Pembelajaran kooperatif model TGT adalah salah satu tipe atau model pembelajaran kooperatif yang mudah diterapkan
, melibatkan aktivitas seluruh siswa tanpa harus ada perbedaan status, melibatkan peran siswa sebagai tutor sebaya dan mengandung unsur permainan dan reinforcement. Aktivitas belajar dengan permainan yang dirancang dalam pembelajaran kooperatif model TGT memungkinkan siswa dapat belajar lebih rileks disamping menumbuhkan tanggung jawab, kerjasama, persaingan sehat dan keterlibatan belajar. Ada5 komponen utama dalam komponen utama dalam TGT yaitu: 1. Penyajian kelas Pada awal pembelajaran guru menyampaikan materi dalam penyajian kelas, biasanya dilakukan dengan pengajaran langsung atau dengan ceramah, diskusi yang dipimpin guru. Pada saat penyajian kelas ini siswa harus benar-benar memperhatikan dan memahami materi yang disampaikan guru, karena akan membantu siswa bekerja lebih baik pada saat kerja kelompok dan pada saat game karena skor game akan menentukan skor kelompok. 2. Kelompok (team) Kelompok biasanya terdiri dari 4 sampai 5 orang siswa yang anggotanya heterogen dilihat dari prestasi akademik, jenis kelamin dan ras atau etnik. Fungsi kelompok adalah untuk lebih mendalami materi bersama teman kelompoknya dan lebih khusus untuk mempersiapkan anggota kelompok agar bekerja dengan baik dan optimal pada saat game. 3. Game Game terdiri dari pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang dirancang untuk menguji pengetahuan yang didapat siswa dari penyajian kelas dan belajar kelompok. Kebanyakan game terdiri dari pertanyaan-pertanyaan sederhana bernomor. Siswa memilih kartu bernomor dan mencoba menjawab pertanyaan yang sesuai dengan nomor itu. Siswa yang menjawab benar pertanyaan itu akan mendapat skor. Skor ini yang nantinya dikumpulkan siswa untuk turnamen mingguan. 4. Turnamen Biasanya turnamen dilakukan pada akhir minggu atau pada setiap unit setelah guru melakukan presentasi kelas dan kelompok sudah mengerjakan lembar kerja. Turnamen pertama guru membagi siswa ke dalam beberapa meja turnamen. Tiga siswa tertinggi prestasinya dikelompokkan pada meja I, tiga siswa selanjutnya pada meja II dan seterusnya. 5. Team recognize (penghargaan kelompok) Guru kemudian mengumumkan kelompok yang menang, masing-masing team akan mendapat sertifikat atau hadiah apabila rata-rata skor memenuhi kriteria yang ditentukan. Team mendapat julukan “Super Team” jika rata-rata skor 45 atau lebih, “Great Team” apabila rata-rata mencapai 40-45 dan “Good Team” apabila rata-ratanya 30-40
http://gurupkn.wordpress.com/2007/11/13/metode-team-games-tournament-tgt/ 2010 EABR & ETLC Conference Proceedings The Effects Of Teams-Games-Tournamen On Achievement, Retention, And Attitude Of Economics Education Students Micheal M van Wyk, University of the Free State, South Africa Dublin, Ir
Cooperative learning, as an instructional methodology provides opportunities for diverse students to develop skills in group interactions and in working with others that are needed in today's world (Johnson & Johnson, 1990). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the cooperative learning approach of Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) on the achievement of content knowledge, retention, and attitudes toward the teaching method. Cooperative learning was compared to traditional lecturer teaching learning classroom structure using a quasiexperimental design. An achievement test, consisting of items from the Test of Economic Literacy (TEL) which is a standardized test of economics content, and an attitude questionnaire were administered immediately following instruction on elementary economics. A retention test was administered three weeks following the achievement test. TEL scores and first semester grades in elementary economics classes were used as covariates to adjust for possible preexisting differences between the groups. Multivariate analysis of covariance showed no significant difference among the dependent variables (achievement and retention) between the teaching methods used. There was no significant difference in student attitudes toward the teaching
The culmination of the process was the establishment of a curriculum for the General Education and Training (GET) and Further Education and Training (FET) phases. the learner has to be enabled to identify problems and find solutions to these challenges by means of creative and innovative thinking in real-life situations. INTRODUCTORY BACKGROUND
In recent years. Economics
. it is of critical importance that learners learn how to gather relevant information and to transform such information into marketable knowledge. Put differently. By pursuing these new strategies and methods. which is known as the National Curriculum Statement (National Department of Education. South Africa has experienced an important paradigm shift in education: a teacher-centred approach has been replaced by a learner-centred approach. in other words.methods.
Within the NCS curriculum. The process associated with reviewing and modernising the school curriculum for grades R to 12 commenced in the year 2000 and was aimed at restructuring and rewriting the interim syllabi into new. 2007).
