Technical paper presentation



(Application of human computer interaction)

Presented by
M.V.S.Sushmitha 06R81A0517 CSE,3/4 Btech

E.N.V.Serisha 06R81A0521 CSE,3/4Btech

Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & Technology

ABSTRACT: The mind-to-movement system computer thoughts that using is a allows only a his quadriplegic man to control a scientific

generated even though they are not sent to the arms, hands and legs.The signals are interpreted and an translated alternate into Brain cursor Gate movements, offering the user pathway to control a computer with thought,just as individuals who have the ability to move their hands use a mouse. The extend down 'Brain about Gate' one contains tiny spikes that will millimetre into the brain after being implanted beneath the skull,monitoring from a small the activity of group

milestone. It was reached, in large part, through the brain gate system. This system has become paralyzed. a boon The to the Gate Brain

System is based on Cyber kinetics platform technology to sense,transmit,analyze The is principle that with brain of and operation brain are apply the language of neurons. behind the Brain Gate System intact signals function,

neurons.It will now be possible for a patient with spinal cord

while sensory neurons carry signals from those outer parts of the body to the central nervous system. it but by large new carry across to populations of neurons. And interneurons tie together connecting the various neurons within the brain and spinal cord. transmitting gathering and electrochemical signals over distances as far as several feet. How does the brain control motor function? The brain is "hardwired" with connections. The electrical patterns are called brain waves.He even moved a robotic hand from his wheelchair. and sound and encode this information into electrochemical by the signals sensory by transmitted everything neurons. The brain encodes information not by relying on single spreading rapidly neurons. Matthew Nagle. Neurons act like the wires and gates in a computer.he has opened email.a 25year-old Massachusetts man with a severe spinal cord injury.which is then output as impulses. Receptors sense things like chemicals.SSCET 2 injury to produce brain signals that relay the intention of moving the paralyzed limbs. light.switched TV channels.has been paralyzed from the neck down since 2001.After taking part in a clinical trial of this system.turned on lights. mechanical impulses enable the user to with the help of a computer signals electronic operate to an implanted These devices sensor. neurons signals from the central nervous system to the muscles. and by adapting Motor circumstances. This marks the first time that neural movement signals have been recorded and decoded in a human with spinal cord injury. skin and glands of the body.The system is also the first to allow a human to control his surrounding environment using his mind. The part of the brain that controls motor skills is located at the ear of the frontal lobe. which are made by billions of neurons that make electricity whenever they are stimulated. .

The sensors register different frequencies of the signals produced wave whether in the brain. Other respond sensors in the skin to stretching and NEUROPROSTHETIC DEVICE: A neuroprosthetic device known as Braingate converts brain activity into computer commands. Even if paralysis or disease damages the part of the brain that processes movement. hands and legs. PRINCIPLE: "The principle of data to a nearby pressure." connecting sensors on the waves into information a person can learn from. neural signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms. or whether he is relaxed or tense. the brain still makes neural signals.SSCET 3 How communication contain does this happen? sensors Muscles in the body's limbs embedded called muscle spindles that measure the length and speed of the muscles as they stretch and contract as you move. indicate is or These changes in brain patterns someone concentrating suppressing his impulses. They're just not being sent to the arms. . just as a mouse is used. These signals are interpreted by the System and a cursor is shown to the user on a computer screen that provides an alternate "BrainGate pathway". The user can use that cursor to control the computer. A sensor is implanted on the brain. hands and legs. and electrodes are hooked up to wires that travel to a pedestal on the scalp.  A technique called uses brain neurofeedback scalp to translate operation of the BrainGate Neural Interface System is that with intact brain function. a fiber optic cable carries the brain activity computer. From there.

which is implanted patient and converts the intention of the user into computer commands. into lateral The the sclerosis (ALS) or spinal computer chip.SSCET 4 BrainGate is a brain implant system developed by the bio-tech conjunction Department University. was those who The to have company with the of device help lost Cyberkinetics in 2003 in Neuroscience at Brown designed control of their limbs. NEURO CHIP: . such as patients with amyotrophic cord injury. or other bodily functions.

