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th
International Conference on Hydraulics and Pneumatics, Prague, September 29 – October 1, 2008
1
Centrifugal Compressor Dynamics and Software System
for Surge Control
NEVRLÝ, Josef
1
, MAREK, Jiří
2
, VARGOVČÍK, Luboš
2
& OLDŘICH, Jiří
4
1
Prof., RNDr., Ing., Ph.D., ÚK FSI VUT, Technická 2, 616 69 Brno,
nevrly@fme.vutbr.cz, http://www.fme.vutbr.cz
2
Ing., Ph.D., UNIS, a. s., Jundrovská 33, 624 00 Brno, jmarek@unis.cz
3
Ing., Ph.D., UNIS, a. s., Jundrovská 33, 624 00 Brno, vargovcik@unis.cz
4
Ing., Ph.D., ČKD NOVÉ ENERGO, Klecakova 1947, 190 02 Prague 9
jiri.oldrich@ckdenergo.cz
Abstract:
Centrifugal compressor surge dynamics and software system for centrifugal compressors
surge control inside the safe working area but in the near proximity of control (or backup or
surge) line based upon ČKD Nové Energo research are described in the paper.
At small mass flows the performance of a compression system is limited by the occurrence
aerodynamic flow instabilities, which can lead to catastrophic failure of the compressor due
to mechanical and thermal loads. Recent innovations in control technology have made it
possible to supply surge control systems which are capable of coping with rapid flow
fluctuations and process gas variations.
A compression system model developed by Greitzer is mentioned in the paper. The
oscillations in the system are modeled in a manner analogous to those in a Helmholtz
resonator. It is supposed that all the kinetic energy of the oscillations is associated with the
motion of the fluid in the compressor and ducts.
The suggested system of radial compressors surge control consists of parts of
 measuring of technical data of the compressor (compressor operating point)
 computation of a distance of the operating point from the “antisurge” action
 control parameter setting
 setting of approximation parameters for calculation of the “anti surge” action (input of all
approximation parameters of approximating polynomials and correcting relations)
 computation of a working space of the compressor (a row of arranged couples – values of
flow and pressure in the compressor outlet)
 computation of a working characteristic of the compressor (a row of arranged couples –
values of flow and pressure in the compressor outlet for a given compressor operating point)
– depicting of the compressor working regime
Suggested software for surge control systems provides protection against surge together with
more efficient compressor operation, especially in process applications that involve
variations in the gas mixture and temperature.
Key words: surge, compressor, rotating stall, control, model
1 Introduction
1.1 Basic operation of radial compressors
Within the framework of an introduction, a part of radial compressors theory introduced in
[3] can be mentioned.
Fig. 1 Scheme of compressor rotor wheel, velocities diagrams [3]
Theoretical compression in one stage of compressor equipped by unlimited number of blades
is given by the relation
= A
· t
p ) . . ( .
1 1 2 2 u u t
c u c u h ÷ = A
·
p p [Pa]
where o cos . c c
u
= is tangential component of absolute velocity.
Theoretical specific energy is   ) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
w w u u c c h
t
÷ + ÷ + ÷ = A
·
[J.kg
1
]
From velocity triangles results
2
2
2 2
 tg
c
u c
m
u
÷ = ,
2 2 2
sin . o c c
m
=
and the equation for theoretical specific energy can be written as
Q
tg F
u
u
tg
c
u u h
m
t
·
·
÷ =


.

\

÷ = A
·
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
 
[J.kg
1
],
2
F [m
2
]  flow area at impeller outlet.
Energy input of compressor is
G h P
t t · ·
A = [W], G [kg s
1
] – mass flow.
Torque moment according Euler equation for volume gas flow Q [m
3
s
1
] is
) . . ( .
1 1 2 2 u u
c r c r Q M ÷ = p [N m]
at angle velocity ], [s 30 /
1
n t e = n is machine speed (revolutions per minute) [s
1
].