To ensure that the outcomes of Economics teaching are achieved. integrated and justified learning programmes. 2002). but specifically in Economics. the emphasis is now on an OutcomesBased Education approach (OBE approach) as the key underlying principle of the National Curriculum Statement (NCS) (Van Wyk. Economics teachers are compelled to consider different teaching strategies and methods.
van Week (2007) and McKeachie (1986) postulates that students
The researcher contends that Economics teachers should strive to present their subject in ways that are meaningful and learner centred. 1985:84). which can be utilised to immense benefit in the teaching and learning situation (Borich. as an instructional methodology provides opportunities for students to develop skills in group interactions and in working with others that are needed in today's world (Johnson & Johnson. 1991). 1984.1990). If this can be achieved. In addition. 2007:159. but this study focuses on cooperative learning. such as cooperative learning.
Cooperative learning. cooperative learning should result in positive effects on student achievement and retention of information (Dishon & O’Leary. A large variety of teaching strategies.teachers will be enabled to initiate teaching and learning effectively so that knowledge. 2010 EABR & ETLC Conference Proceedings Dublin. 1996:238268. and an interest in the learning content may be evoked. skills and positive attitudes may be optimised among learners in their response to the economic environment. 1990. Steyn. By establishing excellent modes of teaching. the Economics teacher may create an optimal learning environment to enable learners as workers to transfer knowledge and skills into the workplace. learners are engaged effectively in the subject. cooperative learning experiences promote more positive attitudes toward the instructional experience than competitive or individualistic methodologies. methods and techniques are available. According to Johnson and Johnson (1989). Killen. Further. Slavin. Johnson & Johnson.
Excellent and effective teaching demands a host of devices. such as learning how to learn. there are two major theoretical perspectives related to cooperative learning -motivational and cognitive. is a desideratum. The cooperative learning technique of TeamsGames-Tournaments (TGT) bug bit and infected me with the active and participative virus. My conscience bothered me for almost a year. I don’t have a fair and valid excuse for my delayed enthusiasm. I was trained in the TGT technique by CEE faculty staff and came to appreciate the effectiveness and relevance of TGT in Economics education. presented by the Council on Economic Education (CEE. work in small group cooperative settings as opposed to listening to lectures. economic games and simulations during the Train-the-Trainers program 2005-2007. while the cognitive theories emphasize the effects of working together.are more likely to acquire critical thinking skills and metacognitive learning strategies.
. Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD). I was exposed to different cooperative learning techniques such as the TGT. but because variety.
According to Slavin (1987). itself. Then I started experimenting with TGT in my classes. The motivational theories of cooperative learning emphasize the students' incentives to do academic work. techniques and strategies not only to achieve cross critical outcomes.
The elaboration theory suggests that one of the most effective means of learning is to explain the material to someone else. the quality of reasoning. Cooperative learning activities enhance elaborative thinking and more frequent giving and receiving of explanations. 1984). which leads to greater understanding of the material to be learned. students are likely to encourage members within the group to do whatever helps the group to succeed and to help one another with a group task. 1990:14). The developmental theories assume that interaction among students around appropriate tasks increases their mastery of critical concepts (Damon. the developmental and the elaboration theories (Slavin. Johnson & Holubec. One of the elements of cooperative learning is positive interdependence.
There are two cognitive theories that are directly applied to cooperative learning. where students perceive that their success or failure lies within their working together as a group (Johnson. 1990). Therefore. they have to explain and discuss each other's perspectives. and the accuracy of long term retention (Johnson. From a motivational perspective. in order to attain their personal goals. which has the potential to increase depth of understanding. 1986).Motivational theories related to cooperative learning focus on reward and goal structures. The struggle to resolve potential conflicts during collaborative activity results in the development of higher levels of understanding (Slavin. 1986). When students interact with other students.
. et al. "cooperative goal structure creates a situation in which the only way group members can attain their personal goals is if the group is successful" (Slavin. 1987).
An external control group was used. but replaces the quizzes with weekly tournaments. the use of cooperative learning methods should lead to improved student learning and retention from both the developmental and cognitive theoretical bases. Student play the games at three-person “tournament tables” with others with similar past records in mathematics. Dependent variables
Teams-Games-Tournaments were originally developed by David DeVries and Keith Edwards at the University of Johns Hopkins as a cooperative learning method (DeVries. Hulten and Devries (1976) conducted a study to determine the relative contribution of team competition and peer group practice sessions to the effectiveness of a classroom instructional technique. individual competition) with practice mode (group vs. regardless of which table it is. Teams-GamesTournament (TGT). Mescon & Shackman. 1975). in which students play academic games with members of other teams to contribute points to their team scores. A “bumping” procedure keeps the games fair.Therefore. It uses the same teacher presentations and team work as in STAD. this means that low achievers have equal opportunities for success. individual). to 299 seventh grade mathematics students participated in an experiment varying reward system (team vs. The top scorer at each tournament table brings sixty points to his or her team.
attached more importance to game success. When compared to the external control group. Team-mates help one another to prepare. and were more satisfied with the game task. reported a higher expectancy of success at the game. gender and academic performance in the grade group. Poorer performers compete against poorer performers. Results indicated that Team Competition students improved significantly more on the SAT. The different groups are each heterogeneous in respect of the learners’ abilities. Group Practice students did not differ significantly in their performance on the SAT from Individual Practice students. Team Competition students (the standard TGT treatment) indicated significantly greater improvement on the SAT. and reported a higher level of peer group interest and peer pressure to do well at the game than did Individual Competition students. i. The winner in each team earns six points for his/her team. This technique works on the principle of a weekly TGT in the form of games. attached more importance to game success.included mathematics achievement on the Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) and four student attitude scales. Everyone has an equal chance at success. but may not help one another during the games.e. but did attach less importance to game success than students who practiced individually.The group classification in this cooperative technique is based on a grouping of four to five students per group. with learners competing against the members of other teams to earn team points. and better performers against better performers. an academic spelling tournament. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
. reported more interest by peers in their performance.
The introduction of cooperative learning strategies in economics has
. In the new national curriculum model. or competition in which students are isolated from one another and sometimes forbidden to interact (Humphreys. Johnson & Roy. such a TGT cooperative learning techniques which was employed in this study. more students enrolled for Economics as a high school subject. Currently. Goodlad (1984) reported that most classroom time is spent in "teacher talk". Economic education is a growing subject in secondary education. Emanating from this. with only 10% of the students' classroom time used for reasoning about or expressing an opinion. It is of outmost importance that student teachers at our institution being empowered and exposed to effective teaching strategies. Economic and Management Sciences (EMS) is a compulsory learning area for the General Education and Training phase (grades R-9) for South African schools. 2007). van Wyk.
In a recent study conducted in the Free State Department of Education (FSDoE) schools. 2008). Johnson.While cooperative learning as an instructional methodology is an option for teachers. 1984). 1991. 2007). The current teaching strategies that are implemented by economic teachers at the high school level are outdated and do not pertain to the ways in which students best comprehend economic content (van Wyk. Economics is an elective subject in the FET phase for grades 10-12. More than 85% of the instruction in schools consists of lectures. it is currently the least frequently used (Johnson & Johnson. seatwork. group work has been used extensively in economic education to provide practice in acquiring both competence and skills in interpersonal relations (van Wyk.
Was there a difference in the attitudes toward the teaching method used for students who have been taught
. and those who were taught by the traditional lecture method? 3.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the cooperative learning approach of Teamsgroups-tournaments (TGT) on the achievement. and those who were taught by the traditional lecture method? 34 2. TGT. 1972). as measured by the researcher developed achievement test for students who have been taught by the cooperative learning method. it is likely to be ignored as an instructional methodology by economics educators. Was there a difference in retention of information. The following research questions provided the specific focus for the study:
1. the extent to which these methods are beneficial in home economics education is unknown. Without empirical evidence to support the effectiveness of cooperative education in economics. Was there a difference in achievement. and attitudes toward the instructional method of selected economics students. While empirical evidence supports the use of cooperative learning with a variety of subject areas and age groups. as measured by the researcher developed retention test administered three weeks after the end of instruction for students who have been taught by the cooperative learning method. TGT. retention of information.potential for improving the group activities commonly used in these classes (Hall & Paolucci.
A good unit plan will have a variety of different methods in it. When you write lesson plans for this course.
Sampling: Third year BEd-student teachers were identified for the investigation.
Basic Lesson Plan Predict Observe Explain Field Trip Play Debrief Replay Inquiry Concept Formation Role Play Concept Web Non-Debate
Concept Attainment Independent Research Simulation Discussion Jig Saw Unit Overview
. Only 110 BEd-students who were registered for module EEE 112. Chinese and Portugese) students. elementary economics. TGT. Coloured and Asian) and sixty three percent (63%) White (Afrikaans. and those who were taught by traditional lecture method?
Research design: A quasi-experimental research. with partially matched TGTexperimental and traditional lecture method groups. 81% of the students were females (N=89) and 19% were males (N=21). was constructed because of its resistance to common threats to internal validity (Mouton. I expect you to use these teaching methods. Black (African. were selected as the proportional stratified sample for the quasi-experimental research. You must include the name of the teaching method you will be using in each lesson plan. 2001 & Gray. The sample consisted of thirty five percent (35%). The sample composed of the experimental
Each of the following links will take you to a description of each of the teaching methods. 2004). Furthermore.by the cooperative learning method. and when you write unit plans for this course. English.
TEACHING METHODS In your EdCur 200. If we substitute the instructional strategy of "experiential" for "personal". you will have discussed three different types of curriculum. and personal. emancipatory or transformational.
Transmission or Technical
Transaction or Practical Conceptual Co-Operative Experiential Constructivist
Transformational or Emancipatory (Critical)
One should note that a person’s world view is involved in each of these levels. we can move along to a chart I find useful. instructional models are outlined. In your EdCur 200. These might have been called transmission or technical. On page 12 of this book. behavioural (which involves direct instruction and most of you are very familiar with this method). you will have referred to the Saskatchewan Education document Instructional Approaches: A Framework for Practice. There are four listed: information processing (which I will call conceptual).3 course. transactional or practical. social interaction (which I call co-operative).
. If teacher and students believe that knowledge is constructed.3 course. rather than being “found” out there in the world.
I find that it is necessary to have a clear description of the instructional methods which fall within each group. On page 20 of Instructional Approaches: A Framework for Practice. firmly planted in constructivist learning theory. then that teacher would know what the students knew about concept X. I wonder what the students will know about concept X. The following table attempts to put the above instructional models. for example. (skip instructional approaches). and conceptual and experiential models. a discussion is not when one person talks. If teacher and students believe the primary role of the school is for people to learn to get along. A typical error for pre-service teachers is to write in a lesson plan that the class will discuss concept X. But when I read the lesson plan. If the pre-service teacher were to use one of the described teaching methods. The Saskatchewan science curricula are transactional. but to be able to enact. then that class would be comfortable with a co-operative model. Examining the various instructional strategies is useful. Instructional Mod el Teaching Field Trip Meth Inquiry ods Predict Observe Explain Play Debrief Replay Concept Formation Concept Attainment Jig Saw Independent Research
Role Play Simulation Jig Saw
All experiential All co-operative Concept Web
. A discussion involves multiple voices. A lively discussion. and conceptually oriented. and teaching methods in families. an interactive instruction lesson.then this class would be more comfortable with transactional curricula. with students involved in talking (!) could ensue. To my way of thinking. there is a Venn diagram outlining a number of different instructional strategies.
Ohio Graduation Test (OGT). A teacher tests the student on what was previously taught in order to identify if a student has learned the material. environment. collaborating. but almost all children will respond well to praise. they need to be flexible and willing to adjust their style according to their students. There are many types of teaching methods. Student success in the classroom is largely based on effective teaching methods. modeling.3 | Homepage 327. a teacher needs to consider students' background knowledge. recitation.compulsory education o 2. borrow plans from other teachers.
• • •
1 Diversity in Teaching in the Classroom o 1. A variety of strategies and methods are used to ensure that all students have equal opportunities to learn. When deciding what teaching method to use. demonstration. or search online or within books for lesson plans.e.3 Teaching methods can best be defined as the types of principles and methods used for instruction. A teacher may ask a series of questions to collect information of what students have learned and what needs to be taught. depending on what information or skill the teacher is trying to convey.2 Medieval education o 2.3 | Homepage 421. When a teacher is deciding on their method.3 Collaborating o 1. a good method must be adopted by a teacher. explaining. A lesson plan may be carried out in several ways: Questioning.3 | Homepage 324. A teaching method that includes questioning is similar to testing. A teacher has many options when choosing a style by which to teach.1 Explaining o 1.2 Demonstrating o 1.1 Ancient education o 2. Testing is another application of questioning.Homepage 322.
.4 20th century 3 See also 4 References 5 External links
 Diversity in Teaching in the Classroom
For effective teaching to take place. and learning goals. Class participation.3 | Homepage 423.4 Learning by teaching 2 Evolution of teaching methods o 2. and memorization are some of the teaching methods being used. and demonstrating. Students have different ways of absorbing information and of demonstrating their knowledge. Standardized testing is in about every middle school (i.3 19th century . Teachers often use techniques which cater to multiple learning styles to help students retain information and strengthen understanding. College entrance Tests (ACT and SAT). Teachers are aware that students learn in different ways. The teacher may write lesson plans of their own. Proficiency Test.
personally relatable. It allows another way for the student to relate to the material. often become a setting more geared towards factorial presentation than a setting for narrative and/or connective learning. all students profit some from the different types of learning. then use reasoning and hypothesizing to determine an answer.Learning can be done in three ways. The uses of storytelling and examples have long since become standard practice in the realm of textual explanation. Not only can explaining (lecture) help the auditory learner through the speech of the teacher. this practice sometimes becomes one of the more ignored aspects of lecture. But while a more narrative style of information presentation is clearly a preferred practice in writing. judging by its’ prolificacy. Visual. usually given in the classroom. If the student can not only hear but see what is being taught. thus.
. Students can visualize an object or problem.Auditory. potentially. and Kinesthetic. A demonstration may be used in the circumstance of proving conclusively a fact. In your lecture you have the opportunity to tackle two types of learning. examples in all forms of information presentation because this practice likely allows for greater interest in the subject matter and better information-retention rates. containing examples and stories.
Demonstrations are done to provide an opportunity to learn new exploration and visual learning tasks from a different perspective. Visuals that are bright in color. especially in a collegiate environment. putting things into a clearer perspective and allowing for increased neural representation in the brain. becomes. it is important to provide personable. storytelling in information presentation may also reinforce memory retention because it provides connections between factorial presentation and real-world examples/personable experience. This can also be associated with modeling. Therefore. offer a way for the students to put into perspective the numbers or stats that are being used. it is more likely they will believe and fully grasp what is being taught. etc. as by reasoning or showing evidence. Lectures. The use of examples and storytelling likely allows for better understanding but also greater individual ability to relate to the information presented. It is important to try and include all three as much as possible into your lessons. Modeling is used as a visual aid to learning. Although a student might only profit substantially from one form of teaching. Lecturing is teaching by giving a discourse on a specific subject that is open to the public. Furthermore.
This form is similar to lecturing. Learning a list of facts provides a detached and impersonal experience while the same list. supplementary. Often in lecture numbers or stats are used to explain a subject but often when many numbers are being used it is difficult to see the whole picture. but if the teacher is to include visuals in the form of overheads or slide shows. A teacher may use experimentation to demonstrate ideas in a science class. his/her lecture can have duality.
Having students work in groups is another way a teacher can direct a lesson. It is one of the direct instructional methods. with the advent of writing. but they will gain experience that could be very valuable for life. leadership skills. After some preparation and with clearly defined roles as well as interesting topics. It has been the intent of many educators since then. Group projects and discussions are a great way to welcome this type of learning. with specialized occupations requiring particular skills and knowledge on how to be a scribe. developed by Jean-Pol Martin. to find specific. Plato describes a system of instruction that he felt would lead to an ideal state. discussions may well take up most of the lesson. It helps students think in a less personally biased way. In his Dialogues. an astronomer. By having them participate in the teaching process it also builds self-confidence. Discussions can take a variety of forms. This method is very effective when done correctly. Plato describes the Socratic method. self-efficacy. e. Having students teach sections of the class as a group or as individuals is a great way to get the students to really study out the topic and understand it so as to teach it to their peers. Collaborating allows students to talk with each other and listen to all points of view in the discussion. etc.
 Evolution of teaching methods
 Ancient education
About 3000 BC. such as the Roman educator Quintilian. with the teacher only giving short feedback at the end or even in the following lesson. The students take the teacher's role and teach their peers. Students will not only learn their given topic. A different kind of group work is the discussion. interesting ways to encourage students to use their intelligence and to help them to learn. In his Republic. education became more conscious or self-reflecting. fishbowl discussions. These students who learn best this way by being able to relate to the lesson in that they are physically taking part of it in some way. or presentation abilities. When this lesson plan is carried out. the teacher may be trying to assess the lesson by looking at the student's: ability to work as a team. Philosophy in ancient Greece led to questions of educational method entering national discourse.
 Learning by teaching Main article: Learning by teaching
Learning by teaching (German:LdL) is a widespread method in Germany. Collaborating (kinesthetic) is great in that it allows to actively participate in the learning process. and strengthens students speaking and communication skills.
Rabelais described how the student Gargantua learned about the world. In his The World in Pictures. but in this principle. and what is in it. One result was. stated: "The purpose of all education is to like the world through knowing it. wanted all boys and girls to learn. and use it to teach the academic subjects they needed to know. "Learn more!"
 19th century . though transmitted later in the school for educators he founded. Parts of the Prussian education system have served as models for the education systems in a number of other countries. but his method. Jean-Jacques Rousseau in his Emile. He describes this in his account of the educational experiment at Stanz. to learn . who believed that all children are equally capable of learning regardless of ethnic background or social class.and love to learn. in Bohemia. Some critical ideas in today's education environment include:
Instructional scaffolding Graphic organizers
. predominantly in New York. have found that students learn the curriculum with the kind of eagerness that Pestalozzi describes for his students at Stanz centuries earlier. He felt the key to have children learn is for them to be loved. "Children. illustrated textbook which contained much that children would be familiar with in everyday life. presented methodology to teach children the elements of science and much more. saying the world is one's book. 
 20th century
In the 20th century. Much later. has been thought "too unclear to be taught today". The Prussian model had a side effect of requiring additional classroom management skills to be incorporated into the teaching process.compulsory education Main article: Prussian education system
The Prussian education system was a system of mandatory education dating to the early 19th century. of a class believed to be unteachable. And so Emile was brought out into the woods without breakfast to learn the cardinal directions and the positions of the sun as he found his way home for something to eat. With this principle at basis. it is made conscious. when he would ask." This is a goal which is implicit in previous educators. Medieval education
Comenius. the philosopher. Arguably the qualities of a SDAIE curriculum are as effective if not more so for all 'regular' classrooms. whose methodology during Napoleonic warfare enabled refugee children. Eli Siegel. he famously eschewed books. Many current teaching philosophies are aimed at fulfilling the precepts of a curriculum based on Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE). he gave the first vivid. teachers. There was also Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi of Switzerland. do you want to learn more or go to sleep?" they would reply. including Japan and the United States. In it.
" You may discover it to be ancient history by evening. Cherry's quantitative study "The Interdisciplinary Effect of Hands On Science". then quickly search to find it. while facilitating learning to some degree. Shaikh Imran. Students who had a hands-on trained science teacher for one or more years had statistically higher standardized test scores in science. You use the "reading news method". etc. News is redundant: previewed yesterday. Bostwick recently concluded Dr. A strong purpose immediately increases speed reading and comprehension. a three-year study of 3920 middle school students and their Tennessee State Achievement scores in Math. Take just 10-20 minute in the morning to review the news. Other educators believe that the use of technology.
http://en. For each additional year of being taught by a hands-on trained teacher. math and social studies. Look for the most information to match purpose for reading. Reading and Social Studies.wikipedia. New methods involved in the teaching learning process are television.. Elvis H. Metropolitan Nashville Public School is considered urban demographically and can be compared to many of urban schools nationally and internationally. magazine or newsletter. when you are read whether from a report.detailed today...
Reading newspapers method
Read headlines and first paragraphs only. Don't just read for the sake of reading unless you have chosen to pass leisure time. the student's grades increased. computer. This study divided students on the basis of whether they had hands on trained teachers over the three-year period addressed by the study. the teaching methodology in education is a new concept in the teaching learning process. Be clear about what you want.summed up tomorrow. This time constraint gently forces you to get focused. skip what you already know. Another modern teaching method is inquiry learning and the related inquiry-based science.
. newspaper. is not a substitute for educational method that brings out critical thinking and a desire to learn.org/wiki/Teaching_method
Reading daily news method
Disregard redundant information to save time now. Come back in the evening to get whatever you "have to" or "want to.. radio. Science.•
According to Dr. Make sure to you get the new information you need.
Reading is actually a highly complex process of interaction between the reader and the text. For example. and you will. "Dip" into the article and read those paragraphs. For example. The secret is to see the material simply as new and different. you may be shutting off your true capacities by subtle anxieties about the task. Don't read all the words unless you have the luxury of unlimited time. each vital. This whole process should not take more than 10-15 minutes.
Close reading method
Close reading is the essence of the academic experience.. educational and personal experiences and normally some specific knowledge of the topic about which we are reading. Reading is the processing of information. but ends as a whole. go on to the next.. We also possess a linguistic competence which includes knowledge of the words. Ask yourself that you can read with full concentration.
Reading to learn method
Although many of us believe reading is a passive process we couldn't be more mistaken. recognize key information. Follow this strategy: Ask yourself what other specific details you want.and be relaxed about it. It aims at the mastery of material with full retention of details. It divides into a number of separate steps. Early confusion can create curiosity that guides you to search for and recognize the information you need. Before reading a difficult piece of writing. if the material is dense and difficult to read. Reporters present 80% of the key information in the opening paragraph. not dense and difficult. This may simply sound like "positive mental attitude. When finished with an article. To any text we bring our own store of general information based on our cultural. take a few moments to close the eyes and relax while taking two or three deep breaths. and achieve high comprehension quickly to accomplish the needs. The subsequent supporting text should be read only as needed." Yet if you do not purposefully affirm the positive. Read the first paragraph to preview the article. news stories. any anxiety about getting through it can cause lowered performance. Believe you can. The comprehension and overall reading performance can increase--all with just a few seconds of preparation. Skim the article for the desired details. the grammar of the text and the rhetorical patterns and linguistic conventions which characterize different types of texts. Let it go if there are none. poetry and research reports are all distinctly recognizable text types or genres.Review headlines and select articles you want to read based on interest or purpose for reading.
Upon finishing each section of the material. This skill can be used to skim a particular book or article to see if it is useful. and it's similar to pleasure reading. read as quickly as possible. In exploratory reading. Keep your mind on the material. The full range of strategies.
The reading style we employ to any text is dependent upon the type and content of the text as well as our purpose in reading. You want to acquaint yourself with the subject. we use different strategies to assist us in our reading according to the purpose.
Exploratory reading method
Exploratory reading is the half-way point between skimming and close reading. Check the abstract or the introduction or conclusion of a chapter/article for key words to see how relevant the text is to your purpose.
1. You can use this strategy to check through catalogues.When we read we have a particular purpose in mind and in most cases we have a motivation to read. Extensive reading is the term used to describe the strategies used for reading longer texts either for pleasure or for information. pause to rest the eyes. There are different types of reading "styles" and we make choices about the most appropriate style according to our purpose. It's important to use these strategies appropriately and flexibly for maximum benefit. The ability to summarize is another skill which can be developed only by practice. This technique is used to judge material after rapid inspection. but you do not need complete understanding and retention. Two approaches to help you learn to skim are described below. Intensive reading is the style we employ when we want to gain a detailed understanding of the information contained in the text. Following are a number of exercises to practice some of these strategies. skimming. for instance looking up a timetable to catch a train to Bathurst on Friday to attend a friend's wedding. This kind of reading is particularly useful when you are researching a topic. We would not read a newspaper the same way as we would read a Physics chapter or a poem. 2. Perhaps you are reading supplementary material which you will not be held accountable for. or perhaps you only need to gain general knowledge from a text which will be available if you need to look up specific references. scanning and reading for detail are employed by the reader according to the individual text and interest in the various parts. See if you can summarize what you have just read. scan a contents page and index to see if a particular item is mentioned. However. Skimming involves moving our eyes rapidly over the page to get the gist of what the text is about. Scanning is the strategy we use when searching for a specific piece of information such as dates or names.