neuromuscular neurodegenerative Currently the chip uses 100 hair-thin electrodes that 'hear' neurons firing in specific areas of the brain. been WORKING: Operation of the BCI system is not simply listening the EEG of user in a way that let’s tap this EEG in and listen what happens. which can move either a robotic arm or a computer cursor. This preprocessing includes has have company one implanted with the BrainGate patient has (Matt Nagle) has a spinal cord whilst another advanced ALS. confirmed injury. Cyberkinetics' patients The that website. A potential use of this feature would be for a neurologist to study seizure . In addition to real-time analysis of neuron patterns to relay movement. The user usually generates some sort of mental activity pattern that is later detected and classified. in a patient with Braingate is currently recruiting patients with a range of and conditions States. the Braingate array is also capable of recording electrical data for later analysis.SSCET 5 patterns epilepsy. translated The into activity is electrically United for pilot clinical trials in the charged signals and are then sent and decoded using a program. for example. the area that controls arm movement. According to the three system. PREPROCESSING: The raw EEG signal requires some preprocessing before the feature extraction.

This detection means to try to find out these mental tasks from the EEG signal.SSCET 6 removing unnecessary band pass filtering the signal. averaging the current brain activity level. 25 typically CONTROL: frontal regions The final part consists varies varies of applying the will of the user varies varies to the used application. Feedback is provided to user by audio-visual means e. letter appears to the message box etc. Band Alpha (_) µrhyth m Beta (_) Theta (_) Delta (_) the and measured to cortex denoising. then calculating these time -or frequency domain features and then classifying them.Location neural networks. It can be done in time-domain. with This very with training simple mental DETECTION: The detection of the input from the user and them translating it into an action could be considered as key part of any BCI system. e. The user chooses an action by controlling his brain activity. This involves usually digital signal processing for sampling and exercises where the user is familiarized . when typing with virtual keyboard. potentials Frequency bands of the EEG : Frequency [Hz] 8-12 9-11 14 -30 4-7 <3 linear equations and artificial Amplit. which is then detected and classified to corresponding action. both Parietal regions partners gradually learn more varies Precentral/ from each other and improve Postcentra the l regions overall performance.g. by comparing amplitudes of the EEG and in frequency-domain. By constant -ude [_V] feedback from user to the 10 -150 Occipital/ system and vice versa.g. TRAINING: The training is the part where the user adapts to the BCI begins system. These classification algorithms include simple comparison of amplitudes linear and non- frequency bands. transforming scalp potentials .

with a Matthew Nagle." using only his thoughts. been paralyzed from the neck down since 2001. Despite a decline in neural signals after few months. This biofeedback in BCI systems is usually provided by visually. a 25-year-old severe spinal cord injury. so that source can understand it and have control over it. simulated e-mail. has . He was ultimately able to open and close the fingers of a prosthetic hand and use a robotic limb to grasp and move objects. e. fatigue. open frustration.g. etc. A boon to the paralyzed -Brain Gate Neural Interface System The Massachusetts first man patient. BIO FEEDBACK: The definition of the biofeedback is biological information which is returned to the source that created it. at New England Sinai Hospital and Nagle Rehabilitation learned to Center. During 57 sessions. Motivation. Nagle is unable to move his arms and legs after he was stabbed in the neck. "neural Pong. He could change the channel and adjust the volume on a television. Nagle remained an active participant in the trial and continued to aid the clinical team in producing valuable feedback concerning the BrainGate` technology. the user sees cursor moving up or down or letter being selected from the alphabet. even while conversing. draw circular shapes using a paint program on the computer and play a simple videogame.SSCET 7 activity which is used to relay the information to the computer. apply also here and their effect should be taken into consideration when planning the training procedures.

I said. researchers led by . Monkeys have navigated computer cursors on screen and commanded robotic arms to perform simple tasks simply by thinking about the task and without any motor output. It will give me a sense of independence. It's just—I use my brain.Several laboratories have managed to NAGLE’S STATEMENT: “I can't put it into words.” record signals from monkey and rat cerebral cortexes in order to operate BCIs to carry out movement. and now I can control it all over the screen. I just thought it. "Cursor go up to the top right. Other research on cats has decoded visual signals. Garrett Stanley's recordings of cat vision using a BCI implanted in the lateral geniculate nucleus (top row: original image. bottom row: recording) in 1999.SSCET 8 OTHER APPLICATIONS: Rats implanted with BCIs in Theodore Berger's experiments." And it did.