Tangential velocities follow from following expressions:
= ], [ms
1
1 1
n D u t ] [ms
1
2 2
n D u t =
], [ms cos
1
1 1 1
o c c
u
= ] [ms cos
1
2 2 2
o c c
u
=
Theoretical impeller input is e . M P
t
= [W]
Isentropic efficiency is
h
h
s
s
A
A
= n
Coefficient of contraction [3] at outlet of the impeller is
2 2 2
2
sin
1
 t
u
· · ·
·
÷ =
b D
F z
l
Where z
2
is number of vanes of impeller, F
l
is area of square cut of vane and b
2
is output
with of the impeller:
2 2 2
2
2
u D
Q
b
· · · ·
=
m u t
[m], here
2
2
p
G
Q = [m
3
s
1
]
and
2
m is flow coefficient
2 2
2
2
2
2
u F
Q
u
c
m
·
= = m
Output angle of impeller vane
2
 is usually in range
0 0
65 ; 20 .
1.2 Rotating stall and surge
Various types of instabilities are encountered in compression systems, e.g. combustion
induced instabilities or aeroelastic instabilities such as flutter. This paper is restricted to
aerodynamic flow instabilities in centrifugal compressors: rotating stall and surge. A review
of several types of instabilities that are found in turbomachines can be found in Greitzer [2].
Rotating stall
Rotating stall is a twodimensional, local instability phenomenon in which one or more local
regions of stagnant flow, socalled stall cells, rotate around the circumference of the
compressor (see Fig. 2).
Fig. 2 Rotating stall cells [10]
Depending on their size, these cells usually have a constant rotational speed between 20 and
80% of the rotor speed: larger cells rotate at a lower rotational speed than small cells [2]. In
this flow regime, the annulusaveraged compressor mass flow is steady, but circumferentially
nonuniform. In a compressor map, the occurrence of rotating stall is seen as a rapid movement
from the unstalled characteristic (1) to a point on the stalled characteristic (2), as shown in
Fig. 3. Rotating stall induces large vibratory stresses in the blading and can result in a large
drop in performance and efficiency.
Fig. 3 Rotating stall in compressor map [10]
Surge
Surge is characterized by large amplitude fluctuations of the pressure and by unsteady, but
circumferentially uniform, annulusaveraged mass flow. This essentially onedimensional
instability affects the compression system as a whole and results in a limit cycle oscillation in
the compressor map. Figure 4 shows a pressure trace for a compressor system, which was
initially operated in a steady operating point. Frequencies of several types of aerodynamic
flow instabilities can be seen in Fig. 5.
Figure 6 shows a typical example of a deep surge cycle, which is associated with reverse
flow over part of the cycle. The frequency of oscillations during deep surge is normally well
below the Helmholtz frequency as it is set by the filling (4→1) and emptying period (2→3) of
the plenum. It is noted that Pinsley et al. (1991), [8] have shown that mild surge transforms
into other types of surge by throttling the compressor to lower mass flows.
Fig. 4 Surge initiation measured at the compressor outlet [10]
Fig. 5 Frequencies of several types of aerodynamic flow instabilities [10]
Fig. 6 Compressor map with deep surge cycle [10]
2 Centrifugal Compressor Surge Modeling
The modeling of the compression system with a lumped parameter approach is widely
accepted in literature, and is useful in the stabilization of a rotating stall and surge by means
of active control. It forms a basis for models dealing with compressibility in the compressor.
Greitzer [1] developed a nonlinear mathematical model of transient compression system
behavior because it was not understood what fundamental mechanisms are responsible for
determining the mode of instability cause by surge occurring at centrifugal compressors.
The compressor and its ducting are replaced (Fig. 7) by an actuator disc, to account for the
pressure rises due to the compressor, and a constant area pipe with a certain length, to account
for the dynamics of the gas in the compressor duct.
Fig. 7 Scheme of equivalent compression system used in analysis [1]
The rate of change of the mass flow in the compressor duct, represented by the axial
velocity, c
xc
, is related to the pressure difference across the duct,
o p
p p p ÷ = A , and the
pressure rise across the compressor,
o c c
p p p ÷ = A .
Using relation
c o p
x
c
p p p
dt
dc
L
c
A + ÷ = ) ( p
and similar relation describes the flow in the throttle duct:
T o p
x
T
p p p
dt
dc
L
T
A + ÷ = ) ( p
where
o T T
p p p ÷ = A represents the pressure rise across the throttle. After further derivation
(see e.g. [1]) Greitzer’s resulting equations of the dynamics of the system are:
) (
'
c
c
c c
p p
L
A
dt
dm
A ÷ A ÷ =
) (
'
T
c
T T
p p
L
A
dt
dm
A ÷ A ÷ ÷ =
) (
' '
2
T c
p
p
m m
V
a
dt
dp
+ =
where Δp is the pressure rise across the duct, the loss (viscous) terms, and the contribution of
rotation in case of compressor, are assumed to react quasisteady to mass flow, changes are
represented by the steadystate characteristics,
c
p A ,
T
p A ; a is speed of sound.
The first and second equation are the onedimensional “incompressible” momentum
equations for the compressor and throttle duct, respectively, the third equation expresses the
conservation of mass in the plenum in which an isoentropic compression is as supposed.
3 Surge control of the compressor 4 RSA 32
3.1 Software Configuration – Function of the Program Components
Suggested compressor control system was implemented [4], [9] in a realized project in
Novokujbyschevsk in Russia. As far a program equipment is concerned, it consists from a
program for direct control implemented into a programmable controller PLC (client SCADA)
and from application securing user interface created in environs Win CC. Mutual linkages of
program components and brief description of their functions are introduced in Fig 8.
3.2 Application of user interface (Win CC) – client DDE
The application of the user interface solves following tasks:
1. user interface of compressor control
2. setting of control parameters
3. setting of approximation parameters for computation of anti surge action
4. computation of operating space of the compressor
5. computation of operating characteristic of the compressor
Fig. 8 Relations of program components of the system
PLC
client SCADA
Win CC
server SCADA
client SCADA
client DDE
1. measuring of compressor technological
data – operation point
2. computation of operation point distance
1. user interface of compressor control
2. setting of control parameters
3. setting of approximation parameters
for computation of anti surge action
4. computation of operating space of the compressor
5. computation of operating characteristic of the
compressor
Surge VS
server DDE
user interface – depiction of compressor
operation regime
In connection with solution of the problem of anti surge action, the control parameter is
relative distance of actionline from anti surge line. It is necessary to secure access of all
approximation polynomial parameters and correction relations into control process.
Control coefficients:
 approximation polynomial coefficients of reference characteristic
 correction polynomial coefficients of flow parameter concerning molar hydrogen fraction
 correction coefficients of compressor output pressure concerning molar hydrogen fraction
 approximation coefficients of compression factor product and universal gas constant at
suction state
 approximation coefficients of compression factor product and universal gas constant at
standard state
 approximation polynomial coefficients of dependence of isoentropic coefficient on the
molar hydrogen fraction
Fig. 9 User interface – dependence of discharge pressure on volume flow
Operating area of compressor function is delimitated by lower limiting performance
characteristic (60 % of output), upper limiting performance characteristic (110 % of output)
and anti surge limit line.
Fig. 10 Movement of compressor operating point
P
Q
Anti Surge
Line
P
2 wp
Q
wp
P
2 as
Q
as
WP
start and stop of
automatic refresh of
depiction
operating area of
compressor function
anti surge limit line
stop of server activity
setting of anti
surge operation
performance
characteristic
actual operation
point
suction pressure p1
compressor
discharge
compressor
volume flow Q
The actual compressor operating point must be situated on the performance characteristic
approximation. The actual compressor operating point trajectory must not cross anti surge
line. This condition is expressed by following condition:
as wp as wp
Q Q P P
2 2 2 2
> . s .