That slows you down and serves no utilitarian purpose after you finish reading. That can come later. Read the conclusion if there is one. a diagram there. Where will you find the information that you want for the purpose you set? Point your pacer and start reading the introduction. Anything that you come across that you don't understand. paragraphs. diagrams or tables later on. you are likely to let it become a nervous habit and mark nearly everything until the page becomes a sea of yellow. Skim the book. and the headings. This will essentially be the third time that you've looked at the book. If you mark text as you read. What is it that you want to get from the printed page? Terms and definitions? Problem and solution? Research method? Preview the printed pages to see how the ideas are organized. Read a sentence here. the structure and the feel of the book will be familiar to you. how the book is organized and broken down into it's sub sections. only slowing down when you approach something relevant to the purpose you set. Here's how you can do it now. Read the title. Even if it means skipping more than 50% of the book. read the entire book through superficially. This includes entire pages. This should answer the question or purpose that you set before you started reading. mark the lines or words that you want to remember. It becomes the pace car in your race. You should be able to tackle the entire book much easier.
Academic strategy for textbooks and research reports
Determine a purpose. After you have skimmed the book.so don't get swamped trying to take in something that you don't understand. Read rapidly. the introduction. as well as help you ascertain the sequence within the book that these new concepts are introduced. This will help you get a feel for the new terminology before you have to really study the concepts. You can race through that because you already read it. diagrams etc.
In just 11-13 minutes you can get 80% of what you must know from even the most difficult reports. quickly look back at the marked text for a rapid review. it doesn't matter. After you read a page or a section. What is meant by skimming is to casually read over each page without trying to remember the material. Only concentrate on the sections of the book that you already know or understand. look at a diagram here. and a lot of the content. Skimming will also help you to locate specific charts. a sentence there.How to tackle reading those huge computer books
Spend some time reading the chapter headings and sub-headings from the index page. When you reach the end of the last page. Get familiar with the framework of the book. and the overall feel of the book. look at diagrams and graphs and get a feel for the topic. quickly and easily:
How to read the reports you love to hate. and completely skip over entries in the book that you don't. Lastly. Look for new terminology that you haven't come across before. skip it. This is just the first reading . read the book again and this time study the material.
How to read a novel method
That is Assigned for a Book Report Book Help: Read any information on the book cover or in the forward that gives you ideas about the content of the story or about the author's reasons for writing the book. Mark a symbol for the reading assignment on the kitchen wall calendar or on your bedroom wall calendar. you may prefer to read during the thirty minutes before dinner in the evening. you should have a summary of the entire book composed of those chapter summaries that you wrote. you may assume that it will take you a little over 20 minutes to read it at a rate of not quite one page per minute. Time Management: Plan how much of the book you will read at one sitting. Add a comment about anything else you think is significant such as the appearance of a new character. on the Internet. Most of the rest of the book will describe the attempts to deal with this problem. In the morning take no more than 7 minutes to search for and read the key points you felt you had to know. The first chapter also develops some character traits and introduces other characters who influence attempts to resolve issues. If yes. plan to read for thirty minutes at a time. Flip the pages in front of your eyes like a fan 2 or 3 times.•
At the end of the day. Outside Help: Read articles about the book that are provided in magazines.
. STOP! Do not read further. write a summary paragraph about the events in that chapter. Decide on 3 things you must know from this report. The wisdom of having read everything now allows you to write a paragraph that introduces the book and a paragraph for the end of your report where you draw some conclusions about how the character attempted to deal with the conflicts and about what the character or the reader learned about human nature during the story. in newspapers. draw an X through the symbol on the calendar. take 2 minutes to glance through the report's layout. or at the library reference room. Significance of Chapter One: Read the first chapter slowly and carefully. Determine what time of day you will always read. Therefore. spend no more than 4 more minutes now and maybe 5-7 minutes the next day. Notice the relationship between the location/setting of the story and the character's problem. The average student reads a novel at the rate of about 300 words per minute. Leave it alone until tomorrow. One page in a paperback novel contains about 350 words. if a chapter is about 20 pages long. If you become seriously restless after thirty minutes. some pamphlets of notes are helpful while others are poorly written. Double check to determine if there are any additional "life or death" needs associated with this report. For example. Each time you finish reading. A more mature plan is to read one chapter at a time. Make a guess where you will find the answers. On the other hand. Notes for the Book Report: After you read a chapter. After you finish the last chapter. It should introduce the main character and the problem or conflict that he/she faces. table of contents and ending.