Using mathematical filters. Phillip Kennedy. including research groups led by Richard Andersen.SSCET 9 Garrett Stanley at Harvard University decoded neuronal firings to reproduce images seen by cats.[4] There has been rapid development in BCIs since the mid-1990s. which decodes signals from the retina. the researchers decoded the signals to generate movies of what the cats saw and were able to reconstruct recognisable scenes and moving objects. Miguel Nicolelis. and Andrew Schwartz. In the 1980s. Apostolos Georgopoulos at Johns Hopkins University mathematical found a relationship Diagram of the BCI developed by Miguel Nicolelis and collegues for use on Rhesus monkeys Later experiments by Nicolelis using rhesus between the (based on a cosine function). Researchers targeted 177 brain cells in the thalamus lateral geniculate nucleus area. different areas of the brain collectively controlled motor commands but was only able to record the firings of neurons in one area at a time because of technical limitations imposed by his equipment. and their neuron firings were recorded. John Donoghue. The cats were shown eight short movies. The team used an array of electrodes embedded in the thalamus (which integrates all of the brain’s sensory input) of sharp-eyed cats.[5] Several groups have been able to capture complex brain motor centre signals using recordings from neural ensembles (groups of neurons) and use these to control external devices. He also found that dispersed groups of neurons in .

The BCI used velocity predictions to control reaching movements and simultaneously predicted hand gripping force. So this idea helps many patients to control the prosthetic devices of their own by simply thinking about the task. but by mere “thinking” (i. The monkeys were trained to reach and grasp objects on a computer screen by manipulating while a joystick corresponding from far fewer neurons than Nicolelis (15–30 neurons group rhesus versus 50–200 neurons).The monkeys were later shown the robot directly and learned to control it by viewing its movements. rhesus monkeys are considered to be better models for human neurophysiology than owl monkeys. CONCLUSION: The idea of moving robots or prosthetic devices not by manual control.SSCET 10 monkeys. Other labs that develop BCIs and algorithms that decode neuron signals include John Donoghue from Brown University. These produce working BCIs even though they recorded signals .e. Andrew Schwartz from the University and were of Pittsburgh researchers Richard able to solutions.. With their deeply cleft and furrowed brains. succeeded in closing the feedback loop and reproduced monkey reaching and grasping movements in a robot arm. is a The strong BMI enormity of the deficits caused paralysis to motivation pursue movements by a robot arm were hidden. Andersen from Caltech. the brain activity of human subjects) has been a fascinated approach. Donoghue's reported training monkeys to use a BCI to track visual targets on a computer screen loop with BCI).[10] or without assistance of a joystick (closedSchwartzss's group created a BCI for threedimensional tracking in virtual reality and also reproduced BCI control in a robotic arm. Medical cures are unavailable for many forms of neural and muscular by paralysis. REFERENCES 1)Graun. Kaonig. cfm?id=1385569. September 2005. Harald: MedioVis: visual information seeking in digital libraries. Sebastian . Konig. ACM. 490{491. signal Microelectronics.blogspot. Reiterer. S.SSCET 11 This technology is well supported by the latest fields of Biomedical Instrumentation. Metadata 2005: Digital on Advanced Harald: MedioVis . working Advanced New York. Jetter. Jetter.html processing. Springer Verlag. { ISBN 0-978-60558-141-5 4)[Huffman 2008] Huffman. Hans-Christian .September2008. a. Proceedingsof the 9th Conference Libraries. Mischa .acm.{URL http://googleblog.1385671.Mai 2008. 3)http://portal. Reiterer. In: AVI '08: Proceedings ofthe . Mathias . 2)[Heilig u.a UserBrowser. Gerken. .com/ 2008/09/ search-evaluation-atgoogle. Hans-Christian . implemented overwhelming Hope for these many systems will be effectively Biomedical applications. Gerken.In: Libraries. Werner A. USA on : interfaces. Christian . Website. Jens . conference visual NY. Jens . Scott: Search evaluation at Google. Artificial Neural Networks and Robotics which has developments.Werner Centred Research Technology European Digital Library ECDL and for . 2008] Heilig. Demarmels.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful