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Communications in India
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The Indian telecommunications industry is the world's fastest growing telecommunications industry,
with 706.37 Million telephone (landlines and mobile) subscribers and 670.60 Million mobile phone
connections as of Aug2010  It is also the second largest telecommunication network in the world in terms of number of wireless connections after China. The Indian Mobile subscriber base has increased in size by a factor of more than one-hundred since 2001 when the number of subscribers in the country was approximately 5 million to 670.60 Million in Aug 2010. As the fastest growing telecommunications industry in the world, it is projected that India will have 1.159 billion mobile subscribers by 2013. Furthermore, projections by several leading global consultancies indicate that the total number of subscribers in India will exceed the total subscriber count in the China by 2013. The industry is expected to reach a size of 344,921 crore (US$ 78.3 billion) by 2012 at a growth rate of over 26 per cent, and generate employment opportunities for about 10 million people during the same period.According to analysts, the sector would create direct employment for 2.8 million people and for 7 million indirectly. In 2008-09 the overall telecom equipments revenue in India stood at 136,833 crore (US$ 31.06 billion) during the fiscal, as against 115,382 crore (US$ 26.19 billion) a year before.
1 Modern growth 2 History
○ ○ ○
2.1 Introduction of telegraph 2.2 Introduction of the telephone 2.3 Further developments
2.3.1 Indian telecom sector: recent policies
3 Emergence as a major player
3.1 Privatization of telcommunications in India 3.2 Telecommunications Regulatory Environment in India
4 Revenue and growth 5 Telephone
○ ○ •
5.1 Mobile telephones 5.2 Landlines
6.1 Low Speed Broadband (256 kbit/s - 2 mbit/s)
○ ○ • • • •
6.2 High Speed Broadband (over 2 Mbit/s) 6.3 Statistics
7 Broadcasting 8 Next generation networks 9 Mobile Number Portability (MNP) 10 International
○ • •
10.1 Submarine cables
11 Telecom Training in India 12 See also
rural India outpaced urban India in mobile growth rate. belonged .Bharti Airtel. the history of Indian telecom can be started with the introduction of telegraph. Idea Cellular. Bharti Airtel now is the largest telecom company in India. Aircel and Loop Mobile have entered the space. at that time. India's mobile phone market is the fastest growing in the world. The popular meaning of telecom always involveselectrical signals and nowadays people exclude postal or any other raw telecommunication methods from its meaning. who pioneered telegraph andtelephone in India.Information note to the Press (Press Release No. companies such as Vodafone. Tata Indicom. CDMA & WLL (F)) base is more than 652. it was opened for the British East India Company. 61 / 2007). The total wireless subscribers (GSM. and a rise in consumers' income and spending owing to strong economic growth have helped make India the fastest-growing telecom market in the world. In 1851. The wireline segment subscriber base stood at 35. BSNL was created by corporatization of the erstwhile DTS Department of Telecommunication Services. Introduction of telegraph The postal and telecom sectors had a slow and uneasy start in India. a government unit responsible for provision of telephony services. Telecom Regulatory Authority of India. History Telecom in the real sense means transfer of information between two distant points in space. In 1850. Mumbai (Bombay) through Sindwa Ghats. The total number of telephones in the country crossed the 688. and Chennai in the south.400 km) of telegraph lines connecting Kolkata (Calcutta) and Peshawar in the north along with Agra. low telephony penetration levels. Therefore. The overall tele-density has increased to 58. Subsequently. 19 million subscribers have been added in July 2010. The first operator is the state-owned incumbent BSNL. 20 July 2010 In the wireless segment.000 miles (6. as well as Ootacamund and Bangalore was started in November 1853. see major operators in India. In 2008-09.42 million now. after the telecommunication policies were revised to allow private operators.96 million with a decline of 0. The Posts and Telegraphs department occupied a small corner of the Public Works Department. 2010. with companies adding some 20.22 million in July 2010.31 million new customers in March 2010. the first experimental electric telegraph Line was started between Kolkata and Diamond Harbor.38 million mark in July 31. Construction of 4.• • 13 References 14 External links Modern growth A large population.17% in July 2010. Dr. William O'Shaughnessy.
The permission was refused on the grounds that the establishment of telephones was a Government monopoly and that the Government itself would undertake the work. 1913-1914 . 1902 . Member of the Governor General of India's Council declared open the Telephone Exchanges in Calcutta. A separate department was opened in 1854 when telegraph facilities were opened to the public. . 1907 .First Central Battery of telephones introduced in Kanpur. In 1881. The exchange in Calcutta named "Central Exchange" was opened at third floor of the building at 7. He worked towards the development of telecom throughout this period. 28 January 1882. Bombay also witnessed the opening of Telephone Exchange in 1882. two telephone companies namely The Oriental Telephone Company Ltd. Further developments BSNL Microwave Tower Mangalore. the Government later reversed its earlier decision and a licence was granted to the Oriental Telephone Company Limited of England for opening telephone exchanges atCalcutta. The Central Telephone Exchange had 93 number of subscribers.First wireless telegraph station established between Sagar Islands and Sandheads. Madras and Ahmedabad and the first formal telephone service was established in the country.to the Public Works Department. On this day Major E. Introduction of the telephone In 1880. Council House Street. approached the Government of India to establish telephone exchanges in India.First Automatic Exchange installed in Shimla. Baring. is aRed Letter Day in the history of telephone in India. Bombay. Bombay and Madras. and The Anglo-Indian Telephone Company Ltd.
inaugurated by Lord Irwin by exchanging greetings with King George V.First digital microwave junction introduced. Indian telecom sector: recent policies All the villages shall be covered by telecom facility by the end of 2002. 23 July 1927 . as for example introduction of the telex service in Mumbai in 1953 and commissioning of the first [subscriber trunk dialing] route between Delhi and Kanpur and between Lucknow and Kanpur in 1960.P.First PCM system commissioned between Mumbai City and Andheri telephone exchanges. 1985 . While certain innovative steps were taken from time to time.15 million in 1981 and 5. While all the major cities and towns in the country were linked with telephones during the British period. Even after independence.C-DOT established for indigenous development and production of digital exchanges. 1933 . He brought in a whiff of fresh air.First mobile telephone service started on non-commercial basis in Delhi.07 million in 1991. 1983 . 1980 . growth was extremely slow. 1960 . A. The real transformation in scenario came with the announcement of the National Telecom Policy in 1994. 1984 ..First satellite earth station for domestic communications established at Secunderabad. the total number of telephones in 1948 was only around 80. The number of telephones grew leisurely to 980.000. The telephone was a status symbol rather than being an instrument of utility. the year economic reforms were initiated in the country.First optical fibre system for local junction commissioned at Pune.First subscriber trunk dialing route commissioned between Lucknow and Kanpur. 1976 . the first waves of change were set going by Sam Pitroda in the eighties.Radiotelephone system inaugurated between the UK and India.12 channel carrier system introduced. .000 in 1971.Radio-telegraph system between the UK and India. with Imperial Wireless Chain beam stations at Khadki and Daund.First analog Stored Program Control exchange for trunk lines commissioned at Mumbai. 1953 . 1979 . 2. 1975 .
Voice Mail/ Audiotex/ Unified Messaging Service. Policies allowing private participation have been announced as per the New Telecom Policy (NTP). one each in four metros and thirteen circles. The Communication Convergence Bill 2001introduced in the Parliament on August 31. VSNL and HTL have been disinvested. Two categories of infrastructure providers have been allowed to provide end-to-end bandwidth and dark fiber. fourth cellular operator. National Long Distance Service (NLD) is opened for unrestricted entry. The International Long Distance Services (ILDS) have been opened to competition. Wireless in Local Loop (WLL) has been introduced for providing telephone connections in urban. In addition to the existing three. towers. semi-urban and rural areas promptly. Steps are being taken to fulfill Universal Service Obligation (USO). Two telecom PSUs. has been permitted. including circuit and/or package switches that meet certain required standards. The cellular operators have been permitted to provide all types of mobile services including voice and non-voice messages. both Satellite and Landing stations for submarine optical fiber cables. Multiple Fixed Service Providers (FSPs) licensing guidelines were announced. A decision to permit Community Phone Service has been announced. which include Global Mobile Personal Communication by Satellite (GMPCS) Service. 1999 in several new services. its funding and administration. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) have been allowed to set up International Internet Gateways. The basic services are open to competition. right of way. . digital Public Mobile Radio Trunked Service (PMRTS). 2001 is presently before the Standing Committee of Parliament on Telecom and IT. duct space etc. data services and PCOs utilizing any type of network equipment.
as a major player In 1975. The demand for telephones was ever increasing. Many technological developments took place in this regime but still foreign players were not allowed to participate in the telecommunications business. She invited Sam Pitroda a US based NRI to set up a Center for Development of Telematics(C-DOT). Idea etc. and such a majority was difficult to obtain. Foreign firms were eligible to 49% of the total stake. many public sector organizations were set up like the Department of Telecommunications (DoT) . it became necessary to separate the Government's policy wing from its operations wing. Loop Mobile. Many private operators. Tata Indicom. Due to this political background it was very difficult to bring about liberalization in telecommunications.000 lines per year. The Government of India corporatised the operations wing of DoT on 1 October 2000 and named it as Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL). DoT was responsible for telecom services in entire country until 1985 when Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) was carved out of DoT to run the telecom services of Delhi and Mumbai. It was during this period that the Narsimha Rao-led government introduced the national telecommunications policy [NTP] in 1994 which brought changes in the following areas: ownership. in an effort to set up 5. When a bill was in parliament a majority vote had to be passed. During this period. successfully entered the high potential Indian telecom market. the Department of Telecom (DoT) was separated from P&T. Emergence Guidelines have been issued by the Government to open up Internet telephony (IP). service and regulation of telecommunications infrastructure. and not policy making. Vodafone. given to the number of parties having different ideologies.000. after the assassination of Indira Gandhi. But soon the policy was let down because of political opposition. however the plan failed due to political reasons. VSNL and MTNL. Some of them were willing to throw open the market to foreign players (the centrists) and others wanted the government to regulate infrastructure and restrict the involvement of foreign players. They were also successful in establishing joint ventures between state owned telecom companies and international players. Privatization of telcommunications in India The Indian government was composed of many factions (parties) which had different ideologies. under the leadership of Rajiv Gandhi. The multi-nationals were just involved in technology transfer. . Liberalization started in 1981 when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi signed contracts with Alcatel CIT of France to merge with the state owned Telecom Company (ITI). But still complete ownership of facilities was restricted only to the government owned organizations. such asReliance Communications. In 1990s the telecom sector was opened up by the Government for private investment as a part of Liberalisation-Privatization-Globalization policy.. Therefore. Airtel.
the government did face oppositions from ITI. They split DoT in two.During this period. In March 2008 the total GSM and CDMA mobile subscriber base in the country was 375 million. The proposal of raising the stake of foreign investors from 49% to 74% was rejected by the opposite political party and leftist thinkers. These circles were divided into category A. the government became more liberal in making policies and issuing licenses to private operators. The DoT opposed this. MTNL. This was a gateway to many foreign investors to get entry into the Indian Telecom Markets. The government threw open the bids to one private company per circle along with government owned DoT per circle. However. B and C depending on the value of the revenue in each circle. After March 2000. Finally in April 2002.5 millions. During all these improvements. Domestic business groups wanted the government to privatize VSNL. but they managed to keep away from all the hurdles. The political powers changed in 1999 and the new government under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee was more pro-reforms and introduced better liberalization policies. Nearly 32 million handsets were sold in India.05 to 0. 5–6 years the average monthly subscribers additions were around 0. after a number of proactive initiatives were taken by . TATA finally took 25% stake in VSNL. Mobile network operators therefore planned to suspend the usage of around 30 million mobile phones (about 8 % of all mobiles in the country) by 30 April. As the unbranded Chinese cell phones which do not have International Mobile Equipment Identity(IMEI) numbers pose a serious security risk to the country. For cellular service two service providers were allowed per circle and a 15 years license was given to each provider. The Rao run government instead liberalized the local services. taking the opposite political parties into confidence and assuring foreign involvement in the long distance business after 5 years. which represented a nearly 50% growth when compared with previous year. After 1995 the government set up TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) which reduced the interference of Government in deciding tariffs and policy making. the service fees finally reduced and the call costs were cut greatly enabling every common middle class family in India to afford a cell phone. The country was divided into 20 telecommunication circles for basic telephony and 18 circles for mobile services. and to enable competition in the long distance carrier business which would help reduce tariff's and better the economy of the country. the World Bank and ITU had advised the Indian Government to liberalize long distance services in order to release the monopoly of the state owned DoT and VSNL. The government further reduced license fees for cellular service providers and increased the allowable stake to 74% for foreign companies. DoT. the government decided to cut its stake of 53% to 26% in VSNL and to throw it open for sale to private enterprises.1 million only and the total mobile subscribers base in December 2002 stood at 10. Because of all these factors. The data reveals the real potential for growth of the Indian mobile market.one policy maker and the other service provider (DTS) which was later renamed as BSNL. VSNL and other labor unions.
regulators and licensors. provides insight into how conducive the environment is for further development and progress. which summarizes stakeholders’ perception on certain TRE dimensions. Thailand. for the fixed. The most recent survey was conducted in July 2008 in eight Asian countries. mobile and broadband sectors. The results for India. and the Philippines. A new mobile connection can be activated with a monthly commitment of US$0. Telecommunications Regulatory Environment in India LIRNEasia's Telecommunications Regulatory Environment (TRE) index. In addition to landline and mobile phones. The low penetration of broadband of mere 3. some of the companies also provide the WLL service. Indonesia. Revenue and growth .15 only. The mobile tariffs in India have also become lowest in the world. The broadband sector has the lowest score in the aggregate. Market entry also scores well for the mobile sector as competition is well entrenched with most of the circles with 4-5 mobile service providers. The tool measured seven dimensions: i) market entry. The companies reported to be affected by this are Huawei Technologies and ZTE. A series of attacks on Indian government websitesand computer networks by suspected Chinese hackers has also made Indian regulators suspicious with regards to the import of potentially sensitive equipment from China. iii) interconnection.87 against the policy objective of 9 million at then end of 2007 clearly indicates that the regulatory environment is not very conducive. ii) access to scarce resources. vii) quality of service. India. Maldives. the Government was also reported to be blocking Indian service providers from purchasing Chinese mobile technology citing concerns that Chinese hackers could compromise the Indian telecommunications network during times of national emergency. and vi) universal services. iv) tariff regulation. the Government of India banned the import of several mobile phones manufactured in China citing concerns over quality and the lack of IMEI's which make it difficult for authorities in India to track the sale and use of such phones. The fixed and mobile sectors have the highest scores for Tariff Regulation. In April 2010. including Bangladesh. point out to the fact that the stakeholders perceive the TRE to be most conducive for the mobile sector followed by fixed and then broadband. v) anti-competitive practices. Other than for Access to Scarce Resources the fixed sector lags behind the mobile sector. India has opted for the use of both the GSM (global system for mobile communications) and CDMA (code-division multiple access)technologies in the mobile sector. In 2005 alone additions increased to around 2 million per month in the year 2003-04 and 2004-05. the total number of mobile subscribers has increased greatly to 617 million subscribers as of May 2010. Sri Lanka. Pakistan. In June 2009.
96 million (July 2010) Cell phones: 652.35 million were broadband connections. Telecommunication is the lifeline of the rapidly growing Information Technology industry.38 million (July 2010)  Land Lines: 35.25 million (Jan-Dec 2009) Monthly Cell phone Addition: 16.e. 84% of population by 2012. The value added services (VAS) market within the mobile industry in India has the potential to grow from US$500 million in 2006 to a whopping US$10 billion by 2009. will be connected.674 crore (US$ 16.831 crore (US$ 40. which have not yet been provided with a Village Public Telephone (VPT).720 crore (US$ 19. For long distance calls. the area code prefixed with a zero is dialed first which is then followed by the number (i. The total investment in the telecom services sector reached 200. up from 178.3 million in December 2004.92 million (July 2010)  Teledensity: 58. registering a growth of 21%. It is difficult to ascertain fully the employment potential of the telecom sector but the enormity of the opportunities can be gauged from the fact that there were 3.17% (July 2010)  Projected Teledensity: 1 billion.6 billion) in the previous fiscal. For international calls. Telephone On landlines. "00" must be dialed first followed by the country code.5 billion) in 2005-06.3 billion) in 2004-2005. To call Delhi. 011 would be dialed first followed by the phone number). The country code for India is 91.660 crore (US$ 45. area code and local phone number. However doubts have been raised about what it would mean for the poor in the country. Mobile telephones .7 million Public Call Offices in December 2005 up from 2. intra-circle calls are considered local calls while inter-circle are considered long distance calls. Out of this 1.The total revenue in the telecom service sector was 86.42 million (July 2010)  Yearly Cell phone Addition: 178. More than a billion people use the internet globally. Internet subscriber base has risen to 6.7 billion) in 2005-06 as against 71. Currently Government is working to integrate the whole country in one telecom circle. Under the Bharat Nirman Programme. Telephone Subscribers (Wireless and Landline): 688.822 revenue villages in the country.94 million in 2005-2006. the Government of India will ensure that 66.
The country is divided into multiple zones. Reliance Infocomm. The dominant players areAirtel. The rates are supposed to go down further with new measures to be taken by the Information Ministry. India primarily follows the GSM mobile system. the Mobile telecommunications system in India is the second largest in the world and it was thrown open to private players in the 1990s. Competition has caused prices to drop and calls across India are one of the cheapest in the world. in the 900 MHz band. from 5 million subscribers in 2001 to over 650 million subscribers as of July 2010  (a period of less than 9 years) . called circles (roughly along state boundaries). with operations in only a few states. Recent operators also operate in the 1800 MHz band.See also: List of mobile network operators of India With a subscriber base of more than 650 million. In September 2004. There are many smaller players. Government and several private players run local and long distance telephone services. Idea cellular and BSNL/MTNL. India is divided into 23 telecom circles. International roaming agreements exist between most operators and many foreign carriers. Vodafone. The mobile subscriber base has grown by a factor of over a hundred and thirty. the number of mobile phone connections crossed the number of fixed-line connections and presently dwarfs the wireline segment by a ratio of around 20:1. They are listed below: Assam Andhra Pradesh Bihar & Jharkhand Chennai Delhi & NCR Gujarat & Daman & Diu Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Karnataka Kerala & Lakshadweep Kolkata Madhya Pradesh & Chhattisgarh Maharashtra (excluding Mumbai) & Goa Mumbai .
798 70. North Eastern States (Arunachal Pradesh.582.220 851.37% 6.45% 1.947. Andaman & Nicobar Islands & Sikkim The following table gives details regarding the subscriber base of each Mobile Service Provider in India as of 31 July 2010 Operator Bharti Airtel MTNL BSNL Aircel Sistema Loop Unitech Idea Etisalat Videocon Stel Tata Teleservices HFCL Infotel Vodafone All India Subscriber base 139.185.13% 17.307 78.31% 17.882 5.688 Mobile phones per 1000 population 427 707 .288 6.260 652.777.005% 0.444 73.351.465.851 Population (01/08/2010)  199.220.396 1.255.748.023 2. & Tripura) Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu excluding Chennai & Puducherry Eastern Uttar Pradesh Western Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand West Bengal (excluding Kolkata). Kolkata and Chennai in their respective states) with the largest subscriber base as of July 2010 is given below State Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra Subscriber base  85.798 Market Share  21.936 30.683 2.05% 10.34% 0.84% 0.781.873.831 A list of ten states (including the metros Mumbai.850.992 110.887 111.64% 0. Nagaland.43% 0.47% 0.420.315.08% 100% Reliance Communications 113.296. Mizoram.448 43.423.043 74. Meghalaya.020.86% 0.81% 11.659 5.22% 11. Manipur.415.
441 Landlines Until recently.798 67. even in high density urban areas.362.294 58.313 1.083.449.969.446.172 36.611 84.427 Madhya Pradesh 35.102 72.152. The breakup of wireline subscriber base in India as of September 2009 is given below Operator Subscriber base BSNL 28.163 36.097.388.241.468 41.709. landlines are facing stiff competition from cellular operators.237 Tata Teleservices 1.391.454 Bharti Airtel 2.720 652. This has forced landline service providers to become more efficient and improve their quality of service.420.928.181 .Tamil Nadu West Bengal Bihar Karnataka Gujarat Rajasthan India 59.188.254 Reliance Communications 1.088.773.261 HFCL Infotel 165. Landline connections are now also available on demand. Due to the rapid growth of the cellular phone industry in India.978 Teleservices Ltd 95.514.849 97. only the Government-owned BSNL and MTNL were allowed to provide landline phone services through copper wire in India withMTNL operating in Delhi and Mumbai and BSNL servicing all other areas of the country.898.708 47. the primary focus of their business is on the mobile-phone sector.003.351 881 600 520 430 709 618 535 489 549 Andhra Pradesh 50.969 MTNL 3.625 67.069 90.783.524.259 41.507.027 58.804. Private operators such as Touchtel and Tata Teleservices have entered the market however.560.
225 2. India has 9.049 2. many with their own local loop and gateway infrastructures.306.477.296 2. As of January 2010.2 mbit/s) The current definition of Broadband in India is speeds of 256 kbit/s. Internet penetration in India is one of the lowest in the world which is about 7.620. total broadband connections in the country have reached 9. which has been known to impose censorship on some websites.729 3.24 million broadband users comprising of 6.490.0% of the population.912 3. compared to other nations like United States.534. Broadband in India is more expensive as compared to Western Europe/United Kingdom and United States.751. South Korea and France.211 2.996.755 Internet The total subscriber base for internet users in India is 81 million as of 2009.24 million.253 Andhra Pradesh 2. Japan or South Korea where internet penetration is significantly higher than in India. many private ISPs have entered the market. The telecom services market is regulated by the TRAI and the DoT. At the end of January 2010. TRAI on July 2009 has recommended raising this limit to 2 Mbit/s. India ranks one of the lowest provider of broadband speed as compared countries such as Japan.0% of the population. Kolkata and Chennai in their respective states) with largest subscriber base as of September 2009 is given below State Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Kerala Uttar Pradesh Karnataka Delhi West Bengal Subscriber base 5. .All India 37.334 The list of eight states (including the metros Mumbai. The number of broadband connections in India have seen a continuous growth since the beginning of 2006.803. After economic liberalization in 1992.632. See also: List of ISPs in India See also: Internet censorship in India Low Speed Broadband (256 kbit/s .
 Tata Indicom offers 10 Mbit/s. However. MTNL offers VDSL at speeds up to 20 Mbit/s in selected areas. many non-resident Indians are now enjoying the ability to communicate with family in India from around the world. Honesty Net Solutions offers Broadband over Cable at up to 4 Mbit/s. with an Internal network speed of 1 Gbit/s. 20 Mbit/s and 100 Mbit/s options under the "Lightning Plus" tariffs structure/ Tikona Digital Networks Wireless Broadband service which is powered by OFDM and MIMO 4th Generation(4G) technologies with 2 Mbit/s  See also: List of ISPs in India O-Zone Networks Private Limited Pan-India public Wi-Fi hotspot provider giving wireless broadband up to 2 Mb/s. High Speed Broadband (over 2 Mbit/s) Airtel has launched plans up to 16 Mbit/s on ADSL2+ enabled lines and is piloting new 30 Mbit/s and 50 Mbit/s plans in limited areas. Beam Telecom offers plans up to 6 Mbit/s for home users and has 20 Mbit/s plans available for power users in only Hyderabad city. The main problem consumers face with High Speed Broadband in India is that they are frequently expensive and/or they have limited amounts of data transfer included in the plan. Statistics Internet Service Providers (ISPs) & Hosts: 86.some even failing to meet the 256 kbit/s standards.571 (2004) Source: CIA World FactBook Country code (Top-level domain): IN . Hayai Broadband will offer FTTH services up to 100 Mbit/s. BSNL offers ADSL up to 8 Mbit/s in many cities. also provides bandwidth at astonishing speed of 155 Mbit/s . thus making it the fastest ISP in India/  Reliance Communications offers 10 Mbit/s and 20 Mbit/s broadband internet services in selected areas.Because of the increase in Broadband penetration and the quality of service steadily improving. many consumers complain that ISPs still fail to provide the advertised speeds .
Some of the notable ones are Aaj Tak (meansTill Today. viewership grew. Radio broadcast stations: AM 153. FM 91. Initially restricted to music and entertainment channels. which led to an explosion of viewership and channels. many current affairs and news channels sprouted. shortwave 68 (1998) Radios: 116 million (1997) Television terrestrial broadcast stations: 562 (of which 82 stations have 1 kW or greater power and 480 stations have less than 1 kW of power) (1997) Televisions: 110 million (2006) In India. becoming immensely popular because of the alternative viewpoint they offered compared to Doordarshan. initially run . giving rise to several channels in regional languages and many in the national language. Hindi. run by the India Today group) and STAR News.Mangalore. The main news channels available were CNN and BBC World. There are no regulations against ownership of satellite dish antennas. or operation of cable television systems.Broadcasting Main article: Media of India AIR FM Tower at Kadri. Darshan = Vision) is allowed to broadcast terrestrial television signals. Times Now. It initially had one major National channel (DD National) and a Metro channel in some of the larger cities (also known as DD Metro). only the government owned Doordarshan (Door = Distant = Tele. led by the Star TV group and Zee TV. CNN-IBN. In the late 1990s. Satellite/Cable television took off during the first Gulf War with CNN.
an attractive solution appears to be one which offers multiple service facility at low costs. As a result. it would be impossible to identify whether the next generation network is a fixed or mobile network and the wireless access broadband would be used both for fixed and mobile services.000 miles) of optical fibres has been laid in India by the major operators. Fibre network can be easily converted to Next Generation network and then used for delivering multiple services at cheap cost. 2009 in Metros & category ‘A’ service areas and by March 20. Mobile Number Portability (MNP) allows users to retain their numbers. BSNL alone.000 route kilometers (419. This restriction is set in place to keep a check on exploitation of MNP services provided by the service providers.000 Telephone Exchanges out of their 36 Exchanges. Mobile Number Portability (MNP) Number portability: TRAI announced the rules and regulations to be followed for the Mobile Number Portability in their draft release on 23 September 2009. As per news reports. It has been postponed to March 31. A rural network based on the extensive optical fibre network. Indian telecom networks are not so intensive as developed country’s telecom networks and India's teledensity is low only in rural areas. 2010 in rest of the country. NDTV India and NDTV Imagine). the Next Generation Network. Next generation networks In the Next Generation Networks. before they decide to move to another service provider. Keeping in mind the viability of providing services in rural areas. 670. NDTV Profit. NDTV 24x7. multiple access networks can connect customers to a core network based on IP technology. in the future. 2010 in Metros & category 'A' service areas. Once a customer changes his/her service provider & retaining the same mobile number they are expected to hold the mobile number with a given provider for at least 90 days. while shifting to a different service provider provided they follow the guidelines set by TRAI.by the NDTV group and their lead anchor. has laid optical fibre to 30.Prannoy Roy (NDTV now has its own channels. Government of India decided to implement MNP from December 31. time and time again. appears to be an attractive proposition. However. It would then be futile to differentiate between fixed and mobile networks – both fixed and mobile users will access services through a single core network.New Delhi TeleVision. even in remote areas and the process continues. These access networks include fibre optics or coaxial cable networks connected to fixed locations or customers connected through wi-fi as well as to 3G networks connected to mobile users. BSNL and MTNL has resulted in innumerable delays in the . Here is a reasonably comprehensive List of Indian television stations. using Internet Protocol and offering a variety of services and the availability of open platforms for service development. viz. lobbying by the state-run firms.
Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG-FEA) with a landing site at Mumbai (2000). i2i . Capacity of 1. Nine gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai. Jalandhar. starting with Haryana which will have MNP on or soon after November 1 2010. Submarine cables LOCOM linking Chennai to Penang. EIG (Europe-India Gateway).Chennai to Singapore. It currently joins with SEA-ME-WE 4 off the west coast of Spain to carry traffic onward to London (2009). Capacity of 1. landing at Mumbai (due Q2 2010). Chennai.implementation of Mobile Number portability. Kanpur. Initial design capacity 10 Gbit/s. SEA-ME-WE 4 (South East Asia-Middle East-Western Europe 4) Landing sites at Mumbai and Chennai.28 Tbit/s.28 Tbit/s.8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region). Chennai to Singapore. Capacity of 8. Gandhinagar. . MENA (Middle East North Africa).12 Tbit/s. Kolkata. TIISCS (Tata Indicom India-Singapore Cable System). The latest official report is that Mobile Number Portability will be phased in slowly.4 Tbit/s. Malaysia India-UAEcable linking Mumbai to Al Fujayrah. Capacity of 5. New Delhi. also known as TIC (Tata Indicom Cable). via South Africa. 2010. SEACOM From Mumbai to the Mediterranean. The latest reports suggest BSNL and MTNL are finally ready to implement the Mobile Number Portability by October 31. I-ME-WE (India-Middle East-Western Europe) with two landing sites at Mumbai (2009).84 Tbit/s. International Nine satellite earth stations . upgraded in 2002 to 80 Gbit/s. Capacity of 960 Gbit/s. SEA-ME-WE 2 (South East Asia-Middle East-Western Europe 2) SEA-ME-WE 3 (South East Asia-Middle East-Western Europe 3) Landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai. Hyderabad and Ernakulam. UAE. upgraded to over 1 Tbit/s (2005). Capacity of 3.
Training in India The incumbent telecom operators (BSNL & MTNL) have maintained several telecom training centres at regional. circle and district level.28 Tbit/s Telecom TGN-Gulf (Announced) Landing at Mumbai (due 2011?). See also TRAI Indian Telecommunication Service List of Indian wireless communications service providers Telecommunications Statistics in India Mobile phone industry in India Media of India List of countries by number of mobile phones in use List of countries by number of telephone lines in use Telecom News India .4 m2). Capacity Unknown. MTNL incorporated Centre for Excellence in Telecom Technology and Management (CETTM) in 2003-04. wireless communication. MP.236. telecom operations and management to corporates and students besides its own internal employees. In addition some independent centres like Telcoma Technologies providing Telecom Training have also evolved in India. transmission. CETTM is situated at Hiranandani Gardens. namely Advanced Level Telecom Training Centre (ALTTC) at Ghaziabad. Other than the government opearators some private players like Bharti (Bharti School of Telecom Management part of IIT Delhi). Powai.7 million). Aegis School of Business and Telecommunication(Banglore and Mumbai) and Reliance have started their own training centres. BSNL has three national level institutions.921 sq ft (45. Capacity of 1. TGN-Eurasia (Announced) Landing at Mumbai (due 2010?). It provides training in telecom switching. It is the largest telecom training centre in India and one of the biggest in Asia with a capex plan of over 100 crore (US$ 22. and National Academy of Telecom Finance and Management. Mumbai with built area of 486. UP. Bharat Ratna Bhim Rao Ambedkar Institute Of Telecom Training at Jabalpur.
Retrieved February 2010. ^ "Public Works Department".trai. 2010-04-07. 2. 13. ^ "India is one of the world's fastest growing and biggest mobile phone markets" (stm).http://economictimes. 7. Economic Times.gov. ^ a b "India to have 'billion plus' mobile users by 2015: executive"(cms). Government of India. Economic Times. Infrastructure and Communications". .pdf 5. 11. Retrieved 1 October 2005.References 1. ^ a b "Indian telecom market to be at 344.in/WriteReadData/trai/upload/Pres sReleases/767/August_Press_release. 8.nic. ^ Vatsal Goyal. Economic Times. 10. Retrieved 7 April 2010. ^ a b "India will overtake China as world's largest mobile market in 2013". informa telecoms & media.6% last fiscal"(cms). IBEF. ^ "Telecom companies revive value of the Indian paisa" (doc). Premraj Suman. Retrieved 22 November 2007. "Going Mobile in Rural India". arab news. Retrieved 2010-0901. 3. ^ Nandini Lakshman. Ministry of Finance. 14. Retrieved 18 May 2010. 4. ^ a b "‘India will become world's No. 9. ^ "Union Budget and Economic Survey: Energy.delhigovt. ^ "Indian telecommunications industry is one of the fastest growing in the world" (doc). IIM Calcutta. 6. Hindu Business Line.indiatimes. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m nhttp://www. "The Indian Telecom Industry".921 crore (US$ 78. 1 mobile market by 2013'".com/news/news-byindustry/telecom/Indian-telecom-market-to-be-at-Rs-344921-crore-by2012/articleshow/2563062. 12.cms. Pwd. Economic Times. BBC News. Retrieved 10 June 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2009. ^ "India Republic Day Supplement: India: The fastest-growing telecom market" (doc). Business Week. ^ "India's telecom equipment industry grew 18.3 billion) by 2012" (cms).in.
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com/cntry/india. Retrieved 2010-09-01. . 03. Retrieved 2010-09-01.com. 2006-03-31. 45.11AM IST. Retrieved 2010-07-22.com.com. 2006-10-12. ^ "India adds 4. 44.indiatimes.com.TNN (2007-0202). ^ "India Telecom market growth and subscribers 2010 | GSM and CDMA operators April 2010 data".9% Among Active Internet Users . 34. ^ "Broadband Plans. Retrieved 2009-05-30.in. 2010-06-30. Indianexpress.in 37.com.in.com. Retrieved 2010-09-01.Broadband Rates. Livemint. 2009-07-13. ^ "TRAI for redefining floor broadband speed at 2Mbps". Rediff. Retrieved 201009-01.32. 2004-03-24. ^ www. 39. 2009-07-24. WebSiteOptimization. Telecomindiaonline. Mumbai. ^ "MTNL Services". Retrieved 2010-09-01. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 46. Economictimes.in.487 cr wireless subscribers in Jan-March". Beamtele. 41. ^ http://www.com.com. Bsnl. ^ a b "Japanese Broadband World's Fastest. games to drive mobile VAS growth)".Broadband Internet Plans in India". Retrieved 2010-07-22. rent-free landlines likely: Maran".com.co.487 cr wireless subscribers in Jan-Mar quarter".geohive. 2007. 43. Arindam Mukherjee.November 2007 Bandwidth Report". Airtelbroadband. Retrieved 2010-09-01.coai. ^ a b "Information note to the Press (Press Release No 73/2009)" (PDF). Thehindubusinessline. Internetworldstats. 200412-31.Iceland Cools off in Global Broadband Penetration Rankings .net. 35. ^ "Beam Telecom . "(Music. Retrieved 2010-07-22. Cheapest .Make The Right Connection". ^ "The death of STD".US Broadband Penetration Grows to 85. Retrieved 201007-22. Retrieved 2010-0722.mtnl. ^ a b "India adds 4. 42. 40. 33. 36. ^ 2 Feb.aspx 38. ^ "Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd". ^ "Free broadband.
telecomtalk.info. 50. ^ "MTNL VDSL Broadband Internet Services Tariff Plans". 54. ^ "Tata Indicom Broadband 2. Government of India v•d•e Wireless Planning & Coordination Wing Cellular Operators Association of India [show] .com.co. 48. 53. 49.0". Mumbai. Retrieved 2010-10-27. 52. Ozonewifi.net.mobilenumberporting. Retrieved 201007-22. ^ "ARKA Group is a one of the leading India’s start-ups business with multiple business". www. 2010-02-10.com. ^ "Welcome to Reliance Communications". ^ ":: O-zone ::". ^ "Mobile Number Portability in India to be phased in from 1 November 2010".in. Tataindicombroadband.47. Retrieved 2010-09-01. ^ "Mobile Number Portability in India by Oct31".mtnl. Retrieved 2010-08-21. Retrieved 2010-07-22. Telesutra.in. www. Retrieved 2010-09-01. Retrieved 2010-07-22. 51. Indiainfoline. Rcom.com. Retrieved 2010-07-22.in. ^ "Tikona Digital Networks launches operations in Delhi".in. External links Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Internet over GPRS on BSNL South India Prepaid Connection and Nokia 3650 Phone Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Communications in India Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Department of Telecommuincations.
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