levels up to 75-98% and reduce the amount of total dissolved solids as much as 15-73%. While seaweed has a role to be effective in increasing dissolved oxygen levels up to 24%. Keywords: Biofilter Combination, Sludge, Sea Grass, Water Quality

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I.1 Background The Increasing use of marine coastal areas as aquaculture land In Indonesia allegedly to be the cause of decreased quality of the environment for the provision of quality water for the aquaculture fish life habitat. Deforestation of mangrove forests for fish culture in the floating net cages will stimulate the occurrence of water pollution, because the buffer system in coastal waters will be disturbed. This situation is also exacerbated by the fish feed management and route of administration that is not appropriate. In the provision of quality water, we need to analyse the layout of land that we use for fish culture. According to Romi.N, (2008) this is related to organic waste generated has a complementary relationship with the number of general bacteria in the waters. If waste water is reused for the culture media without going through the filtration system, there will be a separate obstacle for the growth of fish. On the basis of observations made during the year 2009, the presence of bacteria in the culture media are not much different from the presence of bacteria in the waters surrounding the water points. That is why the screening process for the improvement of water quality to be more important. According to Anonymous. 2002, the process of aquaculture wastewater treatment can be done in biologically aerobics, in which the biological waste water treatment is to utilize the aerobic activity of aerobic microbes, to describe the organic substances contained in waste water of cultured fish, to be the inorganic substance that is more stable and has little impact pollution to the surrounding environment. Aerobic microbes actually already there in the nature and can be obtained very easily. Fishery waste water treatment can also be done using the natural materials, one of which is sea weed, because according to Dedi Sofian, 2006, Seaweed able to neutralize the fishery waste water. and naturally, seaweed have a function as a filter of carbon dioxide, which is absorbed and transformed into the oxygen. So, with more number of oxygen contained in the water, then it will provide freshness for fish and other biota Therefore, at this engineering, the writer trying to make a water filtration system that is simple, economical, applicable but effective enough to produce the optimal water quality for fish culture media, through a combination of activated sludge filtration system and seaweed. This simple system can be applied by fish farmers.

I.2 Problems Based on the background that has been presented above, some problems that will be taken at this engineering are: 1. What the percentage of the effectiveness of this Combination biofiltration system between Seaweed and active sludge in reducing the toxic elements such as NH3 and NO2? 2. What the percentage of the effectiveness of this Combination biofiltration system between Seaweed and active sludge in reducing the turbidity and total dissolved solids? 3. How the relevance between activated sludge as a filter of carbon dioxide, which is absorbed and converted into oxygen concentration to the dissolved oxygen in the water? I.3 Hypotesis Suspected that the accumulation of aquaculture activities have caused the degradation of the water quality so it need a filtration system for improving and maintaining the optimization of water quality. I.4 Goal This Engineering aims to: 1. Knowing the effect of this Combination biofiltration system between Seaweed and active sludge as a supply of quality water for the fish culture media. 2. Knowing the influence of this Combination biofiltration system between Seaweed and active sludge in reducing the toxic elements such as Ammonia and Nitrite and reduce the level of turbidity and total dissolved solids in water. 3. To produce the Applied technology that is effective and economical for the fish farmers.

CHAPTER II EXPERIMENT METHODOLOGY II.1 Time and Place The Engineering with the title of Combination biofiltration system between Seaweed and active sludge was held in Batam Mariculture Centre Development, starting from November 1st, 2009 untul 29th December, 2009. II.2 Tool and Material II.2.1 Engineering tool Two tank of fish culture Actived sludge tank culture Sedimentation tank DO meter Oxyguard model HACH DR/890 Colorimeter HANNA C203 Ion Spectrometer Nephelometer Turbidity Unit HANNA TDS Meter UV light COD meter II.2.2 Material of engineering Decomposition bacteria Mix liquor Suspended Solid Seaweed Coral reef Molase Sea bass (Lates calcarifer) Sponge Ammonia salycilate reagen Ammonia cyanurate reagen NitraVer reagen NitriVer reagen Free chlorine reagen PCA (Plate Count Agar) pH Buffer 7.00 pH Buffer 4.00 pH Buffer 10.00 Posphat Low Range Free chlorine reagen for HANNA NaOH 0,1 N HCl 0,1 N KCl 0,2 N CH3COOH 0,5 N Phenolphtalein indicator Metil Orange indicator H2SO4 4 N HNO3 4 N Measurement glass Statif and Klem Beaker glass Petri disk Incubator Oven Hot plate Culture of bacterial tool set Sample bottle Fish culture tool set

II. 3 Procedure a. The Making Stages of Biofilter Tank  Cutting of material used: at this stage the PVC pipes was cut accordance to the requirements of biofilter system.

(a) (b) (c) Figure 1. Cutting the material. (a) the preparation of the oxygen tube that is destined for the activated sludge basin, (b) the prepare of water and aeration systems, and (c) deduction tank for the activated sludge.  Setup: The bacterial culture tank with coral substrate and activated sludge are mounted on the drum and positioned adjacent to the first tank of biofilter system, the First is a sedimentary tank containing sea weed, and the second and the third tank is a culture tank for the test fish (Sea bass Lates calcarifer, Bloch) Sedimentary tank +seaweed Activated sludge drum + Coral reef Tank for test fish

Tank for test fish

The design of Combination biofiltration system between Seaweed and active sludge was illustrated as below :

Sedimentary tank + Seaweed

Tank for test fish

Tank for test fish

b. Bacterial inoculation The Source of decomposition bacterial can be obtained from the nature. The bacteria are available in the sufficient quantities in many places of waste elements decomposition. Such as in the floating net cages area. the remnants of feed is broken down by bacteria found in the base of floating net cages. Bacteria taken by lifting 1 kg sludge from the bottom of cage and then diluted with 1 liter of seawater. Then, This bacteria was added into each compartment of biofilter drum. The addition of sludge was carried out while water continues to flow, so the bacteria will naturally selected. This process is allowed to continue running until the filters can be declared ready for use (Set up). At every 3 days of inoculation were observed on the growth of the number of bacteria produced c. Preparation of activated sludge Drums that cater to the activated sludge, then loaded mud as a substrate and the Inoculate bacteria which has been declared ready for use into the derum. The growth of microorganisms will work well enough if the nutrients available, namely nitrogen and phosphorus that play a role in the synthesis of the cell is proportional to the biodegrable organic material contained in waste water. As the food provided artificial substrate composed of glucose (sugar), in this case is done by giving molasses. This work begins with providing waste water in small amounts, and if the microorganism has been grown, gradually, the amount of wastewater enlarged its comparison to an artificial substrate, until at last only a sheer waste water. To determine whether there is growth of these microorganisms, carried out with the observation of dissolved oxygen. At the time of waste water given, the Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration will go down. After some time aerated, DO will gradually rise, and someday she will return as the original, and it will give the information to us that the assimilation process has been completed and microorganisms have been grown.

d. Preparation of Seaweed Tank The type of seaweed that we used in this engineering is E. Cottoni and inserted into the first tank as well as a sedimentation tank.The Installation of seaweed done in a long line around the tank with rope 150 cm long. e. Installation of UV lights Installation of UV lights aim to reduce the bacteria that entered to the water medium after the activated sludge process which involves a lot of active microorganisms as its main component. Installation of UV lights is right in line where the water enters into the culture media. f. Preparation of Sea bass as fish test To see and evaluate the performance of the Biofilter system combination between activated sludge and seaweed, The fish test was culture in two way, first, in the tank with Biofilter combination and second, without the biofilter as a control of the system. The Commercial feed for fish test given 3 times a day, at the morning, afternoon and evening by adlibithum. To remove the excess dirt, feeding remain and other impurities was carried by cleaning the bottom of tank every evening after completion of feeding. The culture of test fih was conducted for 30 days. g. Test of the filters effectiveness To determine the ability and the effectiveness of this biofilter system combination between activated sludge and seaweed is done by the laboratory testing. The observation was performed by comparing the quality of water that passes through this biofilter combination and to the control water (without pass the biofilter system). The parameters observed include: NH3, NO2 NO3, turbidity, BOD and COD. Observations made during one month from 25th November 2009 to December 28th, 2009.

CHAPTER III RESULTS AND DISCUSSION III.1 Result 1. Graphic of inoculation bacterial growth (with molase)
Grafik Pertumbuhan Bakteri Inokulasi 1200 Jumlah Bakteri (TBU) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1 2 3 4 Sampling KeGrafik Pertumbuhan Bakteri Inokulasi

Note : The number of general bacterial multiple with102 CFU/ml 2. Result of Turbidity and TDS analysis TEST RESULT Date of After through the biofilter Without Biofilter (control) Analysis Turbidity TDS Turbidity TDS (NTU) (mg/l) (NTU) (mg/l) 08 November 0,49 31.2 0.49 31,5 15 November 0,15 27,9 0,42 32,3 22 November 0,02 8,4 0.38 31,4 29 November 0,01 8.4 0,51 30,2 05 December 0,02 9,1 0,56 30,3 11 December 0,02 8,7 0,59 30,6 16 December 0,01 8,3 0,54 32,8 22 December 0,02 8,4 0,43 32,1