4 Results
Suggested control algorithm and created software ensure stable operation of compressor due
to the fact that the actual operating point was kept on the performance characteristic
approximation and did not cross anti surge line at a gas of given composition. The
compressor characteristic transformed into dimensionless coordinates was used to this
purpose. Values of correction coefficients were dependent on discharge coefficient and on
compressed gas composition. Control action occurs when the operating point coincides with
the anti surge intervention point.
5 Conclusions
In this paper, the modeling and control of surge in a centrifugal compression system is
investigated. The aim of this study is the development of feedback software control that
stabilize surge: suggested software for surge control systems provides protection against surge
together with more efficient compressor operation, especially in process applications that
involve variations in the gas mixture and temperature. Further fields worth investigating are
the integration and implementation of active surge control strategies on further existing
systems as well as the modeling and control of instabilities in transonic machines.
6 References
[1] GREITZER E. M. Surge and rotating stall in axial flow compressors. Part I: Theoretical
compression system model. ASME, Journal of Engineering for Power, 98(2), April 1976, pp.
191198.
[2] GREITZER E.M. The stability of pumping systems  the 1980 Freeman scholar lecture.
Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Fluids Engineering, 103(2), June 1981, pp.193–242.
[3] CHLUMSKÝ V., LIŠKA A. Kompresory (Compressors). Praha: SNTL, Alfa, 1982.
196 p.
[4] MAREK J. “Anti surge” řízení kompresoru 4 RSA 32 (Surge Control of the Compressor 4
RSA 32). Internal report, Brno, UNIS, 2003.
[5] MEULEMAN C. H. J. Measurement and Unsteady Flow Modeling of Centrifugal
Compressor Surge. TU Eindhoven, The Netherlands, ISBN 9038625642, 2002.
[6] NEVRLÝ J. Modelování pneumatických systémů (Pneumatic Systems Modeling). Brno:
CERM, 2003. 183 p. ISBN 8072043005.
[7] OLDŘICH, J. Antipompážní regulace turbokompresoru na základě jeho matematického
modelu (Turbocompressor Surge Control Based on its Mathematical Model), Internal report ,
Prague, ČKD NOVÉ ENERGO, a.s., 2003.
[8] PINNSLEY, J., GUENETTE, G., EPSTEIN, A., GREITZER, E. Active stabilization of
centrifugal compressor surge. ASME J. Turbomachinery, 1991, 113(4), 723–732.
[9] VARGOVČÍK, L. Sistěma upravlenija kompressorov Novokujbyševsk (Compressor
Control System Novokujbysevsk). Softwareový projekt NKRK02P00100 (Software Project
NKRK02P00100). Brno, UNIS, 2003.
[10] WILLEMS F. P. T. Modeling and Bounded Feedback Stabilization of Centrifugal
Compressor Surge. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2000, ISBN 9038629311.
Informace pro zpracovatele příspěvku (nepublikují se):
Použitý formát souboru s příspěvkem: (např. Microsoft Word 2000)
Údaje jednotlivých autorů pro zpracování autorského rejstříku:
Pořadí Příjmení Jméno Název organizace a stát Email
1 NEVRLÝ
1
Josef VUT, Brno, Czech Republic nevrly@fme.vutbr.cz
2 MAREK
2
Jiří UNIS, Brno, Czech Republic jmarek@unis.cz
3 VARGOVČÍK
3
Luboš UNIS, Brno, Czech Republic vargovcik@unis.cz
4 OLDŘICH
4
Jiří ČKD NOVÉ ENERGO, Prague,
Czech Republic
jiri.oldrich@ckdenergo.cz
1 2 2 2 Theoretical specific energy is ht (c 2 c12 ) (u 2 u12 ) ( w12 w2 ) [J. n is machine speed (revolutions per minute) [s1 ].c1u ) [N m] at angle velocity n / 30 [s 1 ]. F2 [m2] .c 2u r1 .c 2u u1 .kg1] 2 From velocity triangles results c c2u u2 2 m . velocities diagrams [3] Theoretical compression in one stage of compressor equipped by unlimited number of blades is given by the relation pt ht . Torque moment according Euler equation for volume gas flow Q [m3 s1 ] is M Q. a part of radial compressors theory introduced in [3] can be mentioned.1 Basic operation of radial compressors Within the framework of an introduction. u2 D2 n [ms1 ] c1u c1 cos 1 [ms1 ].c1u ) [Pa] where cu c. tg 2 F2 tg 2 Energy input of compressor is Pt htG [W]. Tangential velocities follow from following expressions: u1 D1n [ms1 ].sin 2 tg 2 and the equation for theoretical specific energy can be written as c u2 2 ht u2 u2 2 m u2 Q [J. c2 m c2 . (u 2 . 1 Scheme of compressor rotor wheel. (r2 . Fig. cos is tangential component of absolute velocity.kg1].1 Introduction 1. G [kg s1 ] – mass flow. h Isentropic efficiency is s s h [W] .flow area at impeller outlet. c2u c2 cos 2 [ms1 ] Theoretical impeller input is Pt M .
65 0 . A review of several types of instabilities that are found in turbomachines can be found in Greitzer [2]. 2 Rotating stall cells [10] Depending on their size. Fl is area of square cut of vane and b2 is output with of the impeller: G Q2 b2 [m]. combustion induced instabilities or aeroelastic instabilities such as flutter. but circumferentially nonuniform. the occurrence of rotating stall is seen as a rapid movement from the unstalled characteristic (1) to a point on the stalled characteristic (2). 2). Fig. Rotating stall Rotating stall is a twodimensional. This paper is restricted to aerodynamic flow instabilities in centrifugal compressors: rotating stall and surge. In this flow regime. 3 Rotating stall in compressor map [10] .g. local instability phenomenon in which one or more local regions of stagnant flow. as shown in Fig. these cells usually have a constant rotational speed between 20 and 80% of the rotor speed: larger cells rotate at a lower rotational speed than small cells [2].Coefficient of contraction [3] at outlet of the impeller is z 2 Fl 1 D2 b2 sin 2 Where z2 is number of vanes of impeller. socalled stall cells. Fig.2 Rotating stall and surge Various types of instabilities are encountered in compression systems. here Q2 [m3 s1 ] 2 D2 u2 2 and 2 is flow coefficient c Q2 2 2m u2 F2 u 2 Output angle of impeller vane 2 is usually in range 20 0 . 1. e. 3. the annulusaveraged compressor mass flow is steady. Rotating stall induces large vibratory stresses in the blading and can result in a large drop in performance and efficiency. In a compressor map. rotate around the circumference of the compressor (see Fig.
annulusaveraged mass flow. [8] have shown that mild surge transforms into other types of surge by throttling the compressor to lower mass flows. Frequencies of several types of aerodynamic flow instabilities can be seen in Fig. Figure 6 shows a typical example of a deep surge cycle.Surge Surge is characterized by large amplitude fluctuations of the pressure and by unsteady. Fig. 5. This essentially onedimensional instability affects the compression system as a whole and results in a limit cycle oscillation in the compressor map. (1991). 5 Frequencies of several types of aerodynamic flow instabilities [10] . Figure 4 shows a pressure trace for a compressor system. It is noted that Pinsley et al. 4 Surge initiation measured at the compressor outlet [10] Fig. which was initially operated in a steady operating point. which is associated with reverse flow over part of the cycle. The frequency of oscillations during deep surge is normally well below the Helmholtz frequency as it is set by the filling (4→1) and emptying period (2→3) of the plenum. but circumferentially uniform.
and is useful in the stabilization of a rotating stall and surge by means of active control. It forms a basis for models dealing with compressibility in the compressor. pc pc po . [1]) Greitzer’s resulting equations of the dynamics of the system are: dmc' A c (p pc ) dt Lc . to account for the pressure rises due to the compressor. and a constant area pipe with a certain length. Fig. After further derivation (see e. to account for the dynamics of the gas in the compressor duct. Using relation dc xc Lc ( p p po ) pc dt and similar relation describes the flow in the throttle duct: dc xT LT ( p p po ) pT dt where pT pT po represents the pressure rise across the throttle. cxc . The compressor and its ducting are replaced (Fig. and the pressure rise across the compressor. 6 Compressor map with deep surge cycle [10] 2 Centrifugal Compressor Surge Modeling The modeling of the compression system with a lumped parameter approach is widely accepted in literature.Fig.g. p p p po . Greitzer [1] developed a nonlinear mathematical model of transient compression system behavior because it was not understood what fundamental mechanisms are responsible for determining the mode of instability cause by surge occurring at centrifugal compressors. 7 Scheme of equivalent compression system used in analysis [1] The rate of change of the mass flow in the compressor duct. represented by the axial velocity. is related to the pressure difference across the duct. 7) by an actuator disc.
changes are represented by the steadystate characteristics. computation of operating space of the compressor 5. computation of operation point distance client SCADA Win CC client DDE server DDE 1. 5. Mutual linkages of program components and brief description of their functions are introduced in Fig 8. user interface of compressor control 2. As far a program equipment is concerned. respectively. setting of control parameters 3. computation of operating characteristic of the compressor user interface – depiction of compressor operation regime Surge VS Fig. pT . the third equation expresses the conservation of mass in the plenum in which an isoentropic compression is as supposed. setting of approximation parameters for computation of anti surge action 4. 2. and the contribution of rotation in case of compressor. 3 Surge control of the compressor 4 RSA 32 3. are assumed to react quasisteady to mass flow. a is speed of sound. measuring of compressor technological data – operation point 2. The first and second equation are the onedimensional “incompressible” momentum equations for the compressor and throttle duct. 3. it consists from a program for direct control implemented into a programmable controller PLC (client SCADA) and from application securing user interface created in environs Win CC. The application of the user interface solves following tasks: user interface of compressor control setting of control parameters setting of approximation parameters for computation of anti surge action computation of operating space of the compressor computation of operating characteristic of the compressor client SCADA PLC server SCADA 1.' dmT A T ( p pT ) dt Lc dp p a 2 ' ' (mc mT ) dt V p where Δp is the pressure rise across the duct. 4. 8 Relations of program components of the system .2 Application of user interface (Win CC) – client DDE 1. the loss (viscous) terms.1 Software Configuration – Function of the Program Components Suggested compressor control system was implemented [4]. [9] in a realized project in Novokujbyschevsk in Russia. 3. pc .
P P2 as P2 wp Anti Line Surge WP Q as Q wp Q Fig.approximation polynomial coefficients of reference characteristic .In connection with solution of the problem of anti surge action.approximation polynomial coefficients of dependence of isoentropic coefficient on the molar hydrogen fraction actual operation point suction pressure p1 setting of anti surge operation performance characteristic start and stop of automatic refresh of depiction anti surge limit line compressor discharge operating area of compressor function compressor volume flow Q stop of server activity Fig.correction polynomial coefficients of flow parameter concerning molar hydrogen fraction . It is necessary to secure access of all approximation polynomial parameters and correction relations into control process. the control parameter is relative distance of actionline from anti surge line. 9 User interface – dependence of discharge pressure on volume flow Operating area of compressor function is delimitated by lower limiting performance characteristic (60 % of output).correction coefficients of compressor output pressure concerning molar hydrogen fraction . Control coefficients: .approximation coefficients of compression factor product and universal gas constant at standard state . 10 Movement of compressor operating point .approximation coefficients of compression factor product and universal gas constant at suction state . upper limiting performance characteristic (110 % of output) and anti surge limit line.
ISBN 9038629311. Softwareový projekt NKRK02P00100 (Software Project NKRK02P00100). A. June 1981. Prague. J. [5] MEULEMAN C. pp. Kompresory (Compressors). The stability of pumping systems . J. Control action occurs when the operating point coincides with the anti surge intervention point.. This condition is expressed by following condition: P2 wp P2 as Q2 wp Q2 as .. 1991. “Anti surge” řízení kompresoru 4 RSA 32 (Surge Control of the Compressor 4 RSA 32). EPSTEIN.The actual compressor operating point must be situated on the performance characteristic approximation. 6 References [1] GREITZER E. ISBN 8072043005. J. Journal of Fluids Engineering. Brno. 191198. Internal report . 2003. 2003. Modelování pneumatických systémů (Pneumatic Systems Modeling).. ISBN 9038625642. P. 4 Results Suggested control algorithm and created software ensure stable operation of compressor due to the fact that the actual operating point was kept on the performance characteristic approximation and did not cross anti surge line at a gas of given composition. GUENETTE..M. 2003. . pp. 98(2).193–242. Praha: SNTL. UNIS. 113(4). H. The actual compressor operating point trajectory must not cross anti surge line. 103(2). Brno. TU Eindhoven. Turbomachinery. 2002. E. the modeling and control of surge in a centrifugal compression system is investigated. April 1976.s. UNIS. 2000. a. Transactions of the ASME. L. ČKD NOVÉ ENERGO. [8] PINNSLEY. LIŠKA A. Surge and rotating stall in axial flow compressors. The aim of this study is the development of feedback software control that stabilize surge: suggested software for surge control systems provides protection against surge together with more efficient compressor operation. Active stabilization of centrifugal compressor surge. GREITZER. 183 p. 5 Conclusions In this paper. especially in process applications that involve variations in the gas mixture and temperature. M. Brno: CERM. Part I: Theoretical compression system model.the 1980 Freeman scholar lecture. Journal of Engineering for Power. The Netherlands. T. G. [3] CHLUMSKÝ V.. Measurement and Unsteady Flow Modeling of Centrifugal Compressor Surge. Further fields worth investigating are the integration and implementation of active surge control strategies on further existing systems as well as the modeling and control of instabilities in transonic machines. Antipompážní regulace turbokompresoru na základě jeho matematického modelu (Turbocompressor Surge Control Based on its Mathematical Model). Sistěma upravlenija kompressorov Novokujbyševsk (Compressor Control System Novokujbysevsk). [2] GREITZER E. [10] WILLEMS F. [4] MAREK J. [7] OLDŘICH. [9] VARGOVČÍK. Internal report. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven. 723–732. ASME J. 1982. 196 p. [6] NEVRLÝ J. Values of correction coefficients were dependent on discharge coefficient and on compressed gas composition. 2003. ASME. Modeling and Bounded Feedback Stabilization of Centrifugal Compressor Surge. The compressor characteristic transformed into dimensionless coordinates was used to this purpose. Alfa.
Czech Republic UNIS.cz jiri.cz jmarek@unis.cz . Brno.oldrich@ckdenergo. Czech Republic (např. Brno. Czech Republic UNIS. Prague.cz vargovcik@unis.Informace pro zpracovatele příspěvku (nepublikují se): Použitý formát souboru s příspěvkem: Údaje jednotlivých autorů pro zpracování autorského rejstříku: Pořadí 1 2 3 4 Příjmení NEVRLÝ1 MAREK2 VARGOVČÍK3 OLDŘICH4 Jméno Josef Jiří Luboš Jiří Název organizace a stát VUT. Czech Republic ČKD NOVÉ ENERGO. Microsoft Word 2000) Email nevrly@fme. Brno.vutbr.
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