Or they may tell you that you will take a test on the book in order to receive credit for reading it. I doubt that you would be here if you were one of them. Use the paper and pencil to work through any steps that the book skips over. sometimes you truly need to re-read. Some people may need to place the marker below the line because their eyes need guidance moving from the end of the line to the beginning of the next line. You cannot learn to play the piano without endlessly practicing scales. not the professor's. If you are still uncomfortable with it.
How read math texts
There are a few lucky folks who seem to learn even the hardest math almost effortlessly. When you encounter a new concept in a math book. Talk about whether or not you would you have done the same thing? Was their behavior heroic or foolish? Compare your summary paragraph with your friend's. Then you can discuss the story and talk about your opinion of what the character did in that chapter. You should go over each difficult paragraph several times. You cannot learn to paint without endlessly painting still life's. Math books are meant to be read slowly. it may help if you and a parent or friend read using the same time management schedule. Of software. Perhaps your discussion made you aware that you omitted something important that you can add to your summary. Evelyn Woods never had to read a serious math text. You will only get yourself into more trouble than you can climb out of by mid-semester. Regressions are usually emotional rather than necessary for understanding. It will pay off in the end. Math is no different. use the pen as you read to place a check mark in the margin next to any names or facts that you may need to memorize after you finish the book. This allows your eyes to move faster and increases reading speed.Study Guides: Some teachers provide a study guide for the book report. The homework are for your benefit. consider placing the marker above the line instead of below it. Remember that you are not reading math or science. If so. Don't fool yourself into thinking that you can get by without working at it. You cannot make the football team without endlessly running wind sprints. Many professors do not require you to hand in the homework's. The exercises will train your mind and sharpen your intuition. read the study guide after you read chapter one and get an idea of any specific details you may need to note. If so. then come back to the difficult passage. That means that you are like the majority of us who cannot learn math without working hard at it. And remember that math books are meant to be read with paper and pencil in hand. So do the work. do not expect to understand it on the first reading. You cannot speed read it and expect to get any benefit out of it at all. read ahead a page or so. no matter how carefully your read it. Book Marks and Pacers: If you like to use a book mark on the lines as you read. Talk About What You Read: If you are a social learner. A pacer such as the finger or a pen point tends to drag your focal point across the line to increase speed and reduce regressing back to re-read text.
. You are reading fiction and do not need the detailed precision that you do while reading those subjects. Do the homework exercises. The rest of us can only envy them and try to pick their brains.
somebody else gets up and does the next one on the board. Following your group get-togethers. Try to coax at least one of the top students in the class into your group. it does help keep you from confusion. Your greatest assets are in the class with you. Your classmates are in the same boat as you. You don't want to be in the group that works on math in between beers and Monday Night Football plays.Always use a pencil to do math homework (and exams). If you like mechanical pencils. When one person is done with a problem.
Activate reading method
During activation we stimulate the brain probing the mind with questions and exploring parts of the text to which we feel most attracted. Make sure you have a clean. Although neatness might not get you extra points. When we feel it is
. You will be tested as an individual. Try to see more than just procedures. Paper is cheap. Keep your work organized. Skip a line (or even two) between each row of written calculations. great. If the person at the board gets stuck. and the procedures will seem obvious. You should explain that if all of you turn in the same wrong answer on a particular homework problem. In your group activity. Don't be afraid to use lots of it. Choose as your group-mates those who have a serious attitude. You will make mistakes. explaining what he or she is doing as the problem unfolds. Be fascinated. I recommend that the group size be three to five. Despite the helpfulness of your group activities. the others in the group should try to provide hints or ask the person at the board telling questions. Have one person get up and do a problem on the board. See if you can find a room with a whiteboard. in the end your grade will be based upon your individual performance at solving problems. We then super read the most important parts of the text by scanning quickly down the center of each page or column of type. take turns. If the person at the board is doing fine. If you prefer the old wooden kind. it's because you worked on it together. then sharpen several of them before you start each homework. When you form the group. If anybody in the group does not understand a step. Humanity invented math largely because it is fascinating. be sure to go solo on a few exercises. So be equipped to clean them up. Try to meet at least once per week. You will be working together on homework's and comparing your lecture notes. learn the concepts. And try to have some fun with it. the others in the group should challenge him or her. Make the problem-doer justify each step orally. You will be surprised at how much easier it will be for you to follow your own work when it's not so densely packed onto the page. the person at the board ought to be able to explain it to his or her satisfaction. And nobody weasels out. Again I urge you. it might be a good idea to inform your professor that you have done so and who are the group members. Everybody does. usable eraser as well. Organize a study group. Don't ever try to do math in ink.
we allow our intuition to say. we involve our whole brain.ababasoft. The ideas you want are right there. and mind mapping. Other activation techniques developed while reading this book include rhythmic perusal. When we activate. These also help us gain access to the deeper impressions established by photo reading. connect the text with our conscious awareness. that is the one.htm
. and achieve our goals for reading.com/speedreading/reading_methods.
http://www.appropriate. we dip into the text for more focused reading to comprehend the details. In dipping. skittering. turn to the last paragraph on page 147! Yes. Hey.