Graphic of Turbidity
0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 8. nov 15.Nov 22.Nov 29.Nov 5.des 11.des 16.des 22.des 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Graphic of TDS

Turbidity (NTU)

TDS (mg/l))

Turbidity after pass the biofilter control

TDS after pass the biofilter" control

Date of analysis

8. nov 15.Nov 22.Nov 29.Nov 5.des 11.des 16.des 22.des Date of analysis

Hasil Analisa Kadar Ammonia dan Nitrit pada air input media pemeliharaan HASIL UJI TEST RESULT After through the biofilter Without Biofilter (control) NH3 NO2 NH3 NO2 (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) 0.13 0,07 0,13 0,07 0.08 0,06 0,11 0,06 0,01 0,06 0,11 0,06 -0,05 0,09 0,06 0,01 0,04 0,11 0,05 -0,01 0,14 0,06 -0,01 0,09 0,07 -0,01 0,12 0,07

Date of Analysis

08 November 15 November 22 November 29 November 05 December 11 December 16 December 22 December

Graphic of NH3 (ammonia)
0.16 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0
8 .n o 1 v 5N .o 2 v 2N .o 2 v 9N .o 5dv .e 1 s 1d .e 1 s 6d .e 2 s 2d .e s

Graphic of NO2 (Nitrit)
0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0

NH3 (mg/l))

NH3 after pass the biofilter""" control

NO2 (mg/l))

NO2 after pass the biofilter""""""" control

Date of analysis

Dissolved oxygen at culture tank analysis Hasil Analisa Date of Oksigen Terlarut Analysis (mg/l) After through the biofilter 5,0 5,7 6,4 6,9 6,5 6,7 6,9 6,8 Without Biofilter (control) 5,1 4,9 5,4 5,0 5,2 5,3 4,7 4,9
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

8 .n o 1 v 5N .o 2 v 2N .o 2 v 9N .o 5dv .e 1 s 1d .e 1 s 6d .e 2 s 2d .e s
Date of analysis

Graphic of Dissolved oxygen (DO)

08 November 15 November 22 November 29 November 05 December 11 December 16 December 22 December

8 .n o 1 v 5.N o 2 v 2.N o 2 v 9.N o v 5d .e s 1 1.d e 1 s 6.d e 2 s 2.d es
Date of analysis


DO after pass the biofilter"""""""""""""" " control

The comparation of Total Number of General bacterial (TBU) between after and before through the UV light

Perbandingan TBU sebelum dan sesudah UV
300 Jumlah TBU (x100) 250 200 150 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Sampling KeTBU Sebelum UV TBU setelah UV

IV.2 Discussion From the results of experiments it was found that the inoculated bacteria in activated sludge substrates had been developed. On the fourth day of sampling, the total number of bacteria produced was 9.7x106 CFU/ml. This number may be used temporarily as an indicator that the filter is ready for use. This situation is also correlated with a reduction of NH3 and NO2 concentration. The concentration of NH3 in the water filtration system results in the range: 0.01 to 0.13 mg / l, while the water control, the NH3 are between: 0.09 to 0.14 mg / l. This means this biofilter combination system can reduce the NH3 concentration until 80%. The fall of this ammonia levels, probably caused by the oxidation of ammonia to the nitrate elements which is done by Nitrosomonas bacteria that grow on the sludge media in the filtration system. Meanwhile for NO2, the concentration resulting in water with this filtration system was also down, although only slightly, which is in range: 0.01 to 0.07 mg / l, compared with control water, which have concentrations of NO2 from 0.05 to 0, 07 mg / l. Nitrite in biological filtration system will be transformed by Nitrobacter bacteria into nitrates element, and then in inaerobic conditions it will converted into the nitrogen (Coklin and Chang, 1983).

For the turbidity and Total Dissolved Solid parameter in the water, they have significant reduction. This is probably due to the function of material that we used in this biofilter combination, they are activated sludge and seaweed. This biofilter system result the Turbidity concentration between 0.01 to 0.15 mg/l, while the turbidity concentration of control water are : 0,38 to 0,59 mg / l. This means there is 75 – 98% reduction of turbidity in the water with this biofilter system. For the TDS (Total Dissolved Solid) concentration. The number of TDS in water that pass this biofilter system combination are from 8.3 to 27.9 mg / l while on the control water control are 30.2 to 32.8 mg/l. It means that the reduction of TDS concentration is as much as 15-73%. Associated with the presence of seaweed as an natural filters in the sedimentation tank, where the seaweed, naturally have a function as a filter of carbon dioxide, which are absorbed and converted into the oxygen element. So the measurement of dissolved oxygen concentrations was done at the fish culture tank with the combination biofilter system and control. The result showed that DO levels that exist in the fish culture tanks with filtration system are 5.0 to 6.9 mg/l, while the DO concentration at control tank were 4.7 to 5.3 mg/l. Filter with the combination of activated sludge and seaweed can be operationalized for 6 (six) months. And after that the materials that we used at this biofilters system should be cleaned. Some benefits of this combination Biofilter systems include: 1. Guarantee obtaining a good water quality for fish culture tank 2. Economical, Efficient and Effective in producing high water quality 3. Easily applied by fish farmers

CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION V.1 Conclusions 1. This combination Biofilter system between activated sludge and seaweed is quite effective in reducing of toxic elements such as NH3 and NO2, in which the ammonia concentration was reduced until 80%, while for the levels of NO2 was reduced up to 20-60%. 2. This combination Biofilter system between activated sludge and seaweed is quite effective in improving the clarity of water, because it can reduce the turbidity levels up to 75-98%., and reduce the amount of total dissolved solids between 15 to 73%. 3. Seaweed as a filter which is placed in the sedimentation tank through its function can play an active role in improving of dissolved oxygen concentration up to 24%. 4. This combination Biofilter system between activated sludge and seaweed is quite economical, efficient, effective and can be applied directly by the fish farmers V.2 Suggestion 1. Need to do further study on the effectiveness of seaweed in absorption of heavy metals that dissolved in the water. 2. Observations on the effectiveness of combination Biofilter between activated sludge and seaweed can also be undertaken in a long time periode. In order to know the exact impact and benefits from this system.

LITERATURE Anonim. Limbah. Anonim.Pencemaran. N/info_5_1_0604/isi_5.htm Anonim, 2008, Laporan Bulanan Kesehatan Ikan dan Lingkungan, Balai Budidaya Laut Batam, Kepulauan Riau. Anonim. 2008. Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah (IPAL). Anonim. 2002. Membangun Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah. Bapedal 1995. Teknologi Pengendalian Dampak Lingkungan Industri Penyamakan Kulit.. Jakarta. Bishalf, W. 1993. Abwasser Technik. B. G. Teuber, Stuttgart. Koesoebiono. 1984. Industri Tapioka Penanganan Limbah Cair dan Padat. Makalah pada Lokakarya Pemanfaatan Limbah Industri Tapioka, Bogor, 19-20 Juli 1984. Gaudy, A.Fand Gaudy, E. T, Microbiology for Environmental Scientist and Engineers, Mc. Graw Hill,1980. Hutagalung, Michael. 2007. Teknologi Pengolahan Sampah. Loehr, R.C. 1974. Agricultural Waste Management. Academic Press, New York Metcalf and Eddy. 1991. Waste Water Engineering. P ed. McGraw-Mll, Inc. New York Novriadi, R, 2009, Optimalisasi Kualitas Air Melalui Sistem Filterisasi Cartridge Anion Kation dan Lampu UV Terintegrasi, Balai Budidaya Laut Batam, Kepulauan Riau. Nathanson, J. A. 1997. Basic Environmental Technology 2nd ed. Prentica Hall, Ohio. Rydin,S. 1996. Research Needs for the European Lether Industry. European Workshop on Environmental Technology. Copenhagen, 13-15 November 1996. Subagyo, Ir, MSc. 2008. Biological Unit Process. Materi Kuliah Pengolahan Air Limbah Jurusan Ilmu Kelautan Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Diponegoro Semarang. Sugiharto. 1987. Dasar-dasar Pengolahan Air Limbah. UI Press, Jakarta. Sudrajat Y, dan Gunawan B, 2002, Sistem Bakteriofiltrasi Sebagai Sarana Pasokan Air Pada Penampungan Ikan Hidup, Buletin Teknik Pertanian, Volume VII, Jakarta Webster, T.S, ad Devinny, J.S. 1996. Biofiltrasi of Odors, Toxic and Volatile Organic Compounds from Publicity Owned Treatment Works, Env. Progress, Vol. 15, No. 3, P. 141-147. Wenas, R.I.F, Sunaryo, dan Styasmi, S. 2002. Comperative Study on Characteristics of Tannery, "Kerupuk Kulit", "Tahu-Tempe" and Tapioca Waste Water and the Altemative of Treatment. Environmental Technology. Ad. Manag. Seminar, Bandung, January 9-10, 2003 p. Pos 5-1 - pos 5-8.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful